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21 December

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2005 8:56    Onderwerp: 21 December Reageer met quote

December 21

1915 Sir William Robertson is appointed chief of the Imperial General Staff

Shortly after Sir Douglas Haig is installed as the new commander-in-chief of the British forces, his steadfast supporter, Sir William Robertson, is appointed the new chief of the Imperial General Staff, with King George's backing and over the head of the embattled British war secretary, Sir Horatio Kitchener.

Robertson, who first enlisted as a private solder in 1877, became the only man in the British army to rise from such humble beginnings to the rank of field marshal by the end of the Great War. His impressive ascent included stints as an officer in India and South Africa; positions in British Intelligence in both the Russian and colonial areas; head of the Foreign Section of the War Office in London; chief of the general staff under Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien; commandant of the Staff College from 1910 to 1913; and finally director of military training at the War Office, where he was serving when war broke out in August 1914.

With the start of war, Robertson was plucked from his duties in London and sailed to Boulogne, France, as quartermaster-general of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), then led by Sir John French. When Haig replaced French on December 19, 1915, the new commander-in-chief saw his chance to appoint his ally to replace Sir Archibald Murray as chief of an Imperial General Staff that had been allowed to weaken under Kitchener's watch since before the war.

The strong-willed Robertson had already concluded by the time of his appointment that the war could only be won on the Western Front. He wrote to Kitchener on December 27 that "we can only end the war in our favour by attrition or by breaking through the German line." In this view, Robertson coincided with Haig, but the force of his personality ensured that he would be more that just Haig's puppet. In his new role, he effectively served as a liaison between the army and the government. He supported the ousting of Prime Minister Herbert Asquith in December 1916 in favor of David Lloyd George, then clashed bitterly with Lloyd George over the latter's attempts to subordinate Haig and Robertson himself through the formation of a Superior War Council that would direct the war's policy. In early 1918, when the new council created a strategic reserve corps of its own, against Haig's wishes and out of Robertson's command, Robertson resigned his position. He was replaced by Sir Henry Wilson.

Robertson subsequently returned to London. After the war, he served as commander in chief of the British Army on the Rhine. In March 1920, he was made a field marshal. He published two memoirs about his military career: From Private to Field Marshal and Soldiers and Statesmen. Sir William Robertson died in 1933.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2005 8:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 21. Dezember

1914
Die vergebliche Offensive der Franzosen
Ein Armeebefehl Joffres
Die Kämpfe in Galizien

1915
Angriffe russischer Erkundungstruppen abgewiesen
Annahme des neuen Zehnmilliardenkredits im Reichstage
Eine Fälschung der Bothaschen Regierung
Montenegrinische Stellungen bei Berane erstürmt
Türkische Siegesbeute auf Gallipoli
Absetzung des Generals Russkij

1916
Vergebliche russische Stürme an der Goldenen Bistritz
Ein neuer Streifzug nach der südlichen Nordsee
Die vergeblichen russischen Anstürme bei Mestecanesci

1917
Heftige italienische Gegenangriffe abgewiesen
U-Boot-Beute im November
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Dec 2005 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 december 1914
Engeland

Door recente bombardementen op Dover door Duitsers beveelt Kitchener een verdubbeling van de uitbreidingsplannen van de Royal Flying Corps.

21 december 1916
Egypte

Na maanden voorbereiden trekt Maude's Sinaï leger op tot voorbij El Arish. Hiervoor is speciaal een spoorweg en waterleiding gebouwd. Ook zijn er 35.000 kamelen ingezet. De vooruitgeschoven troepen die voorafgaan staan onder leiding van Sir Philip Chetwoode. Hij neemt El Arish in zonder een schot te lossen.

Bron: The Almanac of World War I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 14:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

21 December 1914 - Major-General Sir William Birdwood took command of the Australian and New Zealand units in Egypt. These units were formed into an army corps of three divisions — 1st Australian Division, the New Zealand and Australian Division and a mounted division. The corps was known as the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. This was abbreviated later to ANZAC and those who served in it became known as Anzacs.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-december-1914.html

William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood



Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, CIE, DSO (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a First World War British general who is best known as the commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) during the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Birdwood,_1st_Baron_Birdwood
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 14:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nerincx, A., Poster, 21 December 1914



http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/nerincx-poster-21-december-1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 14:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilfred Owen to his mother on 21 December 1914 about the Germans’ shelling of Scarborough when sixteen died and 443 were wounded

‘When I read that a shell fell into a group of 16 schoolboys and killed fifteen, I raved. Talk about rumours of wars and earthquakes in divers places… The beginning of the End must be ended, and the beginning of the middle of the end is now.’

http://www.wilfredowen.org.uk/poetry/1914[/b]
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 14:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War One Aviation: French Two-Seaters 1914

Maurice Farman MF.11 "Shorthorn"


Maurice Farman MF.11 "Shorthorn"

The Maurice Farman MF.11 Shorthorn is a French reconnaissance and light bomber biplane developed during World War I by the Farman Aviation Works. It was essentially a Farman MF.7 with a more powerful engine, and a more robust and aerodynamic fuselage, which was raised above the lower wing on struts. The aircraft was also fitted with a machine gun for the observer, whose position was changed from the rear seat to the front in order to give a clear field of fire.

Its name derived from that of the MF.7 Longhorn, as it lacked the characteristic front-mounted elevator and elongated skids of its predecessor.

The MF.11 served in both the British and French air services on the Western Front in the early stages of the war. As a light bomber it flew the first bombing raid of the war when on 21 December 1914 an FM.11 of the Royal Naval Air Service attacked German artillery positions around Ostend, Belgium.

The MF.11 was withdrawn from front-line service on the Western Front in 1915, but continued to be used by the French in Macedonia and the Middle East, while the British also used it in the Dardanelles, Africa and Mesopotamia.

Italy's Societa Italiano Aviazione, a Fiat company, licence-built a number of MF.11s under the designation SIA 5 from early 1915, fitted with a fixed forward machine gun and a 74.5 kW (100 hp) Fiat A.10 engine.

http://www.wwiaviation.com/french_2seaters1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 14:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French Naval Operations, Engagements and Ship Losses in the Adriatic in World War One
by Erwin Sieche

(...) A fortnight later the submarine CURIE lay in wait off the harbor barrage of Pola [Pula] to wait for her chance to intrude. Two days later, on 20 December, during an attempt to sneak into the harbour she got entangled in the outer wire net barrage and could not free herself. Forced to surface to get fresh air, she was sunk by gunfire of the destroyer MAGNET and the Tb 63T, taking with her three while 23 men were rescued. In the inter-war period the French named a submarine after the drowned 2nd officer, Pierre Chailley. Another sub received the name [Gabriel?] O'Byrne after the commander of the CURIE, who had died in France after having being released from A.-H. POW in 1917. The Austrians raised the wreck step by step from 39 m depth between 21 December 1914 and 2 February 1915. It had suffered only little damages and because of the urgent need for ocean-going submarines she was repaired and commissioned as A.-H. U 14 on 1 June 1915.

On 21 December 1914 the A.-H. sub U 12 (Lerch) scores a torpedo hit on the French battleship JEAN BART off Saseno [Sazen Island]. The JEAN BART has to proceed to Malta for extensive repairs. (...)

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/fadri.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 14:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Border Regiment during World War One

(...) Almost three weeks later, the Battalion was involved in an unsuccessful attack of German trenches opposite their current position. Captain Warren led ‘A’ and ‘B’ Companies of the Battalion and two companies of the Scots Guards commencing at 6.15pm across No Man’s Land, reaching the enemy trenches with heavy casualties, unfortunately not only from the German guns but also from our own. As a result, the attacking companies drew back 50 yards or so at which point they laid down and awaited further instruction. Orders were received about an hour later to push on and recommence the attack. The attack again not successful and the men withdrew back to The Border Regiment’s trenches where they again awaited further instruction. The Brigadier, who originally gave the order for the attack, saw with forethought that too many lives would be lost and so the operation was abandoned. Captain Warren and the men were outnumbered. With the enemy machine-gunners waiting for their movements after the initial attempt failed, the element of surprise had gone and it became evident that a successful outcome of this attack was slim at best. Captains H. A. Askew and C. Lamb, D.S.O. were killed or dying of wounds in the process, the former actually making it into German trenches. They couldn’t afford to waste more lives and so did the right thing by calling it off. Lieutenant M. N. S. Kennedy and Second-Lieutenant N. Castle were wounded and the total loss of other ranks came to 110.

Two Victoria Crosses were awarded for gallantry to:

“10694 Private Abraham Acton, 2nd Battalion The Border Regiment. 6423 Private James Smith, 3rd Battalion The Border Regiment (attached to 2nd Battalion) For conspicuous bravery on 21st December, at Rouges Bancs, in voluntarily going from their trench and rescuing a wounded man who had been lying exposed against the enemy’s trenches for 75 hours, and on the same day again leaving their trenches voluntarily, under heavy fire, to bring into cover another wounded man. They were under fire for 60 minutes whilst conveying the wounded men into safety”.

http://www.border-regiment.kerchi.co.uk/wikiproject/index.php?title=The_Border_Regiment_during_World_War_One

James Alexander Smith

James Alexander Smith VC (5 January 1881 - 21 May 1968) was born in Workington, Cumberland and was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. His birth name was James Alexander Glenn.

He was 33 years old, and a private in the 3rd Battalion, Border Regiment, British Army, attached to 2nd Battalion during the First World War. Smith and Abraham Acton from Whitehaven were both awarded their Victoria Cross for their actions on 21 December 1914 at Rouges Bancs, France.

On 21 December 1914 at Rouges Bancs, France, Smith and Abraham Acton, voluntarily went out from their trench and rescued a wounded man who had been lying exposed against the enemy's trenches for 15 hours. On the same day they again left their trench under heavy fire to bring in another wounded man. They were under fire for 60 minutes whilst conveying the wounded men to safety.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at The King's Own Royal Border Regiment and Border Regiment Museum, Carlisle Castle, Cumbria, England.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Alexander_Smith

Abraham Acton



Abraham Acton VC (17 December 1893 - 16 May 1915) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Acton was born on 17 December 1893 to Robert and Elizabeth Eleanor Acton, of 4, Regent Square, Senhouse St., Whitehaven, Cumberland.

He was 22 years old, and a private in the 2nd Battalion, The Border Regiment, British Army during the First World War. He and James Alexander Smith, were both awarded their Victoria Cross for their actions on 21 December 1914 at Rouges Bancs, France.

For conspicuous bravery on the 21st December, at Rouges-Bancs, in voluntarily going from his trench and rescuing a wounded man who had been lying exposed against the enemy's trenches for 75 hours; and on the same day again leaving his trench voluntarily, under heavy fire to bring into cover another wounded man. He was under fire for 60 minutes whilst conveying the wounded men into safety.
He was killed in action at Festubert, France, on 16 May 1915, but his body were never found - he is commemorated on the Le Touret Memorial.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at The Beacon, Whitehaven, Cumbria, England.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Acton
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 14:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC)

(...) Birdwood arrived in Cairo on 21 December 1914 to assume command of the corps.

