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26 oktober

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Okt 2006 23:07    Onderwerp: 26 oktober Reageer met quote

1917 : Brazil declares war on Germany

On October 26, 1917, Brazil declares its decision to enter the First World War on the side of the Allied powers.


As a major player in the Atlantic trading market, Brazil—an immense country occupying nearly one-half of the entire South American continent—had been increasingly threatened by Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare over the course of the first two years of World War I. In February 1917, when Germany resumed that policy after temporarily suspending it due to pressure from neutral nations such as the United States, President Woodrow Wilson responded by immediately breaking diplomatic relations with Germany; the U.S. formally entered the war alongside the Allied powers on April 6, 1917.


One day before the U.S. declaration of war, a German U-boat sank the Brazilian merchant ship Parana as it sailed off the coast of France. On June 4, Dominico da Gama, the Brazilian ambassador to the U.S., wrote to Secretary of State Robert Lansing declaring that Brazil was revoking its previous neutrality and severing its own diplomatic relations with Germany. "Brazil ever was and is now free from warlike ambitions," da Gama stated, "and, while it always refrained from showing any partiality in the European conflict, it could no longer stand unconcerned when the struggle involved the United States, actuated by no interest whatever but solely for the sake of international judicial order, and when Germany included us and the other neutral powers in the most violent acts of war."


Over the next few months, Brazil’s government actively sought to amend its constitution to enable it to declare war. This having been accomplished, the declaration was made on October 26, 1917. In an open letter sent to the Vatican but clearly intended to be read in countries around the world, the Brazilian foreign minister, Dr. Nilo Pecanha, justified his country’s decision to enter the epic struggle of World War I on the side of the Allies by pointing to Germany’s attacks on international trade and invoking the higher purpose of creating a more peaceful, democratic post-war world: "Through the sufferings and the disillusions to which the war has given rise a new and better world will be born, as it were, of liberty, and in this way a lasting peace may be established without political or economic restrictions, and all countries be allowed a place in the sun with equal rights and an interchange of ideas and values in merchandise on an ample basis of justice and equity."


Though Brazil’s actual contribution to the Allied war effort was limited to one medical unit and some airmen, its participation was rewarded with a seat at the post-war bargaining table. The fact that Brazil—according to the size of its population—had three official delegates at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 angered Portugal, who had sent 60,000 soldiers to the Western Front and yet had only one delegate. Britain supported Portugal in the disagreement, while the U.S. backed Brazil; no change was made. This conflict illustrated how important it was considered for the nations of the world to have representation in Versailles, as it was there that the boundaries of the new, post-World War I world would be determined. On June 28, 1919, Brazil was one of 27 nations to sign the 200-page Versailles Treaty, alongside a number of other Latin American nations who had also declared their support for the Allies, including Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Uruguay.


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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Okt 2006 23:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Das englische Geschwader von der belgischen Küste vertrieben
Großes Hauptquartier, 26. Oktober, vormittags.

Westlich des Yserkanals, zwischen Nieuport und Dixmuiden, welche Orte noch vom Feinde gehalten werden, griffen unsere Truppen den sich dort noch hartnäckig wehrenden Feind an. Das am Kampf sich beteiligende englische Geschwader wurde durch schweres Artilleriefeuer zum Rückzuge gezwungen. Drei Schiffe erhielten Volltreffer. Das ganze Geschwader hielt sich darauf am 25. nachmittags außer Sehweite. Bei Ypern steht der Kampf; südwestlich Ypern sowie westlich und südwestlich Lille machten unsere Truppen im Angriff gute Fortschritte. In erbittertem Häuserkampf erlitten die Engländer große Verluste und ließen über 500 Gefangene in unseren Händen. Nördlich Arras brach ein heftiger französischer Angriff in unserem Feuer zusammen, der Feind hatte starke Verluste.
Auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz schreitet unsere Offensive gegen Augustow vorwärts.
Bei Iwangorod steht der Kampf günstig, eine Entscheidung ist noch nicht gefallen. 1)


Erfolge der "Emden"
London, 26. Oktober (Priv.-Tel.)
Der "Daily Telegraph" meldet aus Kalkutta: Außer den fünf englischen Dampfschiffen, die der deutsche Kreuzer "Emden" zum Sinken gebracht hatte, erbeutete er auch noch die beiden Kohlenboote "Buresk" und "Oxford". Die Wirkung dieser letzten Taten der "Emden" macht sich selbst in den Handelskreisen Kalkuttas bemerkbar. Sämtliche amerikanische Bestellungen für indischen Hanf wurden zurückgezogen und man befürchtet, daß die Argentinier das gleiche tun werden. Es sei klar, daß, solange sie nicht von diesem Feinde befreit werden, der indische Handel die schweren Folgen zu tragen habe. 2)

Der Donau-Übergang bei Orsova
Orsova, 26. Oktbr. (Priv.-Tel.)

Während sich der Angriff der Armee Gallwitz mit täglichen Riesenschritten Kragujevac nähert, hat sich die neue bei Orsova auftretende Gruppe der Verbündeten in den letzten Tagen im Negotinzipfel eine feste Basis zu Operationen geschaffen, die bei günstigem Ausgang zu dem ersten wichtigen Resultat dieses ganzen Balkanfeldzuges führen müssen. Trotz der Schwierigkeiten des Terrains, die den Übergang eines Heeres hier in der Donauschlucht des Eisernen Tores mit ihrem reißenden Wasser und steilen Bergufern fast unmöglich erscheinen lassen, sind unsere Truppen unter spärlichen Verlusten auch hier tief ins Land gedrungen.
Ich hatte Gelegenheit, heute Orsova, die alte Türkeninsel Ada-Kale und die niedergekämpften Serbenstellungen von Tekija bis Sip zu besichtigen. Die Stadt Orsova, deren Einwohner bisher, sobald sie sich mit Wagen oder Gepäck auf der Donauchaussee sehen ließen, einzeln niedergeknallt wurden, atmet erlöst auf. Die 700 Türken, die auf ihrer Insel zwischen unserem und dem serbischen Feuer ein Jahr lang in den halb überschwemmten Kasematten der alten Festung gehaust haben, feiern seit Samstag Freudenfeste. Tekija ist durch unser Feuer hart mitgenommen. In der Mitte des am Samstag noch stark besetzten Ortes sah ich nebeneinander liegend die Trichter von drei deutschen Mörserschüssen, die ganze Häuserreihen und Gärten umgelegt haben.
Im Gegensatz zum Übergang bei Belgrad war der Widerstand der serbischen Artillerie bei Orsova schon am Tage vorher gebrochen, als Samstag 9 Uhr früh der Angriff im Schutze einer Feuerwelle aller Kaliber erfolgte. Schon nach kurzem Kampfe waren die Uferhöhen in unserer Hand, wobei auf Fort Elisabeth und den Höhen von Sip eine Reihe von russischen und schweren englischen Schiffsgeschützen erbeutet wurde Die ungefähr zwei Bataillone starke serbische Verteidigungslinie hatte sich zurückgezogen oder war gefangen genommen.
Unsere Truppen haben eine schwierige, fast undurchdringliche Bergstrecke von 12 Kilometer vor sich. Dann folgt ein mäßig hohes, aber ebenfalls noch gut zu verteidigendes Hügelterrain Nur nach dem Donauufer zu, gegenüber der rumänischen Grenze, fällt der bergige Negotinzipfel sanft und gangbar ab.

Dr. Adolf Köster,
Kriegsberichterstatter. 2)



Blick auf die Stadt Orsova an der Donau

Russischer Höhenstützpunkt bei Sara Dornei genommen
Wien, 27. Oktober.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generals der Kavallerie Erzherzogs Carl:
Unsere Angriffe nördlich von Campolung und südlich von Predeal machten Fortschritte. An der ungarisch-rumänischen Ostgrenze wurden feindliche Gegenstöße abgeschlagen. Bei Sara Dornei nahmen unsere Truppen einen russischen Höhenstützpunkt. Gegenangriffe der Russen scheiterten.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die feindliche Artillerie- und Minenwerfertätigkeit gegen die Stellungen auf der Karsthochfläche und die dahinterliegenden Räume steigerte sich zeitweilig zu großer Heftigkeit.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
In Albanien nichts Neues.


Die zweite italienische Armee geschlagen
(über 60000 Gefangene)

Leutnant Schnieber

Großes Hauptquartier, 27. Oktober.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Franzosen und Engländer setzten gestern tagsüber auf dem Kampffeld in der Mitte der flandrischen Front von neuem starke Kräfte ein, um die Schlachtentscheidung zu suchen. Der Erfolg blieb unser; vergeblich haben die feindlichen Divisionen sich in unserer Abwehrzone verblutet.
Gesteigerte Artilleriewirkung lag auf dem Kampfgelände, ehe der Feind zum Angriff schritt; hinter der sich vorwärtsschiebenden Feuerwalze brachen seine Sturmtruppen vor.
Nördlich von Bixschote gelangten die Franzosen bis Bultehoek; von dort warf sie unser Gegenstoß ins Trichterfeld zurück. Zwischen der Straße Klerken-Poelkapelle und der Bahn Roulers-Ypern drangen in wiederholtem Ansturm die Engländer vor. Nach hin- und herwogenden Kämpfen, die westlich von Passchendaele besonders erbittert waren, mußte sich der Feind mit wenigen Trichterlinien vor seiner Ausgangsstellung begnügen.
Abgesetzt vom Hauptangriff wurden mehrere englische Divisionen gegen unsere Front von Becelaere bis südlich von Gheluvelt vorgeführt. Anfänglich brachen sie in den Park von Paezelhoek und in Gheluvelt ein; doch wurde der Feind durch unseren kraftvollen Gegenangriff bald wieder über die alte Linie zurückgeworfen.
Teilkämpfe dauerten bis in die Nacht; das starke Feuer ließ nur vorübergehend nach.
Truppen aus allen Teilen des Reiches haben ruhmvollen Anteil an dem für uns günstigen Ausgang des Schlachttages!
Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz:
In wenigen Abschnitten am Oise-Aisne-Kanal nahm der Artilleriekampf größere Stärke an; die feindliche Infanterie versuchte gegen Abend vergeblich, an mehreren Stellen auf dem Nordufer des Kanals Fuß zu fassen.
In der Champagne und an der Maas steigerte sich vielfach die Feuertätigkeit in Verbindung mit Aufklärungsgefechten.
Auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz und an der mazedonischen Front ist die Lage unverändert.
Italienische Front:
Die unter der persönlichen Oberleitung Seiner Apostolischen Majestät des Kaisers Karl von Österreich, Königs von Ungarn, vorbereitete Operation gegen die Hauptmacht der italienischen Armee reift unter der Mitwirkung der unvergleichlichen Stoßkraft deutscher Truppen, die Schulter an Schulter mit ihren tapferen Waffenbrüdern am Isonzo in den Kampf traten, großem Erfolge entgegen. Die zweite italienische Armee ist geschlagen.
Durch gutes Wetter begünstigt, drangen über die Höhen und durch die Täler, vielfach zähen Widerstand des Feindes brechend, deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Divisionen unaufhaltsam vorwärts.
Der scharfgratige Höhenrücken des Stol wurde von der k. u. k. 22. Schützendivision genommen, der 1641 Meter hohe, stark befestigte Gipfel des Mt. Matajur fiel schon am 25. Oktober 7 Uhr vormittags - 23 Stunden nach Beginn unseres Angriffes bei Tolmein - durch die hervorragende Tatkraft des Leutnants Schnieber, der mit vier Kompagnien des Oberschlesischen Infanterieregiments Nr. 63 den starken italienischen Grenzstützpunkt stürmte.
Die zweite italienische Armee ist geschlagen. Kampf- und Marschleistungen aller Truppen, die durch die Vorberge der Julischen Alpen der italienischen Ebene zustreben, sind über jedes Lob erhaben.
Die Zahl der Gefangenen hat sich auf 60000, die der erbeuteten Geschütze auf 450 erhöht.
Unübersehbares Kriegsgerät muß aus den genommenen Stellungen der Italiener noch geborgen werden. 26 feindliche Flugzeuge sind in den beiden letzten Tagen abgeschossen worden.
Die italienische Isonzo-Front wankt bis zur Wippach; auf der Karsthochfläche hält der Gegner.


Gefallene Italiener in einer Schlucht bei Cividale

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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Officers of the Second Battalion the Yorkshire Regiment, photographed in October 1914.

This photograph hangs in the Outpost Office of the 2nd Battalion Yorkshire Regiment (the Green Howards) in Trnity Church, Richmond. The names of the Officers, and what became of them during the First World War, is shown beneath the photo.

One thing that is remarkable about this photo is that of the 26 Officers photographed in October 1914, 10 were dead by the end of the year, 3 more were killed subsequently, 10 were wounded and / or taken prisoner, and only 3 appear to have survived the War unscathed.

Foto... http://www.ww1-yorkshires.org.uk/html-files/photos-officers2ndbn1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sikhs in World War I

(...) In France, the Indian soldiers had of course serious problems of communication. The climate too was very harsh for them. In January 1915, a Sikh soldier wrote to his uncle in Jalandhar: "This country is very pleasant, but it is very cold here. Nobody has any clue about the language. They call milk 'doolee' and water 'doloo'!" [du lait, de l'eau]

From the 22nd of October 1914 there were Indian Troops in the trenches near Wijtschate and Mesen. On 26th October 1914, at 3 pm, the 129th Baluchis and the 57th Wilde's Rifles staged an attack to the south of Hollebeke. This was the first action of the Indian troops in the War. (...)

http://www.sikhs.nl/worldwar1.htm

On 26th October, a grey and misty day, the troops of the British Indian army attacked the German trenches near Gapaard, a hamlet of Messines. It had rained the whole night and the trenches were full with mud and water. Remark: trenches were considered as being very temporary and thus they were no more than shallow ditches. As mentioned, there was not yet a continuous line of defence. Here and there were “big gaps” between the different positions through which it was easy for the enemy to infiltrate in the lines.

Above all, it was more difficult to distinguish an enemy trench from an old trench abandoned by their own troops. The result of the attack on 26th October 1914 was several hundred yards but as the initial position was by all means more favourable than the new line, the troops were withdrawn again to their first positions. This caused much incomprehension and even disenchantment among the Indian rank and file.

http://www.sikhspectrum.com/012003/ieper_war.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Okt 2010 11:21, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Memorial Museum Passchendaele - sites

Memorial Window Lieutenant Turnor & Zandvoorde Churchyard
In the Zandvoorde church a unique stained glass window can be seen in honour of the British lieutenant Christopher Randolph Turnor, killed in 1914. It was donated by his family. Turnor died on 26 October 1914 during the First Ypres. Together with three others of the 10th Hussars, a prestigious cavalry unit, he was buried near the church. The graves are still there.
Location: Zandvoorde church
Free admission


Household Cavalry Memorial
Here on 26 October 1914, Lieutenant Lord Worsley with his machine gun section tried to stop the Germans. The British lines however were taken by surprise. Worsley with most of his men got killed. After the war Lord Worsley's family, through German connections, managed to collect more information about his final resting place. His remains were found and reburied on Ypres Town Cemetery Extension. As a tribute to the Household Cavalry, the family paid for a big monument on the spot were Lord Worsley was found. The monument was unveiled in 1924.
Location: Houthemstraat, Zandvoorde
Free admission


http://www.passchendaele.be/eng/sitesEN.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Admiral Ganteaume: The First Merchant Ship Torpedoed Without Warning, 26th October 1914

On 26th October 1914 Kapitänleutnant Johannes Feldkirchener, commanding U-17, attacked the French ferry the Admiral Ganteaume without giving any warning. The ship was carrying over 2,000 Belgian refugees and 40 people died. Bulwell man Thomas McClune was aboard the SS Queen when it came to the aid of the stricken ferry. He left an account of his participation in the rescue of the survivors.

"I was sitting by the taffrail on the starboard side of the Queen, along with a few friends, when I saw a huge volume of smoke, and water rise around the Admiral Ganteaume, which at the moment would be about 360 yards ahead of us. The smoke and water rose to a height of 80 or 100 feet, and immediately it had subsided the Admiral Ganteaume hoisted her signal of distress. Then we heard our captain pipe, 'All hands on deck,' and we knew something serious had happened to the Ganteaume. Everyone at once said 'She has struck a mine'.

"Unable to get near enough on one side, Captain Carey, with superb seamanship, swung his boat right round.

"As the Queen made her way across the 'nose' of the Ganteaume the steward came to me and asked me if I were willing to help, as the Ganteaume had struck a mine. I replied, 'Yes,' and saw an attempt to lower the Queen's boats. The sea apparently was too heavy and Captain Carey drew his ship alongside the ill-fated vessel. As we did so, five Belgian soldiers dived from the Ganteaume. Four of them immediately sank and did not reappear. The other swam a short distance and then he sank.

"The Ganteaume lowered a boat full of people, but as soon as it touched the water it dived straight down and we saw no more of the occupants.

"The scenes on the French vessel were simply beyond description. Men and women were fighting; others climbing into the rigging and sliding down ropes into the water. As soon as we got close alongside her there was an immediate rush for the Queen. The sea was rather high, and the boats heaved to and fro and it was impossible to run a bridge across. The passengers from the Ganteaume had simply to jump from one boat to the other. Some of them missed their footing or failed to hold the taffrail and they either dropped into the water or were crushed between the boats.

"I took my stand with the steward and helped him to catch the babies as they were thrown from the Ganteaume. I had a terrible experience in this work. As the last child was thrown the boat heaved away, and I just touched the child's shawl. The little one fell short of the ship and was crushed between the two vessels as they came together again. A man who jumped from the other boat missed his foothold, and though he held the ropes his legs were crushed.

"The rescue work of Captain Carey and his crew was magnificent, and I do not think there would have been a life lost if there had been no panic.

"After the terrified people had all got on board they shrank in horror to the opposite side of our boat with the result that it began to list very seriously. Accordingly they were instructed to distribute themselves more evenly but before they could be induced to do so they had to be dragged apart. They clung to each other in an ecstacy of terror. Then came the most pitiful scene of all. Children had been separated from their parents, husbands from their wives, and our first care was to restore the children to their parents. I shall never forget the spectacle as we conducted the little ones round the boat and one by one they were identified.

"Nearly all the men, women and children had their faces and hands and clothes blackened by the flying soot from the Ganteaume. Nearly all were soaked with water. The scenes on arrival of the Queen at Folkestone were also indescribable. On all sides people shouted, 'Vive L'Angleterre!'.

"Food was quickly provided for them but no-one who passed through the awful tragedy will ever forget their terrible tragedy".

Source: 'Notts Local News', 31st October 1914.The New York Times reported the sinking of the Admiral Ganteaume on 26th November 1914: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F4061EFB3F5C15738DDDAF0A94D9415B848DF1D3.

Two years later to the day, on 26th October 1916, the Queen was captured by German destroyer V-80 3 miles off the Varne Lightvessel and subsequently torpedoed and sunk by the German destroyer S-60.

http://www.facebook.com/notes/small-town-great-war-hucknall-1914-1918/ss-admiral-ganteaume-the-first-merchant-ship-torpedoed-without-warning-26th-octo/154995951185817
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TSS_The_Queen
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 26 Okt 2010 11:19, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering today

In memory of Alfred John Ince and Richard George Meech, who served as Gunners 27510 and 161190 respectively in 5 Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery. The two men died on this day four years apart.

Alfred John Ince, who was born and lived in Cambridge, was killed in action on the 26th October 1914. He was a pre-war regular in the Royal Garrison Artillery, and at the time of the 1911 census was serving with 107 (Siege) Company RGA at Fort Efford, Plymouth. 107 (Siege) Company formed the nucleus of 5 Siege Battery in August 1914, and Alfred arrived in France on the strength of the battery in the September.

On 24th October 1914 5 Siege Battery came into action for the first time at the Battle of Armentieres, whilst attached to 6th Division. Shortly after, the left section remaining near Armentieres, the right section moved down to Croix Blanche near Fleurbaix. It was during this time that Alfred was killed; he was the first fatality of 5 Siege Battery during the war. Alfred now rests in Ration Farm Military Cemetery, La Chapelle-D'Armentieres.

Richard George Meech died of wounds on the 26th October 1918, and was one of the last fatalities of the Battery. At this time 5 Siege Battery, part of 46 Brigade RGA, was in support of 16th Division during the Final Advance in Artois. One section of the battery, attached to the division, was in an advanced position NW of Velvain; the remaining two sections with the brigade were in position at Drumetz (with quite a number of men suffering from sickness at this time). It is possible, but by no means certain, that Richard was serving with the advanced section when he was mortally wounded.

Richard was the son of Frank and Mary Meech of Stoke Abbott, near Beaminster, Dorset. He now rests in Terlincthun British Cemetery, Wimille.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=154805
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Royal Welch Fusiliers Recruiting poster, issued in Caernarfonshire, 26 October 1914

Poster... http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/small/item/GTJ17799/
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major General Sir William Throsby Bridges; Father of the AIF

(...) Having his troops scattered around Australia made training difficult, and Bridges protested the Prime Minister's September decision to delay sailing for a month due to the activity of German warships. Bridges saw his command together for the first time when it sailed from Albany, Western Australia, on 26 October 1914. En route, the destination was changed from England to Egypt at the instigation of Chauvel, and Bridges arrived there on 30 November 1914. (...)

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-leaders/ww1/bridges.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stockport Soldiers who died 1914 - 1918

EDWARD HALL - Private, 26661. 2 nd Battalion, Border Regiment. Killed in action 26 October 1917. Born: Reddish. Enlisted: Oldham. Commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, Belgium.

CHARLES HALLEWELL - Private, 44978. 1/5 th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (formerly 454, Army Cyclist Corps). Killed in action 26 October 1917, aged 30. Born: Manchester. Enlisted: Stockport. Son of Thomas Edwin and Sarah Ann Hallewell. Commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, Belgium.

FRANK HAMILTON - Gunner, 58130. 60 th Battery, 44 th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery. Died of wounds 26 October 1914, aged 27. Born: Stockport. Enlisted: Manchester. Son of Frank & Lavinia, 36 Stoowell Streat , Weaste, Salford. Buried in Ypres Town Cemetery, Ieper, Belgium.

http://www.stockport1914-1918.co.uk/h.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spying - First World War - George Breeckow

Introduction
George Traugott Breeckow was the 8th spy to be executed at the Tower of London during World War One.

George Traugott Breeckow
George Traugott Breeckow was born in Stettin (then in Germany) in 1882. His Father was born in Riga, and became a German citizen. Breeckow later followed his Father into the piano trade, later travelling to the USA and becoming an American citizen. Following the death of his Father, Breeckow returned to Germany on 28 May 1914.

Following a short period of time working for a back, he tried to obtain work as an Imperial Messenger, or courier, to neutral countries, especially the USA (which did not enter World War One until 1917). Breeckow was sent a new passport which allowed him to travel to Antwerp. While here, Breeckow made several requests about his travel to the USA, but his employers in the Bureau of Foreign Affairs (based in Berlin) told him to wait and that there was no rush. After being told that they were unsure of the situation regarding American-German relations, Breeckow was told that he would first have to go to England. They told him that as his existing passport had a Berlin stamp, he would be issued with a new passport in the name of Reginald Rowland. He was also told to travel to The Hague and meet a Mr Dierks.

When he arrived in Rotterdam, Breeckow travelled to The Hague where he met Dierks. As previously arranged, Dierks arranged a business cover for Breeckow.

Finally, Breeckow arrived at Gravesend on 11 May 1915. He travelled to London where he booked into the Ivanhoe Hotel, Bloomsbury Street. He then sent a letter to his contact, a lady called Mrs Wertheim, making an appointment to meet her on 13 May 1915. Mrs Wertheim had been recruited by German Intelligence as she attempted to return home, but became trapped in Amsterdam, with a failed marriage and short of money.

They arranged several meetings in various parts of London. On 22 May 1915, the couple booked in at the Grand Hotel in Bournemouth, taking separate rooms: Breeckow used his alias of Reginald Rowland, and Wertheim registered as Lizzie Wertheim, born in London.

While in Bournemouth, Breeckow had written on a copy of the Star and Echo newspaper an invisible message about various troop transports arriving at Southampton. This was posted to H. Flores at 127a Binneweg, Rotterdam, along with copies of other newspapers. These packages were intercepted by the British Security Services, who quickly realised that another spy was working in the UK.

Following their stay in Bournemouth, Breeckow and Wertheim travelled to various towns along the First of Forth. This area contained several towns which, as they were naval ports, were prohibited for aliens to enter. They returned to London on 3 June 1915, with Breeckow staying at the Imperial Hotel in London, and Wertheim staying at 62 Hammersmith Road.

After his arrival, Breeckow sent a letter to Flores, using a Rotterdam address. However, Breeckow wrote his own address on the back of the envelope. This was intercepted by the British Security Services, and on 4 June 1915 Breeckow was arrested at his hotel by Detective Inspector Herbert Fitch (New Scotland Yard). While examining Breeckow's property, some rice paper was found hidden inside a shaving brush. On this paper, in Breeckow's handwriting, was the details of several Royal Navy vessels. Wertheim was arrested by Detective Inspectors Edmund Buckley and Herbert Finch on 9 June 1915. When her possessions were searched, a letter addressed to one of Breeckow's aliases.

Both Breeckow and Wertheim were tried together at the Central Criminal Court (Old Bailey) in London, on 14-17 September 1915. Both pleaded not guilty to the charges, although during the trial Breeckow admitted a great deal which protected Wertheim. The jury took just eight minutes to decided that both of them were guilty. Wertheim was sentenced to ten years imprisonment, and Breeckow was sentenced to death by shooting. Breeckow's appeal to the Court of Criminal Appeal, and Petition to King George V were all refused.

During the period between his sentenced being passed, and his execution Breeckow broke down completely, and spent his remaining days in apathetic existence. He was led to the execution spot in a near state of collapse, and when sat in the wooden chair within the Tower's Miniature Rifle Range, he requested that his eyes be bound with a lady's silk handkerchief. As this was not large enough to round his head, this was attached to the usual bandage and then around his head. He was shivering with fright, and was in a very agitated state.

At 7am on 26 October 1915, Breeckow was shot by a firing squad composed of members from the 3rd Battalion Scots Guards.

Wertheim was initially sent to Aylesbury Prison, but during 1918 she was certified as insane and transferred to Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum. Her behaviour and general medical condition became worse and she died of pulmonary tuberculosis on 29 July 1920.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/breeckow.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Speech by HE Ann Harrap, Australian High Commissioner
ANZAC Day 2009 , Diamond Hill, South Africa


Today we are commemorating the 94th anniversary of the Gallipoli Campaign. As we do, I would like to tell the story of an Australian soldier from that time. His name was PTE Jim Charles Martin.

When news of the first ANZAC landings was spread across the Australian papers, the recruiting depots were swamped with eager men ready to stand side by side with those already in action.

In country Victoria, a father arrived home and sadly announced to his family that he had attempted to enlist in the Australian Imperial Force only to be turned down as medically unfit. As he sat with his head in his hands he felt his son’s hand on his shoulder and heard the words: “Never mind Dad, I’ll go.”

His mother pleaded with Jim that he was too young. Jim said that if his parents did not let him go he would join under another name.

Armed with a letter of consent from his parents, young Jim Martin was the fittest man seen by the recruiting officer on the day he enlisted in early April, 1915.
Jim Martin was allocated to the first reinforcement of the newly formed 21 Battalion who went into extensive training at Broadmeadows and Seymour Camps in Victoria.

On embarkation day, 27 June, 1915, they went by train to the docks at Port Melbourne and boarded the troop ship, Berrima.

As the Berrima glided silently down the still waters of Port Philip Bay, Jim Martin had time to reflect on his family, glancing occasionally at the streamer in his hand - the one he had caught from his mother as the ship pulled away from the quay.

For many of the soldiers on board, the fading lights of Melbourne were to be their last sight of Australia.

The reinforcements landed in Egypt in late August and were immediately absorbed by the Battalion.

In the shadows of the pyramids, young Jim Martin honed his fighting skills as his battalion’s day of reckoning approached.

On August 29, the battalion entrained for Alexandria. Awaiting them there was their transport – a ship named Southland.

The men of 21 BN were joined by their mates from other divisions – in all about 1600 men.

At 9.50 am on 2 September, as the troops were mustering for the 10 am parade, a torpedo struck just forward of the ship’s bridge, tearing a massive hole in the side of the Southland.

As there were insufficient lifeboats, many, including Jim Martin, were forced to jump overboard. He was to spend the next four hours in the choppy sea.

On their pickup by the attending boats, young Jim Martin was dragged on deck but shunned attention with the cry of, “I’m all right.” Of those on board, casualties were relatively light – 33 in total.

So as not to miss his landing at ANZAC Cove, Jim Martin never reported sick but maintained his commitment to his mates and to his battalion.

Just before midnight on 8 September, 1915, that BN set foot on the stony beach known as ANZAC Cove.

The next day the battalion occupied the line from Courtney’s Post to Wire Gully, a distance of around 400 metres, and young Jim Martin settled into life in the trenches.

In a letter home on 4 October, Jim wrote, “Don’t worry about me, I am doing OK over here.”

These were brave words, because the effects of the Southland incident, poor food and the stress of Gallipoli were running rife through young Jim’s body.

On 25 October, Jim Martin reported sick and was evacuated to the hospital ship, Glenart Castle, lying off Gallipoli, where he arrived about 5pm.

He settled down to get some sleep but died of heart failure at 6.40 pm.

The next day, 26 October, 1915, the body of PTE Jim Charles Martin slid from the platform beneath his country’s flag as his body was buried at sea.

In a letter to Jim’s mother, a member of his platoon wrote, “I am writing to you to express our great sorrow at your late bereavement. Jim was in the firing line with us and stuck to his post till the last. Like the brave lad that he was, he made the greatest and noblest of sacrifices for his country. Sergeant Coates speaks very highly of him and says he never had a man in his platoon who paid more attention to his duty.” (...)

http://www.australia.co.za/pret/Anzac.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence and Sherif Feisal, Letter from Sherif Feisal to Sherif AliArab Bulletin No. 8, 8 November 1916; SD 11-12

A1-Hamra,
Hegga 28, 1334
[26.10.16]

My lord and master, Ali Bey,

After kissing your noble feet, I acknowledge receipt of your noble order, sent with Abd el-Aziz Yadi. Its intimations were understood, and especially what you have mentioned about your marching, because I want to know seriously. I beg you to be very careful, because it is quite evident that if the movement should not be in combination, then the result will not be good. Therefore, I beg that you should make all possible arrangements concerning your movements; otherwise you had better not start from Rabegh unless my Lord, Abdullah, starts from Mecca, and he should start four or five days before you start. When he arrives at E1-Hijrieh, you can march; and you must divide your forces into two; the smaller part of the two, say about 300 or 400 dromedary men, under the command of one of the family, should go to El-Milaf, where Ahmed Ibn Mansur is, and there he will have all Sobh, Zebeid, Beni Yum, and Beni Mohammed with him, and will defend the place (El-Milaf), and Beni Salem will follow those in El-Sidada, as I told them. The second division, which is the general force, must march as soon as possible towards the Fari road and camp at Mijaz, and cut the communication of the line of the enemy at El-Ghayir to threaten Medina; and I myself am going north to cut the railway line and besiege Medina, by the will of God. I am waiting your reply to Bir Said, and you must inform me:

1. About the number of your forces.
2. About the number of Abdullah's forces.
3. About the time of Abdullah's start, and with how many men.
4. About the day of your start.

I shall advance before you in order to attract the attention of the Turks, so that it will be easy for you to advance.

There is another idea which is that you may attract their (Turks') attention towards yourself, and may wait for two or three days, and then I will advance quickly to destroy the line. I am awaiting your reply and information. At any rate, one of the members of the family, either Zeid or Sharaf, must be sent to El-Milaf. Were it not for the movement of Juheina, I would have gone there myself. God willing, my stay will be at Buat or El-Jafr. Jam awaiting your immediate orders, My lord.

Your slave,

Feisal.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/works/articles_essays/1916_letter_from_feisal.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence, 'Extracts from a diary of a journey'
Arab Bulletin, 18 November 1916, SD 12-20

October 25 - Started again at 3a.m., up and down the same labyrinth of wadis, till 5a.m., when dawn broke finding us in the middle of a confused harrah with sandy floor. The rocks were bent and twisted and cracked, most oddly. At 5.45a.m. had got clear of this harrah, which died away in a great sea of sand dunes, interspersed with rocky hills, all spattered with sand to their tops. Numerous wadis drained this area, trending rather rapidly down-hill towards the sea, which was visible to the S.S.W.

We now held steadily west, with an occasional aimless tack towards the north. At 7.30a.m. we were over the dunes and came out on a flat sandy plain, with a good deal of scrub and acacia on it at first, and with low hills, to the south, prolonged westward into a small coastal range. On the north were other low hills, spurs of the central mass to the north of them. (An easier road bending to the north, avoids the worst of the dunes.) From 7.30 to 8.45a.m. we stopped, and then rode across an empty shingle plain till 10a.m., when we entered a northern off-shoot of the small coastal range. Between it and the inland range was a rolling open space, falling from an indeterminate watershed a little north of our road into Wadi Yenbo, whose palm-groves were visible about six miles away on the N.N.W. Behind the groves was the huge bulk of Jebel Rudhwa, the most striking hill in the district.

The foot-hills we crossed were low, and enclosed a thorn-grown plain with a sandy floor. At 11a.m. we came to the end of this, and rode over a small saddle on to the basin of Wadi Yenbo, which here was a very broad green belt of tamarisk and thorn, having on its eastern edge a conspicuous low hill with domed lava head, called Jebel Araur el-Milh, which deflects the wadi from S.S.W. to S.W. or even W.S.W. Above us the main channel trended up 30° N, for some distance. We stopped under an acacia tree in the wadi from 11.15a.m. to 3p.m. and then again at 3.15 to water the camels at a little water-hole of brackish water, about four feet below the surface in the main wadi, behind a wall of tamarisk. After that we went on for an hour and three-quarters and stopped for the night. The country is again Tihama, made up of ten-foot slowly-swelling ridges and shallow valleys between. Wadi Yenbo main bed, where we crossed it, is about a mile and a half wide, but there are several smaller wadies, apparently subsidiary mouths, further west, and the stream, after crossing the track seems to swing round far to the west. The land between the track and the sea has a lot of scrub growing on it, so that the actual outlet of the wadi was not visible. The Tihama here is all so flat, that most of it goes under water whenever Wadi Yenbo comes down in strong flood.

October 26 - Started again at 2a.m. and reached Yenbo at 5.30a.m. across a featureless but hard shingle and wet sand fiat. Yenbo stands on a low stone outcrop, a few feet above the plain. I went to the home of Abd el-Kadir el-Abdo, Feisal's agent for military business, and a very well informed, efficient, and well-inclined official. He put me up for four days, during which I wandered back to Wadi Yenbo again to see the palm-groves.

On November 1, got on board the Suva.

Yenbo,
October 29.

T.E.L.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/works/articles_essays/1916_extracts_from_a_diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Henare Wainohu to Poihipi Kohere, October, 1916

Somewhere in France,
26th October, 1916.

Dear Poi,

Greetings to you and your family. So far the Maori Battalion has fairly come out of the German conflagration. Neither paper nor pen can express the bitter sorrow for the young Maoris who have made the supreme sacrifice for King, the nation and the whole world. Members of leading families of the Maori people, of both the North and South Islands, now lie on the fields of France. We as Maoris feel it very much, and our thoughts constantly wander homewards to the parents and the people. The letters we receive from home are brave and comforting when they say that to die on the battlefield is to die an honourable death. The boys who have made the supreme sacrifice all died like soldiers, and those of us who still survive are all well.
I suppose you and Reweti and all your family have learned that your brother Henare has gone with those who were prepared to die for King and Empire. We feel his death very keenly. Henare, like a true soldier, fell amongst his boys. Several of them, including Henare, were wounded by a bursting shell. On the 15th, the morning of the big push, after prayers, the enemy began shelling our position. Henare had given orders for his platoon to move forward to prepared trenches when a shell landed fairly close. The next shell caught Henare and a number of his boys. Although badly wounded in the arm and groin he inquired after his men. It was the wound in the groin that killed him.
Before he was taken to the dressing station that night he expressed a wish to see Major Buck (Te Rangi Hiroa). To him he said, “I ask of you that after I am gone to place my boys, all from the Ngati-Porou Tribe, under my cousin, Lieutenant Pekama Kaa.”
Major Buck replied, “Yes, I'll carry out your wish.”
Then, looking up to the major and myself, he remarked, “I have no anxiety now, for I know the boys will be in good hands, and as for myself I shall be all right.”
We never suspected that his wounds would be fatal. At midnight I buried those of his boys who were killed outright. After I went to have another look at him; he seemed quite calm. Before he was taken away he said, “I know the boys will be all right with you.” We didn't see poor Henare after that; none of us was with him when he passed away.1 We heard of his death from the newspapers. I put off writing to you hoping that the newspapers might be mistaken. Only the other day we received the official notice that my very dear friend was no more.
Henare was very popular with everybody—with the great as well as with the lowly, with the general as well as with the humblest private. Now he rests from his labours.
Tawhai is bearing up very well, but we know he is feeling the death of his brother intensely.
Pekama is getting on well with his boys. He is a fine boy, quiet but popular with his men.
Thank you for your letter.
Your old friend,

Henare Te Wainohu.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-KohStor-t1-body-d11-t1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 11:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 October 1916 → Commons Sitting → DISTURBANCES IN IRELAND.

REBURIAL OF EXECUTED MEN.


HC Deb 26 October 1916 vol 86 c1284 1284

Mr. GINNELL asked the Prime Minister whether, in the interest of reconciliation, the Government will accede to the desire of Irish people of all classes and allow the remains of the men executed last May to be removed from the places in which they now lie and buried in consecrated ground on the 2nd of November next?

Mr. DUKE The Government is unable to take the course suggested by the hon. Member.

Mr. GINNELL Will the right hon. Gentleman say why?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/oct/26/reburial-of-executed-men
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Third Battle of Gaza - Sinai, 26 October 1917

From the Egyptian Expeditionary Force War Diary:

26 October 1917

0635 - Desert Mounted Corps report all clear and situation normal.

0832 - Wire from Desert Mounted Corps saying that one Brigade group of 53rd division moved out position by 2200 last night covering railway construction.

0805 - XXI Corps reported that our artillery had carried out the bombardment of Out Post Hill according to programme.

1137 - Report received from Desert Mounted Corps that an enemy aeroplane flew within 1,000 feet over railway north of Basal flying north east.

1240 - XX Corps wire that General Officer Commanding XX Corps had assumed command as required in Paragraph 3 of Force Order No. 52 of 17 October 1917.

1230 - Instructions were issued to all concerned with regard to the reporting by priority wire of any bombing or machine gunning of our troops by hostile aircraft.

1807 - XX Corps reports situation normal and that there was considerable enemy movement on hills across Wadi Imlieh about 1100 this morning.

1800 - Desert Mounted Corps report all clear.

1800 - Wire received from XXI Corps that 2 Deserters had surrendered.

1950 - Evening report to London and Baghdad. All well, nothing special to report.

0400 - Rear Admiral Egypt and Red Sea that he was preparing his orders in accordance with Force Order No. 54 and they refer to list of targets mainly as finding suitable targets and notifying certain targets which must not be used at certain times. (2000 after).

Instructions sent to General Officer Commanding Desert Mounted Corps to place on Squadron of the Yeomanry Mounted Division at the disposal of General Officer Commanding XX Corps from midnight Z-1/2 until the Yeomanry Mounted Division are withdrawn from General Headquarters Reserve.

Wrote Colonel Newcombe with reference to his move from Auja to Asluj.

Circular Memorandums with regard to Signal Addresses and Signal Traffic - wire issued to all concerned.

Orders were issued for the move of Detachments of the 569 BAT Company Royal Engineers from Kantara and Kelab to Rafa when they are to report to Officer Commanding 46th Base Park Company Royal Engineers.

Extracted from Egyptian Expeditionary Force War Diary, 26 October 1917, AWM4, 1/6/18 Part 1., http://desert-column.phpbb3now.com/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=365
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Battle of Passchendaele, 26 October-10 November 1917

The Second Battle of Passchendaele, 26 October-10 November, was the final phase of the wider Third Battle of Ypres (often known as Passchendaele). After a brief period of success in late September and early October (Menin Road Ridge, 20-25 September 1917, Polygon Wood, 26-27 September and Broodseinde (4 October), the rains that had plagued the early days of the battle returned. The battles of Poelcappelle (9 October) and First Passchendaele (12 October) both ended in costly failure, with the attacking troops ending the day back at their starting point.

If Haig had called a halt to the battle at the start of October, it may have been judged a minor success. However, the period of success had apparently convinced him that the crucial breakthrough was imminent – one more push, and the British would break through the German lines. Passchendaele Ridge was seen as the key to that success, or at least as a suitable finishing point for the battle.

Having used up his British divisions early in the battle, and then the Australian and New Zealand Divisions, Haig now turned to the Canadian Corps. Its commander, General Sir Arthur Currie, was reluctant to get involved in the bloodbath at Passchendaele, but felt unable to refuse Haig’s request. He predicted that the planned attack would cost him 16,000 casualties.

The first attack, on 26 October, involved the 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions. It had rained on every day since 19 October, and the Canadian assault quickly bogged down. The 4th Division was eventually forced to retreat to within 100 yards of its starting point.

The attack was renewed on 30 October, with similar results. Once again the two Canadian divisions made small advances at heavy costs – the 78th Canadian Brigade lost half of its strength during the day. However, Canadian patrols did reach the village of Passchendaele, where they found the Germans preparing to retreat.

The village was finally captured by the 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions on 6 November. The final action of the battle came on 10 November, with an attack designed to straighten out the line. Even after this final action, the Germans still held the northern end of the Passchendaele Ridge. Currie’s Canadians had suffered 15,634 casualties.

The battles around Passchendaele critically weakened the British army. It had a similar impact on the German divisions present on the Western Front in 1917, but the German victory in Russia was about to free up a new German army. In the spring of 1918 these fresh divisions would come close to breaking the British lines.

Rickard, J (17 August 2007), Second Battle of Passchendaele, 26 October-10 November 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_passchendaeleII.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lenin's Decree on Peace, 26 October 1917

With the Soviet takeover of power in Russia in October 1917 Lenin was quick to deliver (to the Second All-Russia Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies on 26 October, the Soviet state's radically different vision of foreign policy from its Tsarist predecessor.

In his decree Lenin worked to secure an end to the war using the usual (i.e. traditional) diplomatic channels, while simultaneously promoting the expansion of Soviet ideals around the world, thereby encouraging a widening of the socialist revolution.

Decree on Peace

The Workers' and Peasants' Government, created by the revolution of October 24-25, and drawing its strength from the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies, proposes to all warring peoples and their governments to begin at once negotiations leading to a just democratic peace.

A just and democratic peace for which the great majority of wearied, tormented and war-exhausted toilers and labouring classes of all belligerent countries are thirsting, a peace which the Russian workers and peasants have so loudly and insistently demanded since the overthrow of the Tsar's monarchy, such a peace the government considers to be an immediate peace without annexations (i.e., without the seizure of foreign territory and the forcible annexation of foreign nationalities) and without indemnities.

The Russian Government proposes to all warring peoples that this kind of peace be concluded at once; it also expresses its readiness to take immediately, without the least delay, all decisive steps pending the final confirmation of all the terms of such a peace by the plenipotentiary assemblies of all countries and all nations.

By annexation or seizure of foreign territory the government, in accordance with the legal concepts of democracy in general and of the working class in particular, understands any incorporation of a small and weak nationality by a large and powerful state without a clear, definite and voluntary expression of agreement and desire by the weak nationality, regardless of the time when such forcible incorporation took place, regardless also of how developed or how backward is the nation forcibly attached or forcibly detained within the frontiers of the [larger] state, and, finally, regardless of whether or not this large nation is located in Europe or in distant lands beyond the seas.

If any nation whatsoever is detained by force within the boundaries of a certain state, and if [that nation], contrary to its expressed desire whether such desire is made manifest in the press, national assemblies, party relations, or in protests and uprisings against national oppression, is not given the right to determine the form of its state life by free voting and completely free from the presence of the troops of the annexing or stronger state and without the least desire, then the dominance of that nation by the stronger state is annexation, i.e., seizure by force and violence.

The government considers that to continue this war simply to decide how to divide the weak nationalities among the powerful and rich nations which had seized them would be the greatest crime against humanity, and it solemnly announces its readiness to sign at once the terms of peace which will end this war on the indicated conditions, equally just for all nationalities without exception.

At the same time the government declares that it does not regard the conditions of peace mentioned above as an ultimatum; that is, it is ready to consider any other conditions, insisting, however, that such be proposed by any of the belligerents as soon as possible, and that they be expressed in the clearest terms, without ambiguity or secrecy.

The government abolishes secret diplomacy, expressing, for its part, the firm determination to carry on all negotiations absolutely openly and in view of all the people. It will proceed at once to publish all secret treaties ratified or concluded by the government of landlords and capitalists from March to November 7, 1917.

All the provisions of these secret treaties, in so far as they have for their object the securing of benefits and privileges to the Russian landlords and capitalists - which was true in a majority of cases - and retaining or increasing the annexation by the Great Russians, the government declares absolutely and immediately annulled.

While addressing to the governments and peoples of all countries the proposal to begin at once open peace negotiations, the government, for its part, expresses its readiness to carry on these negotiations by written communications, by telegraph by parleys of the representatives of different countries, or at a conference of such representatives.

To facilitate such negotiations the government appoints its plenipotentiary representative to neutral countries. The government proposes to all governments and peoples of all belligerent countries to conclude an armistice at once; at the same time it considers it desirable that this armistice should be concluded for a period of not less than three months - that is, a period during which it would be entirely possible to complete the negotiations for peace with the participation of representatives of all peoples and nationalities which were drawn into the war or forced to take part in it, as well as to call the plenipotentiary assemblies of people's representatives in every country for the final ratification of the peace terms.

In making these peace proposals to the government and peoples of all warring countries, the Provisional Government of Workers and Peasants of Russia appeals particularly to the class-conscious workers of the three most advanced nations of mankind, who are also the largest states participating in the present war - England, France and Germany.

The workers of these countries have rendered the greatest possible service to the cause of progress and socialism by the great example of the Chartist movement in England, several revolutions of universal historic significance accomplished by the French proletariat, and, finally, the heroic struggle against the Law of Exceptions in Germany, a struggle which was prolonged, dogged and disciplined, which could be held up as an example for the workers of the whole world, and which aimed at the creation of proletarian mass organisations in Germany.

All these examples of proletarian heroism and historic achievement serve us as a guarantee that the workers of these three countries will understand the tasks which lie before them by way of liberating humanity from the horrors of war and its consequences, and that by their resolute, unselfishly energetic efforts in various directions these workers will help us to bring to a successful end the cause of peace, and, together with this, the cause of the liberation of the toiling and exploited masses from all forms of slavery and all exploitation.

The Workers' and Peasants' Government created by the revolution of November 6-7 and drawing its strength from the Soviets of Workers, Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies must begin peace negotiations at once. Our appeal must be directed to the governments as well as to the peoples.

We cannot ignore the governments, because this would delay the conclusion of peace, a thing which a people's government does not dare to do but at the same time we have no right not to appeal to the peoples. Everywhere governments and peoples are at arm's length; we must, therefore, help the peoples to take a hand in [settling] the question of peace and war.

We shall of course stand by our programme of peace without annexations and without indemnities. We shall not relinquish [that programme], but we must deprive our enemies of the possibility of saying that their conditions are different and that they do not wish, therefore, to enter into negotiations with us. No, we must dislodge them from that advantageous position by not presenting them our conditions in the form of an ultimatum.

For this reason we have included a statement to the effect that we are ready to consider any condition of peace, in fact, every proposal. Consideration, of course, does not necessarily mean acceptance. We shall submit [the proposals] for consideration to the Constituent Assembly, which will then decide, officially, what can and what cannot be granted.

We have to fight against the hypocrisy of the governments, which, while talking about peace and justice, actually carry on wars of conquest and plunder. Not one single government will tell you what it really means. But we are opposed to secret diplomacy and can afford to act openly before all people. We do not now close nor have we ever closed our eyes to the difficulties.

Wars cannot be ended by a refusal [to fight] ; they cannot be ended by one side alone. We are proposing an armistice for three months - though we are not rejecting a shorter period - so that this will give the suffering army at least a breathing spell and will make possible the calling of popular meetings in all civilised countries to discuss the conditions [of peace].

Delivered at Second All-Russia Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, 26 October 1917 and published by Izvestiia, 27 October 1917.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/decreeonpeace.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het ontslag van Ludendorff

Toen de OHL (Oberste Heeres Leitung) op 24 oktober 1918 een dagorder stuurde aan de troepen, waarin werd opgeroepen de strijd voort te zetten, was voor rijkskanselier Max von Baden de maat vol en eiste hij van keizer Wilhelm het ontslag van Ludendorff.
Op 26 oktober werd Ludendorff bij de keizer ontboden. Hieronder een fragment uit de memoires van Ludendorff waarin zijn verslag over de gang van zaken op 26 oktober.


Nu volgde een van de bitterste momenten van mijn leven. Ik deelde Zijne Majesteit op eerbiedige toon mede dut ik de pijnlijke indruk had gekregen dat ik niet langer zijn vertrouwen genoot en hem daarom aller onderdanigst verzocht mij te ontslaan. Zijne Majesteit willigde dit verzoek in.

Ik reed alleen terug. Zijne Majesteit heb ik nadien nooit meer gezien. Na mijn terugkeer in het gebouw van de generale staf zei ik tegen de heren, onder wie ook kolonel von Haeften, dat ik bang was dat we over twee weken geen keizer meer zouden hebben. De heren waren dezelfde mening toegedaan. Op 9 november waren Duitsland en Pruisen een republiek.

Veldmaarschalk Hindenburg kwam mij nog even in mijn kamer opzoeken. Ik kon hem slechts het verzoek om ontslag tonen, waarvan hij de verzending drie uur geleden had tegengehouden. Daarna gingen wij uiteen.

Ik legde direct mijn ambt neer. