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23 november
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Auteur Bericht
Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 23 November 1914

Western Front
Ypres heavily bombard by the Germans, much damage done to the Cathedral and Cloth Hall.
British trenches near Festubert attacked; some lost, but recovered.

Eastern Front
Poland: Russian line shattered by Mackensen between Rzgov and Kolyushki, south-east of Lodz: critical situation.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres
Mesopotamia: British troops make formal entry into Basra.

Naval and Overseas Operations
Zeebrugge bombarded by British squadron.
German submarine U.18 rammed and sunk; its crew saved.

Political, etc.
Portugal: Congress authorises the Government to intervene on side of Allies when and how it deems proper.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_11_23.htm
_________________

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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

“Er is geen revolutionaire stemming, er zijn geen revolutionairen.” Rotterdammers tegen Troelstra’s revolutie in november 1918
Dick Linders, september 2018

Aan het eind van de Eerste Wereldoorlog is de crisis in Rotterdam compleet. Voor ongeschoolde en minder bekwame arbeiders is de kans op werk nihil. Het Plaatselijk Arbeids Secretariaat (PAS) en het Revolutionair Socialistisch Comité (RSC) houden demonstraties en vechten met de politie. De arbeidsonrust is ongekend hoog. Burgerlijk-democratische stromingen zijn er niet, bij het liberaal-christelijke gemeentebestuur heerst een laat-maar-waaien mentaliteit. Dick Linders beschrijft bijna van dag tot dag vanuit Rotterdams perspectief de aanloop tot en de afloop van de ‘revolutiepoging’ van Pieter Jelles Troelstra in november 1918.

In de loop van 1918 klinken geluiden op over de maatschappelijke orde als het vrede is. De burgerlijke partijen en de Kamer van Koophandel benadrukken dat de noodmaatregelen tijdelijk zijn en zo snel mogelijk moeten worden gestaakt. Daarna wordt de oude vooroorlogse orde van arbeid en zuinigheid, en een kleine overheid in een verder door het particulier initiatief geleide stad, weer in ere hersteld. Daarbij rekenen ze buiten de leiders van de moderne arbeidersbeweging (Federatie SDAP, Bestuurdersbond RBB en Transportarbeidersbond CBT) Johan Brautigam en Arie Heijkoop.

“Bolsjewiki strijden tegen oorlog, SDAP tegen honger” - In het licht van de gebeurtenissen van November 1918 is het gewenst stil te staan bij de toespraak van Arie Heijkoop van 12 februari 1918: ‘Door het werk van de moderne vakbonden die eerder zagen wat er moest gebeuren dan de christelijke bonden en de ongeorganiseerden, is de steun de afgelopen drie jaar geregeld, op hun aandringen is van staatswege de werkloosheid bestreden, en is er veel tot stand gebracht. Het lawaai van Wijnkoop over de Russische revolutie kan ons geen eten geven. De bolsjewiki strijden tegen de oorlog, wij tegen de honger. Wij willen zelf over onze zaken beslissen. De oorlogsellende dringt tot samenwerking, dan zal de regering voor het eenswillende proletariaat buigen. Eerst eenheid, overleg, doelbewuste aktie, en dan zonodig pas stakerij en niet eindigen voor onze eisen zijn ingewilligd’.

In juli 1918 haalt de SDAP Rotterdam 43,35 procent bij de Tweede Kamerverkiezing, het hoogste percentage ooit. De Rotterdamse onderwijzeres Suze Groeneweg is de eerste vrouw in de Kamer. In de zomer van 1918 brengen massale veldslagen geen beslissing. Op 11 november 1918 gaat de wapenstilstand in. De regering van Nederland kondigt een gedeeltelijke demobilisatie af. Op diezelfde maandag 11 november 1918 spreekt Troelstra in het Verkooplokaal zijn bekende revolutionaire rede uit.

Noch uit de stukken van de SDAP en de Rotterdamse Besturen Bond (RBB), noch uit de plaatselijke partij- en vakbondspers blijkt iets van voorbereiding op de gebeurtenissen in de Novemberweek. Men kan terecht stellen dat een revolutie niet en-plein-public wordt voorbereid en dat er dus niets over te vinden moet zijn. Als het al gebeurd is, dan moet het naast het gewone politieke- en vakbondswerk hebben plaatsgevonden, en daar hadden de bestuurders hun handen meer dan vol aan in het laatste oorlogsjaar. Er zijn geen aanwijzingen voor enige conspiratieve actie of voorbereiding daarop bij de in Rotterdam gelegerde soldaten.

Revolutionair proces zichtbaar - Op 2 november steunt het Rotterdamse Tweede Kamerlid Sannes (Rotterdams, omdat hij in het district Rotterdam gekozen is) Troelstra die meent dat in Nederland een revolutionair proces zichtbaar wordt, waarvan de SDAP de leiding moet nemen. Het partijbestuur besluit op 23 en 24 november een partijcongres in Rotterdam te houden.

Op 9 november gaan Arie Heijkoop en Johan Brautigam op bezoek bij Paul Nijgh van de Scheepvaart Vereniging Zuid (SVZ) en burgemeester Zimmerman. Nijgh oppert een Loonraad, de burgemeester vraagt steun voor het handhaven van de orde. Ook de voorzitter van de Gemeentewerkliedenbond en vooraanstaand SDAP-er Alrich Lührs gaat bij de burgemeester op bezoek. Lührs brengt de grieven van zijn bondsleden ter sprake. Hij zegt dat het bondsbestuur zijn 2.200 leden in de hand heeft en alles zal doen om de mensen aan het werk te houden.

Op zondagmorgen 10 november vergaderen SDAP federatievoorzitter Arie de Zeeuw, Heijkoop, Brautigam en Sannes bij Troelstra thuis. Heijkoop steunt Troelstra in diens revolutionaire verwachting. Welke concrete initiatieven er nodig zijn, blijft zeer vaag. Op zondagmiddag vergadert het Rotterdamse kader in koffiehuis Centraal. Het ontwerp voor een arbeiders- en soldatenraad van de radicale onderwijzer De Zeeuw is een bewerking van het Berner Program. Heijkoop steunt De Zeeuw, hij denkt dat de bourgeoisie tot concessies bereid is. Welke taken en bevoegdheden de raad moet krijgen is volstrekt onduidelijk, net zo als de verhouding tot de organen van de SDAP, laat staan van de Staat. De Zeeuw heeft het over een comité dat van uur tot uur moet bepalen wat te doen. Zijn voorstel is in strijd met het beginselprogramma van de SDAP, kan achteraf worden vastgesteld. De Zeeuw stelt voor aan de gemeenteraad een program met eisen voor te leggen. De voorzitter van de Belastingcommiezenbond Jan ter Laan is faliekant tegen, Brautigam wil het aanzien, het moet geen ‘operetterevolutie’ worden. Hij spreekt van eisen die verwezenlijkt moeten worden door een ‘organisatierevolutie’. De meeste aanwezigen reageren niet enthousiast.

Volksvergaderingen - Op zondagavond zijn 60 landelijke en Rotterdamse kopstukken uit de partij en de vakbeweging bijeen in het gebouw Voorwaarts op de Slaak. Oudegeest, Vliegen Schaper en Drees zijn tegen de arbeidersraad. Troelstra en Heijkoop spreken in revolutionaire zin. Per slot van rekening wordt besloten het congres met een week te vervroegen. Op maandagavond zullen in Rotterdam volksvergaderingen worden gehouden om het program van eisen toe te lichten. Met een advertentie in Het Volk onder de titel ‘Revolutie in Nederland’ en een pamflet wordt de aanhang op de hoogte gebracht.

Geen ´Smolny´ op de Slaak - Zo er al van een revolutie sprake is, dan is die op zondagavond duidelijk afgeblazen. Het gebouw van de Voorwaarts krijgt niet de primeur de zetel te worden van de Arbeidersraad, geen ´Smolny´ op de Slaak. Later op de avond komen de Rotterdamse vakbondsbestuurders apart bijeen. Brautigam vraagt zijn collega’s van de RBB en de Centrale Bond van Transportarbeiders (CBT) de pamfletten voor de maandagavondbijeenkomsten te verspreiden en voor het overige rustig te wachten op het congres van zondag. In Het Volk worden de volksvergaderingen aangekondigd. Welke status deze hebben is niet duidelijk, besluitvormend of adviserend, evenmin hoe de verhouding is met de organieke partij- of vakbondsgremia. Op de volksvergaderingen worden ‘eisen’ ‘toegelicht’ die nog niet door het NVV of de SDAP zijn vastgesteld.

Op Maandagavond 11 november vinden er bijeenkomsten plaats in de Grote Zaal en de Verlengde Zaal van het Verkooplokaal, en in de Grote Zaal, Foyer en Salon van De Doelen. Troelstra houdt zijn revolutionaire rede. Heijkoop valt hem bij. Suze Groeneweg benadrukt de mogelijkheid dat de eisen zonder geweld bereikt kunnen worden. Na de meetings gaan de Rotterdamse toehoorders rustig naar huis. De Rotterdamse partij- en vakbondsafdelingen komen in de week daarna niet bijeen.

Op dinsdag 12 november verspreiden de Federatie SDAP Rotterdam, de RBB en de Bond van Nederlandse Dienstplichtigen een pamflet dat de burgerij inlicht over de meetings van maandagavond. ‘Deze betogingen werden gehouden ter inleiding van een REVOLUTIONAIRE ACTIE OVER HET HELE LAND, maar het definitieve program en de middelen zullen vastgesteld worden op het Congres der Ned. Arbeidersbeweging op zaterdag en zondag alhier. Arbeiders, houdt u gereed en volgt uwe zelfgekozen leiding’.

De tegenkrachten organiseren zich snel. Een Comité van Orde van alle rooms-katholieke organisaties brengt een pamflet uit aan de vrouwen van Rotterdam, tégen de revolutie, vóór orde en rust. En een tweede pamflet aan de hele bevolking: ‘wanorde betekent hongersnood’. De Christelijke Besturenbond is tegen Troelstra. De Vrijwillige Landstorm mobiliseert met 400 man in de Grote Koopmansbeurs. Zij nemen later posities bij het stadhuis in. Op de stations Beurs, Maas, Delftse Poort en Hofplein staan wachten van 50 man, bewapend met geweren, om de linker bovenarm een rood-wit-blauwe band, bedrukt met het groenwitte stadswapen.

Het SDAP Federatiebestuur komt op woensdag voor de eerste keer bijeen. Het bestuur meent dat Heijkoop en De Zeeuw niet naar Troelstra hadden mogen gaan zonder vooraf het bestuur en de leden te raadplegen. Het bestuur spreekt scherpe afkeuring uit over hun beleid. Mevrouw Van Kersen, bestuurder van de Arbeiders Coöperatie Voorwaarts (ACV) en voorzitter van de Vrouwenbond: ’Hadden er ongelukken uit voortgevloeid, had het gehele federatiebestuur voor de consequenties van deze handelingen moeten opdraaien’. Hein Stolle, bestuurder van de Meubelmakersbond en secretaris van de RBB wil niets met de zogenaamde revolutie te maken hebben en is niet van plan te betalen. In de maanden erna gaat het geruzie door over wie de kosten betaalt van het drukwerk, de hotels, de extra vergaderingen en het congres. Die worden begroot op duizend gulden, exclusief 63 gulden drinkgeld. Uiteindelijk betaalt de RBB het meest, die is ook rijker dan de SDAP. Jan ter Laan gispt het feit dat alles buiten het Federatiebestuur is omgegaan. Hij stelt voor het partijbestuur te berichten ‘dat wij op grond van onze waarnemingen onder de Rotterdamse arbeidersbevolking geen vrijheid kunnen vinden het partijbestuur te adviseren een ernstige stap tot het verkrijgen van de Macht, vanuit Rotterdam te doen’. Het federatiebestuur keurt het besluit van De Zeeuw af om in te stemmen met het vervroegen van het congres. De conclusie is klip en klaar dat de SDAP en de RBB niet voor de lijn Troelstra, De Zeeuw en Heijkoop voelen.

Padvinders met oranjesjerpen - Het leger bezet de stad. Regimenten infanterie, twee landweerbataljons uit de vesting Willemstad, drie scholen voor dienstplichtige onderofficieren, een school voor reserveofficieren, een compagnie en eskadron wielrijders, twee eskadrons huzaren en een batterij veldartillerie, in totaal 6.000 man. De burgemeester roept de Burgerwacht op. Padvinders tooien zich met een oranjesjerp en verrichten koeriersdiensten.

Op donderdagmiddag in de Tweede Kamer trekt Troelstra terug, van geweld en een staatsgreep is geen sprake meer. De vraag ‘Wil de eerste vrouw in de Kamer, dat er honderden, wellicht duizenden in de burgerkrijg worden gedood?’ beantwoordt Suze Groeneweg met ‘Dat wil ik niet en dat wil een man ook niet’.

In de gemeenteraad van donderdagmiddag eist de SDAP fractie invoeren van de achturendag voor het gemeentepersoneel, vierploegendienst voor de continubedrijven, een vrije zaterdagmiddag, één vrije dag voor de politieagenten en verbetering van het onderwijs. Heijkoop ‘had van Zimmerman flinke voorstellen verwacht over grote sociale hervormingen. Uw orde is een kapitalistische wanorde, en als wij daartegen revolutie maken, doen wij niets anders dan uw klasse in 1848’. Heijkoop meent dat er een nieuwe maatschappelijke orde en geweldige sociale veranderingen moeten komen. ‘Wat zich vroeger hier verzette, door conservatisme en behoudzucht, tegen de oplossing van nieuwe vraagstukken van deze tijd, dat op dit ogenblik die elementen zich achteraf hebben te stellen en op zij moeten gaan, opdat werkelijk grote maatschappelijke veranderingen tot stand kunnen komen, dat wij altijd gepoogd hebben langs legale weg, langs de weg van orde en regelmaat de eisen van de arbeidersklasse tot verwezenlijking te brengen, als het ons mogelijk wordt gemaakt de dringende eisen van de arbeidersklasse langs legale weg te realiseren, wij niet zullen grijpen naar de maatregelen van geweld’.

Jan Schouten van de AR vindt het optreden van Heijkoop nu en op maandag wel revolutionair, Heijkoop kiest zijns inziens voor de weg van geweld. Het NVV verwijt hij provocerend optreden. Schouten wil vasthouden aan het Evangelie van Jezus Christus. De ellende van de sociaaldemocraten begint bij hun omkeren van de wereldorde, bij ‘het maatschappelijk zijn bepaalt de inhoud van het bewustzijn’. De andere rechtsen haasten zich burgemeester, orde, regering en het Huis van Oranje te steunen.

De voorzitter van de Postbond en SDAP-er B. van Stapele meent dat het christendom 2000 jaar de tijd heeft gehad, de christelijke raadsleden komen te laat. Arie de Zeeuw staat principieel op het ordestandpunt van de burgemeester. ‘Wij wensen niets anders dan een ordelijke maatschappij’. De Zeeuw is tegen bloedig bolsjewistisch geweld en terreur. Hij roept op de revolutie die Schouten vreest te ontwapenen, door tegemoet te komen aan de eisen van de SDAP die Schouten zegt te onderschrijven, en die deels sporen met die van de christelijke arbeidersbeweging.