It was originally intended to name the corps the Australasian Army Corps, this title being used in the unit diary, following the common practice of the time, which often saw New Zealanders and Australians compete together as Australasia in sporting events. However, protests from New Zealand led adoption of the name Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The administration clerks found the title too cumbersome so quickly adopted the abbreviation A. & N.Z.A.C. or simply ANZAC. Shortly afterwards it was officially adopted as the codename for the corps but it did not enter common usage amongst the troops until after the Gallipoli landings.

http://www.answers.com/topic/anzac
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 December 1915 → Commons Sitting

PRISONERS OF WAR.


HC Deb 21 December 1915 vol 77 cc173-4 173

Mr. CATHCART WASON asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, if, in view of the sufferings of prisoners of war in Germany, he would ascertain if neutral Powers would be prepared to relieve the Germans of the cost of the maintenance of such prisoners and provide at the same time for their safe custody?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Lord Robert Cecil) This matter has been carefully considered, and I regret to say that the practical difficulties have so far been found insuperable. But the suggestion will not be lost sight of.

Mr. C. WASON May I ask whether it is in the Noble Lord's knowledge that the Germans have already sent civilian prisoners over here to prevent them being starved there?

Lord R. CECIL I am not sure that I quite follow the hon. Gentleman's question. Does the hon. Member mean to say that the Germans have sent some civillian prisoners back here?

Mr. CATHCART WASON Yes.

Lord R. CECIL No, I do not think that is so. They have sent a certain number of civilian prisoners back in exchange for a certain number of civilian prisoners sent over there on the ground that they were incapable of military service.

Sir J. D. REES Is the process of exchange to be accelerated and continued?

Lord R. CECIL It is being continued periodically. I speak from recollection, but I think every two months a certain number have been sent back on each side.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/dec/21/prisoners-of-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Rijnbode, 21/12/1915

http://www.groenehartarchieven.nl/kranten/rijnbode/1915-12-21
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - December 1915

Telegram. Army in the Field. 21 December, 1915.

Hearty thanks for dear letter. To-day I have driven round the fighting front of two corps, in a place which is known to me. I received the most pleasant impressions from the troops. Real thawing weather. I embrace you closely.

Nicky

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/december15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Canterbury (1915)



HMS Canterbury was a C-class light cruiser of the British Royal Navy. She was part of the Cambrian group of the C-class of cruisers. Unlike the rest of the subclass, Canterbury was armed with six torpedo tubes instead of the usual four.

She was laid down in October 1914, launched on 21 December 1915 and commissioned into the navy in April 1916. She was then attached to the Grand Fleet, commanded by Captain Percy M. R. Royds. Whilst serving with the Fleet she participated in the Battle of Jutland on 31 May to 1 June.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Canterbury_(1915)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 - Rs I - Giant Flying Boat



Rs I – the first flying-boat designed by Dipl.-Ing. Claude Dornier – was the largest aircraft of its time, featuring a novel, nearly exclusive all-metal structure. Only the wing, empennage and the hull were covered with fabric. The upper and lower wing of this biplane were braced by struts and the complete wing unit was pivoted on the boat.

The angle of attack the fuselage was adaptable in flight by means of a strut extending from the upper wing into the hull. Outboard floats on the lower wing were used to increase overall stability. The hull had one cross-step. The three Maybach engines were mounted on a joint stand. They drove pusher propellers and were accessible for maintenance during the flight. The radiators were installed without paneling against the engine nacelles. The wooden propellers, equipped with metal edges, had a diameter of 3.5 m.

Rs I was destroyed before its first flight during a storm at its Friedrichshafen-Seemoos buoy on 21 December 1915.

Technical DataLength 29,0 m
Height 7,2 m
Wing span upper wing 43,5 m
Depth upper wing 4,6 m
Wing span lower wing 37,7 m
Depth lower wing 3,6 m
Total wing area 329,0 m
Horizontal tail area 43,0 m
Vertical tail area 15,3 m
Hull width 3,5 m
Powerplant Maybach 3x 240 PS
All-up weight (planned) 9500 kg


http://www.iren-dornier.com/en/aircraft/1915-rs-1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Japanese battlecruiser Kirishima at Sasebo, Japan, 21 Dec 1915



http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=11253

Japanese battlecruiser Hiei at Sasebo, Japan, 21 Dec 1915



http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=11259
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

21 december 1916 - Er zijn te Avelgem een 25-tal Uhlanen aangekomen om patrouilledienst te doen op de streek en het smokkelen te beletten. Die kerels gaan er zo hardhandig bij te werk dat er niemand meer vrij is langs de baan en al wie geen paspo[o]rt kan tonen, aan de boet geslagen wordt. Het is nu voorgoed gedaan met het beetje vrijheid dat ons nog overbleef. Ons kringetje waarin we nog bewegen konden en door de verordening heen, van 't een naar 't andere dorp in gemeenschap konden blijven is nu nog eens wat nader toegehaald. De ruiters met lans en vaantjes rijden alle wegen af en waar ze een mens ontmoeten, gaan ze hem te keer.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0028.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Christmas 1916 - with the 4th Field Ambulance, A.I.F.

Private William Dalton Lycett, 2063, of the 4th Field Ambulance A.I.F. enlisted on 12th September 1914, he embarked on the 22nd December 1914 at Melbourne on the H.M.A.T. “Berrima”.

Thursday 21st December, 1916 - Slept as sound as a top and up at 8.30 a.m. this morning. After breakfast gave a hand generally till dinner time and then went on duty at 2 p.m. for the afternoon shift. Got a dozen patients in today all suffering from the effects of the cold weather. Rained today. Had a few dressings and various odd duties to attend to and then tea at 5 p.m. After tea gave patients cocoa at 7.30 p.m. and then did some writing. Getting very good tucker just now. Off duty 8 p.m. and turned in 9 p.m.

http://outofbattle.blogspot.com/2009/12/christmas-1916-with-4th-field-ambulance.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rasputin G. E. (1869-1916)

(...) On 21 December 1916, Rasputin was buried in the presence of the Imperial Family in the unfinished chapel dedicated to St. Seraphim in the purlieu of Alexander's park in Tsarskoe Selo. During the days of the February Revolution of 1917 his body was disinterred and burnt in the boiler shop of the Polytechnic Institute.

http://www.encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804023731
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Australia: Boy Soldiers on the Roll of Honour

The Australian Army's enlistment age was 21 years or 18 years with the permission of a parent or guardian. Although boys could enlist as buglers many gave false ages in order to join as soldiers. Their numbers are impossible to determine. (...)

Boy 1st Class Ronald Rothsay Wright (4459, HMAS Sydney) was born on 2 June 1900, at Peterhead, SA. He was killed during a violent storm off the coast of Norway on 21 December 1916. He was aged 16 years 6 months, and is buried at the Dalmeny and Queensferry Cemetery, Scotland.

http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/boysoldiers.asp
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Thursday, 21 Dec 1916: British recapture El Arish (Sinai)

Leading units of the ANZAC Mounted Division and the Imperial Camel Brigade surrounded El Arish unopposed on the morning of 21 December 1916. The town was founded to be abandoned by Turkish forces.

http://cosmos.ucc.ie/cs1064/jabowen/IPSC/php/event.php?eid=40
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Envelope...



... addressed to Mrs Galbraith that contained a letter from Clarrie Fraser, serving with the AIF in France. The letter, written in France, is dated 21/12/16, and the envelope is post marked Melbourne, 22 February 1917.

http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/1182092/envelope-addressed-to-mrs-a-galbraith-world-war-i-21-dec-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Jaffa, 21-22 December 1917

The battle of Jaffa, 21-22 December 1917, was a minor engagement during the British invasion of Palestine of 1917. The port of Jaffa had fallen into British hands on 16 November, in the aftermath of the Turkish defeat at Junction Station. The British planned to use the port as a supply base, and intended to build a railway east to Ludd to join the main railway. However, the Turks were only just over three miles north of Jaffa, on the Auju River. If Jaffa was to be safe, the British would have to push the Turks away from that position.

The Auja was a strong defensive position. As it cut across the coastal plain the river was 40-50 feet wide and 10 feet deep. There were three ways across the river – a ford at the coast, a bridge across a mill dam at Jerisheh in the centre of the position and a partially demolished stone bridge at Hadrah, on the Turkish left. All three of these positions were closely guarded.

XXI corps had moved to the coastal plain on 7 December. The corps’ three divisions were all in the front line, with the 52nd Division on the coast. The commander of that division believed that a surprise attack would be able to cross the river between the three strongly defended posts, where the Turkish patrols were few in number.

The required equipment was secretly moved up to the south bank of the river under cover of darkness. Heavy rain on 19-20 December actually helped the British, swelling the river to the point where the Turks believed it would be impossible to cross apart from at the fort or the existing bridges.

On the night of 20/21 December they were proved wrong. Three British brigades were able to cross over using a combination of rafts and pontoon bridges. The 155th brigade crossed over east of Jerisheh, and then turned right to attack the Turkish position at Hadrah. The 156th and 157th brigades crossed to the west of Jerisheh. The 156th then attacked the Turkish position at Sheikh Muannis, on a hill overlooking the river, while the 157th turned left and captured the northern end of the ford.

The attack was a complete success. The Turks were caught out by the surprise attack, and by the end of 22 December had been pushed back five miles along their entire front. The new front line was eight miles north of Jaffa, which could now safely be used as a supply base.

Rickard, J (3 September 2007), Battle of Jaffa, 21-22 December 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_jaffa.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Programme, 21 December 1917: "2/15th Battalion London Regiment Concert Held in Jerusalem 21st December, 1917"



http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/programme-21-december-1917-0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The London Gazette, FRIDAY, 21 DECEMBER, 1917.

http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/30442/pages/13375/page.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

21 december 1917 - “We lagen vanaf 18 december met ons brigade aan Oud-Stuivekenskerke. Om 2u ’s morgens vertrokken naar de loopgrachten. Den post van den doktoor was waar de kerk gestaan had van dit dorpje. Dit was ook maar een puinhoop van steenen, doch was er nog een observeerpost in. Als we daar kwamen had het hard gevrozen en was het mistig weder. Het was van aan den ijzerenweg bijna 20 minuten ver. Er was een gang naartoe gemaakt. Ook konden ze er met wagonnetjes naartoe rijden. De voorposten waren dan nog wel een 800 meter verder. Van aan den ijzerenweg tot aan Stuivekenskerke stond het gansch onder water. De keukens van de compagnie stonden op de lijn aan den ijzerenweg. In den voormiddag kwamen ze bij den doktoor zeggen dat er een gekwetste lag op voorpost. Mijnheer Den Aalmoezenier (E.H. Louis Mertens uit Zondereigen) met de brancardiers van de compagnie waren er heen geloopen en de gekwetste had nen kogel van voor in de kop gekregen en was van achter eruit gevlogen. De Aalmoezenier gaf hem het noodige (H. Oliesel) waarna hij naar den doktoor wierd gebracht.” (Uit het dagboek van Fonske Versmissen)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=190&Itemid=47
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1913: Official Report Submitted to the Great Powers
From the daily newspaper Corriere delle Puglie, Bari, XXVI, 354, of 21 December 1913

The First Balkan War began in October 1912. Serbia took advantage of the power vacuum left by the crumbling Ottoman Empire to invade and conquer Kosova and the Dibra region, now along the Albania-Macedonia border, in late October and early November of that year. While the Great Powers recognized Albania as a sovereign State on 29 July 1913, Kosova, Dibra, Ohrid and Monastir remained under Serb military rule and on 7 September 1913, King Peter I of Serbia proclaimed the annexation of the conquered territories. A large uprising against Serb rule took place in the Luma region (southwest of Prizren) and in the mountains west of Gjakova, which was suppressed by a force of over 20,000 Serb troops who advanced into Albania, almost reaching Elbasan. An amnesty was declared by the government in Belgrade in October 1913, yet the pogroms of the Albanian population continued.

Coming a year after the harrowing information compiled by Leo Freundlich, the following "Official Report to the Great Powers" published in December 1913, details the carnage that took place in Dibra and Luma, after the amnesty, as it is noted.

Official Report Submitted to the Great Powers

We are the first in Europe to be able to publish the full list of atrocities committed by the Serb Army in the Districts of Dibra, Lower Dibra and Luma in northern Albania after the amnesty accorded last October by the government in Belgrade, following the revolt of the Albanian malisors (mountain people).

It is a document of extraordinary importance and has just been handed over to the government of one of the Great Powers by its own plenipotentiary delegate, who personally compiled the notes and names at the sites of the atrocities and terror.

Here is the full version of the official report.

District of Dibra

In Klos, Serb gangs bayoneted Ahmet Aliu and his brother, as well as Nezir Sulejmani and Mehmet Salihu. The whole village was ransacked.

In Valikardha, in middle of the day and in the presence of all the inhabitants, Ymer Halili, Osman Qira, Qerim Zejneli, Ismail Alushi and Sul Hoxha (Muslim priest) were slain by bayonet and were reduced to unrecognisable corpses. Their houses were burnt down after having been pillaged.

In Peladhia, house-to-house inspections were carried out under the pretext of searching for weapons caches. Many houses were plundered. That of Hasan Pata was burnt down and its owner had his throat slit in the presence of his elderly mother, his wife and his children.

In Krajka, the house of Muharrem Dervishi was torched after having been pillaged.

In Zerqen, all the houses were pillaged and burnt down.

In Sopot, the village was completely ravaged and plundered. Many of the houses were burnt down. All the animals were stolen, and the following persons: Ali Kamberi, his servant, Hamza Disha and Salih Selimi, were bayoneted.

In Dibra (town), several hours before the malissor attack, the local prefect and the military commander arrested eighteen leading townsmen, who were executed without benefit of trial: Ramiz Karanfili, Sheh Husejni, Numan Hasani and Safet Bey. The others only survived thanks to the malisors who by that time had entered the town that the Serb Army had to evacuate hastily.

On their return to Dibra, the Serbs pillaged the whole town and carried off over a million Turkish lira of spammer. Many houses were put to the torch, in particular those of Ali Bey. Rakip Qatibi and Kurtish Aga. With incomparable cruelty, the Serbs also massacred many other people, among whom were those minding their own business at home who had not part in the insurrection. Among those massacred were: Kurtish Aga, Behxhet Efendi, Haxhi Syreja Efendi, Reshid Efendi Kusari and Sadullah Shtrazimiri.

At the present time, the town of Dibra is virtually deserted because the inhabitants have fled into the mountains. In the town itself, there are only two or three hundred individuals left of both sexes.

In Gjorica, the day after a visit by an officer delegated by the Austrian Government, who was passing through to verify the Serb evacuation of the region, the Serbs re-appeared in the village and killed a woman and a five-year-old child. They also wounded another woman.

In Homesh, only three of the 150 houses originally standing in the village remained. All the others were torched after having been pillaged. After they surrender, the Serbs killed: Musa Ismajli, Shemsedin Bajrami and Halit Sulejmani who had returned to the village after the amnesty. The first time, they took 1000 head of sheep, 150 head of cattle and 40 horses. The second time, they took 50 head of sheep, nine head of cattle and nine horses.

In Shupenza, after robbing the houses and taking all the valuables and supplies, the Serbs massacred: Alis Myslimi and his brother Abdi, Hasan Abazi and Dalip Elmazi.

In Okshatina, only one house remains intact of the original 74. They were all pillaged and torched. Two men called Ferhat and Nazif were bayoneted. All the animals were carried off.

In Topojan, a village of 68 homes, there was general plundering and burning. A man called Abdullah Xhaferri had his throat slit as he was not able to come up with the sum of five Turkish lira (115 Italian lira), the ransom demanded by the Serb officer commanding the detachment. The Serb soldiers carried off all the animals.

At Kovashica, Malik Bajrami, Aziz Haxhi, Ahmet Ramadani, Leka, Destan Jashari, Sejfedin Elezi, and Sulejman Ramadani were massacred. 150 head of sheep, 41 head of cattle and 13 horses were stolen. A man called Rashid Rexhepi was only spared for a sum of 150 Turkish lira (about 3450 francs) paid as ransom to the commander of the Serb detachment.

In Gjurica (a hamlet near Topojan), 14 men were massacred, among whom the village syndic. Two women were also killed: Naile Seferi and Zemane Ibrahimi, as well as an eight-year-old boy called Ismail Mehmedi, a ten-year-old called Bajram Elezi, a seven-year-old called Rrahman, two twelve-year-olds called Hasan Ali and Elias, and the daughter of Husein Çoka.

In Golevishta, the whole village was ransacked. 74 houses were torched and two men called Halil Numani and Nuredin Mustafa had their throats slit. As to the animals, the Serbs took 1000 head of sheep, 30 head of cattle and 35 horses the first time, and 23 horses, 40 head of cattle and 500 head of sheep the second time.

In Kërçisht, the only two Muslim homes in the village were torched. In addition, 60 head of sheep, two bulls and four cows were stolen.

In Bllata, the Serbs torched 75 houses and massacred Rexhep Lleshi with his brother Abdi and the latter's son Bajram, as well as the wife of Islam Kuarana. The village was completely pillaged and the remaining animals, being 90 head of sheep and 50 head of cattle, were carried off.

In Zogjaj, the villages was looted. All valuables, winter supplies and animals were carried off. The Serbs torched 124 houses and, while the fire was reducing everything to ashes, they threw the following people into the flames alive: a woman called Rihane, two girls called Fazile and Myslime, and a seven-year-old lad called Bajram. They also bayoneted Haxhi Myslimi, Nezir Azizi, Halil Numani and Zejnel Hasani. Returning to Zogjaj for a second time, the Serbs massacred: Mustafa Myslimi, Aziz Jusufi, Adem Shabani and Edin Nurka. They also stole seven cows and six sheep that had escaped the first looting.

In Maqellara, 10 houses were pillaged and torched. In addition, the Serbs bayoneted: Elmaz Selmani and his son Selman, Malik Rexhepi and his son Murat, Hasan Sulejmani, Abdullah Qehaja, Hajredin Hasani and his three sons Ymer, Ramiz and Tevfik, his brother Rakip, his father Hasan, Rrustem Mehmeti, Numan Shemsedini, Ramadan Bajrami and Ejup Edhemi. The other inhabitants of the village were forced to hand over 50 head of cattle, two cows and 113 goats in order not to be slaughtered.

In Poçest, the Serbs murdered Muharrem Muharremi and his son Behxhet. They carried off 100 head of sheep and nine head of cattle, as well as a sum of 150 Turkish lira (about 3450 francs) which they discovered in the pockets of the villagers.

In Kërçisht i Poshtëm, the Serbs looted the home of Mehmet Ejupi after having slit the throat of the owner in front of his family.

In Çerenec, they torched 23 houses and massacred Hasan Abazi and his wife, Ramadan Salihu and Rrustem Sulejmani. They pillaged the whole village and carried off all valuables, supplies and animals.

In Bllaca, the village was completely burnt down after having been pillaged. The inhabitants were all put to the sword, quite without cause, so there was no opportunity to compile a list of victims. On their return to Bllaca, the Serbs discovered 250 head of sheep, 37 cows and 28 horses which they carried off, having slain the shepherds.

In Spas, they pillaged all the houses and torched ten of them. They carried off all the animals they could catch, being 150 head of sheep, four horses and 13 head of cattle.

In Klobuçishta, after looting all the homes, they set fire to them. Thirty houses were reduced to ashes. In addition, in the presence of the villagers, they murdered: Adil Bilhali, Ahmed Abazi, Mustafa Murteza, Xhelaledin Destani and his brother Musa, Hajredin Maksuti, Lutfi Fejzullahu, Reshid Murteza and his son Fetah, Gazanfer Zejneli and others. The Serbs also stole 150 sheep and goats, 11 head of cattle and one donkey.

In Pulçishte (Poçest?), the Serbs carried off 103 head of sheep, 15 head of cattle, 14 horses, seven donkeys and 65 Turkish lira in gold (about 1500 francs). Returning a second time, they caught and carried off five head of sheep, 10 head of cattle and one horse.

In Obok, the whole village was looted and the village leader, Ramadan Bajrami, had his throat slit. While passing through the first time, the Serbs carried off a herd of 120 sheep and, the second time, they took away 25 sheep, two bulls, one horse and two donkeys.

In Pesjaka, they burnt down or destroyed all the houses. Of the inhabitants, they murdered the following: Jahja Ismajli, Malik, Mahmut, Sejfullah, Abaz and Vehbi Sulejmani. The Serbs also carried off 14 head of cattle, 50 sheep and one donkey.

In Erebara, the whole village was looted and the following persons were massacred: Ibrahim Osmani, Junus Kurtishi, Xhafer Demiri and Destan Ishaku. They also carried off three horses, one donkey and eight head of sheep. The Serbs also took a herd of 150 sheep belonging to Shukri Bey from a pasture near the village.

In Vojnika, the Serbs looted and torched all the 51 houses and, while the flames were devastating the village, Serb soldiers bayoneted everyone they could find. Among the victims were Sinan Ibrahimi, Nazif Numani, Ali Selimi and Idriz Shabani. In addition, a woman called Shame was tortured and had her throat slit in the presence of her children. All the animals, being 100 head of sheep, eight head of cattle and nine horses, were carried off.

In Allajbegia, the Serbs pillaged the whole village and torched 65 houses. They massacred the following persons: Ibrahim, Zejnel Dalipi, Salih Ahmeti, Ali Selimi, Hajdar Shabani and his brother Hajredin, Hajredin Muça, Ali Osmani, Numan Elmazi, Sejfedin Selimi, Zejnel Saipi, Salih Sulejmani, Fazli Abazi, and the women Shame, Qamile, Alie, Nimetallah, Hibe, Zaide, Fatime and a five-year-old girl. All the animals in the village and on the surrounding pastures were carried off.

In Avalan, the village was pillaged and four houses put to the torch. The head villager Ismajl Ismajli has his throat slit, and the animals, being 90 head of sheep, 6 horses and 1 donkey, were carried off.

In Çanka, after the village was looted, nine houses were put to the torch. Of the inhabitants of the village, the Serbs bayoneted the following: Beqir Rrustemi, Husejn Abazi, Shahin Numani and Zejnullah. They also carried off 13 animals.

In Kovaçica, the whole village was plundered and 32 houses were torched. Massacred were: Elias Dauti, Nuredin Nurçe, Salih Osmani and Zejnel Troza. The Serbs carried off two bulls, 30 head of sheep and nine cows.

In Bllata e Epërme, the whole village was plundered and 18 houses were torched. Abdul Azizi and Abdurrahman were the only victims of the Serbs. In addition, 42 head of sheep and two horses were carried off.

In Bllata e Poshtme, after being looted, 25 homes were reduced to ashes by the fire. A man called Ali Bllata and his two sons died in the flames. The Serbs also carried off 30 head of sheep, four cows and three horses.

In Lishan, after being looted, the whole village was put to the torch and all the animals found in the stables and out grazing were carried off.

District of Lower Dibra

In Rabdisht, the village was looted and completely devastated. 38 houses and about thirty stables were torched. 65 men were massacred, as usual by bayonet. In addition to them was a six-year-old boy, the son of a local leader, who was throw alive into the flames. The Serbs also carried off 400 head of sheep, 150 goats, 60 cows and 22 horses. A search of the pockets of the inhabitants who were spared death produced the sum of 20 Turkish lira (about 450 francs) which the Serbs confiscated.

In Zimur, the Serbs pillaged and torched seven houses. They bayoneted: Ahmet Shabani, Mulajm Elmazi, Sulejman Zeqiri, Veisel Riza and Salih Shabani. The animals they carried off consisted of 245 head of sheep and 12 bulls.

In Staravec, the whole village was pillaged and 42 houses were reduced to ashes. The victims here were: Husejn Muça, Reshid Rrahmani and a woman called Zobejda. The Serbs caught and carried off 300 sheep and goats, 30 head of cattle and four horses.

In Bahutaj, the Serbs forced Ramadan Mehmeti and his companions to perform balancing acts and then cut their throats. They carried off 10 horses.

In Tomin, the village was pillaged and two houses, a dervish lodge and a mosque were torched. Mazllum Jusufi and a boy of ten were slain. All the animals found were carried off.

In Dohoshisht, after the sacking of the village, 55 houses were torched. Among the victims who were horribly massacred, one could recognize the bodies of: Malik Bajrami, Ramadan Ahmeti, Ymer Sadiku, Zejnullah Hasani, Halil Junuzi, Musa Bajrami, and Shaban Halili. The Serbs carried off 400 head of sheep and 200 horses.

In Zagrad, the soldiers torched eight houses and stole three horses.

In Bellova, the Serbs pillaged the whole village and carried off everything they could transport.

In Grazhdan, 22 houses were ransacked and torched. Aziz Shemsedini, Hasan Zekiria, Xhafer Jusufi, Emrullah Mahmuti, Mont, Beqir, Hasan Durmishi, Rrustem Hasani and his brother Zekiria, Bexhet Nuri and his wife, Ismail Xhelili and his son Elias, Elez Hasani, Emrullah Demiri, Sinan Xhaferi, Aziz Kurtishi, Maksut Numani and Ferhat were bayoneted in the presence of their families. The Serbs also carried off all the animals.

In Muhurr, they looted all the homes and set 14 of them on fire. When they passed through the first time, they took 200 head of sheep, 100 lambs, 30 cows and 15 horses, as well as over 300 Turkish lira (about 7000 francs) they discovered in the pockets of the inhabitants. The second time they passed through the village, Serb troops stole 10 sheep, 10 lambs and one horse. They also bayoneted eleven village leaders.

In Luznia, all private homes were looted. The Serbs then torched five of the main homes. They carried off all the animals they could find in the stables, over 1500 sheep and goats, and 200 head of cattle. The human casualties, all bayoneted to death, amounted to 45 persons, whose names were carefully verified and recorded.

In Çetush, four houses were torched and the following persons: Asma Hasani, Zejnel Shabani and Osman Numani were massacred. Three horses were stolen.

In Brezhdan, the Serbs pillaged and torched 17 houses. They massacred the following persons: Abedin Osmani, Shahin Mehmeti and Salih Kadri. They also carried off 25 horses.

In Ushtelenca, the whole village was ransacked and thirteen houses were reduced to ashes. The following persons, Numan Rrustemi, Muslim Zeki and Mehmet Gota were massacred. The animal carried off amounted to 17 horses and six bulls.

In Deshat, the Serbs torched 15 houses and threw a ten-year-old boy, a seven-year-old boy and two women alive into the flames. They stole 50 head of cattle and 500 head of sheep.

In Sohodoll, they set three houses on fire and massacred four men: Abdullah Abedini, Tusun Dalipi, Sulejman Bahtiari and Dalip Ismajli, as well as a woman called Belure and her six-year-old son called Mazllum. They also stole 200 sheep and 30 horses.

In Borovjan, the Serbs torched two houses and slit the throat of Rrustem Muharremi in the presence of his family. They also carried off 27 head of cattle, 119 sheep and 5 horses.

In Rashnopoja, they pillaged all of the houses thoroughly, but were not able to burn any of them down. They bayoneted six leading villagers: Bajram Mehmeti, Malik Rakipi, Selman Rakipi, Behxhet Behluli, Osman Azani, Hajredin Maliku, and stole 20 bulls.

In Cerjan, the Serbs torched the houses and killed three men: Fazli Sulejmani, Jashar Hejbati and Bektash Arsllani, and one woman Zobejda. They carried off 14 horses and 60 head of sheep.

In Pilaf, all the houses were looted and five of them were torched. The Serbs bayoneted Dalip Ramadani in the presence of his elderly mother.

In Pilaf-Mahalla, they ransacked all the houses and torched eight of them. They murdered Hasan Fetahu, Salih Jusufi and his six-year-old daughter Fatime. In addition the Serb soldateska hurled a five-year-old boy called Shukri and a four-year-old called Hasan, into the flames. 100 head of cattle, 200 head of sheep and eight horses were carried off.

In Pollozhan, the village was completely ransacked and three houses were torched. There were eleven victims: Hajredin Vehta and his brother Aziz, Jusuf Uka, Hajredin Shkurti, Husejn Zejneli, Hajredin Halili, Said Pasha, Emin Shahini, Elez Numani and his brother Osman and the latter's son. As to the animals, they carried off 50 head of sheep, 12 bulls and four horses.

In Gliçes (Blliçja?), all the houses were pillaged and five of them were torched. The Serbs cut the throats of three men (Xhafer Rrustemi, Destan Hasani and Xhemal Salihu) and of one woman (Ajshe). They carried off 250 head of sheep and 30 horses.

In Limjan, the whole village was ransacked. Among the inhabitants who were slain by bayonets were Hasan Shahini, Sejfullah Ibrahimi, Abdurrahman Fetahu, Qerim Sadiku and Bajram Xhelili. Also carried off were 200 head of sheep, 20 cows and 10 horses.

In Peshkopia, after all the houses in the village were pillaged, 57 of them, among which the most important houses, were torched. Massacred were: Xhelaledin Abazi, Ali Ymeri, Xhelman Selmani, Hasan Arsllani, Hajredin Shabani and Murat Demiri. 180 head of cattle, 450 sheep and goats, 15 mules and 20 horses were carried off.

In Trepça, the village was looted and Zejnullah Ahmeti has his throat slit savagely in the presence of his family. Two horses and 57 head of sheep were carried off.

In Çidhna, thirty houses were reduced to ashes. Three men were among the victims: Kitan Keloshi, Hasani Hani and Arsllan Sadiku. 500 sheep and goats, 200 head of cattle, 13 horses and 3 donkeys were carried off.

In Renz, the Serbs torched five houses, slit the throat of Zejnel Ahmeti on his doorstep, and carried off 100 sheep and goats, 12 cows and 5 beasts of burden.

The tale of the massacres carries on and as does the horrifying list revealing the martyrdom of the young Albanian people. Details have also been furnished of the atrocities committed in other parts of the District of Lower Dibra in northern Albania, such as:

In Dipjaka, general pillage, murder of a man called Beqir Sulejmani and a ransom of 45 Turkish lira paid by the inhabitants to the Serb commander to stop the massacre. All the animals were carried off.

In Venisht, pillage and torching. The throats of Beqir Asimi and Idriz Tahiri were slit, and the animals carried off.

In Sllatina, 30 houses were torched. Bahtial Idrizi was burnt alive and 1365 head of cattle were carried off.

In Trojak and Velesha, 41 houses were reduced to ashes. The following men: Zaim Idrizi, Abas Huseini and Salih Kadri were murdered. 660 animals were carried off.

In Kalla, 30 houses were torched. A woman called Daveshe was cast alive into the flames. Bajram Rrustemi had his throat slit on the doorstep of his home. 576 animals were carried off.

In Sllova, there were no victims since the population, not trusting the Serb amnesty, fled into the mountains. The village was completely ransacked, 32 houses were reduced to ashes and 319 animals, caught while grazing, were carried off.

In Dardha, general pillaging. Two victims: Nuredin Sulejmani and Ramadan Sinani. 380 animals were carried off.

In Reç, general pillaging and the carrying off of 600 animals.

In Shumbat Palaman, pillaging, torching of eight houses. Three women, Rihane, Selvie and Ajshe, and three men, Jusuf, Bajram and Bajram, were murdered. Over 1340 animals were carried off.

District of Luma

No less terrifying were the horrors perpetrated in the District of Luma, in particular:

In Shullan, general pillaging, torching. All the population had their throats slit, with the exception of three persons who, hearing the screaming and trepidation of the women and children, understood what was going on and took flight into the forest.

In Dodaj and Kiushtan, the houses were pillaged and torched. There were 13 victims.

In Tropojan, the houses were reduced to ashes and the population of over 500 souls was exterminated.

In Çerem, everything was pillaged. Over 350 animals were carried off. There were 23 victims, among whom were seven religious leaders.

In Krusheva, on the orders of Loglop, secretary of the Serb Government in Prizren, the family of Haxhi Ibrahimi, composed of eight members, among whom were three women and a one-year-old baby, two four-year-old girls and one six-year-old girl, were killed in cold blood by the soldateska.

In Bushtrica and Bilush, pillaging and torching of everything. The population, irrespective of gender and age, was put to the sword or burned alive. The animals, caught while grazing, were carried off after the shepherds were slaughtered.

In Çaja and Matranxh, general plundering. About 600 animals were carried off.

In Vasiaj, Palush, Gjabrec and Draç, general plundering. All supplies and all objects having any value whatsoever were stolen. Over 800 animals were carried off.

In Gjinaj, Lusna, Kalis and Vila, in addition to looting, 71 houses were torched, 123 people killed - men, women and children - and 2121 animals were carried off.

In Ujmisht, plundering and torching of 21 houses. 15 victims, among whom a woman, a three-month-old baby, a little boy of four, one of five, and two of eight. 480 animals were carried off.

In Xhaferraj, Brekija, Nimça, Lojmja, Përbreg, all the houses were raised to the ground. The population encircled by the Serbs was ruthlessly massacred. Several were hanged from the branches of trees, most of them had their throats slit. Some were cast into the flames and other suffered even worse torture before perishing. In Brekije alone, a large village of over 150 houses, there were over 1300 victims - men, women and children. In Përbreg, the number of victims probably exceeds 400. Of the whole population of these five villages, only two inhabitants of Xhaferraj and five of Nimça managed to escape extermination.

Other scenes of savagery and carnage took place in Surroj where 130 houses were torched and 55 men and 2 women were slain.

In Bardhovca and Novoseja, these two villages were burnt to the ground. The population fled up into the mountains, except for the wife of Islam Hanxhi and her four small children and the family of Ramadan Jusufi, who were burnt alive. The 1620 animals caught while grazing, among which 320 large ones, were carried off.

In Sula e Fushës and Arrëza, 34 houses were torched. There were 11 victims and all the animals, 610 of them, were carried off.

http://www.albanianhistory.net/texts20_1/AH1913_4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

REPORT OF Relief Map Department, 21 December 1918.
A.M. Walker, Major Engineers. U.S.A., APO #714, A.E.F.
Col. R.G. Alexander, Chief G-2-C. G.H.Q., A.E.F.


REPORT OF THE RELIEF MAP DEPARTMENT.
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION, INTELLIGENCE SECTION, GENERAL STAFF.
AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE


The discussion of the system of manufacture, the development of the special apparatus for the manufacture of relief models and the application of the relief models to certain military studies, as well as the part taken by the Relief Map Department operating under the direction of the Chief of G-2-C, Topography, will form the principal subject of this report.

There were other systems of more or less merit developed in the armies to meet special emergencies, but because of the magnitude of the development of the methods discussed here, and because this is to form a report of the practice and operations of the Relief map Department of G-2-C, Topohraphy [sic], the discussion of the use and manufacture of relief moulds will be confined to the two methods, the Chedanne and the Arnold, which were adopted and used exclusively by this Department.

GENERAL USES AND ADVANTAGES OF THE RELIEF MODELS.

The use of the relief model for the study of land forms is not a new departure, either in civil or military practice. The relief model, because of the clearness with which it visualizes land forms, has been a popular form of map for a long time. Its great value lies in the fact that it tells more with less chance of error and in less time than any other form of map. The impression formed on the mind from the study of an accurate relief model are clear and concise, and the observer has confidence in the opinions and decisions made.

No flat topographic map either contour or hachure can be made to convey a conception of differences in elevation with such vividness and accuracy as can be shown by a relief model. Considerable training and constructive imagination are required to enable one to read quickly and correctly a map representing relief by contours. Hachure maps are given only an approximate idea of relief and lack the accuracy of vertical measurements.

Aside from the educational value of the relief model in teaching topography and map reading, it represents the best form in which to study the physical features of an area. This is especially true in studies where relief is the main feature to be investigated.

http://cartome.org/reliefmap.htm#Introduction
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force

The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force (also referred to as the Canadian Expeditionary Force (Siberia) or simply C.S.E.F.) was a Canadian military force sent to Vladivostok, Russia during the Russian Revolution to bolster the allied presence. Composed of 4,192 soldiers and authorised in August 1918, the force returned to Canada between April and June 1919. The force was commanded by Major General James H. Elmsley. During this time, the C.S.E.F. saw little fighting, with fewer than 100 troop proceeding "up country" to Omsk, to serve as administrative staff for 1,500 British troops aiding the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. Most Canadians remained in Vladivostok, undertaking routine drill and policing duties in the volatile port city. (...)

Support and opposition in Canada - The force was authorized by the Privy Council (cabinet) on early August 1918 after Prime Minister Robert Borden's agreement to support the deployment. The departure of the troops was further delayed by unsuccessful attempts to raise a volunteer force, and there were mutinous events in Victoria prior to departure. Strong labour and public criticism of the campaign was apparent, including farmers in the prairie provinces and the "Toronto Globe and Mail" newspaper.

Arrival and disposition in Vladivostok - Under General Elmsley's command, the advance party of Canadian troops arrived in Vladivostok in late October 1918. The general quickly secured base headquarers at the Pushkinsky Theatre, an ornate building in the centre of the city that housed the Vladivostok Cultural-Educational Society. The unilateral Canadian action provoked a strong protest from leading Vladivostok businessmen, who demanded that Elmsley vacate the premises. The Canadians were quartered at three main sites: the East Barracks, at the head of Golden Horn Bay, the former Czarist barracks at Gornestai (today the town of Shitovaya), and the Second River Barracks north of Vladivostok. The main body of the CSEF arrived in Vladivostok in mid-January 1919, aboard the ships Teesta and Protesilaus. The Teesta's departure from Victoria on 21 December 1918 had been delayed by a mutiny of two companies of mainly French-Canadian troops in the 259th Battalion; the Protesilaus also faced difficulties reaching Vladivostok, losing a propeller off the Russian coast when it got stuck in the ice.

Victoria mutiny of 21 December 1918 - On 21 December 1918, two companies of troops in the 259th Battalion (Canadian Rifles), mutinied in the streets of Victoria, BC. The mutiny occurred as the conscripts were marching from the Willows Camp to the city's Outer Wharves. Midway through the march, a platoon of troops near the rear refused to halt. Officers fired their revolvers in the air in an attempt to quell the dissent. When this failed, they ordered the obedient troops, primary from the Ontario companies, to remove their canvas belts and whip the mutinous back into line. The march proceeded through downtown Victoria to the outer wharves, accompanied by a guard of honour of 50 troops armed with rifles and fixed bayonets. Twenty-one hours later, the SS Teesta left Victoria harbour bound for Vladivostok, with a dozen ringleaders detained in cells. While a court martial found the accused guilty of "mutiny and wilfull disobedience," the sentences were commuted by Gen. Elmsley prior to the Canadians evacuation in early April, amid concern over the legality of deploying men under the Military Service Act for a mission tangentally connected to the "defence of the realm."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Siberian_Expeditionary_Force
Zie ook http://isitt.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/mutiny-from-victoria-to-vladivostok-december-1918.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1: American Soldier's Letters Home

Letter written December 21, 1918

Dear Mother -:

This is another break in the serial I am running but I have gotten tired telling what has gone on and am full of what is going on. We crossed the Rhine at Coblenz on Friday the 13th of December at five minutes before midnight. That somehow sounds to me to be very unlucky and just now the worst thing that I can imagine happening to myself is to have to stay where I am for a long time, which certainly looks to me as tho it might happen. We are finally settled in what appear to be our permanent resting places for the occupation. Ours in a town called Kilgert (sp?) about fifteen miles or so from the Rhine in a country that resembles the Adirondacks and New Jersey rolled into one. Fine high wooded hills and lots of splendid red sticky mud. Not one redeeming feature. All the inhabitants that are left are engaged in the absorbing pastime of making the mud into little ornamental pipes and marbles which they bake and sell to the unsuspecting. I am sending you some specimens for Xmas as they are the only things I can get hold of. Some day perhaps I may get back down to Coblenz from where I may be able to send you something nice. By the way if you can think of anything nice that comes from this part of the country, Germany I mean, let me know and I will send it to you. I doubt it tho for I haven’t yet seen anything around here that I would care to carry away. I don’t blame the Dutch much for invading some other country. It took them away from home. As you can see I am very low in my mind today and probably will be for some time if it is anything like last Xmas. Somehow a whole year’s homesickness seems to catch up with me at this time of year and makes me feel like jumping in the lake. I know too now why they call it sunny France: like everything else in life it is purely a comparative matter. France is a whole lot sunnier than Germany. We left Verdun on a perfectly beautiful day the 21st of November and since then I have seen the sun exactly three times and those have never been for more than ten minutes. That is why, I suppose, that the Germans have such pink and white complexions; there is no sun to tan them.

I am enclosing some orders which give you an idea of what the 1st Division did. It is the only division that was ever cited singly by the commander in chief and this order deals with probably the most disagreeable fight I was ever in. This is all now.

Good bye. With love
Paul

The reference in the last paragraph above is to:

General Orders No. 201, dated Nov. 10, 1918, from the General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces:

“1. The Commander in Chief desires to make of record in the General Orders of the American Expeditionary Forces his extreme satisfaction with the conduct of the officers and soldiers of the First Division in its advance west of the Meuse between October 4th and 11th, 1918. During this period the division gained a distance of seven kilometers over a country which presented not only remarkable facilities for enemy defense but also great difficulties of terrain for the operation of our troops.
“2. The division met with resistance from elements of eight hostile divisions, . . . The enemy chose to defend its position to the death, and the fighting was always of the most desperate kind. . . .
“3.The success of the division in driving a deep advance into the enemy’s territory enabled an assault to be made on the left by the neighboring division against the northeastern portion of the Forest of Argonne, and enabled the First Division to advance to the right and outflank the enemy’s position in front of the division on that flank.
“4. The Commander in Chief has noted in this division a special pride of service and a high state of morale, never broken by hardship nor battle.
“5. This order will be read to all organizations at the first assembly formation after its receipt.
“BY COMMAND OF GENERAL PERSHING”


http://wwar1letters.blogspot.com/2008_12_01_archive.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 22:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NZ Truth , Issue 705, 21 December 1918





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=NZTR19181221.2.8.8
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 23:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian Civil War (1918-1922)

(...) In Europe World War I came to an end, while former tsarist Admiral Kolchak established an autocratic military dictatorship in Omsk. Landlords, accompanied by soldiers, took from the peasants as much land as they had had before the peasants had "seized it". In factories, factory owner's returned with soldiers to forcibly remove workers' ownership of the factories. Untold numbers of workers and peasants were shot, beaten, and imprisoned. All political factions who opposed Kolchak's dictatorship were imprisoned, including the right-wing of the Socialist revolutionary party, who at one time had been a part of the directory.

The peasantry and workers of Omsk revolted on Dec. 21, 1918, outraged by the brutality of Kolchak and his overthrow of the directory. A number of imprisoned right-wing Socialist revolutionaries were successfully liberated by the revolting population. To suppress the revolt, Kolchak ordered soldiers to open fire, killing over 300 unarmed civilians. The people were successfully dispersed. In the weeks following 166 civilians were shot dead for having ties to "instigating" the revolt. The Socialist revolutionaries who had been freed from imprisonment, gave themselves up for fear of reprisals. They were promptly taken to the banks of the Irtysh River, and shot. (...)

http://www.marxists.org/glossary/events/r/u.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Dec 2010 23:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

December 21, 1919: Deportation of Emma Goldman as a radical "alien"



On December 21, 1919, Emma Goldman, along with 248 other radical "aliens," was deported to the Soviet Union on the S.S. Buford under the 1918 Alien Act, which allowed for the expulsion of any alien found to be an anarchist.

Emma Goldman, born in Kovno, Lithuania (then Russia) in 1869, came to the United States in 1885 at age 16. By the time of her deportation, she had made a name for herself as a leading anarchist, public speaker, and crusader for free speech, birth control, and workers' rights.

Goldman first became interested in radical politics in Russia, where she came into contact with populists and political organizers. In the U.S., she was disappointed to learn that instead of streets paved in gold, workers were subject to gross economic inequality and inhumane working conditions. A defining moment for Goldman came in 1886, when eight anarchist radicals were convicted and condemned to death, on flimsy evidence, for setting off a bomb at Chicago's Haymarket rally that caused a riot in which several police officers were killed. Convinced of the defendants' innocence, Goldman resolved to learn all she could about anarchism, and soon became active in the anarchist movement.

Unfortunately for Goldman, the decades of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were difficult ones in which to be an anarchist in America. Federal anti-anarchist laws restricted Goldman's ability to give public speeches and subjected her to frequent harassment and arrests. Still, she had a profound influence on American political activism. Giving hundreds of talks across the country, she became renowned as an inspiring and controversial orator. Mother Earth, the journal she founded in 1906 and ran until 1917, provided an outlet for the writings of radical thinkers. Roger Baldwin, who heard Goldman speak on free speech in 1908, went on to found the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Margaret Sanger, a prominent birth control activist, looked on Goldman as her mentor.

Although Goldman was not a pacifist, she believed that governments had no right to wage war, and actively opposed U.S. involvement in World War I. She argued that the war was an imperialist venture that aided capitalists at the expense of workers. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, her anti-draft activism was considered a threat to national security, and she spent 18 months in federal prison. On her release, Goldman was immediately re-arrested on the order of the young J. Edgar Hoover, then director of the Justice Department's General Intelligence Division. Hoover persuaded the courts to deny Goldman's citizenship claims, thus making her eligible for deportation under the 1918 Alien Act, which allowed for the expulsion of any alien found to be an anarchist.

At first excited by the chance to see the workers' republic of Soviet Russia, Goldman was soon disillusioned by the Bolshevik regime. Barred from returning to the U.S., she spent the last two decades of her life wandering through Europe and Canada, giving speeches on radical politics. When she died in Toronto in May 1940, her body was returned to Chicago, where Goldman was buried near the Haymarket anarchists who had first inspired her.

http://jwa.org/thisweek/dec/21/1919/emma-goldman
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

December 21, 1918: Hobey Baker killed in plane crash

On this day in 1918, the 26-year-old collegiate and amateur ice hockey star Hobey Baker is killed in a plane crash in Toul, France, just after the end of World War I.

After beginning his hockey career at St. Paul’s School in Concord, New Hampshire, Baker played four seasons of hockey at Princeton University in New Jersey, leading his team to two intercollegiate championships in 1912 and 1914. A “rover” on the Princeton team, Baker was known for his ability to cover the rink from end to end and score from various positions. He was also captain of the football team, which won a national championship in 1911. After graduating from Princeton, Baker worked for the J.P. Morgan investment bank and played amateur hockey for the Saint Nicholas Club of New York City.

Upon America’s entry into World War I in 1917, Baker enlisted in the U.S. Army as a pilot. He flew in the famous Lafayette Escadrille, an elite squadron of the French Air Force, and participated in air battles against such German aces as Manfred von Richthofen, or the “Red Baron.” During his service for the Allies, Baker painted his plane in orange and black, the colors of his beloved Princeton Tigers, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre for his superior conduct under fire. Tragically, he died in a flying accident barely a month after the armistice, while test-flying one of his squadron’s planes.

In 1945, Baker became one of the inaugural inductees into the U.S. Hockey Hall of Fame. The Hobey Baker Memorial Award is presented annually to the best college hockey player in the country; it is the equivalent of college football’s famed Heisman Trophy.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/hobey-baker-killed-in-plane-crash
Zie trouwens ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=22455&highlight=hobey
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zone of American Army of Occupation, December 21, 1918

After The Armistice - THE Armistice was signed at 5:00 o'clock in the morning of November 11, 1918, on Marshall Foch's train in the Forest of Compiegne, and took effect at 11: 00 a. m. on the same day.

Its terms (...) required Germany to evacuate all invaded and occupied territory in Belgium, Luxemburg and France (including Alsace-Lorraine), and to withdraw her armies across the Rhine River. They also provided that the Allied forces should be permitted peaceably to occupy bridgeheads, 18 miles in radius, east of the Rhine at Mayence, Coblenz and Cologne, and that a neutral zone 6 miles wide in which neither the Allies nor Germany could maintain troops would be established along the east bank of the Rhine and around each of the bridgeheads.

The advance of the American and Allied Armies was so regulated that they occupied all territory evacuated by the Germans within a short time after the German troops withdrew. The plans fer the advance prescribed that the French should move through Alsace-Lorraine to Mayence, the Americans through Luxemburg and the Moselle valley to Coblenz, the British to Cologne, and the Belgians by way of Aix-la-Chapelle to the lower Rhine River.

On November 7 the Commander-in-Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces had directed that an American Third Army be organized and on November 14 this Army, with Major General Joseph T. Dickman as commander, was designated as the Army of Occupation. It was composed initially of the III Corps, containing the 2d, 32d and 42d Divisions; and the IV Corps, comprising the 1st, 3d and 4th Divisions. To these were added on November 22 the VII Corps, containing the 5th, 89th and 90th Divisions. On that same day the Third Army detached the 5th Division from the VII Corps and gave it the duty of guarding the extended lines of communication of the Army.

The advance to the Rhine was begun by the Americans and Allies on November 17 along the entire Western Front. Although active operations against a hostile enemy were not involved, there were nevertheless many difficult problems to be met. For the Americans, these included the creation in a limited time of a staff and services for the supply and rapid movement of more than 200,000 men through country where transportation lines in many places were completely destroyed and where food was scarce. Moreover, the weather was cold and rainy and in many places the roads were nearly impassable. Although the troops had been hastily assembled and had been allowed no opportunity to rest and refit after the trying period of the Meuse­Argonne offensive, they cheerfully met every demand made upon them. The advance elements of the Third Artillery passed through the city of Luxemburg on November 21 and arrived two days later at the German frontier. There they rested until December 1 when all of the Armies of Occupation pushed on into Germany.

Through the liberated districts of France and Luxemburg the Americans were received with wild demonstrations of joy, but upon entering Germany they were regarded with a mixture of curiosity and suspicion. However, the fine conduct of the Army and the firmness and justice of the American commanders quickly quieted any apprehensions the civil population may have had and no incidents of hostility took place.

The leading troops of the Third Army reached the Rhine River on December 9. On the 13th, American, French and British infantry divisions crossed the river, having been preceded in some cases by advance elements the day before. In the American Third Army, the III Corps, whose composition had been changed to include the 1st, 2d and 32d Divisions, was designated to occupy the northern portion of the bridgehead at Coblenz, the southern portion having been transferred to French control. The American bridgehead included the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein located immediately across the Rhine River from Coblenz and dominating it.

The III Corps crossed on four bridges—two at Coblenz, and one each at Engers and Remagen below Coblenz and by the night of December 14 had completed the occupation of the American part of the bridgehead. The remainder of the American Army of Occupation, consisting of the IV Corps, comprising the 3d, 4th and 42d Divisions, and the VII Corps, containing the 89th and 90th Divisions, remained west of the Rhine. Luxemburg was occupied by the 5th and 33d Divisions, both of which were under command of the American Second Army, and not under control of the Army of Occupation.

To the south of Coblenz the French occupied a bridgehead with headquarters at Mayence, while to the north, the British occupied a bridgehead with headquarters at Cologne. Although the Belgians advanced to the Rhine and occupied jointly with the French a zone in the Rhineland to the north of the British, with headquarters at Aix-la-Chapelle, they had no force across the river.

An additional bridgehead at Kehl across the Rhine from Strasbourg and including the ring of forts of that place,was established on February 4, 1919, by the French on their own responsibility.

When finally located on December 21, 1918, the headquarters of the principal units of the American Army of Occupation in Germany were placed as follows:

Third Army — Coblenz
III Corps — Neuwied
IV Corps — Cochem
VII Corps — Wittlich
1st Division — Montabaur
2d Division — Heddesdorf
3d Division — Andernach
4th Division — Bad Bertrich
32d Division — Rengsdorf
42d Division — Ahrweiler
89th Division — Kylburg
90th Division — Berncastel

Immediately after the Armistice the American Commander-in-Chief started preparations for moving his forces back to the United States with the least possible delay. The Services of Supply was promptly reorganized to carry out the intricate details connected with this work, and approximately 25,500 men of the American forces actually sailed from France, homeward bound, in November. Before the end of the year this number had been increased to about 124,000.

Upon the cessation of hostilities practically every man of the 2,000,000 in the A.E.F. wanted to return to the United States at once; but with the limited number of ships available this was, of course, impossible. While military training was continued after the Armistice against the remote possibility that operations might be resumed, the higher commanders realized that this was a most trying period for the soldiers and undertook measures to make life for them as interesting as possible commensurate with the maintenance of a satisfactory standard of discipline and military conduct.

Men were allowed regular leaves to visit leave areas established at various summer and winter resorts in France and in the occupied portion of Germany, and arrangements were made whereby they could visit several other countries such as Great Britain, Belgium and Italy.

A vast school system was established, in which more than 230,000 men enrolled. Wherever troops were quartered in any number, classes were organized and instruction given in practically every subject taught in the public schools of the United States, as well as in trade and business subjects. At Beaune a huge university was established for advanced instruction and approximately 9,000 soldiers registered to take the course.

An Education Corps Commission was formed to direct all lecturers, schools and extension courses in the A.E.F. The men selected as instructors for the schools were competent educators with previous experience. This often resulted in classes for officers being conducted by privates from the ranks. The educational system on the whole was democratic, well planned and produced very substantial results.

Horse shows were held by nearly every division, and many of the units organized theatrical troupes, which traveled throughout the A. E. F. giving performances. These activities were encouraged and aided in every way by the army officials, and to a large extent contributed to the pleasure and contentment of the troops.

The men were also encouraged to participate in sports and games, and a great athletic program was carried out which culminated in the Inter-Allied Games held near Paris in June and July, 1919. Upon the invitation of the American Commander-in-Chief, eighteen of the Allied and associated nations sent contestants to this meet, which was a remarkable success from every standpoint. The Pershing Stadium, where it took place, was built mainly by engineers from the American Army. The funds were donated by the Young Men's Christian Association, which presented the structure to General Pershing. It was later turned over by him to the French people.

In the spring of 1919 a composite regiment of selected officers and men was formed from the Third Army. Selection was based on appearance, soldierly qualities and war record. It was used as an escort of honor to the American Commander-in-Chief, and paraded in Paris, London and other places, including New York and Washington, D. C., when the regiment returned to America.

In the meantime the transfer of troops to the United States had been progressing rapidly. Marshal Foch wished to retain a large force, at least 15 divisions, in Europe, but was told that the American Army would be withdrawn as soon as possible. President Wilson finally agreed that American representation in the occupied territory would be a small detachment only, to be known as the "American Forces in Germany", which would serve, as the French said, merely to keep the American flag on the Rhine.

By May 19, 1919, all American combat divisions, except five in occupied German territory, had received their embarkation orders to sail for American ports.

The units of the Army of Occupation were relieved as fast as practicable during the summer of 1919, and the 1st Division, the last large organization to leave for home, began its movement on August 15. With the dissolution of the Third Army on July 2, 1919, the "American Forces in Germany" consisting of about 6,800 men came into being and remained on the Rhine for more than three years. The American flag on Fort Ehrenbreitstein was finally lowered on January 24, 1923, when the last of the American troops in Germany entrained. The American zone was formally turned over to the French three days later on.

http://2nd-division.com/_div.maps/occupation.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hanging Holly, by J. C. Leyendecker. Saturday Evening Post Cover, December 21, 1918

https://www.wikiart.org/en/j-c-leyendecker/hanging-holly-by-j-c-leyendecker-saturday-evening-post-cover-december-21-1918-1918
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Advertisement promoting Perret Productions films with Dolores Cassinelli, on page 8 of the December 21, 1918 Exhibitors Herald.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dolores_Cassinelli_-_Dec_21_1918_EH.jpg
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PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE, 1919: The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace

Washington , December 21, 1918—6 p.m. [Received December 22—3 p.m.]
86. For the Secretary of State. Your 24, December 18. Please tell the President that Gompers is disposed to call a labor conference to be held in Paris and put the burden on the foreign Governments of refusing to let it take place. I gave him the President’s message and suggested to him that it would be better to wait and try to arrange matter with the foreign governments as they might now see the advisability of holding this conference in Paris.

It seems to me that it would be very dangerous to hold conference in neutral country as there would be a chance of its being captured by the extremists and Bolsheviks. Please let me know if any progress is being made in these negotiations so I can keep Gompers quiet.

As soon as he issues call for a conference he and his associates will go to Paris. Am forwarding for him today a message to the President.

Polk

Washington , December 21, 1918—10:30 p.m. [Received December 22.]
87. For the President from Gompers. The attitude of those governments which interpose objections or place obstacles in the way of my issuing for American Federation of Labor, invitation to labor for concurrent international conference at the same time and place where the official peace commissioners are to meet, is not only unjust but most unwise and calculated to react most injuriously. If the labor conference is not permitted to take place at Paris, the Italian, British, French and our own so-called radicals will be given the seeming justification to demonstrate that freedom of assemblage and speech is denied by the governments claiming to be democratic; they will charge the American labor movement with having deceived labor of the world into the belief that an opportunity would be afforded to discuss world labor problems and to aid in their rational solution. Persistence in this course by Allied Governments may make impossible American labor coming to Paris and there rendering assistance. Indeed the American Federation of Labor will be humiliated and made the laughing stock of the world. If objection is removed American labor delegation myself included can leave United States soon and remain in Paris until official Peace Conference convenes and be of some service and thereafter meet with the labor conference and help to guide the conference aright.

Polk

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1919Parisv01/d401 & https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1919Parisv01/d402
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Heinrich Boll

I was born December 21, 1917, in Cologne, on the Rhine, the son of the sculptor and cabinet-maker, Viktor Boell, and his wife, Maria, nee Hermanns.

Heinrich Boll Quotes; https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/heinrich_boll_713359
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lowell in World War One: Dec 17 to Dec 21, 1917

This is the 36th weekly installment of my Lowell in World War One series which commemorates the centennial of the entry of the United States into World War One. Here are the headlines from one hundred years ago this week:

December 21, 1917 – Friday – Opposition to Bolsheviki is increasing; situation grows more chaotic. Ukrainian forces marching against Bolsheviki. Kerensky on way to Moscow. Grand Duke Nicholas raising royalist army in Caucasus. Report Russo-Japanese treaty against US. Christmas exercises in Lowell schools. A feature of the various programs this year was the unusual amount of martial songs reflecting the fact that the country is at war, however, there was an abundance of the peaceful and joyous element that should predominate Christmas, war or no war.

http://richardhowe.com/2017/12/20/lowell-in-world-war-one-dec-17-to-dec-21-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Week In Armenian History: December 21, 1917 - Closure of the Kevorkian Lyceum

In the nineteenth century, the Armenian Church did not have an institution that provided superior religious education and prepared its future members. At the beginning of his tenure, Catholicos Kevork IV (1866-1882) met Russian czar Alexander II (1855-1881) and asked for permission to found such an institution. The construction of the lyceum (jemaran) started on May 25, 1869 and the grand opening was held five years later, on September 28, 1875. The bylaws approved by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Empire in the same year established that the lyceum would have two sections: a six-year school and a three-year auditory, and would provide higher religious education. After the death of the Catholicos, the lyceum was named in his honor.

Despite many efforts, Kevork IV did not see any graduate becoming a celibate priest during his tenure. A secularist spirit predominated in the lyceum. His successor Magar I (1885-1891) played an important role to redirect the institution into its actual purpose. He invited a qualified faculty, which included Bishop Maghakia Ormanian, future Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople. The latter became the teacher of theological subjects, and thanks to his efforts, four graduates were consecrated celibate priests in 1888.

The level education at the lyceum was quite high. At the school level, the following subjects were taught: Armenian history and geography, general history and geography, ancient Armenian literature, Armenian and foreign (Russian, French, German) languages, natural sciences, astronomy, mathematics, the Bible, religious music, logics, etc. The auditory section included Armenian language (Classical and Modern), Armenian history, religious literature, Armenian literature, European literature, philosophy, psychology, pedagogy, political economy, history of the Armenian Church, Armenian religious law, ritual studies, ancient Greek, etcetera.

The graduates presented final essays, which were defended before an examining committee and then they became clerics or continued their higher studies in Russian and European universities.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the lyceum had 20 paying students and 230 others with scholarships. It was maintained through the incomes of the monastery of Holy Etchmiadzin, as well as fundraisers and donations. The Catholicos was the principal, who followed the activities of the lyceum through the Educational Council and the dean. The deans included Bishop Gabriel Ayvazovsky (brother of the famous painter), Rev. Garegin Hovsepiants (future Catholicos of Cilicia), Rev. Mesrop Ter-Movsisyan, and other names, generally but not exclusively ecclesiastics. Among the teachers of the Kevorkian lyceum were such luminaries of Armenian culture as Manuk Abeghian, Hrachia Ajarian, Leo, Stepan Lisitsian, Gomidas, Hakob Manandian, and many others. Those teachers were partly graduates of the same lyceum.

Within the frame of the lyceum there was an intensive intellectual activity: preparation of Armenian schools programs, writing of textbooks and handbooks, as well as many historiographic, philological, pedagogical, and theological works. The faculties of the Armenian schools of the Caucasus were filled by graduates of the Kevorkian lyceum for more than half a century.

Due to the political and military unfavorable conditions at the end of 1917, Catholicos Kevork V (1911-1930) decided to cease temporarily the activities of the lyceum on December 21, 1917. Attempts to reopen the Kevorkian Lyceum during the first independent Republic did not succeed. The unique and rich collection of its library (45,000 volumes) became one of the starting points of the collections of the National Library of Armenia and the Matenadaran.

The Etchmiadzin lyceum was finally reopened in 1945 and continues its activities until today.

Prepared by the Armenian National Education Committee (ANEC), a joint project of the Eastern Prelacy of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Relief Society.
http://thisweekinarmenianhistory.blogspot.nl/2014/12/december-21-1917-closure-of-kevorkian.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from William O. Scroggs to J. E. Spingarn, December 21, 1916

Typescript copy of a letter regarding a plan for an anti-lynching campaign from Scroggs, Professor of Economics and Sociology at Louisiana State University.

Aandoenlijk... http://credo.library.umass.edu/view/full/mums312-b009-i298
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 8:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 december 1914 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Edouard Scius is op 15 augustus 1865 geboren in Marcourt, nu een deelgemeente van Rendeux in de provincie Luxemburg. De ongehuwde zoon van Charles Joseph en Maria Catharina Laval is afgestudeerd als leraar. Hij is 1,59 meter groot en heeft zwart haar. Op zijn twintigste, in 1885, treedt hij in dienst van het Belgisch leger en klimt daar op tot kapitein.

Op 21 december 1914 om 7 uur 's morgens is hij aan ziekte overleden in het huis van Charles Debeir, woonachtig in de Nieuwstraat in Alveringem (Fortemsebaan 222). Zijn overlijden is vastgesteld door bataljonsgeneesheer Rulot.

Het slachtoffer wordt begraven op het kerkhof van Alveringem, in het midden, ten zuiden van de kerk, en op 28 september 1922 herbegraven op de gemeentelijke begraafplaats van Marcourt.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/21-december-1914
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The First World War Letters of H.J.C. Peirs

8th Queens
B.E. F.
21 Decr. 1915

My dear Family,

My best wishes to you all for Xmas, as I imagine this ought to reach you about then. We have had our Turkey as we were not sure that it or we would keep till Saturday, but it is now certain that we don’t move till later & we shall not then go into the trenches at once but wait for the first relief.

Yesterday I spent mostly going to & from St. Omer, as we had ordered a lot of stuff from the Expeditionary Force Canteen for the men & I had to go & check it. St. Omer is quite a big place – Cathedral etc. & swarms of padres, British, – Major General Padrés & Colonel ditto. ad lib. I always wondered before where they came from – evidently this is the place. They all seemed very busy doing nothing, though I daresay some of them were on the same kind of errand as myself.

To-day I was on a Court Martial & we worked off five, but were evidently in a lenient mood, as I don’t think anyone got more than 1 year’s hard labour. Our Lofting has returned to the Battalion looking none the worse for his bullet holes. He turned up with a draft yesterday & as I hear they are sending us another draft we shall be up to strength again before long.

We had a football match this afternoon in a Divisional Competition between the best Companies of each Battn. We had to play the North Staffs. but they were much too good, as our fellows were a very scratch lot & they had some really good players.

Love & best wishes

from Jack.

http://jackpeirs.org/letters/21-december-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 9:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 December 1916 - This Day in Aviation

21 December 1916: Harry George Hawker, MBE, AFC, made the first flight of the Sopwith Camel at Brooklands Aerodrome, Surrey, England. This airplane would become the Royal Air Force’s most successful fighter of World War I.

The Sopwith Camel F.1 was a British single-place, single-engine biplane fighter, produced by the Sopwith Aviation Co., Ltd., Canbury Park Road, Kingston-on-Thames. The airplane was constructed of a wooden framework, with the forward fuselage being covered with aluminum panels and plywood, while the aft fuselage, wings and tail surfaces were covered with fabric.

The length of the Camel F.1 varied from 18 feet, 6 inches (5.639 meters) to 19 feet, 0 inches (5.791 meters), depending on which engine was installed. Both upper and lower wings had a span of 28 feet, 0 inches (8.534 meters) and chord of 4 feet, 6 inches (1.372 meters). They were separated vertically by 5 feet (1.524 meters) at the fuselage. The upper wing had 0° dihedral, while the lower wing had 5° dihedral and was staggered 1 foot, 6 inches (0.457 meters) behind the upper wing. The single-bay wings were braced with airfoil-shaped streamline wires. The overall height of the Camel also varied with the engine, from 8 feet, 6 inches (2.591 meters) to 8 feet, 9 inches (2.667 meters).

The heaviest Camel F.1 variant used the Le Rhône 180 h.p. engine. It had an empty weight of 1,048 pounds (475 kilograms). Its gross weight of 1,567 pounds (711 kilograms). The lightest was equipped with the Gnôme Monosoupape 100 horsepower engine, with weights of 882 pounds (400 kilograms) and 1,387 pounds (629 kilograms), respectively.

The first Camel was powered by an air-cooled 15.268 liter (931.72 cubic inches) Société Clerget-Blin et Cie Clerget Type 9 nine-cylinder rotary engine which produced 110 horsepower at 1,200 r.p.m. and drove a wooden two-bladed propeller. Eight different rotary engines¹ from four manufacturers, ranging from 100 to 180 horsepower, were used in the type.

The best performance came with the Bentley B.R.1 engine (5.7:1 compression ratio). This variant had a maximum speed of 121 miles per hour (195 kilometers per hour) at 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), and 114.5 miles per hour (184 kilometers per hour) at 15,000 feet (4,572 meters). It could climb to 6,500 feet (1,981 meters) in 4 minutes, 35 seconds; to 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) in 8 minutes, 10 seconds; and 15,000 feet (4,572 meters) in 15 minutes, 55 seconds. It had a service ceiling of 22,000 feet (6,706 meters). Two other Camel variants could reach 24,000 feet (7,315 meters).

The Bentley B.R.1 rotary engine was designed by Lieutenant Walter Owen Bentley, Royal Naval Air Service (later, Captain, Royal Air Force), based on the Clerget Type 9, but with major improvements. It used aluminum cylinders shrunk on to steel liners, with aluminum pistons. The Bentley B.R.1 (originally named the Admiralty Rotary, A.R.1, as it was intended for use by the Royal Navy) was an air-cooled, normally-aspirated 17.304 liter (1,055.9 cubic inches) nine-cylinder rotary engine with a compression ratio of 5.7:1. It was rated at 150 horsepower at 1,250 r.p.m. The B.R.1 was 1.110 meters (3 feet, 7.7 inches) long, 1.070 meters (3 feet, 6.125 inches) in diameter and weighed 184 kilograms (406 pounds.) The engine was manufactured by Humber, Ltd., Coventry, England.

The Camel was armed with two fixed, forward-firing .303-caliber Vickers machine guns, synchronized to fire forward through the propeller. These guns were modified for air cooling. Some night fighter variants substituted Lewis machine guns mounted above the upper wing for the Vickers guns. Four 25 pound (11.3 kilogram) bombs could be carried on racks under the fuselage.

The Sopwith Camel was a difficult airplane to fly. Most of its weight was concentrated far forward, making it unstable, but, at the same time making the fighter highly maneuverable. The rotary engine, with so much of its mass in rotation, caused a torque effect that rolled the airplane to the right to a much greater degree than in airplanes equipped with radial or V-type engines. A skilled pilot could use this to his advantage, but many Camels ended upside down while taking off.

The Camel was armed with two fixed, forward-firing .303 Vickers machine guns, synchronized to fire forward through the propeller. These guns were modified for air cooling. Some night fighter variants substituted Lewis machine guns mounted above the upper wing for the Vickers guns. Four 25 pound (11.3 kilogram) bombs could be carried on racks under the fuselage.

The Sopwith Camel was a difficult airplane to fly. Most of its weight was concentrated far forward, making it unstable, but, at the same time making the fighter highly maneuverable. The rotary engine, with so much of its mass in rotation, caused a torque effect that rolled the airplane to the right to a much greater degree than in airplanes equipped with radial or V-type engines. A skilled pilot could use this to his advantage, but many Camels ended upside down while taking off.

Twelve manufacturers² produced 5,490 Sopwith Camels between 1916 and 1920. By the end of World War I, it was becoming outclassed by newer aircraft, however it was the single most successful fighter of the war, shooting down 1,294 enemy aircraft.

One single fighter, Major William Barker’s Sopwith Aviation Co., Ltd., Camel F.1 B.6313 shot down 46 enemy aircraft, more than any other fighter in history.

It is believed that only seven Sopwith Camels still exist.

¹Humber, Ltd., Bentley B.R.1 150 h.p., B.R.1 (5.7:1 c.r.); Clerget 9B, 130 h.p.; Clerget 9Bf, 130 h.p. (long stroke); Gnôme Monosoupape, 100 h.p.; Gnôme Monosoupape, 150 h.p.; Le Rhône, 110 h.p.; and Le Rhône 180 h.p.
²Sopwith Aviation Co., Ltd., Kingston-on-Thames; Boulton and Paul, Ltd., Norwich; British Caudron Co., London; Clayton and Shuttleworth, Ltd., Lincoln; Hooper and Co., Ltd., London; March, Jones and Cribb, Ltd., Leeds; Nieuport and General Aircraft Co., Ltd., London; Ruston, Proctor and Co., Ltd., Lincoln; Fairey Aviation Co., Ltd.; Portholme Aerodrome Ltd., Huntingdon; Wm. Beardmore & Co., Ltd., Glasgow; Pegler & Co., Ltd., Doncaster.


Mooie foto's! https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:rpWRlPWty0AJ:https://www.thisdayinaviation.com/11-december-1916/+&cd=20&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 9:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LE CAMP DE REPRESAILLES BIJ FLABAS.

Le camp de Represailles. Het camp ligt op een afgelegen plaats midden in de korenvelden, het bestaat uit een groepje dennenbomen en gedenksteen en een informatiebord. We banen ons voorzichtig door het korenveld naar de plek. Op de steen staat de tekst “ICI FURENT DES CAMPS DES REPRESAILLES 1917”, “Hier waren represaille kampen ( in ) 1917”.

Op het informatiebord staat in het Duits en Frans welke wreedheden zich hier hebben plaatsgevonden. Een groep jonge, Duitse brandweerlieden uit de gemeente Limburg Weillburg, Hessen, heeft op 18 juli 2001 dit informatiebord geplaatst.
Op 21 december 1916 vormt het bos tot aan de frontlijn bij het zuidelijker gelegen dorpje, Samogneux, langs de Maas, een onderdeel van de Duitse linies. In diezelfde periode houdt het Franse “Grand Quartier General” Duitse krijgsgevangenen vast in kampen, die binnen een zone van 30 km van de frontlijn liggen, dus onder vuurbereik van kanonnen. Om hier een einde aan te maken stelt de “Oberste Heeres Leitung” op 21 december een ultimatum op. Via de dan nog neutrale Amerikaanse ambassadeur eist de “Oberste Heeres Leitung”, dat het “Grand Quartier General” de krijgsgevangenenkampen terugtrekt naar een gebied, dat verder achter het slagveld ligt. In afwachting van de tegemoetkoming aan deze eis, richt de OHL “Vergeltungslager”, “represaille kampen”, op. Deze snel geïmproviseerde kampen liggen vlak achter de frontlijn.
Na een maand of zes zal het GQG tegemoet komen aan de eisen van de OHL. De kampen worden opgeheven. De overlevenden worden overgebracht naar kampen ver achter het front en met betere levensomstandigheden.

https://verdun1916.eu/?p=5434
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 9:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arthur Charles Hall - war diary, 21 December 1916

21st December '16 - Left Hurdcott at 9p.m. last night & marched to Wilton where we entrained for Folkstone arriving at 6a.m. where we breakfasted. Crossed the channel to Boulogne at 11a.m. & went into rest camp for the rest of the day.

https://transcripts.sl.nsw.gov.au/page/337587/view
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 9:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zomergem Het Dorp van Toen

December 1916 , WO I in ons dorp .( nvdr vakantie leeswerk )
In het 2de of 3de huis links op de foto woont bakker Gyselbrecht , zijn zoon Adolf Gyselbrecht ( ° 1890 ) houdt een dagboek bij , enkele impressies daaruit ;
- 20/12/1916 : vliegtuigen in de lucht . Dag en nacht kanonnengebulder . Deze morgen om 8 uur zijn er opnieuw 700 Duitse infanteristen aangekomen . Ze zien er vermoeid uit en zijn besmeurd met modder . Ze komen rechtstreeks van het front nabij de Somme in Frankrijk .
- 21/12/1916 : De soldaten die gekomen waren zijn deze nacht vertrokken naar Brugge om een bad te nemen en zich te ontsmetten . Ze komen vanavond terug met een speciale tram .
- 22/12/1916 : De Duitsers komen bij ons aan en zeggen dat ze onze bakkerij gaan bezetten om hun broden en gebakken te bakken , en waarlijk ze brengen hout en bloem en na onzen bak is het aan hen om te werken in onze bakkerij gedurende gans de dag .
De ene soldaat bakker is Johan Joris uit Aken en de andere Anton Retzman , een timmerman van Koblenz , goede werkers van wie er tot nu toe niks te zeggen valt.

https://www.facebook.com/EngelsGuidoZomergem/posts/375483049468229:0
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2017 9:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vereniging De Lijn - de "HAL" van weleer en de Holland-America Line van nu

Nieuw Amsterdam. (1906)
Werf: Harland & Wolff.
Br, tonnage: 16.967 ton.
LxBxD: 187,68 x 20,88 x 14,40 m.
Snelheid:16 knopen.
Passagiers: 1e: 442, 2e: 246, 3e: 1078, tussendakpass. 1284
bemanning: 305

Gebouwd als stalen passagiersschip met drie dekken en veel laadruimte. Het schip kon 14.500 ton in zeven ruimen vervoeren (deze ruimen werden op reizen naar het westen gebruikt om de ‘Tweendeck’ klasse in opklapbare cabines te vervoeren).

Ze was het laatste schip van de maatschappij met hulpzeilen die aan de voormast konden worden bevestigd. Voor zover bekend werden deze nooit gebruikt. Ze was het grootste schip onder Nederlandse vlag tot de komst van de Rotterdam (4) in 1908. De kiel werd gelegd op 21 januari 1904 en de romp werd te water gelaten op 28 september 1905. Door de werf overgedragen op 6 maart 1906.

Ze begon haar eerste reis, van Rotterdam naar New York, op 7 april 1906. Tussen november en december 1908 vond bij de bouwwerf een grote verbouwing plaats, waarbij de passagierscapaciteit veranderde in 443 eersteklas, 379 tweedeklas en 2050 derdeklas (17.149 Brt.).

Ook werd om het bootdek glas geplaatst en de eersteklas eetzaal werd vergroot door deze door te laten lopen tot voorbij het brugdek, om haar beter te laten passen bij haar running mate de Rotterdam (4). Na april 1910 legde het schip aan in Plymouth op de reizen naar het oosten. In mei 1912 werden zes reddingboten geplaatst op het achterdek, als gevolg van de ramp met de Titanic.
Ze was het enige schip van de maatschappij dat gedurende de gehele Eerste Wereldoorlog steeds dienst deed op de Noord-Atlantische route naar New York.

Ze werd in 1915 gestopt door de Franse hulpkruiser La Savoye voor inspectie om de neutraliteitsregels na te leven. 650 Duitsers en Oostenrijkers werden van het schip gehaald.

Op 21 december 1918 vertrok het schip van Rotterdam via Le Havre naar New York voor haar eerste naoorlogse commerciële oversteek met aan boord 149 eersteklas passagiers, 35 derdeklas passagiers en 1715 Franse vluchtelingen.

Als gevolg van de veranderingen in regels voor emigranten veranderde de indeling van het schip enkele male om ten slotte in maart 1926 te eindigen met accommodatie voor 300 in Cabin class en 860 in Tourist class.

In februari 1928 werd Cabin Tourist class en Tourist Third class om zo de meest gunstige tarieven te kunnen bieden onder de geldende ‘Atlantic Pool’ regels. In het winterseizoen van 1928 maakte het schip een aantal cruises van Boston naar Havana. In 1930 werd, als gevolg van de depressie die zorgde voor lagere prijzen, de indeling veranderd in 442 eersteklas, 202 tweedeklas, 636 derdeklas en 1284 tijdelijke kooien.
Op 26 februari 1932 vertrok het schip van Rotterdam naar Osaka in Japan om aldaar gesloopt te worden bij Torazo Hashimoto. Op haar laatste reis vervoerde zij een volle lading kolen in de ruimen om voor de reis te betalen. Ze werd voor de sloop verkocht voor 137.000 gulden.

(Uit: 125 Years of Holland America Line)
http://www.verenigingdelijn.nl/index.php/vlootlijst/hal/116-nieuw-amsterdam-1906
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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