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13 Februari

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2006 7:56    Onderwerp: 13 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 13. Februar

1914

1915
Glückliches Fortschreiten der Operationen im Osten
Beschlagnahme der gesamten Hafervorräte
29000 Russen in Galizien und der Bukowina gefangen
Englischer Fliegerangriff gegen die belgische Küste

1916
Französische Stellungen in der Champagne erstürmt
Luftangriff gegen Ravenna
Elbassan besetzt

1917
Sturmerfolge in Rumänien und Mazedonien
Englischer Teilangriff südlich von Serre gescheitert
25000 Tonnen neue U-Boot-Beute
Amerika "dicht vor dem Kriege"
Chiles Antwortnote an Deutschland
Sturmerfolg an der Valeputna-Straße
Der White-Star-Dampfer "Afric" versenkt
U-Boot-Angriff auf die Küste von Bayonne
Amerikanische Kriegsvorbereitungen

1918
Französische Vorstöße an der Mosel gescheitert

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2006 7:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 13

1920 League of Nations recognizes perpetual Swiss neutrality

The League of Nations, the international organization formed at the peace conference at Versailles in the wake of World War I, recognizes the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland on this day in 1920.

Switzerland was a loose confederation of German-, French-, and Italian-speaking communities until 1878, when the French, under Napoleon Bonaparte, unified the country as the Helvetic Republic and imposed a constitution, which was enforced by French occupation troops. Bitterly resented by the Swiss people, the French occupation ended in 1803, when Napoleon agreed to a new Swiss-approved constitution and withdrew his troops. The Congress of Vienna in 1815, which would determine Europe’s borders until the outbreak of World War I nearly a century later, recognized the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland.

The Swiss considered preserving this neutrality essential to Switzerland’s economic and political development. A new constitution, adopted in 1848, reinforced the neutrality principle by outlawing Swiss service in foreign armies or the acceptance of pensions from foreign governments. Neither the unification of Italy in 1861 nor the birth of the German empire in 1871 shook the loyalty of the nation’s Italian or German population to Switzerland. With industrialization, fueled largely by hydroelectric power, and the construction of an efficient railroad network, Switzerland’s economy continued to grow, spawning a thriving tourism industry by the end of the 19th century.

Though Switzerland maintained its neutrality during World War I, with German, French and Italian Swiss standing firm to preserve their country’s solidarity, a costly military mobilization to protect the Swiss borders diverted most of the working population to war-related work and brought economic hardship. After the war ended, membership in the League of Nations—the international organization established at the Versailles peace conference—was narrowly approved by Swiss voters after a federal council opposed it. In February 1920, the League voted to recognize the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland. The League also established its headquarters in the Swiss city of Geneva, a tribute to the country’s neutrality as well as its relative economic and political stability, which has continued to the present day.
www.historychannel.com
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2010 21:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stormvloed van 1916

Op 13 en 14 januari 1916 voltrok er zich in Nederland een watersnood rond de Zuiderzee. Een stormvloed viel samen met een hoge afvoer op de rivieren. Als gevolg braken op tientallen plaatsen de dijken en was daarnaast op veel plaatsen sprake van schade aan binnenbeloop en bekleding van de dijken. In de provincie Noord-Holland vielen doden. Koningin Wilhelmina bezocht de getroffen gebieden.

Lees verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormvloed_van_1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2010 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ZELLE, Margaretha Geertruida (1876-1917)

De werkelijke doorbraak in haar carrière maakte zij op 13 maart 1905, toen zij onder de welluidende naam Mata Hari (Maleis voor de zon, letterlijk 'oog van de dag') optrad in het Museum voor Oosterse Kunsten met heilige dansen van de bajadère.

Bij het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog trad zij juist op in het Metropol theater van Berlijn. Zij vertrok zo snel mogelijk naar Nederland, naar haar zeggen omdat zij als 'Parisienne' bang was, verdacht te worden van anti-Duitse gevoelens. Zij vestigde zich in Den Haag. Uit deze Haagse episode stammen vermoedelijk de eerste contacten met de Duitse inlichtingendienst. Als agente H 21 zou zij voor de Duitsers gaan werken. Het is tot op heden niet duidelijk, welke informatie zij werkelijk aan Duitsland door heeft weten te spelen. In mei 1916 vertrok zij met de 'Zeelandia' naar Frankrijk, waar zij nog dat zelfde jaar ook haar diensten aan de Franse veiligheidsdienst aanbood. Getipt door Scotland Yard hielden de Fransen haar echter in de gaten op verdenking van spionage voor de Duitsers. Op 13 februari 1917 meenden zij over voldoende bewijsmateriaal te beschikken om haar te kunnen arresteren. Na een langdurig vooronderzoek onder leiding van kapitein Pierre Bouchardon werd zij ten slotte door een militair gerechtshof ter dood veroordeeld. Een verzoek om gratie van het Nederlands ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken werd afgewezen en op 15 oktober 1917 werd het vonnis voltrokken door een vuurpeloton op een militair oefenterrein even buiten het kasteel van Vincennes.

Het hele artikel is te lezen op http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/BWN/lemmata/bwn3/zelle

Zie ook
http://mata-hari-1917.blogspot.com/2008/12/het-proces.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNinzamNV7I
http://books.google.nl/books?id=APHqa5o9SoYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2010 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexander Kerensky, speech in the Duma (13th February, 1917)

There are people who assert that the Ministers are at fault. Not so. The country now realizes that the Ministers are but fleeting shadows. The country can clearly see who sends them here. To prevent a catastrophe the Tsar himself must be removed, by force if there is no other way.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2010 13:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 februari 1918

De zeillogger 'Anna' (IJM 253) van Zeevisscherij Maatschappij 'De Spurn' te IJmuiden, vertrokken op 13 februari 1918 voor de visserij op de Noordzee, wordt sindsdien vermist.
Vermoedelijk moet het schip met man en muis zijn vergaan door het lopen op een zeemijn. De zeven bemanningsleden komen hierbij om het leven.

Bron: 'De Zee' (1918)

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/02/13-februari-1-2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2010 13:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Beschietingen Parijs, 1918

Op 13 februari 1918 deelde de opperbevelhebber van het Duitse leger, Ludendorff, aan Keizer Wilheln II mede, dat het Duitse leger klaar stond om op te rukken in Frankrijk. Ludendorff wilde de Amerikaanse deelname enigszins voor zijn en hij had legers van het oostelijke front verplaatst naar het westelijke. Dit was mogelijk geworden door het ineen storten van het oostelijk front door de revolutie in Rusland en het op 3 maart getekende vredesverdrag van Brest-Litowsk, dat op 15 maart tijdens het vierde Sovjetcongres zou worden geratificeerd.

Lees alles op http://www.kubisme.info/kt804.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2010 13:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting of February 13, 1919

SOLDIERS' GRAVES (VISITS BY RELATIVES).


HC Deb 13 February 1919 vol 112 cc272-3 272

Mr. GILBERT asked the Prime Minister whether the Government has come to any decision as to when the relatives of men killed on the Western Front will be allowed to visit the graves in France and Flanders; if he will state if any scheme is in hand whereby special fares and accommodation will be provided for such relatives who desire to go; and if he can make any statement on the subject?

Mr. CHURCHILL My right hon. Friend has asked me to answer this question. I am afraid it cannot yet be stated when conditions in France and Flanders will make it possible for relatives to visit graves in those countries. In reply to the second part of the question, a committee of representatives of the voluntary organisations interested in the matter has been called together, and is considering ways and means, and I hope that they will shortly put forward a scheme.

Sir B. STANIER To whom are we to apply for leave to visit the graves?

Mr. CHURCHILL This matter has not yet advanced sufficiently to enable applications of that kind to be dealt with. The railway communications on the Continent are severely strained at present by the demobilisation and general difficulties. I cannot hold out any expectation of this other matter, in which very natural interest is taken, being pushed forward until the congestion of the communications has been terminated by the completion of the demobilisation.

Mr. STANTON rose from a seat under the Strangers' Gallery.

Mr. SPEAKER Will the hon. Member come inside the House?

Mr. STANTON I was crowded out.

Mr. SPEAKER The hon. Member should get up earlier.

Sir R. ADKINS Does the right hon. Gentleman's answer apply equally to the question of visiting the graves at the Dardanelles?

Mr. CHURCHILL I have said the whole matter is being considered. The moment communication becomes clear, action will be possible, and by that time we shall be in possession of the Report of the Committee.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/feb/13/soldiers-graves-visits-by-relatives
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Price of Glory



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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 16:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Price of Glory @ 13 Feb 2009 19:18 schreef:
Op 13 Februari 1917 wordt de Nederlandse danseres Mata Hari (Margaretha Geertruida Zelle) wordt in Parijs gearresteerd omdat ze verdacht wordt van spionage voor Duitsland. Op 25 juni 1917 wordt ze ter dood veroordeeld en op 15 oktober 1917 geëxecuteerd.


Bron : http://www.beleven.org/vandaagdedag/

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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 13:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Birth of ASCAP (1914)

On February 13, 1914, at the Hotel Claridge in New York City, a group of prominent, visionary music creators founded The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. For songwriters and composers, this monumental event would forever change music history.

ASCAP is a vital, leading-edge organization that serves more than 400,000 member-owners, including the greatest and newest names in American music. From hip hop to symphonies, rock to jazz, country to Latin, R&B to musical theater, gospel to electronic, ASCAP music defines our cultural landscape and connects people the world over.

ASCAP's primary purpose is to assure that music creators are fairly compensated for the public performance of their works, and that their rights are properly protected. Throughout its nearly 100-year history, ASCAP has stayed true to the democratic ideals and guiding principles set forth by its founding members. ASCAP is still 100% member-owned, governed by a Board of Directors elected by and from the membership every two years.

http://www.ascap.com/about/history/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 13:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey zones

From the early Nineties Turkish officials began to develop the novel theory of grey zones. This theory of reinterpreting international agreements challenges Greek sovereignty over a number of islands, islets and atolls in the Aegean . More specifically, Turkey maintains that Greek sovereignty extends only to those islands of the Aegean that are mentioned by name in the texts of the agreements under which these islands were ceded to Greece .

However, the international legal framework which settled the issues of sovereignty in the region after the World Wars (1923 Treaty of Lausanne and 1947 Paris Peace Treaty) is conclusive and crystal clear.

More specifically, Article 12 of the 1923 Lausanne Treaty provides for the following: the decision taken on the 13th February, 1914, by the Conference of London, in virtue of Articles 5 of the Treaty of London of the 17th 30th May, 1913, and Article 15 of the Treaty of Athens of the 1st 14th November, 1913, which decision was communicated to the Greek Government on the 13th February, 1914, regarding the sovereignty of Greece over the islands of the Eastern Mediterranean, other than the islands of Imvros, Tenedos and Rabbit islands, particularly the islands of Limnos, Samothrace, Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Ikaria is confirmed, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty respecting the islands placed under the sovereignty of Italy which form the subject of Article 15. Except where a provision to the contrary is contained in the present Treaty, the islands situated at less than three miles from the Asiatic coast remain under Turkeys sovereignty.

Lees verder op http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/en-US/Policy/Geographic+Regions/South-Eastern+Europe/Turkey/Turkish+claims/Grey+zones/
Zie ook http://www.hri.org/docs/lausanne/part1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 13:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Iron Boat Day

On the 13th of February 1914, the directors of BHP Pty Ltd signed an agreement with Scott Feels & Co to manage their shipping affairs. This simple act marked the beginning of what was to become Australia's largest merchant shipping fleet. Three years later, BHP and Scott Fells jointly purchased a ten-year-old steamer called the Koolonga and launched it as the Iron Monarch. The Iron Monarch became the first of the ships to be known as the Iron Boats.

http://www.mua.org.au/events/iron-boat-day-2011/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Senator Gore’s Hotel Room Scandal (1914 edition)

With its Bain Collection uploads to Flickr Commons, the Library of Congress continues to remind us that some news is perennial. Meet Bond, Minnie Bond:


Portrait of young woman with a large plumed hat

Striking, beplumed Minnie E. Bond was in the news in early 1914, because she accused Thomas Pryor Gore, U.S. senator from Oklahoma, of attempted assault in a hotel room in Washington. She sued for $50,000, and the newspapers eagerly covered every aspect of the scandal.

Said Minnie, “When Senator Gore became unduly familiar, I told him I wasn’t the kind of woman he was seeking to associate with, and that if he had no respect for me he should have for his wife and children. Then he attacked me. In response to my screams, Mr. [James R.] Jacobs entered the room, accompaned by TE Roberts of Oklahoma and Kirby Fitzpatrick.” [New York Times, 13 February 1914] The apartment belonged to Jacobs, who happened to be a former Democratic National Committee member.

Gore’s version of events pointed to a set-up: Minnie’s husband, Julian, was hoping for a political appointment as a tax collector, and Gore assured him there was no chance of that happening. Minnie convinced Gore to stop by her hotel to discuss the matter further; then she led him up the elevator and into a room. Gore was blind, and had never been to this hotel before. He said that he did not realize Minnie Bond was taking him into a private apartment, nor did he realize that several political opponents were waiting nearby to catch him there. When Bond screamed, Gore understood that the situation looked bad.

Gore’s attorney, Moman Pruiett, claimed that Robertson had earlier asked for $25,000 in hush money. Pruiett also played up the senator’s blindness in his closing argument. Gore was exonerated by the jury after just ten minutes’ deliberation, and he stayed in the Senate until he was defeated at the polls in 1920. (He later served another six-year term, 1930-1936.)

And what became of Minnie Bond? Does anyone out there know the rest of her story?

http://www.indicommons.org/category/articles/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Medical Treatment Of Men In The New Armies - Feb. 13, 1915



http://www.jstor.org/pss/25312660
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Cornwallis (1901): Dardanelles campaign



In January 1915, Cornwallis was ordered to the Dardanelles to participate in the Dardanelles Campaign. She departed Portland on 24 January 1915 and arrived at Tenedos to join the British Dardanelles Squadron on 13 February 1915.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Cornwallis_(1901)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | February 1915

Saturday 13th February 1915 - Felt rotten, headache, pains all over body, rt ear drum and bronchial tube clog. Doctor gave me some medicine and put on slops diet. High temp. Had oxo for dinner. Couldn’t take much food. Got Clarke to bring me up bottle of Bovril.
News of combined aeroplane and seaplane operation previous day by 34 naval aeroplanes and seaplanes on Zeebrugge, Blankenberge and Ostend, latter railway station demolished.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Across Australia. On the tracks of Burke and Wills: Francis Birtles, 1915.



Outback adventurer, cyclist and motorist, Francis Edwin Birtles (1881-1941) crossed Australia dozens of times, taking many photographs, making movies with Frank Hurley and breaking many endurance records.

On 21 September 1912 Birtles with his brother Clive and bulldog 'Wowser' left Melbourne in a blue 20hp Ford Flanders touring car to drive to Sydney, Brisbane, Charters Towers and then the Gulf of Carpentaria. He suggested he might then go on to Port Darwin or returning to Melbourne via Burke and Wills' track, but from the Gulf he drove closer to the Northern territory border than Burke's track, and he arrived back in Melbourne in January 1913.

On Saturday, 13 February 1915 he left Sydney for a six month long motoring tour following Burke and Wills' track. Unnacompanied this time, except for his bulldog, Birtles, he reached Broken Hill on 25 February and Adelaide on 1 March. He remained in Adelaide for two weeks to recover from an illness and then went via Burra, Port Augusta, Quorn and Maree to Cooper Creek. He reached Boulia in May, Gilliat in June and Normanton on Saturday, 5 June 1915. He then returned to Melbourne via Cape York, Einasleigh, Hughenden, Tambo, Roma, Toowoomba and Brisbane, arriving in Melbourne at the end of September 1915 having covered 7,000 miles in seven months. Birtles took a movie camera and made a cinematographic record of the journey. He then drove from Melbourne to Swan Hill and Menindee to finish the movie of the Burke and Wills' track.

The film was called 'Across Australia: In the Tracks of Burke and Wills' and was released by The Co-Operative Film Exchange Ltd of Melbourne. It opened in Melbourne at Hoyt's Olympia Theatre on Christmas Day 1915.

http://www.burkeandwills.net.au/Bibliography/Movies/Birtles.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het weer van zondag 13 februari 1916

Matige wind uit het zuid-zuid-westen. De hardste windstoot had een snelheid van slechts 0m/s.
Een koude dag met gemiddelde temperatuur van 3.4°C, met een minimum temperatuur van -1.4°C en maximum 7.8°C.
De zon liet zich in het geheel niet zien.
Er viel 1.7 mm neerslag.
Het was een onbewolkte dag.

http://weerverleden.nl/19160213
Het uitgebreide weerbericht: http://weerverleden.nl/19160213&all
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Parliament buildings in Ottawa the morning after the Great Fire of 1916, from The New York Times, Feb. 13, 1916 issue



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Parliament_after_fire_NYT_Feb_1916.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 14:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Furious Confirmation Battle
The New York Times, February 13, 1916



Harvard University president Lawrence Lowell and other Bostonians published a petition attacking the judicial fitness of Brandeis, who had graduated first in his Harvard Law School class.

http://www.visitthecapitol.gov/Exhibitions/online/1913-to-1945/senate-1913-1945/furious-confirmation-battle/782-the-new-york-times-february-13-1916.html
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Secretary of State of the Imperial Marine Service v. Tirpitz to Imperial Chancelor v. Bethmann-Hollweg:
Berlin, February 13, 1916.

I have the honor to submit to your Excellency in all respect, the enclosed memorial. It includes in the form of a general survey the answers submitted by me to the latest inquiries of your Excellency

v. Tirpitz.


ENCLOSURE:

Can England be forced to sue for peace by means of a U-boat war?

I. The most important and surest means which can be adopted to bring England to her knees is the use of our U-boats at the present time. We shall not be able to defeat England by a war on land alone. The unrestricted carrying out of the U-boat war, supported by our other naval craft and by our air fleet -- all under a unified and determined leadership -- is of the most decisive importance in obtaining the desired result England will be cut to the heart by the destruction by U-boats of every ship which approaches the English coast. The ocean's commerce is the very elixir of life for England, its interruption for any length of time a deadly danger, its permanent interruption absolutely fatal within a short time. Every attack upon England's transoceanic communication is therefore a blow in the direction of the termination of the war. The more the losses take place with merciless regularity at the very gates of the island kingdom, the more powerful will be the material and moral effect on th e English people. In spite of its former resources, England will not be able to make a successful defense against the attacks of submarines directed against its transoceanic commerce, provided they are well planned. That is precisely why a timely U-boat war is the most dangerous and, if vigorously carried on, the form of warfare which will unconditionally decide the war to England's disadvantage.

II. The prerequisites of a successful carrying out of an unrestricted U-boat war are military and economic In both respects they are noticeably more favorable than in February, 1915....

III. In order to get the correct view of America's attitude in the U-boat question, it is necessary to go back over its development during the course of the war.

From the very beginning, the attitude of the United States toward us has not been a friendly one. The close racial feeling which bound the greater part of the population to England, together with the combinations of English and American economic forces which have constantly resulted in more and more intimate relations in this direction, necessarily resulted in the antagonism referred to. In spite of this, there existed in the beginning, at least so far as the government was concerned, a certain objection against openly taking sides with either party. If from the date of the February note onward, we could have afforded to pay no attention at all to the objections urged by the United States against the U-boat war, the unrestricted conduct of this war would not, in my opinion, have led to a break with the United States. In view of the restrictions imposed upon the conduct of the U-boat war and of the enormous deliveries of ammunition and war material of every kind which was made possible thereby, the whole economic life of the United States, and the American policy as well, came to be connected with the British cause in a manner quite different from that existing at the beginning of the war. America is directly interested in the fate of England's economic existence, and, as a logical consequence, in England's intention to crush Germany. As a result, the conviction on the part of Americans of the growing dangers involved in Japan's hostile attitude, and that sooner or later differences with Japan will be bound to ensue, has become stronger as the war has run its course. Understandings unquestionably exist today, if not between the two governments, at least, in any case, between the leaders of the trusts in England and America, whose purpose is to give Japan a very definite setback by means of the combined forces of England and the United States after the war. But this is possible only if England can be absolutely secured against any danger emanating from Europe, that is, if Germany is overpowered. It follows that the United States, whether they desire to be so or not, are directly interested in our defeat, and have become a direct enemy of Germany.

If the United States intends to push this position to its logical conclusion and to let matters come to a break with us, the resulting circumstances would suffer no material change, provided this break were limited to a refusal to maintain diplomatic relations. But if the United States should go as far as to declare war against us, then the problem of shipping space would occupy a prominent place among those questions on which we would have to pass in connection with the then newly created situation. The assistance in men and material with which the United States would then be in a position to provide England and our other opponents would, as a practical proposition, be measured by the amount of tonnage for commercial purposes actually at their disposal.

The attempt on the part of the United States to increase this tonnage to any appreciable extent through a retaliatory seizure of the German commercial tonnage within their reach would, in the first place, be confronted with quite substantial obstacles and, in the second place, be useless in any case.

The gross tonnage of German steamers now in the United States [interned by the war] amounts to 440,000 tons, according to my estimate. There are about 116,850 gross tons in the American colonies...

But assuming that, in spite of all this, the United States should succeed in placing the German merchant ships in their service, the personal interests of the country would make it necessary for these ships to be held for their own purposes. So that an advantage to England or a lightening of England's burdens would not result from this situation.

Were America, after a break with us, to provide financial support in ever-increasing volume to England and our opponents, the only result for the latter would be that they would become more and more dependent upon the United States. And moreover, the practical effect of such financial support would, for the most part, take the form of possibly providing them with increased shipments of war material of all kinds which were not obtainable in their own country, and of supplying them with those articles essential to their economic life. But this possibility can only become an established fact if the shipments in question can actually be delivered. For instance, an increase in Italy s financial resources for the purpose of obtaining coal does not actually bring coal to the country. And so a n increased financial support of our opponents by America would, in the last analysis, for its effective working out, be inseparably and mainly dependent upon the problem of tonnage. . . .

V. With regard to supplementing the tremendous results of the war on land, we have the following:

1. The entrance of America into the list of our opponents would be of no definite assistance to England.

2. It is only by making the fullest use of all of our instrumentalities adapted to warfare on the sea, amongst which the U-boats will play an important part by shutting England off from all intercourse by sea, that it will be possible to bring about England's defeat.

Berlin, February 8, 1916

http://www.gwpda.org/1916/merchant.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 12 Feb 2011 14:55, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Cheltonians Who Gave Their Lives in the Great War - 1916

13th February 1916 Sgt Maj William Henry SMITH, 1/5th Battalion Sherwood Foresters, accidentally killed in France.

http://www.remembering.org.uk/timeline_1916.htm
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THE NORTH-EASTERN VILAYETS : STATEMENT COMMUNICATED BY THE REFUGEE ROUPEN, OF SASSOUN, TO THE ARMENIAN COMMUNITY AT MOSCOW;
PUBLISHED IN THE RUSSIAN PRESS, AND SUBSEQUENTLY REPRINTED IN THE "GAZETTE DE LAUSANNE," 13th FEBRUARY, 1916.


At the beginning of the European war, the "Dashnaktzoutioun" Party met in congress at Erzeroum in order to decide on the attitude to be observed by the Party. As soon as they beard of this congress, the Young Turks hastened to send their representatives to Erzeroum to propose that the Party should declare its intention of aiding and defending Turkey, by organising an insurrection in the Caucasus in the event of a declaration of war between Turkey and Russia. According to the project of the Young Turks, the Armenians were to pledge themselves to form legions of volunteers and to send them to the Caucasus with the Turkish propagandists, to prepare the way there for the insurrection.

The Young Turk representatives had already brought their propagandists with them to Erzeroum---27 individuals of Persian, Turkish, Lesghian and Circassian nationality. Their chief was Emir Hechmat, who is at present organising bands of rebels at Hamadan (Persia). The Turks tried to persuade the Armenians that the Caucasian insurrection was inevitable ; that very shortly the Tatars, Georgians and mountaineers would revolt, and that the Armenians would consequently be obliged to follow them.

They even sketched the future map of the Caucasus.

The Turks offered to the Georgians the provinces of Koutais and of Tiflis, the Batoum district and a part of the province of Trebizond ; to the Tatars, Shousha, the mountain country as far as Vladivkavkaz, Bakou, and a part of the province of Elisavetpol ; to the Armenians they offered Kars, the province of Erivan, a part of Elisavetpol, a fragment of the province of Erzeroum, Van and Bitlis. According to the Young Turk scheme, all these groups were to become autonomous under a Turkish protectorate. The Erzeroum Congress refused these proposals, and advised the Young Turks not to hurl themselves into the European conflagration---a dangerous adventure which would lead Turkey to ruin.

The Young Turks were irritated by this advice.

"This is treason! " cried Boukhar-ed-Din-Shakir, one of the delegates from Constantinople: " You take sides with Russia in a moment as critical as this; you refuse to defend the Government ; you forget that you are enjoying its hospitality!

But the Armenians held to their decision.

Once more before the outbreak of war between Russia and Turkey, the Young Turks tried to obtain the Armenians' support. This time they opened their pourparlers with more moderate proposals, and negotiated with the Armenian representatives of each Vilayet. At Van, the pourparlers were conducted by the provincial governor Tahsin Bey, and by Nadji Bey; at Moush, by Servet Bey and Iskhan Bey (this latter is at present a prisoner of war in Russia) ; at Erzeroum, by the same Tahsin Bey and by others.

The project of an Armenian rising in the Caucasus was abandoned. Instead, the Ottoman Armenians were to unite themselves with the Transcaucasian Tatars, whose insurrection was, according to the Young Turks, a certainty.

Once more the Armenians refused.

From the moment war broke out, the Armenian soldiers had presented themselves for service at their regimental depÙts, but they refused categorically to form irregular bands. On the whole, up to the end of 1914, the situation in Armenia was quiet. But when the Turks had been expelled from Bayazid and driven back in the direction of Van and Moush, their fury turned upon the Armenians, whose co-religionists in the Caucasus had formed themselves into volunteer legions under the leadership of Andranik and other patriotic leaders, and had been giving aid to the enemy.

It was then that the disarming of Armenian soldiers, gendarmes and members of the other services began. The disarmed Armenian soldiers were formed into groups of a thousand each, and sent into different districts to build bridges, dig trenches and work at the fortresses.

At the same time the wholesale massacres began. The first victims fell at Diyarbekir, Erzeroum and Bitlis. Soldiers, women and children, both in the towns and villages, were slaughtered en masse. By the end of last January the massacres had extended over the whole of Armenia. In the Armenian villages, the whole male population above the age of twelve was led out in batches and shot before the eyes of the women and children.

The first movement of revolt declared itself towards the beginning of February, at Koms. Seventy Turkish gendarmes had arrived there with orders to massacre the chief men of the place, and among them Roupen and Gorioun. When the Armenians learned their purpose, they threw themselves upon the gendarmes and killed them all. They proceeded to take the local governor prisoner, and found on him the following order from the governor of Moush:--

"Execute the decision communicated verbally to you."

On the same day the leading Armenians retired into the mountains, where they were joined by the young men under arms from the district of Moush.

Two thousand Turks, commanded by Mehmed Effendi, took the offensive against them, but were annihilated by the Armenians.

This was how the revolt in Armenia began.

The Government saw that the insurrection was spreading, and announced the suspension of the process of disarmament, rescinding at the same time the order for the deportation and extermination of the people of Sassoun. A commission of enquiry was appointed, consisting of Essad Pasha, the Kaimakam of Boulanik, the President of the Military Tribunal at Moush, and Mr. V. Papazian, an Armenian member of the Ottoman Parliament.

The commission found that the gendarmes were the whole cause of the trouble between the Armenians and the Turks, and the Government promised to put an end to the reprisals. Talaat Bey telegraphed from Constantinople that the representatives of the Armenians were not to be molested.

Quiet was re-established for the moment, but in the month of May the Turks attempted to force their way into Sassoun, and at the same time the massacres began again without warning at Harpout, Erzeroum and Diyarbekir. The Armenians repulsed the Turks and took up a position round the town of Moush, where a large number of Turkish troops were concentrated. This was the situation when the Turks perpetrated the great massacre of Moush at the end of June. Half the inhabitants of Moush were massacred, the other half were driven out of the town. The Armenians never knew that at that moment the Russian troops were only two or three hours' distance from Moush.

The massacres extended over the whole plain of Moush. The Armenians, who had managed to retreat on to the heights of Sassoun with a remnant of their forces and a slender supply of munitions, attacked the Turks in the valleys and gorges of Sassoun, and inflicted considerable losses upon them. A fraction of the Armenians who escaped the massacre broke through the Turkish lines and reached Van, which was already in the hands of the Russian troops.

The number of Armenian victims is very large. In the town of Moush alone, out of the 15,000 Armenian inhabitants there are only 200 survivors ; out of the 59,000 inhabitants of the plain hardly 9,000 have escaped.

http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1915/bryce/a04.htm#21
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1917 Cuban Pacification Campaign

A civil war in Cuba occupied the attention of the Guantanamo Naval Station and particularly its Commandant, at least for a brief period. This civil war grew out of the campaign and national election of 1916, and a dispute as to who won. President Menocal and Alfredo Zayas of the Liberal party were the candidates. The Liberals revolted. Santiago fell to the revolutionists on 13 February 1917, and three Cuban gunboats appeared the next day in Guantanamo Bay, having left Santiago to escape capture.

The American Consul at Santiago requested the presence of a US man-of-war to maintain communications and allay excitement of the populace, his request arriving at about the same time as information that the Revolutionists were intending to mine the mouth of Santiago Bay. The Commandant volunteered the services of the station ship Petrel, an old gunboat. The Petrel was in poor shape and a feeble show of power, but she was readied and departed for Santiago with Commander Knox aboard.

The experiences of Commander Knox at Santiago are a rather long and interesting story, as later narrated by him in an article entitled "An Adventure in Diplomacy" which appeared in the February 1926 issue of the Naval Institute Proceedings. He became the "go-between" in dealings between the Federals and Revolutionists, and was able to dissuade the latter from blocking and mining the channel; and the former, from attacking from sea with their gunboats. That the mines were poor in quality and would not have been a serious menace to shipping, and furthermore, that the Cuban gunboats were not much of a threat to Santiago, were not recognized at the time.

Anyhow the people of Santiago, were delighted with the temporary neutralization of the area. In his negotiations, Commander Knox had to exceed his radio instructions from the Commander-in-Chief of the Atlantic Fleet, and from Washington, and there were anxious moments, but his actions were later sustained. The Petrel was soon relieved by a larger ship, and returned to Guantanamo Bay with the Commandant.

US Marines were landed at Santiago to aid in the preservation of order. Also records indicate an expeditionary force of about 100 Marines of the 51st Company under First Lieutenant Lloyd W. Williams was based at Guantanamo Bay from 4 March to 23 May 1917. Fortunately, the revolution was short-lived; the Liberals were defeated; and President Menocal entered upon his second term in May 1917.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/cuba17.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Feb 2011 23:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, 13 Februari 1917.

Valkenswaard.

- Zaterdag werd voor rekening der gemeente door tusschenkomst van onzen EdelAchtbaren Heer Burgemeester v. Hoorn 20.000 KG steenkolen ontvangen. Degenen die voorzien waren van eene bon kregen een hoeveelheid van 50 KG. De voorraad was echter te vroeg op zoodat wij hoopen dat spoedig nog zendingen zullen volgen.

- Heden werd op last van den Ed. Achtbaren Heer Burgemeester officieel afgekondigd dat voor degenen die met 4 ons brood niet kunnen volstaan en buitenwerk os zwaren arbeid verrichten aanvullingskaarten verkrijgbaar zijn.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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Cabinet Conclusion 1. Submarines. 13 February 1917

http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-23-1-wc-64-64.pdf
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Raid on Nekhl


Town of El Nakhl from the Castle

The final actions of the Sinai Campaign were ordered by General Murray against Nekhl and El Hassana.

The raid on the garrison at Nekhl set out on 13 February 1917. Nekhl was centrally located in the Sinai desert south of the sand-hills which stretch across from near El Kossaima on the Ottoman frontier, to the vicinity of Suez – Gebel Helal, Gebel Yelleg and Gebel el Heitan extending sixty miles east of the Suez Canal to the large village of Nekhl and about forty miles due north of Nekhl, to the village of Bir el Hassana in a gap between Gebel Helal and the Gebel Yelleg. This central route between the Ottoman frontier and the Suez Canal had been used by the Ottoman Army during its earlier attacks on the canal. By the beginning of 1917 the repetition of such an attack was extremely unlikely, but an Ottoman force at Nekhl, a village of some 50 mud and stone houses, a mosque and a fort, was an important outpost which it was thought the Ottoman Army would attempt to hold so as to reinforce Ottoman authority over the Arabs and Bedouin in an area where sustained warfare by either side was impossible due to the harsh climate and lack of water.

Two mounted columns set out from the Suez Canal on 13 February 1917; one from Serapeum near Ismailia in the centre of the Canal consisting of 11th Light Horse Regiment and the other from Suez at the southern end of the Canal made up of British Yeomanry and Indian Lancers. These forces made the round trip of some 120 miles (190 km) in harsh desert conditions supported by three aeroplanes of No. 1 Squadron based at El Arish which worked from the aerodrome of No. 57 Reserve Squadron at Ismailia, during the raid. The planes kept contact with the two columns as they converged from the east and south on Nekhl, dropping messages from headquarters and scouting ahead when necessary.

http://www.ask.com/wiki/Sinai_and_Palestine_Campaign
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25th Reserve Division (German Empire)

Order of battle on 13 February 1918

The 25th Reserve Division was triangularized in May 1915. Over the course of the war, other changes took place, including the formation of artillery and signals commands and a pioneer battalion. The order of battle on 13 February 1918 was as follows:

50. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
Kurhessisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 83
Großherzoglich Hessisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 118
5. Großherzoglich Hessisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 168

2.Eskadron/Schlesisches Reserve-Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 4

Artillerie-Kommandeur 127

Großherzoglich Hessisches Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 25
II.Bataillon/Reserve-Fußartillerie-Regiment Nr. 15 (from 27 April 1918)

Stab Kurhessisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 11
1. Reserve-Kompanie/Kurhessisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 11
2. Reserve-Kompanie/Kurhessisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 11
Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 225

Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 425

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25th_Reserve_Division_(German_Empire)
Zie ook http://www.1914-18.info/erster-weltkrieg.php?u=385
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MAJOR GENERAL EUGENE LOWRY EUBANK

Retired Dec. 1, 1954. Died April 9, 1997.

Eugene Lowry Eubank was born in Mangum, Okla., in 1892. During World War I, he became a flying cadet in the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps Aug. 15, 1917, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Signal Reserve Feb. 13, 1918, and assigned at Kelly Field, Texas, as an instructor in flying.

http://www.af.mil/information/bios/bio.asp?bioID=5370
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Hertfordshire - TRING - WAR MEMORIAL

DAWE, M.C. Sidney Charles Captain, 5th Lincolnshire Regiment. Killed on 13 February 1918. Age 20. Son of Arthur Henry and Elizabeth Annie of ‘Thornhill’ 12 Boxwell Road, Berkhamsted. Fins New British Cemetery.

KING Ernest Private, 4th North Staffordshire Regiment. Died of wounds on 13 February 1919. Age 19. Formerly employed at Apsley Mills. Son of Susannah of 9 Myrtle Cottages, Bulbourne, Tring. Tring Cemetery.

http://www.roll-of-honour.com/Hertfordshire/Tring.html
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13 February 1919 → Commons Sitting

ARTIFICIAL LIMBS
.

HC Deb 13 February 1919 vol 112 cc251-2 251

Mr. PENNEFATHER asked the Pensions Minister whether any decision has been come to in regard to the establishment of a Government factory for artificial limbs?

Sir J. CRAIG My right hon. Friend is examining the problem of artificial limb supply in all its bearings, and has appointed a Committee to consider and report on the following matters, namely: (1) Whether, and in what respects, the existing arrangements with regard to supply, fitting, repair, and re-fitting should be modified; (2) whether it is desirable that the Ministry should provide one or more institutions for the supply and repair of limbs, and should employ therein partially disabled or limbless men; and (3) whether the existing arrangements for the supply of surgical instruments are satisfactory, and, if not, bow they can be improved. The members of this Committee will be Mr. Herbert Guedalla (Chairman) and the hon. and gallant Members for the Reigate Division of Surrey and for Nelson and Colne, who have kindly consented to act, together with Sir Charles Kenderdine, K.B.E., and a leading surgeon.

Mr. PENNEFATHER asked the Pensions Minister how many men are at present waiting for the fitting of artificial limbs; how many artificial limbs are awaiting repairs; and how many men have been provided with spare artificial limbs, in accordance with promises made by the last Pensions Minister?

Sir J. CRAIG The number of men whose stumps are healed awaiting the fitting of artificial limbs on the 1st of this month was 2,832, and the number of men whose stumps are not sufficiently healed for the fitting to take place is 5,321. Arrangements for the repair of artificial limbs are now made by the local committees. From the returns available the arrangements appear to be working well, and I do not know of any arrears.

There has not yet been any general provision of spare limbs. The promise made by the late Minister of Pensions was, I may remind my hon. Friend, that the provision of spare limbs would be undertaken when the arrears in the supply of first limbs had been worked off. In urgent cases, however, such as those of men going abroad or of men in special need by reason of their particular occupations, spare limbs have already been provided. My reply to the preceding question will assure the hon. Member that the whole question is being carefully considered.

Sir R. ADKINS May I ask whether the local committees are helped in the responsibility placed upon them for the repair of artificial limbs by free access to the central place where such limbs are made?

Sir J. CRAIG My hon. Friend will have observed by the answer to the previous question that the whole of these matters are being or will be carefully inquired into by the committee to be set up.

Colanel YATE Are these limbs supplied to officers?

Sir J. CRAIG Yes, Sir.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/feb/13/artificial-limbs
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The German Empire - facts and stats

In January 1919 a German National Assembly convened at the small town of Weimar to draft a constitution that would form the basis for a new democratic German republic in place of the discredited imperial model of government. As part of this process the assembly established the position of President of Germany on 11 February 1919 to replace that of the Kaiser as the official head of state. The constitution itself did not become law until August 1919, but the republic it helped to found would be forever known as the ‘Weimar Republic’.

The first ‘Weimar’ government was formed on 13 February 1919 under the chancellorship of Philip Scheidemann. Scheidemann resigned in protest at the harshness of the terms offered to Germany by the Allies in the Versailles Treaty, causing the first crisis in the Weimar Republic’s short history. The fact that his government did go on to accept the treaty ensured that this gesture was quickly forgotten. Over the next two decades the humiliation of ‘Versailles’ became inextricably associated with ‘Weimar’ politicians and government in the minds of many Germans.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/germany-facts
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 0:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The manager of a British owned company in Petrograd was interviewed by the British Foreign Office (13th February, 1919).

The political parties which have been most oppressed by the Bolsheviks are the Socialists, Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries. Owing to bribery and corruption - those notorious evils of the old regime which are now multiplied under Bolshevism - capitalists were able to get their money from the banks and their securities from safe deposits, and managed to get away. On the other hand, many members of the Liberal and Socialist parties who have worked all the time for the revolution, have been arrested or shot by the Bolsheviks.

The Bolsheviks continue to hold power by a system of terrorism and tyranny that has never before been heard of. It has made the history of the French Reign of Terror, or the Spanish Inquisition, appear mild by comparison. People were arrested wholesale, not merely on individual orders on information received from spies, but literally wholesale - people arrested in the streets, theatres, cafes, every day in hundreds.

The climax was reached after the murder of Uritsky. Hundreds of people were arrested in various parts of the town, mostly officers, who were shot and thrown into the river, bound and thrown into the river, or bound, put into barges, and the barges sunk.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSterror.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2011 0:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 13 Februari 1919.

Valkenswaard. Door het bestuur R. K. Werkliedenvereeniging waren reeds lang plannen beraamd om tot oprichting van eene R. K. vereeniging van dienstplichtigen en oud-militairen te komen. Overtuigd zijnde dat bij genoemde vereeniging ook middenstanders en boeren belang hadden, was het in overleg met het bestuur der R. K. Middenstandsvereeniging en van den R. K. Boerenbond getreden, zoodat Dinsdagavond een belangrijke vergadering gehouden kon worden in de zaal van den heer J. Verhappen, waarin als spreker zou optreden de heer P. J. S. Serrarens, uit Utrecht. Daar deze spreker echter niet was gearriveerd, trad de heer Gemen uit Eindhoven in diens plaats. De heer Gemen hield voor een volle zaal eene duidelijke lezing over het onderwerp: Waarom een bond van Dienstplichtigen? en waarom R. K. Organisatievorm? Circa 80 personen gaven zich vervolgens als lid der te stichten bondsafdeeling op. Binnenkort zal nogmaals, en dan in tegenwoordigheid van een lid van het Hoofdbestuur vergaderd worden.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Feb 2012 12:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vandaag is het 95 jaar geleden dat Mata Hari werd gearresteerd.
Meer info in één van de bovenstaande stukjes.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Feb 2018 8:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eric '14-'18 @ 13 Feb 2012 12:18 schreef:

Meer info in één van de bovenstaande stukjes.


... of in een van de onderstaande...

13 februari 1917: Mata Hari wordt gearresteerd
Precies 100 jaar geleden, op 13 februari 1917, wordt de van oorsprong Nederlandse danseres en spionne in Parijs gearresteerd op verdenking van het spioneren voor de Duitsers. Hoewel er geen sluitend bewijs is wordt zij datzelfde jaar nog geëxecuteerd.

Kleuterleidster trouwt twintig jaar oudere militair
Mata Hari werd op 7 augustus 1876 geboren in Leeuwarden als Margaretha Geertruida Zelle. Mata Hari kreeg tot haar dertiende privélessen Frans, Duits en Engels. Haar ouders scheidden kort na het faillissement van haar vader in 1889. In 1891 overleed haar moeder en kwam zij bij een oom in Den Haag te wonen waar zij een opleiding tot kleuterleidster volgde. In 1894 reageerde Margaretha op een huwelijksadvertentie in Het Nieuws van den Dag. Zij trouwde met de man uit de advertentie, Rudolph MacLeod, een militair die twintig jaar ouder was. Zij woonden een aantal jaar in Nederlands-Indië en na hun terugkeer in Nederland besloten zij in 1902 te scheiden.

Margaretha als exotisch danseres
Na de scheiding trok Margaretha naar Parijs waar zij vanaf 1905 een bekende danseres werd in de uitgaanswereld. In Nederlands-Indië had ze haar podiumpersoonlijkheid ontwikkeld: een exotische danseres genaamd Mata Hari, 'Oog van de Dageraad' in het Maleis. Deze Mata Hari voerde allerlei exotische 'oosterse' dansen uit in pikante kleding of helemaal naakt. In 1914 kreeg zij het aanbod om voor een half jaar in het Metropol-theater in Berlijn op te treden. Het uitbreken van Eerste Wereldoorlog maakte echter een einde aan haar danscarrière: alle theaters werden gesloten.

Spion voor de Fransen en de Duitsers?
Mata Hari keerde voor korte tijd terug naar Nederland om vervolgens weer naar Parijs te gaan. Voordat zij terugkeerde naar Parijs werd zij door de Duitse geheime dienst gevraagd om voor 20000 franc in Frankrijk voor hun te spioneren. Zij nam het geld aan, maar lijkt niet van plan te zijn geweest om te spioneren. De Franse en Britse geheime diensten wisten van het contact tussen Mata Hari en de Duitsers. Bovendien paste zij perfect in het profiel van spionne: ze reisde veel, sprak haar talen en ontmoette mannen in hoge functies. In Frankrijk werd zij gevraagd om te spioneren voor de Franse regering. In ruil voor een grote som geld brengt Mata Hari verslag uit over de contacten tussen haar en de Duitsers.

Geen sluitend bewijs
Op 13 februari 1917 werd Mata Hari door zes politieagenten opgehaald uit haar hotel en gearresteerd. Er was geen sluitend bewijs voor haar schuld, desalniettemin werd zij op 15 juli datzelfde jaar ter dood veroordeeld en op 15 oktober werd zij door een peloton geëxecuteerd. Waarom zij door de Fransen veroordeeld werd blijft onduidelijk. Een theorie is dat zij in de val werd gelokt, een andere theorie luidt dat zij sowieso alle schijn tegen had. Misschien wilden de Fransen het moreel hooghouden tijdens de oorlog door haar te executeren. Dit jaar, waarschijnlijk in oktober of november, wordt het allemaal duidelijk, als de Franse regering haar dossier vrijgeeft.

http://www.geschiedenismagazine.nl/nieuws/124-13-februari-1917-mata-hari-wordt-gearresteerd
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