Sociaaldemocraten staan alleen - Op donderdagavond houden de katholieken, twintig procent van de bevolking uitmakend, in zeven zalen van de stad bijeenkomsten. De geestdrift onder de samengestroomde menigte is buitengewoon groot. Uit alles blijkt dat de sociaaldemocraten alleen staan. Er is brede steun voor Zimmerman en het gezag, in en buiten de gemeenteraad. De christelijken houden op vrijdag 15 november een bijeenkomst in de Grote Doelenzaal ‘tegen het grote gevaar de revolutie’. ‘Wanorde betekent thans hongersnood’ is hun leuze.

De SDP en het Revolutionair Socialistisch Comité laten de revolutie voor wat ze is, wachten het congres af en overwegen indien nodig mee te staken. Hun voorzitter Willem van Ravesteyn vertrekt enkele dagen later voor een uitstapje naar Duitsland, treft er géén revolutie aan, en concludeert dat er voor Troelstra derhalve ook geen revolutie te importeren valt, hetgeen juist is.

Op zaterdag 16 en zondag 17 november bevolken 1.500 congresgangers het Circusgebouw. Met 6.000 soldaten in de stad is dat op elke congresganger vier soldaten. Het is derhalve buitengewoon rustig in de stad. Het stadhuis is met zandzakken gebarricadeerd. Arie Heijkoop spreekt, zeer tekenend, ‘als Rotterdammer en als vakbondsbestuurder’ en niet als SDAP-er, hij bedankt voor het zondaarsbankje waarop hij door Jan Oudegeest is gezet. ‘In Rotterdam is men niet nerveus, maar zich bewust van zijn kracht. Wij moeten geen al te grote letterzifterij toepassen. Wij hebben geen spijt over wat wij deden. Wee de beweging, als we niet ingegrepen hadden. Anderen waren revolutionair toen er niets te doen was, maar nu ben ik revolutionair, hoe nuchter ik anders ook ben. Toen wij begrepen, wat er in onze arbeiders omging, zeiden wij: het is onze beurt om in te grijpen. De vervroeging van het congres, de publicatie der eisen, en de indruk ervan zijn het gevolg der Rotterdamse beweging. Wij vragen daarvoor geen hulde, maar bedanken voor het zondaarsbankje. Herinner u de concessies, die wij deze week al hebben afgedwongen. Dat komt door onze grote ‘bek’. Wij moeten met geweldig elan achter onze eisen blijven staan. Mijn vakbond telt 20.000 leden. Wij vatten post tegen onverantwoordelijke dingen. Maar nu komt een nieuwe beweging. Onze arbeiders zijn onmisbaar. Als de regering niet geeft wat wij eisen zal de revolutie werkelijkheid moeten worden en gaan de transportarbeiders vooraan. (Daverend applaus). Wij beschikken over de macht, de achturendag in het bootwerkers- en transportbedrijf te realiseren. De motie van het NVV moet zo kloek blijven, dat wij de eisen afdwingen waarop wij recht hebben. Dan kunnen wij de eindoverwinning met vertrouwen tegemoet gaan’. Heijkoop stelt zich achter de eisen op: ‘Daarom had schoolmeester Oudegeest me niet zo voor ’t ezelsblok moeten zetten (gelach)’.

Heijkoops rede wordt beloond met uitbundig applaus, een ovatie en het zingen van de Internationale. Achteraf zal Heijkoop aan Het Volk laten weten dat hij het woord ‘bek’ niet heeft gebruikt, het is een foutje van de journalist van Het Volk. Johan Brautigam spreekt namens de RBB, net als Heijkoop niet als SDAP-er. Beide heren wantrouwen de SDAP, zij behoren immers tot de Vakbondsoppositie van 1914/1915 die tegen de Godsvrede van de SDAP en Troelstra is. Hij stelt dat het program zonder dreigement te verwezenlijken valt. ‘Wij willen ons niet isoleren in de maatschappij. Dit is de vloek van de oude beweging geweest. Wij willen niet een grote ‘bek’ opzetten, maar onze kracht en invloed aanwenden’. Hij wil samen met ‘delen van de burgerij realiseren wat de grote massa des volks’ wil. De resolutie met 15 eisen wordt aangenomen.

Bezoek van Hare Majesteit - Een week later bezoek van de koningin. De huldiging is strak geregisseerd. Het was weer Oranjedag, schrijft Het Volk in de rubriek ‘Rotterdams Nieuws’. Het gemeentebestuur was vergeten het vuil en de modder van de Goudsesingel te halen en de kuilen in het wegdek te dichten. De koets hobbelde voort, slechts matig toegejuicht door de schamel geklede arme vrouwen en kinderen uit de sloppen en stegen ter weerszijden van de singel. Net als op het Malieveld in Den Haag worden de paarden afgespannen en de koets voortgetrokken door soldaten. ‘Symbolisch was deze voorstelling wel. De soldatenjongens sjouwende als het gehele proletariaat zijn ganse leven doet en gespannen voor het wagentje van de instandhoudster en beschermster onzer kapitalistische samenleving!’ Op het Van Hogendorpplein (thans Churchillplein) heft een sergeant van de Landstorm het prinsesje in de hoogte, tot ongenoegen van enige Oranjeklanten die het ‘afgesproken werk’ vinden.

Na de revolutieweek - In de week na het congres houden de partij- en vakbondsafdelingen vergaderingen om het programma toe te lichten. De leden en besturen steunen het rustige beleid van Brautigam. Op zaterdag 23 november pakt het Rotterdamse SDAP Volksweekblad flink uit. ‘Een stroom van bruisend leven’, ‘Met vernieuwde strijd naar de Nieuwe Tijd’, ‘Wij en Zij’ en ‘Een vergissing’ zijn de wervende tussenkopjes. In deze artikelen over het congres komen alle belangrijke elementen naar voren die in de discussies in de eeuw daarna over de Novemberrevolutie een rol hebben gespeeld. ‘Het congres heeft goed gedaan het programma van eisen vast te stellen. De regering moet afdanken, als zij het programma niet wil uitvoeren. Vier jaar oorlog moet worden gecompenseerd door meer vrijheid, meer geluk, meer welvaart. Wat te doen? Propaganda maken voor het programma. Bespreek het met de arbeiders op de fabriek en in de werkplaats, op de schepen en in de dokken, op pleinen en straten, op het veld en in de mijnen, overal moet de propaganda voor onze eisen gevoerd worden. De lucht moet er van daveren. Troelstra wilde geen revolutie zoals in het buitenland. Zijn vergissing is niet zo groot geweest, de burgerklasse heeft uitgediend: de regering, de burgemeester en de NRC zijn in verwarring. Maar het is toch mogelijk, dat de latere geschiedschrijver van deze tijd het volgende getuigt: Troelstra hield een revolutionaire redevoering te Rotterdam. Hij meende ten onrechte dat de tijden rijp waren voor een nieuwe regering. Wel bleek hoe noodzakelijk het was dat de regering om zich te handhaven geheel vernieuwde. Alleen door het programma van Troelstra vrijwel over te nemen, kon zij zich handhaven’.

Op 7 december schrijven Heijkoop en Brautigam dat de katholieke arbeiders zijn misleid en dat de regering de koningin voor de wagen spande. Ze roepen op niet zenuwachtig te worden van de tegenactie, ‘Het is al holle reclame en demagogisch gezwets’. Op de reguliere SDAP jaarvergadering op 3 en 15 januari 1919 is het stof van November al neergedwarreld, de partijleden komen er niet op terug. Net als de RBB. Zoals het toch opvallend is dat het Rotterdamse kader er niet of nauwelijks op terug gekomen is. Op het ‘Eenheidscongres’ van april 1919 in Arnhem, meent Troelstra: ‘In de Rotterdamse arbeidersklasse niet alleen, maar ook in de bourgeoisie werd een revolutionair optreden verwacht’. Vliegen houdt dit af. ‘Troelstra meende in November dat wij te doen hadden met een revolutionaire stroming in het volk, doch dat steunde enkel op de mening van enige personen uit de bourgeoisie. De arbeidersleiders ook der grote steden ontkenden die stroming. EEN STEM: behalve die in Rotterdam. Nee, niet behalve in Rotterdam’.

Van Ravesteyn schrijft in 1917 naar aanleiding van Troelstra’s pogingen op de vredesconferentie van Stockholm dat hij, Troelstra, daarmee het Duitse imperialisme steunt, en de revolutie van het proletariaat uitbant. Volgens Van Ravesteyn is het niet zo verwonderlijk dat Troelstra tegen revoluties is omdat er als er in Nederland een revolutie zou uitbreken, het er een zou zijn die hem ´op sterk water´ zou zetten. Na ‘November 1918’ gaat het met de politieke carrière van Troelstra inderdaad bergafwaarts.

Theoretisch houdt Willem Drop die voorzitter is op de volksvergadering in De Doelen de zaak van de revolutie open: ‘Voor onze politieke beweging moet zonder enig voorbehoud het recht om langs revolutionaire weg het socialisme dichterbij te komen, blijven bestaan. Daarom was ons optreden te Rotterdam noodzakelijk’. De christen-socialist Willem Drop is jarenlang de grote man van de Vlaardingse moderne vakbeweging, in 1918 al in dienst van de CBT.

Tien jaar later - Johan Brautigam komt bij de herdenking in 1928 op de Novemberrevolutie terug. ‘Ik voelde me als in een operette verzeild geraakt. Toen verliet ik het huis en gaf mij korte tijd over aan eigen overpeinzing van de komende dagen. Dit begreep ik: als het tot gebeurtenissen zou komen – en ik wilde daar al mijn diensten aan geven, dan zou ik het orgaan van de macht moeten overnemen, het in elkander zetten van het verzet, de organisatie van de dagelijkse zaken, zouden op mijn schouders rusten. Ik heb mij afgevraagd: wat is het eerste, wat ik ga doen, en ik heb die middag voor me zelf besloten: als wij vannacht naar het stadhuis gaan, verzamel ik 40 of 50 mensen om mij heen en ga ik er op uit om gijzelaars te arresteren uit de notabelen en de extremistische elementen, om hun eigen kringen van de leiding te beroven!’

Brautigam is gewend al zijn stappen zorgvuldig te overwegen, hij pleegt overleg, hij maakt een plan, zie zijn optreden bij de Zeeliedenstaking in 1911, zie zijn optreden bij de totstandkoming van de Centrale Bond van Transportarbeiders, de Loonraad en de Havenarbeidsreserve en bij de cao’s. Hij is gewoon al zijn handelingen in het blad De Uitkijk van zijn Zeemansvereniging Volharding aan te kondigen en uit te leggen. Een revolutie past daar niet in. Wat wel tekenend is in het citaat is de opmerking ‘Dan zou ik het orgaan van de macht moeten overnemen’. Dat is wel juist gezien, alleen Brautigam en zijn maten van ‘Volharding’ zouden in Rotterdam een ‘Arbeidersraad’ tot stand kunnen brengen. Als … schrijft Brautigam terecht. Met de kennis van toen en nu: vijftig zeelieden en bootwerkers tegen zesduizend soldaten! Dat is onbegonnen werk.

Conclusies - Als Heijkoop revolutie had gemaakt, had hij de cao’s, Loonraad, Commissie van Advies voor het Havenbedrijf, ja alles wat hij met 20 jaar ‘reformistische’ arbeid samen met Hendrik Spiekman en Johan Brautigam had bereikt, op het spel gezet. Hij zou daarbij niet op de steun van Brautigam, de echte leider in de CBT en de RBB, en de overgrote meerderheid van de georganiseerde arbeidersbeweging hebben kunnen rekenen. Heijkoops werk is in eigen kring puur reformistisch. Zijn toespraken voor een algemeen publiek hebben altijd een opwekkend karakter, hij gebruikt vaak de woorden revolutionair en revolutie, ook in de gemeenteraad. Zijn woorden zijn bedoeld om ten eerste de tegenstander bang te maken en zand in de ogen te strooien, en ten tweede om stemming te kweken opdat de toehoorders zich in de moderne en sociaaldemocratische beweging voegen.

Het feit dat op maandagavond de Volksvergadering in het Verkooplokaal de toespraak van Heijkoop daverend toejuicht, zegt niets over het revolutionaire karakter van de toehoorders, laat staan van de overige Rotterdammers. Heijkoop spreekt al lang over de komende revolutie. Niemand die er aanstoot aan neemt of er conclusies aan verbindt. Heijkoops retorische gaven om de noden van de dag onder woorden te brengen zijn groot. Uit de beschrijving van de gebeurtenissen en zijn uitspraken en handelingen, ook in vergelijking met die van de jaren daarvoor, blijkt dat Heijkoop zijn aanhang wil enthousiasmeren en de partijlijn zo zuiver mogelijk wil houden. Van zijn bonds- en partijleden is Heijkoop niet anders gewend dan dat zij hem toejuichen en daarna aan het werk gaan. Op de bewuste maandagavond gejuich, en op dinsdagmorgen gaat iedereen gewoon aan het werk. Heijkoop verwacht niet anders. Niemand meldt zich aan voor een revolutionair comité … of voor de bestorming van het stadhuis … in de partijafdelingen is het al stilte.

De opvatting dat Heijkoop en De Zeeuw de leiding van de revolutionaire beweging in Rotterdam op zich wilden nemen om de communisten en syndicalisten de wind uit te zeilen te nemen, is ongeloofwaardig. De Rotterdamse communisten (van Ravesteyn) en de syndicalisten (van den Berg, Bouwman) hebben geen actuele revolutionaire plannen.

Er is geen revolutionaire stemming, en er zijn geen revolutionairen, zo kan de toestand in Rotterdam kernachtig worden samengevat. En daarmee zijn twee belangrijke voorwaarden voor een revolutie niet vervuld. Een geslaagde revolutie, leert ons Kautsky, is niet de onzinnige opwinding van de verrassing maar het product van heldere kennis. Het oordeel van de Rotterdammer Arie Pleysier in de officiële SDAP-geschiedschrijving in ‘Het roode vaandel volgen wij’ is juist. De verdediging van Heijkoop en De Zeeuw na afloop snijdt geen hout, de Rotterdamse arbeiders waren niet rijp voor een staatsgreep.

Rechts Rotterdam zal tot 1940 de leidende sociaaldemocraten (voor 90 procent vakbondsbestuurders) gispen om de revolutieweek. Wantrouwen over hun werkelijke doelstellingen en achterdocht bij de gevraagde en aangeboden samenwerking in de gemeentepolitiek blijft wat hen betreft geboden. De communisten en revolutionairsocialisten idem dito, maar dan omdat de SDAP de revolutie heeft verraden. De effecten op het politieke klimaat zijn ronduit negatief. Tot 1940 zien de liberalen en confessionelen de revolutieweek als een Mene-tekel. Het is een extra argument, ook vóór 1918 wilden zij niet met de SDAP samenwerken. Ook in de raad geldt het woord van Nolens ‘Alleen bij uiterste noodzaak’.

De modern georganiseerde vakbeweging groeit door. Juist de Rode Familie zal uitbotten, groeien, tot wasdom komen en vrucht dragen. Dankzij de achturendag en het onderwijs krijgen de arbeiders en hun kinderen tijd en gelegenheid zich te ontwikkelen in partij, vakbond, AJC, NASB en IVAO. Tussen 1918 en 1940 groeit de SDAP van 2.000 naar 7.500 leden, de RBB van 25.000 naar 40.000 leden, de coöperatie van 2.000 naar 5.000 gezinnen, het dagblad Voorwaarts heeft aan het eind 58.000 abonnees.

Electoraal heeft November 1918 de SDAP geen goed gedaan. In juli 1918 haalt de partij 43,35 procent bij de Tweede Kamerverkiezing, in 1919 42,3 procent bij de gemeenteraadsverkiezing. Hogere percentages zal de SDAP nooit meer halen. De positie van De Zeeuw en Heijkoop in de partij wordt sterker. De Zeeuw blijft voorzitter van de Federatie en wordt in 1919 wethouder. Heijkoops positie is onomstreden, hij heeft in december 1917 de politieke leiding van Spiekman overgenomen, wordt de grote man in de beweging en in 1919 wethouder. De groei van de moderne vakorganisatie in de haven is hem toe te schrijven, gemeentelijke volkshuisvesting is zijn werk. Hij begrijpt de proclamatie van de Majesteit: ‘Het is Mijn verlangen de voorgenomen hervormingen door te zetten en aan te vullen met de snelheid, die past bij de polsslag van deze tijd. Reactie zij uitgesloten, wij moeten vooruit’.

Dit artikel is een uittreksel uit het hoofdstuk “November 1918” van het in 2019 te publiceren boek ‘De rode werkstad’.
https://www.vakbondshistorie.nl/dossiers/rotterdammers-tegen-troelstras-revolutie-in-november-1918/
Zie ook: Sparta verdedigde Rotterdam in 1918 tegen de socialistische revolutie, https://sportgeschiedenis.nl/sporten/voetbal/sparta-verdedigde-rotterdam-in-1918-tegen-de-socialistische-revolutie/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23. November 1918 - Acht-Stunden-Tag in Deutschland eingeführt

Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts schuften sich die Arbeiter in den Fabriken regelrecht zu Tode. Limits gibt es kaum, Lebenszeit ist weitgehend Arbeitszeit. Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck zeigt sich für diese Nöte verständnisvoll. "Wer empfindet nicht das Bedürfnis zu helfen, wenn er den Arbeiter gegen den Schluss des Arbeitstages müde und ruhebedürftig nach Hause kommen sieht", sagt er 1885 in einer Rede im Parlament.

"Wie dies aber gemacht werden soll" – da hat Bismarck auch keinen Plan. Denn auch für ihn wiegen Staats- und Unternehmensinteressen mehr als die Sorgen des kleinen Mannes an der Stanze. "Die Spitze unserer Industrie ist die Exportindustrie", sagt der Kanzler. "Lassen Sie die Exportindustrie konkurrenzunfähig werden mit dem Auslande und unsere ganze Industrie wird darunter leiden; die Möglichkeit, die Arbeiter zu beschäftigen wird sofort erheblich zurückgehen."

Aufstand in Sachsen - Die sich von England aus ausbreitende Industrialisierung kennt in Bezug auf tägliche Arbeitsstunden ohnehin kein Pardon. 15 Stunden sind im Mutterland der kapitalistischen Ausbeutung keine Seltenheit, auch Kinder müssen in die Stollen.

Im sächsischen Crimmitschau sind die Weberinnen gezwungen, schon ihre Säuglinge in ein Meter 20 lange Kisten neben dem Webstuhl zu verfrachten, wo sie elf Stunden verharren müssen. 1903 kommt es hier zum größten Textilarbeiterstreik im Deutschen Kaiserreich mit dem Ziel kürzerer Arbeitszeiten. Er wird nach fünf Monaten ergebnislos beendet, aber die Unternehmer begreifen, dass es für sie schwerer wird. Robert Bosch führt drei Jahre später freiwillig den Acht-Stunden-Tag ein – auch und gerade zur Sicherung der Arbeitsproduktivität.

Trotz weiterer Streiks dauert es bis zu den revolutionären Umstürzen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg und bis zur Weimarer Republik, bis der Acht-Stunden-Tag in der Gesetzgebung verankert wird. Unter Friedrich Ebert, der auch das Frauenwahlrecht einführt und die Zensur abschafft, ergeht am 23. November 1918 eine entsprechende Verordnung zur Regelung der Arbeitszeit. Aber schon fünf Jahre später beginnen Ausnahmeregelungen die Verordnung aufzuweichen.

Mehr Ausnahmen als in der Weimarer Republik - 1949 führt der Alliierte Kontrollrat den Acht-Stunden-Tag wieder ein – allerdings von Montag bis Samstag. In der DDR wird nach dem Mauerfall die Fünf-Tage-Woche eingeführt und die Arbeitszeit verkürzt, im Gegenzug werden aber Feiertage wie Ostermontag, Himmelfahrt, Fronleichnam, Buß- und Bettag abgeschafft.

In der Bundesrepublik schreiben die erstarkenden Gewerkschaften den Acht-Stunden-Tag – und die 35-Stunden-Woche – wieder auf ihre Fahnen. Aber es dauert bis 1994, bis dieser auch gesetzlich festgeschrieben wird. Allerdings mit mehr Ausnahmen als in der entsprechenden Regelung zu Zeiten der Weimarer Republik.

https://www1.wdr.de/stichtag/stichtag-acht-stunden-tag-100.html
Auch hier: https://www.mdr.de/zeitreise/weitere-epochen/zwanzigstes-jahrhundert/acht-stunden-tag-deutschland-100.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1914 -1915 Star: Army

Entitlement as per Army order 20 of 1919 and later amendments

To all officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the British, Dominion, Colonial and Indian Forces, including civilian medical practitioners, nursing sisters, nurses and others employed with military hospitals, who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a theatre of war as defined below. The medal was awarded for services rendered in these theatres of war between the 5th August, 1914 and the 31st December, 1915, both dates inclusive.

For the purpose of this order the definition of " Theatres of War " will be as follows : —

1. Western European Theatre.—Included all operations in France and Belgium from midnight 22/23 November, 1914.

2. Balkan Theatre.—To include all operations in:—

(a) Greek Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria, from 5th October, 1915.

(b) Gallipoli and islands of Aegean Sea from 25th April, 1915.

3. Egyptian Theatre.—Included all operations against Turco-German forces from 5th November, 1914; also operations against Senussite forces in Western Egypt and on the borders of Cyrenaica from 3rd November, 1915, but excluding operations for which the Sultan's Sudan Medal has been awarded.

Note.—(i) Personnel of the Egyptian Army, including British personnel, and personnel of the British Army stationed in Egypt before 5th August, 1914, were only eligible for the award of the Star if they were employed in Egypt (exclusive of the Sudan) between 5th November, 1914 and 31st December, 1915, both dates inclusive, on duties which were outside the normal peace-time work of the Egyptian Army, or of the British Army in Egypt, respectively, and for which the need arose from the fact of the above operations being in progress.
(ii) Troops which arrived in Egypt subsequent to 5th August, 1914, and previous to midnight 4th/5th November, 1914, were eligible for the Star if they served on the establishment of a unit (exclusive of a unit referred to in (i) of this Note) in Egypt (exclusive of the Sudan between 5th November, 1914, and 31st December, 1915, (both dates inclusive).
(iii) Troops which arrived in Egypt between 5th November, 1914 and 31st December, 1915 (both dates inclusive), were eligible for the Star if they served on the establishment of a unit (exclusive of a unit referred to in (i) of this Note) in Egypt (exclusive of the Sudan) between those dates.
(iv) The term Egypt (exclusive of the Sudan) was held to mean Egypt north of a line east and west through, but including Assouan.

4. African Theatre.—Included all operations set forth below but excluding local military operations against native tribes or rebels:—

(a) In British East Africa, German East Africa, Rhodesia, Nyasaland and Uganda, from the 20th August, 1914, within an area bounded as follows:—
On the north by the Uganda Railway from the sea to Port Florence and Kisumu (including the whole of all towns actually on the railway), thence along the northern shore of Lake Victoria to the mouth of the Katonga River, thence along a line of that river to Lake George.
On the west by the western shores of Lake George, Lake Edward, Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika to Moliro; thence by the Northern Rhodesian—Congo border to Lake Mweru and along the Luapula River to the 12th parallel.
On the south by the 12th parallel to Lake Nyasa, thence along the western, southern and eastern shore of Lake Nyasa to the boundary between Portuguese and German East Africa, thence along that boundary to the sea.

(b) In German South-West Africa and the 12th and 13th Military District of the Union of South Africa, provided that service was performed on the establishment of a unit in any one of the following forces between 20th August, 1914 and the 9th July, 1915 :-

Northern Force—Commanded by General The Right Honourable Louis Botha.

"A" Force—Commanded by Brigadier-General H. T. Lukin, C.M.G., D.S.O.

"B" Force, Southern Force and Southern Army—Commanded on different dates by Major-General The Honourable J. C. Smuts and Brigadier-General J. L. van Deventer.

Central Force—Commanded by Brigadier-General Sir D. McKenzie, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O.

Eastern Force—Commanded by Colonel S. A. L. Berrange, C.M.G.

(c) In Kamerun and that part of Nigeria east of a line from the southern extremity of Lake Chad through Maiduguri, Tola, Bakundi, Takum and Ikom (these places inclusive), thence eastwards along the Cross River to the Nigeria-Cameroons frontier, from the 24th August, 1914.

(d) Within the boundaries of Togoland from the 7th August, 1914 to 26th August, 1914.

(e) In the Caprivi Zipfel, Rhodesia, by the troops assembled at Sesheke in 1914, under the command of Lieut-Colonel A. E. Capell, D.S.O., and by the scouts on duty about the Okavango River, under the command of Major R. Gordon, D.S.O., in July, 1915.

5. Asiatic Theatre.—Included all operations:—

(a) In Mesopotamia from 6th November, 1914 and at Bushire from 28th June, 1915.

(b) At Shaik Said (South-West Arabia) on 10th November, 1914.

(c) Conducted by Aden Field Force from 3rd July, 1915.

(d) At Muscat in Gulf of Oman, under the command of Colonel S. M. Edwardes, D.S.O., in January, 1915.

(e) In Seistan, under the command of Lieut-Colonel J. M. Wikeley, 28th Light Cavalry, in 1915.

(f) In the Tochi Valley, including the whole of the North Waziristan Political Agency and Barajat, between 28th November, 1914 and 27th March, 1915, both dates inclusive.

(g) Near Hafiz Kor, within the area bounded on the south by the left bank of the Kabul river, and on the east by a line from Adozai to Tangi, both places included, under the command of Major-General C. F. G. Young, from 14th to 19th April, 1915, and under the command of Major-General F. Campbell, c.b., d.s.o., between 29th August, 1915 and 10th October, 1915, all dates inclusive.

(h) Carried out by the troops at Katlang, Rastam and Swati, under the command of Brigadier-General N. C. Woodyatt, between 17th and 31st August, 1915, both dates inclusive.

(i) On the Landakai Ridge, north of a line east and west from, but exclusive of Malakand, under the command of Brigadier-General W. G. L. Beynon, C.B., D.S.O., between 21st and 31st August, 1915, by the Malakand Movable Column, which advanced from Chakdara Camp.

(j) At Perim, on 14th and 15th June, 1915, under the command of Captain A. G. C. Hutchinson, 23rd Sikh Pioneers.

(k) At and south of Mastung, in the Kalat State, between 1st June, 1915 and 10th July, 1915, both dates inclusive.

(l) In the Kachin Hills, within an area bounded on the north latitude 26° 30'; on the east by the River Mali Kha, from where it cuts 26° 30' to the confluence, and thence by Irrawaddy until it cuts 25° 15' on the west by longitude 96° ; on the south by latitude 25°; between 31st December, 1914 and 26th February, 1915, both dates inclusive.

(m) At Tsing-Tau, between 23rd September, 1914 and 7th November, 1914, both dates inclusive.

6. Australasian Theatre.—Included all operations in:—

(a) German New Guinea and Bismarck Archipelago as follows:—

(i) New Britain from 11th September, 1914 to 21st September, 1914.

(ii) New Ireland from 16th September, 1914 to 18th October, 1914.

(iii) Kaiser Wilhelm-Land on 24th September, 1914. (iv) Admiralty Islands on 21st November, 1914.

(b) Nauru on 6th November, 1914.

(c) German Samoa on 29th August, 1914.

Ze hebben 'm ook voor de Navy... http://www.northeastmedals.co.uk/britishguide/ww1_1914_15_star_award.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Batt. Essex Regiment November 1914

Sun., Nov 22, 1914
6.30
Capt Doberey wounded – No 4 Company
8 a.m.
2/Monmouth regt arrived by platoons to be attached
Casualties killed 1 wounded 6
--- signed L.O.W. Jones, Capt for Major Commanding 2/Essex Rgt

Mon., Nov 23, 1914
10 a.m.
2 platoons No 2 Company 2/Monmouth Regt arrived as working party.
- Capt Rose killed. Capt Maule wounded.
Casualties killed 1 officer and 5 (3) inclusive2/Mon Regt
wounded 1 ,, ,, ? (2) inclusive 1 Mon Regt
11. a.m.
Lt Gard???& 4 platoons to NIEPPE for washing
--- signed L.O.W. Jones, Capt for Major Commanding 2/Essex Rgt

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=44198
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

His Imperial German Majesty's U-Boats in WWI

At the beginning of the war in August 1914, Germany had about 20 operational U-boats in its High Seas Fleet, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Hermann Bauer as Commander of U-boats (Führer der Unterseeboote, FdU). Their forward base was the fortified island of Heligoland, and as soon as hostilities with Russia started, they were deployed in a defensive screen in the North Sea on 1st August.

On the bridge of SM U-9, lying in wait on the surface on this first sunset of the war, Kptlt. Otto Weddigen remarked to his First Watch Officer, Johannes Spieß:

"Spieß, look how red the sky is. The whole world seems to be bathed in blood. Mark my words - England will declare war on us."

These were Prophetic words which came true three days later, when the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland declared war on the German Empire on 4th August.

Two days later the energetic FdU sent SM U-5, U-7 to U-9, U 13 to U 18 in a bold move to attack the British Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow. The campaign started rather unpromising: SM U-5 and SM U-9 had to turn back because of engine troubles, SM U 13 was lost without a trace and SM U 15 was sunk by the light cruiser HMS Birmingham, when trying to move in for an attack. The rest of the boats as well as SM U 19, U 21, U 22 and U 24, which had left port for the North Sea later in August achieved nothing. On top of that, on 23rd November 1914 SM U 18 (Kptlt. Hans von Hennig) was able to penetrate Scapa Flow but was sighted and sunk.

http://www.uboat.net/history/wwi/part1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alfred George Drake VC – won 23 November 1915

Corporal Alfred Drake VC aged 21 in the 8th Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort’s Own)

For most conspicuous bravery on the night of 23 November 1915, near La Brique, Belgium. He was one of a patrol of four which was reconnoitring towards the German lines. The patrol was discovered when close to the enemy who opened heavy fire with rifles and a machine gun, wounding the Officer and one man. The latter was carried back by the last remaining man. Corporal Drake remained with his Officer and was last seen kneeling beside him and bandaging his wounds regardless of the enemy’s fire. Later a rescue party crawling near the German lines found the Officer unconcious but alive and bandaged, Corporal Drake beside him dead and riddled with bullets. He had given his own life and saved his Officer.

Corporal Drake was buried in La Brique No 2 Military cemetery near Ieper.

http://ypres.get-started-with.com/2010/04/27/alfred-george-drake-vc-won-23-november-1915/

The officer rescued by Corporal Drake was Lieutenant Henry Tryon also of the Rifle Brigade. After Tryon recovered from his wounds he returned to his former unit and was killed in action at Flers-Courcelette on 15 September 1916.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_George_Drake
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

TURKEY IS UNEASY OVER GERMAN ARMY - Halil Bey Intimates That Presence of Kaiser's Troops Is Not Needed - NOVEMBER 23, 1915

According to German reports, the advent of the first detachment of the Kaiser's troops in Constantinople was hailed with extravagant enthusiasm. ON the other hand, significant warnings to Germany not to expect special privileges from Turkey and apparent reluctance to have German armies enter Turkish territory for operations against Egypt or elsewhere were expressed by Halil Bey, forms the triumvirate reputed to be in supreme
control of Ottoman Affairs, in an outspoken interview granted by him to Emil Ludwig, special correspondent of the Berliner Tabeblatt. It appears on the first page in that newspaper's issue of Oct. 23, just received here.
Halil Bey's statements, says Ludwig, corroborate what Enver Pasha and Talaat Bey had already told him some months ago.
"I believe in the friendship between Turkey and Germany," Halil Bey is quoted as saying, "but the Germans must understand that they must not come here as conquerors, but as collaborators. Germany's policy, we know, has always been friendly to us, and we hope it will be even more so after the war. Distrust of the great European powers is deeply implanted in Turkey, and can be rooted out only gradually.
" Is it to be wondered at? For centuries our land has been badly treated and could not afford to trust Europe, whose great powers sought to cheat it. You will have to excuse Turkey for its attitude. In order to create complete trust, Germany, which has never maltreated us, must raise our credit without demanding special privileges, such as all the others have demanded.
"This is possible on account of geographical and economic conditions, and it is possible only in the case of Germany. We are primarily an agricultural country, while Germany is primarily industrial. Even in the case of Austria-Hungary, the situation is otherwise. we fill our needs by barter. We seem poor, and we need money, but we are rich. Over there in Asia are our treasures. German capitalists, who will come here after the war, must profile by investment. But--no special privileges any more. That is all over. Remember what an extraordinary situation there has been here. In other countries a foreigner comes after a native in the matter as Armenians, in Turkey, it was the reverse." "How about an attack on Egypt?" inquired the correspondent.
"We have enough men for it," replied Halil Bey.
To the inquiry whether Egypt was a war goal of Turkish military policy Halil Bey replied: "We hope to secure something for ourselves of there as to be acquisition of territory. But the goal of the war assuredly is the strengthening of Turkey at home. And the Germans ought to help us in that." The correspondent also touched upon the Armenian question, which he calls the "thin ice of Turkey, which one avoids as dangerous." Halil Bey said on this subject that the Armenians had been guilty of treason and conspiracies with the Russian and other anti-Turkish activities. He declared that the Mohammedan population of Armenia had become so enraged at the Russophile elements that they had finally resorted to violent acts. The
Turkish Government, he added, despite its own wishes, had been powerless to check these outbursts because the land was without policemen, who had been turned into soldiers and transported to the front.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14021455/19151123-Turkey-is-uneasy-over-German-army
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 23 November 1915: 'Prisoners of war. Brutal treatment by Germans'

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19151123.2.58
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Brief History of the 79th Cameron Highlanders of Canada Overseas Drafting Detachment, 1915-1916

23 November 1915 - Men selected for the fourth overseas draft.

http://cameronhighlanderscanada.com/43pg7.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 15:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sapper Alfred Galbraith

Group photograph of a group of AIF Signalers, taken at Broadmeadows Camp, Victoria, 1915. Sapper Alfred Galbraith is included in the group, though he is not identified. Alfred Galbraith completed signals training at Broadmeadows Camp 15 October 1915. Broadmeadows was the site of signals training for all Australian troops during the first call up. Engineer's and signal's training did not include weapons training. The photograph was printed by Frazer & Vallance Photographers, Melbourne.

Born in Maryborough, Sapper Alfred George Finlay Galbraith was the son of Alfred and Amy C. Galbraith, of W.R. Institute, Flinders Street, Station Buildings, Melbourne. He trained as an electrical engineer and enlisted in the Australian Army at the age of 20, in July 1915. His father gave written permission for him to join 'the Military Forces to serve the Empire abroad' (his mother had already died). Galbraith served in the 5th Division Signalling Company, Australian Engineers, AIF, embarking from Melbourne on 23 November 1915 on the 'Ceramic'. He went to Egypt for further training, then was shipped to France, disembarking 27 June 1916 at Marseilles. Less than three weeks later, on 15 July, he received a wound in the thigh and a 'penetrating wound in the neck'. He died the same day at the 8th Australian Field Ambulance.

http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/380294/photograph-aif-signalers-broadmeadows-victoria-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 November 1916 → Commons Sitting: BELGIUM (RELIEF SUPPLIES).

Commander BELLAIRS asked whether it has hitherto been represented that if we refused to allow the supplies of food for the relief of Belgian workmen through the Neutral Commission the Germans would deport the workmen; and whether the Allies are reconsidering their policy of allowing these supplies to territory in the possession of the enemy, in view of the deportations now going on?

Lord R. CECIL If by the first part of the question the hon. and gallant Member means that this was the ground upon which His Majesty's Government have assisted the relief work, the answer is in the negative. His Majesty's Government have done so in response to the wishes of their Allies, including the Belgian Government, and in the interests of the whole population. As regards the last part of the question, there is no doubt that the present action of the Germans is a direct and conscious blow at the agreements upon which the relief work rests, and it is being considered in that light by the Allies, and I trust also by the neutral Governments, whose subjects and representatives have been chiefly responsible for the conduct of the work.

Commander BELLAIRS asked what are the other relief agencies in Belgium to which Lord Grey referred in a communication dated 14th October, 1916; and whether any relief food is available for civilian Germans in Belgium?

Lord R. CECIL I do not know to what communication the hon. Member refers. The only relief agency recognised by His Majesty's Government is the Commission for Relief in Belgium. The answer to the second part of the question is in the negative.

Commander BELLAIRS Then are we to understand that where the Neutral Commission refers to food being available for the eitire civil population—it does so in several places—it means the Belgian population?

Lord R. CECIL Yes. Sir.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/nov/23/belgium-relief-supplies
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Governor Ferdinand von Bissing on Germany's Policy of Deporting Belgians to Germany, 23 November 1916

Reproduced below is the text of a letter sent by the German Military Governor in occupied Belgium, Ferdinand von Bissing, in reply to one by the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Malines, Cardinal Desire Mercier.

Cardinal Mercier had made repeated demands that Germany's policy of deporting unemployed Belgian citizens to Germany - where they were essentially used as forced labour - cease immediately. (Click here to read one of Cardinal Mercier's public statements on the subject.)

In his reply, dated 23 November 1916, Governor von Bissing stated that the German policy would continue and that, ultimately, it benefited the Belgium economy for unemployed men to be used in this manner.

Governor von Bissing on Germany's Policy of Deporting Unemployed Belgians to Germany

Brussels, November 23, 1916

Most Honoured Cardinal:

I acknowledge receipt of your honoured letter, dated November 10th, and of the manuscript letter dated November 15th, concerning the delay in delivery.

This is the answer which I have to give.

Your Eminence wrote to me on October 19th last requesting that the utilization of Belgian unemployed in Germany should come to an end. In my answer dated October 28th, I have, in spite of my appreciation of your point of view in the matter, indicated the reasons and the ideas which have inspired the decisions of the occupying power with relation to the question of labour.

These decisions were not arbitrarily or hastily taken without sufficient consideration for the difficulties of the problem; they were the outcome of ripe reflection bearing on the circumstances and the necessity recognized as unavoidable.

The extensive unemployment which prevails in Belgium is a great social evil and the employment of idle Belgians in Germany brings them great benefit. I said to your Eminence, on my arrival in Belgium, that I wanted to heal the wounds inflicted by the war upon the Belgian people; the recent measures are not in the least in contradiction with this declaration.

I must also consider as a misrepresentation of facts the way your Eminence sets aside the many and often successful efforts which I have made to revive Belgium's economic life with the remark that, on the contrary, unemployment has been artificially created.

Regarding the importation of raw materials into Belgium and the exportation of manufactured articles, England has made unacceptable conditions. There were some time ago negotiations between neutral and Belgian organizations on this question; to dwell on them would lead me too far.

I can only repeat here that the present regrettable circumstances are the result, fundamentally, of England's policy of isolation, just as the seizure by us of all raw material was only, after all, a forced consequence of the same policy.

I must also firmly maintain that the occupation affords the country, from the economic point of view, all the advantages which can be provided, considering the conditions enforced on us by England.

In the execution of the measures taken concerning the unemployed, my administration has met with a series of difficulties which cause some inconvenience to the population. All this might have been avoided if the communal authorities had made their execution more simple and more effective by their attitude toward them. Under the present circumstances, we are obliged to use a more involved procedure, into which a wider circle of people are necessarily drawn.

Measures, however, have been taken in order to avoid mistakes as much as possible. Some definite classes of professions have been exempted beforehand from submitting to control, and the individual claims, if they are well founded, will be either immediately considered or submitted to further examination.

Your Eminence will understand from what is stated above that it is impossible to comply with the desire concerning the stoppage of the measures which have been adopted, and that, in spite of the difficulties which we have met, their execution is pursued in the interest of all.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/belgium_bissing1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

L. G. Hawker VC, DSO. (1890-1916)

Lanoe George Hawker was born on 30th December 1890 in Longparish, Hampshire. He was to become the first Fighter Ace of the British Commonwealth. He was known as a quiet unassuming man who was well liked. Originally an officer in the Royal Engineers, Hawker was not only a skilled and aggressive pilot but he was an innovator whose ideas greatly benefited the pilots who he served with and who followed him. Hawker was responsible for introducing new aids for combat pilots such as Ring Sights, fur-lined thigh boots, and a Rocking Fuselage for target practice.

Major Hawker was known as an aggressive pilot and had the motto “attack everything”. At Gontrode 19th April 1915 while flying a B.E.2c he attacked a German Zeppelin hangar by using bombs and hand grenades. He attacked at low level (below 200ft) and used a tethered German balloon which was manned to help shield him from enemy ground fire as he made his attacks, this earned him the DSO (Distinguished Service Order). Hawker with help from air mechanic Ernest Elton developed a machine gun mount for attaching a Lewis gun to a Bristol Scout. While testing this on 25th July 1915 he drove off one German aircraft and downed two others, despite all three enemy aircraft being machine gun armed and two seaters. For this he earned the VC (Victoria Cross) being the first pilot to earn a VC for aerial combat. He distinguished himself while in No 6 squadron but his command of No 24 squadron led it to become called Hawker’s Squadron and is regarded by some as Britain’s first real fighter squadron.

On the 23rd November 1916 while flying a D.H.2 he engaged an Albatros fighter behind enemy lines and was shot down and killed by Manfred von Richthofen, the 11th kill for the man who was to become the Red Baron. The dogfight was was of the longest recorded at that time and Richthofen’s machine guns jammed at the last minute but one of the last bullets fired hit Major Hawker in the head and he died instantly. Hawker had achieved 8 combat kills at that time.

Dugdale-Pointon, T. (20 March 2007), L. G. Hawker VC, DSO. (1890-1916), http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_hawker.html

On 23 November 1916, while flying an DH-2 Serial No. 5964 Hawker left Bertangles Aerodrome at 1300 hours as part of 'A' Flight, led by Capt J. O. Andrews and including Lt (later AVM) R.H.M.S Saundby. Andrews led the flight in an attack on two German aircraft over Achiet. Spotting a larger flight of German aircraft above, Andrews was about to break off the attack, but spotted Hawker diving to attack. Andrews and Saundby followed him to back him up in his fight; Andrews drove off one of the Germans attacking Hawker, then took bullets in his engine and glided out of the fight under Saundby's covering fire. Losing contact with the other DH-2's, Hawker began a lengthy dog-fight with an Albatros D.II flown by Leutnant Manfred von Richthofen of Jasta 2. Richthofen fired 900 rounds during the running battle. Running low on fuel, Hawker eventually broke away from the combat and attempted to return to Allied lines. The Red Baron's guns jammed 50 yards from the lines, but a bullet from his last burst had struck Hawker in the back of his head, killing him instantly. His plane spun from 1,000 feet and crashed 200 metres (218 yards) east of Luisenhof Farm, just south of Bapaume on the Flers Road, becoming the German ace's 11th victim. German Grenadiers reported burying Hawker 250 yards (228 metres) east of Luisenhof Farm along the roadside.[11] Richthofen claimed Hawker's Lewis gun from the wreck as a trophy and hung it above the door of his quarters. Major Lanoe George Hawker is listed on the Arras Flying Services Memorial.
Hawker's original VC was lost when the Hawker family belongings were left behind after the fall of France in 1940. On their return after World War II, they found that their possessions, including the VC, had been stolen. A replacement was issued to Hawker's brother on 3 February 1960, and is now displayed at the Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanoe_Hawker
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Story of No. 3 Wing Royal Naval Air Service

(...) 23 November 1916 dawned foggy, and preparations were made to carry out a raid. However a flight to test the weather conditions at 1:30 P.M. showed the weather still hadn't cleared in the valleys and the raid was cancelled. Flt/Cdr. Draper then asked permission for himself and the other fighters to carry out a patrol along the line near Nancy and Luneville. They set out five strong, but F/L Feeny and F/S/L Collishaw had to return due to engine problems. The three remaining aircraft of Draper, F/L C. B. Dalison and F/S/L L. E. Smith then ran into two enemy aircraft and Draper along with his gunlayer SLt. Barker, flying in 9722, brought one down, later confirmed by a French observation post. (...)

http://www.overthefront.com/WWI-Aviation-No-3-Wing-Royal-Naval-Air-Service-p3.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women in Wartime
by Michael Brooke

The popular Topical Budget newsreel (1911-31) spanned the whole of World War I, and provides a number of illustrations of what women were doing during the period. Although nowhere near as sophisticated as the government-sponsored propaganda that came later (a typical item covering a parade or demonstration rarely consists of anything more than a long shot of the event in question, with little commentary or editorial input other than an descriptive title), they nonetheless provide a valuable record.

When war broke out, Emmeline Pankhurst's suffragette movement was at its height, and 'Women's March Through London' (21 July 1915) shows that Pankhurst and her colleagues seized the initiative to demonstrate in public their willingness to help the Ministry of Munitions in any way possible: the banner reproduced above reads "Mobilize Brains and Energy of Women!". (Two years earlier, Topical Budget had inadvertently captured the death of suffragette Emily Davison at the 1913 Derby when she fell under the horses' hooves). The edition of 18 August 1915 bearing the same title featured another suffragette procession, this time to demand votes and equal pay.

But the government had little choice. Faced with a drastic shortage of manpower, women were rapidly deployed in a wide range of professions, many of which were documented by Topical Budget. Historian Luke McKernan says that this would have had considerable interest for audiences of the time, "to whom the very idea of women working at manual occupations considered solely the reserve of men was astonishing, and for many quite shocking".

Of the more traditional women's occupations, 'Actress Recruiter' (25 August 1915) features Olga Nethersole appealing for army recruits - the actress herself would join the British Red Cross in 1916 and work in the Hampstead Military Hospital until 1919, the year after the war ended, while the 'Memorial Service for Nurse Cavell' (30 October 1915) commemorates the life of Edith Cavell, who was, as the no-nonsense titles inform us, "murdered by the Huns". 'British Nurses in Serbia' (24 November 1915) features footage from a British base there, while 'Lady of the Lamp' (16 February 1916) records a memorial service for the great nursing heroine of the Crimean War, who had died only six years earlier. 'Inspection of Nurses' (20 September 1916) shows the Middlesex Volunteers Aid Detachment, and 'Decorating Nurses' (6 June 1917) shows a group being awarded the Royal Red Cross.

Farming activities were crucial to the war effort, as Britain needed to be self-sufficient in food production. These were depicted in 'Women Hay Makers' (12 July 1916), showing land girls on an Essex farm, 'Girl Gardeners at Work' (24 January 1917) shows food being grown for hospitals on the South Coast, and 'Women Farm Workers Competition' (21 April 1917) shows numerous contestants demonstrating their skill at ploughing, hoeing and horse-harnessing.

Professions directly related to the military were shown in 'Munition Workers' Welfare' (23 November 1916) in which Girl Guides were pressed into service as munitions workers. 'Women's Work at an A.S.C. Depot' (28 February 1917) shows the increasing female representation within the Army Service Corps, and 'Women Foundry Workers' (14 July 1917) depicts scenes in a French iron foundry heavily staffed by women. However, despite the increased female representation in a great many types of war work, it is telling that 'War and the Workers' (27 February 1918) a film presenting a supposedly representative group of war workers, is an all-male production.

Aside from members of the Royal Family, women were still unrepresented at the very highest level, and 'Will There Be Women MPs?' (10 November 1917) records a meeting aimed at founding the first Women's Parliamentary Party. Largely thanks to their contribution to the war effort, women were finally awarded the vote (albeit on a restricted basis) in December 1918, an election which also saw the first female MP, though Sinn Fein's Constance Markievicz was unable to take up her seat as she was serving a sentence in Holloway women's prison at the time. The first woman MP to actually take her seat was the American-born Conservative Nancy Astor, elected in November 1919. In 1928, the vote was extended to cover all adult women.

http://www.screenonline.org.uk/tours/womenwar/tour2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

37th Battalion

The 37th Battalion was formed, as part of the 10th Brigade of the 3rd Australian Division, in February 1916 at Seymour in Victoria. Its recruits were drawn from Melbourne, north-east Victoria and Gippsland.

After training in both Australia and Britain, the battalion moved to France on 23 November 1916. Within a week it had begun to occupy trenches on the Western Front, just in time for the onset of the terrible winter of 1916–17. During this time the 3rd Division was heavily involved in raiding the German trenches. In February 1917 the 37th Battalion provided 400 troops, with a similar party from the 38th Battalion, to form a special raiding “battalion”. After several weeks of training this force staged a single 35-minute raid on the night of 27 February and was then disbanded.

http://www.awm.gov.au/units/unit_11224.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LIST OF HOSPITAL SHIPS DESTROYED BY SUBMARINES OR MINES

From the Official History of the Great War, Medical Services General History, Appendix C, Volume 1

H.S. " BRAEMAR CASTLE."- Mined in the Aegean Sea, on 23rd November, 1916

http://www.vlib.us/medical/hospships.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Inside the Baron's Mind

On November 22, 1916, Boelcke's successor as leader of Richthofen's unit was killed in a battle with British planes of No. 24 Squadron. The following day, the Baron and his compatriots ambushed that squadron, and Richthofen succeeded in shooting down its commanding officer, Lanoe G. Hawker. One of the top English aces, Hawker was the first British pilot to receive the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest award for valor. Richthofen's description of that dogfight hints at the great respect pilots on both sides had for their opponents.

I was extremely proud when one fine day I was informed that the aviator whom I had brought down on the 23rd November, 1916, was the English Immelmann.

In view of the character of our fight it was clear to me that I had been tackling a flying champion.

One day I was blithely flying to give chase when I noticed three Englishmen who also had apparently gone a-hunting. I noticed that they were interested in my direction, and as I felt much inclination to have a fight I did not want to disappoint them.

I was flying at a lower altitude. Consequently I had to wait until one of my English friends tried to drop on me. After a short while one of the three came sailing along and wanted to tackle me in the rear. After firing five shots he had to stop, for I had swerved in a sharp curve.

The Englishman tried to catch me up in the rear while I tried to get behind him. So we circled round and round like madmen after one another at an altitude of about 10,000 feet.

First we circled twenty times to the left, and then thirty times to the right. Each tried to get behind and above the other.

Soon I discovered that I was not meeting a beginner. He had not the slightest intention of breaking off the fight. He was traveling in a box which turned beautifully. However, my own was better at climbing than his. But I succeeded at last in getting above and beyond my English waltzing partner.

When we had got down to about 6,000 feet without having achieved anything particular, my opponent ought to have discovered that it was time for him to take his leave. The wind was favorable to me, for it drove us more and more towards the German position. At last we were above Bapaume, about half a mile behind the German front. The gallant fellow was full of pluck, and when we had got down to about 3,000 feet he merrily waved to me as if he would say, Well, how do you do?

The circles which we made around one another were so narrow that their diameter was probably no more than 250 or 300 feet. I had time to take a good look at my opponent. I looked down into his carriage and could see every movement of his head. If he had not had his cap on I would have noticed what kind of a face he was making.

My Englishman was a good sportsman, but by and by the thing became a little too hot for him. He had to decide whether he would land on German ground or whether he would fly back to the English lines. Of course he tried the latter, after having endeavored in vain to escape me by loopings and such tricks. At that time his first bullets were flying around me, for so far neither of us had been able to do any shooting.

When he had come down to about 300 feet he tried to escape by flying in a zig-zag course, which makes it difficult for an observer on the ground to shoot. That was my most favorable moment. I followed him at an altitude of from 250 feet to 150 feet, firing all the time. The Englishman could not help falling. But the jamming of my gun nearly robbed me of my success.

My opponent fell, shot through the head, 150 feet behind our line. His machine gun was dug out of the ground, and it ornaments the entrance of my dwelling.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/redbaron/mind.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Combat report describing Hawker’s final combat on 23 November 1916

About 1-50pm, 2 H.A. were observed at 6,000 ft N.E. of BAPAUME. Capt Andrews diving from above, drove them East, and then seeing two strong hostile patrols approaching high up, was about to retire when Maj Hawker dived past him and continued the pursuit. The deH’s were at once attacked by the H.A., one of which dived on to Maj Hawker’s tail.
Capt Andrews drove this machine off, firing 25 rounds at close quarters, but was himself attacked from the rear and his engine shot through almost immediately, so that he was obliged to try and regain the lines.

He last saw Maj Hawker engaging one H.A. at about 3,000 ft. Lt Saundby, having driven 1 machine off Capt Andrews’ tail, engaged a second firing 3/4 of a double drum at 20 yards range. The H.A. fell out of control for 1,000 ft and then continued to go down vertically. Lt Saundby could then see no other deH’s and the H.A. appeared to have moved away East, where they remained for the rest of the patrol.

http://www.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.3710
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Cambrai operations - Phase: the capture of Bourlon Wood, 23 - 28 November 1917
Note: the official title of this phase is a little misleading.Only IV Corps fought for the wood itself.

Third Army (Byng)
III Corps (Pulteney)
6th Division
12th (Eastern) Division
20th (Light) Division
29th Division.
IV Corps (Woollcombe)
1st Cavalry Division
2nd Cavalry Division
Guards Division
2nd Division
36th (Ulster) Division
40th Division
51st (Highland) Division
56th (1st London) Division (transferred to VI Corps on 24 November)
62nd (2nd West Riding) Division.
VII Corps (Snow)
55th (West Lancashire) Division.

The battle - When first presented with the Byng's plan for the attack, Douglas Haig recommended strengthening the left flank in order to take Bourlon Wood very early. He wasted his breath: Byng ignored his advice. By nightfall on the 20th, it was clear that Haig had been right. From the dominating height of the wood, the Germans held the British advance in front of Anneux and Graincourt. There was good news, however, as the 51st (Highland) Division finally crept into Flesquieres, abandoned during the night by the Germans.

On the morning of the 21st, the Highlanders moved forward with the aid of two tanks towards Fontaine Notre Dame, but were held up by fire from the wood. Harper ordered a halt until the 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division had captured the heights. The latter had a violent and costly battle for Anneux, led by the 186th Brigade under Roland Boys Bradford. To the north, the 36th (Ulster) Division, planning to continue their advance beyond Moeuvres, waited for the success signal, signifying that the 62nd had captured Bourlon. It never came, for the 62nd could not penetrate beyond the sunken lane facing the wood. By the evening of the 21st, Haig was satisfied that 'no possibility any longer existed of enveloping Cambrai from the south'. The British were now in an exposed position in the lee of Bourlon Wood, the capture of which would still prove to be useful, in cutting German access to key light railway lines feeding their front. Haig and Byng decided to press on, even though it meant deepening the salient that had been created and throwing in even more troops into this northern sector of the battlefield.

On 22 November, the GOC 40th Division at Beaumetz-les-Cambrai received orders to relieve the 62nd Division the next day. The 40th was a division of Bantams, men under regulation height. By now the roads were breaking up under the strain of thousands of men, wagons and lorries. It took 40th Divisional HQ 15 hours to travel the 9 miles to Havrincourt. A relief and assault plan was quickly drawn up: 121 Brigade to capture Bourlon, 119 Brigade to go for the wood, both jumping off from the sunken lane. On their right, the 51st would move forward to Fontaine. On the left, the 36th would go in again at Moeuvres. 92 tanks would support these units. They attacked through ground mist on the morning of the 23rd. Some of the units of the 40th had to cross 1000 yards down the long slope from Anneux, across the sunken lane and up the final rise into the wood, all the while under shell fire. There was close and vicious fighting in the wood, but after 3 hours the Welsh units of 119 Brigade were through and occupying the northern and eastern ridges at the edge of the undergrowth. 121 Brigade was cut down by heavy machine gun fire, and few men got as far as the village. 7 tanks did but were unsupported and the survivors withdrew. On the flanks, the 36th and 51st Divisions made little progress, against strengthening opposition.

Over the next few days, further troops were thrown into the battle, including the Guards Division, which advanced into Fontaine. Once his troops had been driven from the wood, the enemy switched all of his artillery onto it. Battalions in the wood were wiped out. Three companies of the 14th HLI miraculously penetrated to the far side of Bourlon but were cut off and gradually annihilated. And it began to snow. The weary troops settled into the newly-won positions. The British now sat some way ahead of the position of 20th November, being in possession of a salient reaching towards Cambrai, with the left flank facing Bourlon and the right alongside the top of the slope which ran down towards Banteux.

Seeds of future failure - “All arms” fighting broke down, the tanks few and impotent in the thick woodland of Bourlon and La Folie, and defeated in the ruined streets of Fontaine Notre Dame. Behind the front, the roads resembled those at Morval a year before, the traffic unable to move through mud and snow, along roads for which there was insufficient stone and labour to carry out adequate running repairs. The “ray of hope” had become a slow, piecemeal and inevitably costly shambles. Third Army closed down offensive operations on 27 November and units were ordered to consolidate. Three days later, The German Army struck back.

Note: VI Corps (Haldane) carried out a major subsidiary action at Bullecourt on 20 November 1917, using 3rd and 16th (Irish) Divisions.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat21.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NOTE FROM TROTSKY, PEOPLE’S COMMISSAR FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, TO THE REPRESENTATIVES OF NORWAY, THE NETHERLANDS, SPAIN, SWITZERLAND, DENMARK, AND SWEDEN ON THE OPENING OF PEACE NEGOTIATION

23 November 1917

On 8 [21] November, in accordance with the decision of the Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, I addressed, in the name of the Council of People's Commissars, a proposal to the allied Embassies to begin negotiations for an immediate armistice on all fronts and for a democratic peace without annexations and indemnities based on the self-determination of peoples. At the same time, the Council of People's commissars instructed the military authorities and the delegates of the army of the Russia Republic to enter into preliminary negotiations with the military authorities of the enemy armies for the purpose of getting an immediate armistice on our front, as well as on all fronts.

In bringing this to your notice, Mr. Minister, I have the honour to request you to do all that lies in your power to make our proposal for an immediate armistice and the opening of peace negotiations officially known to the enemy Governments.

At the same time I express the hope that you, Mr. Minister, will do everything in your power fully to inform public opinion in the country whose Government you represent of the steps taken by the Soviet Government in the interests of peace.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1918/commissar/gov.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cambrai 1917 - 23 November 1917

40th Division at Bourlon

The task of clearing Bourlon Wood fell to the 119th Brigade who attacked with two Battalions up front: the 19th Royal Welch Fusiliers and the 12th South Wales Borderers. They were accompanied by four tanks from D Battalion as those from G Battalion had been amongst those unable to refuel due to the congestion on the Bapaume Road.

The tank commanders had never seen Bourlon Wood before and the infantry had never worked with tanks.

At 1010 hours the artillery had begun bombarding the edge of the wood before lifting at regular intervals at 1030 hours as the tanks and infantry advanced.

In just over an hour the 19th RWF had managed to advance half way through the wood and were joined by the refuelled tanks from G Battalion. By early afternoon they were patrolling the north-eastern edge of the wood.

The 12th SWB had a harder time attacking along the western half of the wood and had sustained heavy casualties. They managed to gain the eastern edge of the village but a German counter-attack forced them back out again.

A further counter-attack at 1500 hours threatened to sweep away all before it but just as things were desperate the 18th Welch Regiment arrived and the Germans were beaten off - though at the cost of Lt Colonel William Kennedy who was killed leading the 18th Welch in their charge (He is commemorated on the Louverval Memorial).

By nightfall only the northern edge of the wood was still in German hands.

The 20th Middlesex of 121st Brigade were attacking the southern edge of Bourlon village to the left of the Welshmen and were partnered by the 13th Green Howards who were advancing in time with the 36th (Ulster) Division covering the extreme left of the battlefield.

From the very first moment of the attack they were shelled and exposed to flanking fire from the western sections of the Hindenburg line still in German hands.

Seven of the thirteen tanks from D Battalion got into the village but found themselves attacked with the same ferocity as at Fontaine and it soon became apparent that the Germans were not going to be easily pushed out of Bourlon.

The Germans had recovered from the initial shock of the 20th, their reserves were filtering through and in the air Richthofen's Group had been rushed to the front and were about to severely hamper RFC operations. On the ground, the crews of the few dozens of those remaining tanks out of the hundreds that had so gloriously advanced just days before were weary.

And then it began to snow.

The Guards Division now replaced the 51st (Highland) Division and units from the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Divisions were dismounted in readiness for a further attack planned against Bourlon village on the 24th.

The attack was timed for 1200 hours and would involve just twelve tanks supporting the men of 121st Brigade (40th Division). The attack was then put back until 1500 hours and then called off as twelve tanks was not considered adequate.

Unfortunately the orders cancelling the attack never reached those carrying it out and at 1500 hours the 121st and their twelve tanks advanced on Bourlon.

The tanks got into the village and began taking on the machine gun positions but the 14th Highland Light Infantry were so far behind them that the tanks pulled out again. The HLI did eventually get into the village but they had a grim task trying to hang on to the few houses that they had taken.

On the right in Bourlon Wood the Germans had attacked throughout the day trying to dislodge the Welshmen but without great success.

The following day IV Corps tried to join up with the Highlanders in Bourlon village but nothing was successful and in the end the Highlanders, cut off and surrounded, capitulated - all 80 of them, out of a battalion of over 500 men!

That evening 40th Division were relieved by the 62nd (West Riding) Division. In two days they had lost over 4 000 men.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_cambrai_btl_09.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BRITISH MERCHANT SHIPS LOST AT SEA DUE TO ENEMY ACTION

WESTLANDS, 3,112grt, defensively-armed, 23 November 1917, 10 miles North from Ile de Vierge, torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine

OCEAN, 1,442grt, defensively-armed, 23 November 1917, 4 miles E by N from Hartlepool, torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine

LA BLANCA, 7,479grt, defensively-armed, 23 November 1917, 10 miles SSE from Berry Head, torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine, 2 lives lost.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1LossesBrMS1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

South Australia’s First Air Mail Delivery - To Gawler

At some point arrangements were made with the Postmaster-General’s
Department in Adelaide for Carey to transport official mail from Adelaide
to Gawler and another mail on his return. On 23 November 1917, Carey
flew his Bleriot 60 aircraft from Enfield to the Gawler Racecourse at
Evanston, carrying the first official air mail delivery within South Australia.
The mail consisted of 100 souvenir postcards (which sold at 2/6d. each)
and 10 letters including a letter from the Lord Mayor of Adelaide to the
Mayor of Gawler.

The Bleriot took off from Enfield at 3 pm and arrived over Gawler at about
3.30 pm. Carey described the flight as uneventful although the weather
was bad, with heavy showers. His arrival at Gawler attracted great
attention as he circled over the temporary landing field. Following his
successful landing on the racecourse, Carey handed over the mail to
junior telegraph messenger, Walter Nelson, who delivered it to the
Gawler Post Office.

Carey’s aircraft went on display for the weekend at the racecourse in a
marquee erected as a hangar. An Army guard was on constant duty to
prevent accidental damage by enthusiastic sightseers. During the
weekend he conducted joy flights but on one flight, engine trouble caused
a forced landing in a paddock. The Bleriot came to rest in a haystack,
causing slight damage to the aircraft and, fortunately, no injury to either
pilot or passenger.

On the return flight to Adelaide on 26 November, Carey again carried
official mail.

Number 9 in a Series of Historical Pamphlets produced by Gawler Public Library,
http://www.gawler.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/Gawler_s_First_Air_Mail.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BB-30 USS FLORIDA, 1917 - 1918

23 November 1917 photo showing the Florida (BB-30) wearing an experimental anti-rangefinder/anti-angle of attack camouflage. It consisted of triangle baffles on her foremast, and a broken paint design on her stacks and turrets. The bow stripes were designed to confuse a submarine commander as to heading or course.

http://www.navsource.org/archives/01/30a.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering the fallen

Case studies from National Army Museum

Eight and a half million soldiers died during World War One. They came from many countries, and spoke many languages. Millions of families mourned their passing.

The excavations we have detailed, used in tandem with museum and archive collections, enable us to uncover the stories of a few individuals and allow us to remember their sacrifice. By telling the stories of a few, we shed light on the fate of many.

As well as battlefield excavations and the supporting research, there are other ways in which the life stories of soldiers can be uncovered. From libraries, attics, museums and record offices come letters, diaries, official documents and photographs that shed light on a bygone era and draw us in to the personal lives of those who fought. These are a selection of stories from the National Army Museum’s archives.

Percy Ottley

The small collection of personal items that belonged to Private Percy Ottley came to the Museum in 2004, having been carefully preserved by his daughter Mary for nearly 90 years. It is a mixture of letters and personal photographs saved by her mother Ethel.

Ottley was 32 when he was killed in action at Cambrai with the London Scottish Regiment. Son of a well-known corn merchant he was the second of four brothers. He married Ethel Annie Camm on 28 September 1909 at Womersley, North Yorkshire. Their daughter, Mary, was born in on 6 December 1910.

In civilian life Percy worked at Beckett’s Bank in Doncaster, and was a popular local figure, being a keen cyclist and bell ringer. He joined the Army on 3 February 1916 and trained for a year before being sent to France with the London Scottish Regiment in August of 1917. Obviously a good soldier, he had been identified as a potential officer.

Killed in action

At 8am on 23 November 1917 his unit attacked Tadpole Trench, one small incident in the Battle of Cambrai. Percy was killed in action, and his body was never recovered. A letter of condolence was sent to Mrs Ottley by Lieutenant D. L. Newbigging of the London Scottish, explaining how Ottley was killed.

As one of 314,000 missing British and Commonwealth soldiers, Private Ottley’s name was listed on the Cambrai Memorial. His community mourned his passing with a peal of muffled bells.

http://www.national-army-museum.ac.uk/exhibitions/findingTheFallen/page7.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meerle tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog - De dagboeken van burgemeester Lodewijk Van Nueten (1914-1918)

Zaterdag 23 november 1918
Goed weder.

Weinig oorlogsnieuws.

Gisteren namiddag kwam onze Antonie aan. Er komen meer soldaten aan maar voor een dag zonder verlof. Die passeren dan nabij Antwerpen of Lier en gaan even naar huis.

http://www.meerle14-18.be/2018/11/23/zaterdag-23-november-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hoogeveensche Courant, 23 november 1918

"Hoogeveen, 22 november. De Spaanse griep woedt hier en in de omtrek in steeds heviger mate. Het aantal sterfgevallen neemt onrustbarend toe. In de jaren dat de zo gevreesde cholera-epidemieën voorkwamen vielen niet zoveel slachtoffers als thans. In een gezin stierven twee volwassen zoons, in een andere twee zoons en een dochter terwijl in beide gezinnen nog meer huisgenoten ziek liggen. In het gehucht Stuifzand overleden zondag 4 personen. Het is een angstige tijd."

http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/programmas/2899536/afleveringen/3354286/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 16:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Spaanse griep, 1918

(...) Een duidelijk beeld van de omstandigheden in die tijd geeft ons een verslag van de vergadering van de Gezondheidscommissie, die werd gehouden op 23 november 1918. Dit was een commissie, die was ingesteld op grond van de gezondheidswet van 1901 en het werkgebied besloeg de gemeenten Achtkarspelen, Kollumerland en Tytjerksteradiel. Vertegenwoordigers van die gemeenten hadden hierin zitting en bijna iedere maand werd er vergaderd. Men hield zich bezig met zaken in het belang van de volksgezondheid. Aan de orde kwamen onder meer een groot aantal stinkende en vervuilde sloten, die problemen gaven. Ook klachten van ingezetenen over het stinkend privaat van de buren werd behandeld. Maar in de late herfst van 1918 ging men zich bezig houden met een veel belangrijker probleem. Op de agenda was het punt "Maatregelen tegen de Spaanse griep" geplaatst. Na vrij langdurige discussie kwamen de heren tot de conclusie dat er iets kon en moest worden gedaan om de verspreiding van de Spaanse griep tegen te gaan. De leden van de commissie deden de volgende suggesties:

- bij de gemeentebesturen er op aandringen tot onmiddellijke goedkope verstrekking van krachtig voedsel aan de mingegoeden, aangezien hieronder de meeste gevallen voorkomen. Ook al zouden de mensen weer beter worden, dan kunnen ze niet weer op krachten komen wegens gebrek aan voldoende goede voeding.

- Het werd dringend nodig geacht dat veel huisgezinnen werden voorzien van schoon linnengoed, omdat ze zouden omkomen in vuil en stank. Dit in verband met het feit dat ze niet op tijd konden wassen en verschonen wegens gebrek aan zeep, lijfgoed, lakens, enz.

- verder vond men het nodig om plaatselijke commissies in te stellen, waarin ook vrouwen moesten zitten. Deze commissie zou dan tot taak moeten krijgen: "in samenwerking met de armmeesters, de grote en vele noden in de arbeidersstand (vooral op de heiden) zo veel mogelijk met de meeste spoed te lenigen.

- ook werd het van groot belang geacht om gezinnen met zieken, die van lichtvoorzieningen waren verstoken, petroleum en kaarsen te verstrekken.

De vergadering drong op spoed aan om iets te doen. "Vele gezinnen zijn de wanhoop nabij". Zij kunnen niet meer wachten, geen dag en geen nacht. "Onder de armoedigste gezinnen breidt de beruchte ziekte zich op verontrustbare wijze uit en vraagt vele slachtoffers". Het resultaat van de bespreking was een om een brief te schrijven aan de drie gemeentebesturen. Hierin zou indringend worden verzocht die maatregelen te nemen, die nodig en bevorderlijk zouden zijn om uitbreiding van de ziekte tegen te gaan, deze verder te voorkomen en te bestrijden. Tevens werden de gemeenten uitgenodigd om binnen 14 dagen te berichten wat zij dachten te doen aan de grote problemen. (...)

http://www.binnenbuitenpost.nl/buitenpost/geschiedenis/spaansegriep1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 17:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 23 November 1918: De Spaanse Griep

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19181123.2.21
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 17:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1918)

23 november 1918 - Schoen- en lederbons werden opgestuurd naar het Rijkskantoor voor Huiden en Leder in Den Haag. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=191:09-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1918&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 17:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

East African Campaign

(...) British units were closing in on the Schutztruppe and on 23 November 1917, Lettow-Vorbeck crossed south into Portuguese Mozambique to gain supplies by capturing Portuguese garrisons. By leaving German East Africa he no longer had to defer to the civil authority of Governor Schnee. With his caravans of troops, carriers, wives and children he marched through Mozambique for the next nine months, avoiding capture, but unable to gain much strength. Lettow-Vorbeck's army was divided into three groups on the march. He eventually learned that he had lost a thousand-man detachment under Hauptmann [captain] Theodor Tafel, who was forced to surrender, being out of food and ammunition. [29]

The army then reentered German East Africa and crossed into Northern Rhodesia in August 1918. On 13 November 1918, two days after the Armistice was signed in France, the German Army took and occupied its last town, Kasama, which had been evacuated by the British. The next day at the Chambezi River, Lettow-Vorbeck was handed a telegram announcing the signing of the armistice and he agreed to a cease-fire: the 'Von Lettow-Vorbeck Memorial' marks the spot in present-day Zambia. As requested, he marched his undefeated army to Abercorn and formally surrendered there on 23 November 1918. (...)

http://wapedia.mobi/en/East_African_Campaign_(World_War_I)

Lettow-Vorbeck, General Paul Emil von. (1870-1964)

Born Saarlouis, Germany. Sent to China with the German Expeditionary Force, von Lettow-Vorbeck saw action in the Boxer Rebellion, served in Namibia (German Southwest Africa) during the Hottentot and Herero Rebellion of 1904-08, and wounded, was sent for several months to South Africa for recuperation.
As a lieutenant-colonel in February, 1914, he was appointed commander of the forces in German East Africa, with a dozen companies of askari troops. In August, 1914, effectively isolated from outside command, von Lettow-Vorbeck launched a series of effective raids against the British railway in Kenya, attempted to conquer Mombasa, fought off a British amphibious attack on Tanga and finally captured large amounts of arms and ammunitions to supply his troops. von Lettow-Vorbeck managed to salvage the guns from the destroyed ship Konigsberg, and was able to use these along with the rigours of the terrain to hold off the offensive of Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts in March, 1916. He remained continually on the offensive, gradually working south, and in December 1917 invaded Mozambique, and advanced as far south as Quelimane (July 1918), invaded Rhodesia in the fall and captured Kasama, Zambia on 13 November 1918. He officially surrendered to the British, having never been defeated, on 23 November 1918, at Mbaala, Zambia, and arranged for the re-patriation of German soldiers and prisoners of war before his departure for Germany in January, 1919. von Lettow-Vorbeck never had more than approximately 12,000 troops at his disposal, but tied down as many as ten to twenty times that number of Allied troops.

http://www.gwpda.org/bio/l/letvrbek.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 17:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fritz von Below

Fritz Wilhelm Theodor Karl von Below (born 23 September 1853 in Danzig (Gdańsk); died 23 November 1918 in Weimar) was a Prussian general in the German Army during the First World War. Below commanded the Eighth Army after Paul von Hindenburg from 1914 to 1916 and the Second Army at the beginning of the Somme offensive in 1916. He was awarded the Pour le Mérite medal on 16 February 1915. Below died in Weimar shortly after Germany had signed the armistice.

Below was the cousin of Otto von Below, another German commander during the war.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_von_Below
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 17:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening Post, 23 November 1918: SURRENDER OP THE U-BOATS

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19181123.2.31.1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 17:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Welcher Wochentag war der 23.11.1919?

Der 23.11.1919 war ein Sonntag.

Tageseinträge für 23. November 1919

23.11.1919 - Der Totensonntag wird im Deutschen Reich als Trauertag für die Gefallenen des Ersten Weltkriegs begangen.

23.11.1919 - Das italienische Kriegsministerium in Rom ordnet die Schleifung des römischen Festungsgürtels an.

Wetterdaten für November 1919

Im November des Jahres 1919 war es laut den Wetteraufzeichnungen erheblich zu kalt (Abweichung: -2.5 °C).

http://www.chroniknet.de/daly_de.0.html?year=1919&month=11&day=23
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2012 8:14    Onderwerp: Battle of Ctesiphon in Mesopotamia (1915) Reageer met quote

Emiel @ 23 Nov 2006 0:19 schreef:
1915 : Battle of Ctesiphon in Mesopotamia

On this day in 1915, fighting between Allied and Turkish forces continues into a second day during the Battle of Ctesiphon (or Selman Pak), on the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq.


Under the command of Sir John Nixon, British troops in World War I enjoyed a string of early successes in their invasion of Mesopotamia. By late September 1915, forces led by Nixon’s forward divisional commander, Sir Charles Townshend, had occupied the Mesopotamian province of Basra, including the town of Kut-al-Amara. That November, Nixon ordered Townshend to continue the offensive up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers towards Baghdad, the regional commander’s real objective. Anxious about the fragile nature of British supply lines in the region and doubtful of the capabilities of his mostly Indian troops--who had already lost one-third of their number to battle or sickness--Townshend argued for delaying the attacks in order to wait for reinforcements. The ambitious Nixon instructed him to proceed as ordered.


Meanwhile, following their defeat at Kut, Turkish forces had withdrawn to carefully prepared and fortified defensive positions among the ruins of the ancient city of Ctesiphon. When Townshend’s troops began their attacks on the night of November 22, they were confronted by companies of largely inexperienced Turkish soldiers entrenched firmly in two lines on either side of the Tigris. While the Anglo-Indian troops were able to capture the first-line of Turkish positions that first night, the Turks mounted a spirited defense and casualties on both sides began to mount.


On November 23, the Turks launched a counter-attack aimed at recapturing the ground lost the day before. Though their effort was unsuccessful, Townshend’s casualty rate had reached 40 percent, or some 4,500 men. Knowing he could not expect reinforcements, Townshend authorized a British retreat to Kut in order to regroup and treat his wounded men. Twelve days later, the Turks began a siege against Kut that would last for the next five months and exhaust Townshend’s depleted forces. After attempting four times without success to confront their opponents, suffering heavy casualties in the process, Townshend was forced to give up the fight, along with his remaining 10,000 men, on April 29, 1916. It was the largest single surrender of troops in British history up until that time.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 November 1916 - Hawker vs Richthofen, A Hundred-Year Analysis

There has been a lot of ink printed regarding one of the most famous dogfights in aviation history--the fight between Lanoe Hawker and Manfred von Richthofen. For all the speculation, assertions, witness recollections, and sibling legacy protection, few in my view have come to a more intriguing analysis of the famous air fight than Leon Bennett.

Bennett, in his little known but fantastically readable analysis of the difficulties of aerial gunnery and combat in World War I - Gunning for the Red Baron - lays out the best studied account of the fight I have read. I share the excerpt below for those that care to read it. It is well worth the time.

Excerpt from "Gunning for the Red Baron" by Leon Bennett, Texas A&M Press, 2006, 140, 155-159.

WINNING AN AIR BATTLE REQUIRED MUCH in the way of gunnery, performance, skill, bravery, and luck. Less clear is the requisite proportion of each. How much was performance? How much was luck?

....In encounters between two enemy single-seater pilots sharing the same altitude, each automatically headed for his opponent's rear, hoping to find the enemy machine directly to his front. If a fighter pilot or machine was slow to respond, his speedier enemy could well earn an easy victory. However, if both opponents were equally alert and spry, neither found immediate success. Instead, the actual path traced out by the fighters became a spiral, narrowing down to a circle after many revolutions. Dogfighting was well named.

One classic battle, a fight between Richthofen and Maj. Lanoe Hawker (7 victories) in November 1916, illustrated the difficulties. Unlike so many battles between the skillful on one side and the inept on the other, each pilot was highly experienced and at the top of his form. The outcome reflected not only skill but also the influence of aircraft design...

....The Hawker / Red Baron battle started at about 8,000 feet on a typical cold and windy fall day (November 23, 1916). 16 With the prevailing wind blowing from the west, toward German-held territory, the weather favored Richthofen. Should he lose all power, he would land within his own lines. Not so for Hawker. Any lengthy time spent circling about in wind would carry the dueling machines miles downstream, away from British lines. For Hawker, getting back would take much time and fuel.

Offering himself as bait, Richthofen dithered and waited for one or more visible DH2 machines to take up his challenge. Each of the DH2's had a considerable edge in altitude--Richthofen appeared to be a perfect bounce victim. A modest dive, well within the DH2's ability, would grant enough extra speed to keep pace with Richthofen's Albatros D2. For the speeding DH2 to assume "50 yards and behind" position would then be easy. Although suspiciously generous, the offer of speed along with a free no-deflection shooting position proved most attractive. Certainly RFC attack instructions for the DH2 were clear: "When dealing with a slow scout like the DH2, it is necessary to get above the hostile machine and thus gain your speed by diving on him. 17

Hawker stared downward at a seemingly perfect textbook opportunity. Of course, it could also be a trap. If so, he might detect trickery through sudden liveliness on the part of the bait, bursting into action just after his DH2 was committed. The bait's best countermove was a turn to face his descending enemy, combined with a rush toward the enemy's rear--the start of a classic pursuit circle. Hawker pondered--and dove.

It was a trap. Richthofen started his countermove circle, though just a bit late. Hawker was able to get off five shots--a standard burst--from his single gun, but sensed he was wasting his ammunition, with all the DH2 bullets going wide and outside. Diagnosis: Richthofen was out-turning him. Hawker stopped shooting to concentrate on the critical business of circling.

At 8,000 feet the DH2 couldn't circle tightly--it lacked the necessary engine power. Although much more powerful, the Albatros D2 was handicapped with higher wing loading. The two drawbacks were equally potent. Each pilot settled on roughly the same circular diameter and circled steadily, surrendering altitude at about the same rate. Neither was able to command a decent firing position. With breakaway always a dangerous move, clinging to a draw seemed a better bet. Especially so, when each reasoned that the draw would end in his own favor at some lower altitude.

Richthofen was so certain that thicker air would make him a winner that he questioned Hawker's judgment in refusing breakaway at 6,000 feet: "my opponent ought to have discovered that it was time for him to take his leave." 18 Acting against Hawker's departure was the gain in the DH2 power anticipated near the deck, yielding an improved ability to tighten pursuit circle diameter, without undue sinking.

They continued to turn and sink for thousands of feet of altitude, always opposite, on the same basic circle. Ultimately, with their remaining altitude amounting to only hundreds of feet, sinking became unacceptable. The circular diameter at this point was judged to be 250 to 300 feet by Richthofen. 19 these numbers, roughly equal to the theoretical minimum, implied an all out effort--everything had been thrown into the balance.

Yet the draw persisted. Hawker's optimism was mistaken, as was Richthofen's. Neither could gain a decent firing position. Facing an approaching forced landing well behind German lines, Hawker was pressed into a breakaway attempt. Flying the slower machine, he tried for a zigzag path requiring a high deflection allowance from Richthofen's bullets. It didn't work. Hawker was shot dead within 150 feet of the front lines.

From Hawker's point of view, something had gone terribly wrong. Able to match turning circles at altitude, the expectation that he would do even better near the ground was a reasonable one. The known climb rate characteristics of both machines backs this outcome. Yet his expected gain in turning circle radius didn't materialize. Most likely, the anticipated surge of power near the ground never happened, and with this failure, his battle was lost.

Hawker's brother, and biographer, pointed to an engine malfunction claimed as known to Lanoe Hawker just before the battle occurred. 20 Perhaps, but this hardly accounted for the DH2's solid turning performance at those higher altitudes encountered at the battle's start. Nor does it explain why Lanoe Hawker chose to give battle at all, if aware of a deceptive engine.

A more probable solution is that the 35 minute fight, all at peak revolutions, came as too much of a burden for Hawker's Monosoupape rotary engine. Loss of revs was a well known aspect of rotary life, developing over time as carbonized castor oil droplets coated valve seats, preventing valve closure, or stuck to the cylinder walls, preventing piston rings from sealing. The net effect was to lose compression--and power--though the engine still ran. Hawker's loss was consistent with such a happening.

Had his engine held up, there is reason to believe that Hawker's circle would have narrowed to a winning extent at about the 1,000 foot level. Instead, once into the duel, his fading engine deprived Hawker of the thrust necessary to either out-circle Richthofen or to break away cleanly. 21

In short, Hawker was doomed not by lack of skill or even by his generally inferior aircraft but by a lemon rotary engine. In the end, forced to rely on luck and the difficulties of deflection shooting for escape, he lost his bet.

Much as we all would do, Richthofen used his triumph over Hawker to confirm his own fixed views. Hawker was known to Richthofen as the English Immelmann, famous for his novel tactics and aerobatics. 22 As it happened, Richthofen thought little of aerobatics and trick flying. The demise of Hawker served as neat self-justification. After all, what good had those skills done Hawker?

To Richthofen, what mattered was possession of the better machine, one allowing straightforward tactics. There was a good deal to be said for Richthofen's approach. Unfortunately, it offered no place for the dull reality of carbonized castor oil droplets. In the end, few of us are undone by the grand strategies or superior skills of our enemies. It's the carbonized castor oil droplets that get us.


FOOTNOTES
16 - Richthofen, Red Air Fighter, 83-85, gave his initial altitude as 10,000 feet, with Hawker launching his own attack from a still great altitude. We doubt it; DH2 performance at those altitudes was too feeble to support combat. Instead, we accept a more believable initial altitude of 8,000 feet, offered by Nowarra and Brown's Von Richthofen and the Flying Circus, 35.
17 - Official instruction as of September 1916. PRO file #AIR 1/1625/204/89/8.
18 - Richthofen, Red Air Fighter, 84
19 - Ibid., 85
20 - Hawker, Hawker, VC, 233-34
21 - Malfunctions taken from data in Ibid., 140-41.
22 - Richthofen, Red Air Fighter, 83


Lees de dialogen op dit forum... http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/showthread.php?t=66883
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Interior of a Billet, France, 23 November 1916

Image: the interior of a bare room where British soldiers are billeted. Two soldiers are sittting in front of a fireplace, another stands to one side with his arms folded. The furniture consists of one chair and a broken cupboard. Part of the building can be seen through an unglazed window to the right.

Tekening... http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/293
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot - January 1914 – December 1918

23 November 1916; Thursday - Up at 6 o’clock. Went off to Gap station along with Corporal Chapman to strike tents. Didn’t get away until nearly dinner time. Hurried back to Aveluy post and had no time for dinner. Marched off about 11.30 and arrived at Warloy* at about 4 o’clock. Messed about looking for billets and finally settled on some emergency tents. Had pretty good night, 9 in the tent.

*Warloy: presumably Warloy-Baillon (A), 9km due W. of Brickfields/Albert (B); Michelin square H7

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2016/11/23/23-november-1916-thursday/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fred Harold Tomlins war diary, 23 November 1916-18 January 1917

Thurs 23rd - Camels arrived at 6.30 this morning & took all gear that is to go by train to Salmana. Col. Granville is to be married shortly & over £ 50 was subscribed from the Regt to buy a wedding present, he is to be married to a Miss Beveridge & by the noise in the Officers Mess tonight they appear to be drinking a few healths. A message came through tonight granting "Granny" 3 weeks leave from the Commander in Chief. On account of the quantity of work the Sigs a getting now, I am doing the 6 to 10 PM shift. A parade of pack horses loaded was held this morning as the C.O. said the horses have been too heavily packed.

https://transcripts.sl.nsw.gov.au/page/303618/view
Hier het hele dagboek: https://transcripts.sl.nsw.gov.au/content/item-07-fred-harold-tomlins-war-diary-23-november-1916-18-january-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Generaal-majoor der Artillerie J.W.P. van Hoogstraten - Gouverneur der KMA van 1915 - 1919

(...) Vermeldenswaard tijdens zijn Gouverneursperiode was het bezoek dat H.M. de Koningin op 23 November 1916 aan de KMA bracht, waarbij het cadettencorps op het Chassé-terrein werd geïnspecteerd. (...)

Lees het complete artikel op https://kasteelvanbreda.nl/Kasteelvanbreda.nl/component/content/article/16-historie-kma/gouverneurs/127-hoogstraten
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 november 1917 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Benedikt Van Peteghem is op 30 maart 1891 geboren in de Oost-Vlaamse gemeente Wetteren. De ongehuwde zoon van Edmond en Maria Alina Blancquaert verdient de kost als wever. Hij is 1,61 meter groot en heeft zwart haar. Op 15 september 1913 treedt hij als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.
Op 23 november 1917 krijgt hij in Diksmuide per ongeluk een geweerkogel in de buik en wordt geëvacueerd naar het Rode Kruis-hospitaal L'Océan in Vinkem. Hij overlijdt daar nog dezelfde dag om 12.05 uur.
Het slachtoffer wordt op 26 november 1917 om 10 uur 's morgens begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Oeren, grafnummer 573.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/23-november-1917-1

23 November 1917 - Pte Joseph Hoole died on this day

202241 Pte Joseph Hoole, 1/4th Bn King's Own (Ryl Lancaster Regt)
From Preston, Lancashire, Joseph was born in 1892. A pre-war territorial, he had been a weaver in his civilian life and re-enlisted in 1916.
In May 1917, Joseph was sent out to France and fought in the 3rd Battle of Ypres and at Cambrai where he was seriously wounded in both legs, right arm and chest.
He died of these injuries in a Casualty Clearing Station on 23 November 1917 and is now buried in Tincourt New British Cemetery, Somme.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/on-this-day/23-november-1917-pte-joseph-hoole-died-on-this-day/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 November 1917 - Fraser Chadwick

On this day in 1917, cabinet minister Lord Robert Cecil declared that the Russian government was not to be recognised, while in Tynemouth Fraser Chadwick asserts his authority.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09bbzmx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2017 11:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 November 1917 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange

+ The parents of Harry Joseph Press are informed that their son, who has been missing in action since May has been reported as having been killed in action during the Battle of Bullecourt.
+ An entertainment troupe of wounded Gallipoli veterans, the Gallipoli Strollers, plan to revisit Orange
+ The Fruit and Vegetable Fund Committee in Sydney appeals for food, clothing and toys to brighten the Christmas of the state’s 4,000 children whose fathers are serving overseas.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/23-november-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2018 8:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dag van Rudolf Maister - vrijdag 23 november 2018 - Slovenië - Nationale feestdag

De 'Dag van Rudolf Maister' (Dan Rudolfa Maistra) is een Sloveense nationale feestdag die sinds 2005 ieder jaar op 23 november wordt gehouden. Op deze dag in 1918 ontwapenden Rudolf Maister en zijn leger de Duitstalige elite in Maribor en veroverde hij het grootste deel van de Sloveense nationale gebieden van Stiermarken en Karinthië.

Dag van Rudolf MaisterRudolf Maister (1874 - 1934) was een Sloveense generaal, dichter, schilder en politiek activist. Hij staat bekend als 'de strijder om de noordelijke grens'. Onder zijn leiding veroverden de Slovenen Maribor en omgeving.

Na de Eerste Wereldoorlog wilde de heersende Duitstalige elite in Maribor zich aansluiten bij de Republiek Duits-Oostenrijk. Rudolf Maister, op dat moment de bevelhebber van het daar gestationeerde leger, ging niet akkoord met deze beslissing en verklaarde Maribor tot deel van het territorium van de Staat der Slovenen, Kroaten en Serven. Vervolgens nam hij het opperbevel over de stad Maribor en de omgeving op zich. Alle kazernes kwamen onder zijn bevel te staan en Maister werd vrij snel daarna tot generaal benoemd. Als reactie hierop richtten de etnische Duitsers in Maribor de Groene Garde op. Begin november riep Maister op tot mobilisatie van de Slovenen en lukte het hem een leger van ongeveer 4000 man te creëren.

Op 23 november 1918 namen Maister en zijn leger Maribor in, waarop ze de Groene Garde ontwapenden. Maister en zijn leger trokken verder en veroverden een aanzienlijk deel van het voormalige hertogdom Stiermarken, waarbij Bleiburg (Pliberk in het Sloveens), Völkermarkt (Velikovec) en Lavamünd (Labot) werden bezet.

De 'Dag van Rudolf Maister' is geen officiële vrije dag in Slovenië. Met een plechtige ceremonie worden er kransen gelegd bij de standbeelden van Rudolf Maister.

https://www.beleven.org/feest/dan_rudolfa_maistra_slovenie

General Rudolf Maister and the Missed Opportunities for Slovenians after the Great War

With the formation of the State of Slovenians, Croats and Serbs on October 29, 1918, Slovenians finally lived to see their decades-long dream of breaking free from the Habsburg rule come true. Rather than seeking for their future within the framework of the transformed former monarchy, they boldly opted to open a new chapter in their national history – a decision that came at a high price. Namely, the new Yugoslav state encountered problems right from the start, especially as regards its state territory which, due to its geostrategic position, caught the interest of both Italy in the West and Austria on the Slovenia’s northern border. The latter was comprised of distinctly ethnically mixed lands of Styria and Carinthia, where, even prior to the declaration of the new Yugoslav state, relations between Germans and Slovenians were very tense as a result of forced Germanization and disregard of the Slovenian national demands. The fact that both nations declared their authority over Lower Styria and parts of the southern Carinthia, did nothing to soothe the intense national feelings of the two rivalry nations. In their territorial claims, both sides claimed the right of their people to self-determination, promised by the American president Woodrow Wilson in January 1918 to the nations of the defeated Habsburg Empire. It is this particular right that was to become the basis for establishing the new post-WWI borders at the Paris Peace Conference.

This month’s archivalia takes us back a century to witness these dramatic revolutionary events. Presented here is a contract, signed on November 27, 1918 in Maribor by Rudolf Maister, commander of the Styrian Border Command of the SHS in Maribor, and Colonel Rudolf Passy, the representative of the German-Austrian Committee for Public Welfare (Germ. Wohlfahrtsausschuss) and the colonel of the Graz Military Command. The contract was to be a starting-point for determining a demarcation line between the two conflicting sides in Styria and Carinthia and was to ensure a much needed peace. However, as is evident from the telegrams sent by the State Office of Foreign Affairs (Germ. Staatsamt für Äusseres) in Vienna and by the National Government in Ljubljana, official politicians of neither of the opposing states approved of the actions of their two military commanders.

Although in November 1918 the Paris Peace Conference was nothing but a notion vaguely taking shape in a not so distant future, members of the German and Slovenian communities did not sit idle but were out to protect their individual interests. On October 20, 1918, the Graz hotel Erzherzog Johann became a venue for the founding of the Public Welfare Committee, which consisted of representatives from the world of politics, economy, agriculture and workers. Founded as a response to the formation of the Slovenian Styrian National Council, the Committee was to provide security and integrity of the Crown land Styria until German-Austrian authorities take charge over the territory; it was to ensure public peace and order, and especially to protect the borders in ethnically mixed areas.

The end of the Great War further complicated the situation in Lower Styria. Ceasing his opportunity on November 1, 1918, Rudolf Maister renounced obedience to the commander of the Austrian troops, Colonel Anton Holik, and declared the city of Maribor a Yugoslav territory. Failing in any firm military intervention against the still unorganized Slovenian military troops, German-Austrian authorities came under much criticism from the Lower Styrian Germans, who felt let down by their authorities.
Similar criticism about inactivity or missed opportunities was directed also at Slovenian authorities, with people from various places across Styria and Carinthia wondering whether the official Ljubljana had in fact abandoned them.

Meanwhile, General Maister was mobilizing men and trying to occupy territories along the ethnic border areas. German-Austrian political sphere protested against his actions, and even the National Government in Ljubljana did not come to Maister’s defence, but instead warned the president of the Styrian National Council to make the Slovenian general see senses and to stop him. On November 23, 1918, when Maister managed to disarm the German Green Guard in Maribor, the National Government in Ljubljana missed a historic opportunity to occupy the ethnic border in Lower Styria and come all the way to Klagenfurt in Carinthia. Namely, Maister’s victory in Maribor broke the morale of the German-Austrian troops that began to massively leave Lower Styria and withdraw north of Lipnica.

On November 27, 1918, General Maister in Maribor convinced Colonel Passy, the representative of the German-Austrian Wohlfahrtsausschuss, to sign a contract that was very favorable for the Slovenian side, allowing the Yugoslav troops to occupy the ethnically mixed border area in Styria and Carinthia along the demarcation line: Radgona – Pridova – Gornja Purkla – Št. Vid na Vogavi – Ernož – Zagaj – Ivnik – Št. Pavel ob Labodnici – Grebinj – Veženberk – Slovenji Šmihelj – Krnski grad – Trg – Beljak – Šmohor – south on the provincial border. Both signatories put down in writing that the contract, which was to enter into force at noon on November 30, 1918, did not aim to settle future national border between the two nations, but to provide care and security for the civilians.

By signing the contract, Colonel Passy acknowledged Maister’s superiority and allowed the latter to occupy territories along the ethnic border. Telegrams exchanged between the opposing authorities in Vienna and Ljubljana make it evident that neither of the official politics were thrilled by the concluded agreement. A day after the signing of the contract, on November 28, the Vienna State Office of Foreign Affairs protested vehemently to the National Government in Ljubljana, claiming that neither of the signatories had been authorized to enter into any sort of agreement. On November 29, the National Gover nment in Ljubljana led by Lovro Pogačnik replied to Vienna that although they had no intention to ratify the said contract, they nevertheless suggest the reached agreement be used as a basis for planned negotiations. Pogačnik was obviously displeased with Maister’s imposing of his self-will once again. Minutes of the 26th session of the National Government taking place on November 30, 1918 reveal Pogačnik’s strong reaction to Maister’s actions and his demand to let the general know that his range of activities was strictly military and that he had no authority to negotiate any sorts of political contracts with German Austria on his own.

The National Government in Ljubljana was distancing itself from Maister's actions. They began to perceive him as an autocrat, who had absolutely no regard for the authority and always worked on his own account. In the minutes to the said session, Pogačnik scolded Maister, warning him that he had to answer for his action to the National Government and not to the National Council. It also became apparent that the National Government in Ljubljana would not support Maister’s plans to help Fran Malgaj’s troops and intervene in Carinthia, since such actions were not considered to be within Maister’s territorial range of activities and he was not supposed to have any jurisdiction over such matters. Slovenian internal political differences worked to the advantage of German-Austrian troops which made rapid progress in Carinthia.

http://www.arhiv.gov.si/en/areas_of_work/exhibitions/archivalia_of_the_month_november_2018/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2018 8:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maas- en Scheldebode, 23 november 1918: Ouddorps huisarts overlijdt aan de Spaanse griep
A.J. Nelis

'Onze goede dokter is niet meer. Wij zullen zijn vluggen stap langs straten en wegen niet meer vernemen, zijn gullen lach niet meer hooren, zijn opgeruimd spreken moeten missen. Vrijdagavond moest hij gaan liggen om niet meer op te staan; reeds Maandagavond stierf hij, 46 jaren oud. Heden (Donderdag) namiddag had de begrafenis plaats. Dokter Crucq was algemeen geacht en bemind. Op welke uren van dag of nacht hij geroepen werd, steeds was hij bereid om te komen, nooit onderscheid makende tussen rijk of arm. Daarom zal hij lang bij ons in gezegende herinnering blijven.'

https://www.eilandennieuws.nl/extra/7384/100-jaar-geleden-overleed-ouddorps-huisarts-aan-de-spaanse-griep-
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2018 8:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Duitse Kroonprins was niet echt welkom op Wieringen

OOSTERLAND – Op 23 november 1918, na het verlies van de Eerste Wereldoorlog, stapt de Duitse kroonprins Frederik Willem van de boot het eiland Wieringen op. De prins gaat wonen in de pastorie van Oosterland en ontpopt zich al snel als echte rokkenjager. Als hij echter met een prostituee betrapt wordt, haalt hij zich de woede van de Wieringers op de hals. Lees hier (en bekijk hieronder) het bizarre verhaal van ‘Het Schandaal van Oosterland’.

Het epos begint bij de aankomst van de prins in de haven van de Haukes. Een Telegraaf-verslaggever van toen schetst een beeld van een sneu figuur. “Is dat de hoop van een trotse natie van miljoenen zielen geweest?”, schrijft hij.

De prins, die ook bekend staat als ‘de Slachter van Verdun’ hoeft niet op een warm welkom te rekenen, weet Gerard Nuijmeijer van de Historische Vereniging Wieringen. “Er stond hier een zwijgende menigte op hem te wachten. Eerst was het allemaal geheim gehouden, maar het lekte uit. Echt enthousiast waren ze niet.

De kroonprins vertrekt richting de pastorie van Oosterland die hem als woning is toegewezen. Al snel blijkt dat hij even verderop, tegenover de kerk een kamer heeft geregeld waar hij dames van twijfelachtige reputatiekan ontvangen. “Mijn grootvader had hier een smerderij”, vertelt Wieringer Jaap Lont.

“Hij werkte vaak met de deuren open. Op een gegeven moment zagen ze een dame van lichte zeden met de kroonprins bij het huis van de buurman naar binnen gaan. Dat vonden ze wel heel erg merkwaardig.” De nieuwsgierigheid wordt de grootvader van Lont beloond met rode oortjes. “Ze hebben toen de luiken opengetrokken en zagen wat je kon verwachten.”

“De Wieringers zijn van dit soort gedrag niet gediend en er ontstaat een relletje”, vertelt schrijver Wout Smit. “Als de prins naar buiten komt, wordt hij uitgejoeld en worden er zelfs stenen naar hem gegooid. De prins verdwijnt, maar iedereen praat er over. Zo komen er klachten bij de burgemeester terecht.”

Die burgemeester, A. Peereboom, zit met zijn handen in het haar. Hij is de toezichthouder van de prins. De burgemeester besluit het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken op de hoogte te brengen. “Hij schrijft een brief aan meester Kan, waarin hij zich beklaagt over het gedrag van de prins”, vertelt Smit aan NH Nieuws.

‘Lokale feiten zijn leuk!’ - Maar de inkt van de brief is nog maar amper droog, of de adjudanten van de kroonprins melden zich bij de burgemeester. Zij bieden excuses aan en verzekeren hem dat de kroonprins het niet meer zal doen. “Ja daar is de kous wel zo’n beetje mee af. De prins gedraagt zich zo goed dat hij uiteindelijk door de Wieringers geaccepteerd wordt.”

Wout Smit heeft over de avonturen van de kroonprins het boek ‘Het Schandaal van Oosterland’ geschreven. Aan de hand van brieven en krantenartikels laat hij de geschiedenis herleven. Het boek is vanaf 22 november online verkrijgbaar. Ook ligt het dan bij de boekhandel in Hippolytushoef.

Jaap Lont, kleinzoon van de glurende dorpssmid, is blij dat het boek er is. “Het is toch een stukje geschiedenis. Het is altijd leuk als je lokale feiten boven water kunt krijgen en dat in een boekje kunt presenteren.”

https://www.hollandskroonactueel.nl/2018/11/18/duitse-kroonprins-was-niet-echt-welkom-op-wieringen/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2018 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 November 1918 - The Statesman (India)

RECRUITING STAR FOR INDIANS - His Majesty the King-Emperor has approved of the grant of a recruiting badge to selected Indian officers and soldiers now serving or who have served during the war, including re-employed Indian military pensioners, as a reward for recruiting work since the commencement of the war. The badge consists of a five-pointed bronze star enclosing a gilt plaque bearing an effigy of His Majesty and surrounded by a wreath inscribed “for recruiting work during the war.” The badge will be worn only with uniform when attending a durbar, but may be worn at all times with plain clothes. It will be suspended by a gilt ring to a dark green ribbon 27 inches in length which will be worn round the neck. The conferment of the badge will not carry with it any title, alphabetical letters or privilege other than that of wearing it. Awards of badges to others than those who have served with units during the war and those now serving will be made by the civil authorities under orders to be issued by the Local Government and Administrations.

HOLLAND TRUE TO HER QUEEN - A telegram from Rotterdam says: Today, which was fixed for the revolution promised by Troelstra, was marked by the appearance of the latter at the Socialist Congress here. He declared that the week had yielded important results. He had hitherto absented himself from Congress in order not to endanger this harvest. He admitted that he had miscalculated the relative strengths of the parties in the country, but claimed that the revolutionary fire had been fanned by his action. The power of the Government and of the middle classes was still great but they must recognise the strength of labour. The Congress passed a resolution to continue the agitation to secure the Government’s acceptance of the labour demands.

https://www.thestatesman.com/100-years-ago/100-years-ago-23-november-1918-1502710404.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2018 9:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Archives New Zealand Follow: Featherston Camp – Register of Deaths

On 23 November 1918 the deadly influenza pandemic reached peak mortality in New Zealand, according to historian Geoff Rice. The pandemic was the country’s worst disease outbreak, striking New Zealand from October to December 1918. As nzhistory.net notes, ‘in two months New Zealand lost about half as many people to influenza as it had in the whole of the First World War. No event has killed so many New Zealanders in such a short time’. Over 8600 people died as a result of the outbreak.

The outbreak of the disease coincided with the finish of World War One and the return of troops to New Zealand, and some of the worst hit places were military camps. This record is titled ‘Featherston Camp – Register of Deaths’, and it lists the deaths at the camp from 17 December 1915 - 15 March 1920, a vast proportion of which were the result of influenza. It demonstrates one of the most devastating peculiarities of the pandemic in that this strain of influenza was most lethal for young, fit people, as opposed to the elderly or children. This meant that many soldiers who had only recently survived the experience of warfare, succumbed to the disease in great numbers.

This record was created by the Army Department and forms part of a group of records relating to Military Camps [Series 24697]. It has been digitised in full and can be viewed at www.archway.archives.govt.nz/ViewFullItem.do?code=23696006

There is also a transcribed version available on nzhistory.net at www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/featherston-camp/deaths , and a personal account of researching this record on WW100 at ww100.govt.nz/featherston-camp-death-register

De Nieuw-Zeelanders lopen volgens mij voorop bij het digitaliseren van hun archieven... https://www.flickr.com/photos/archivesnz/15836168261
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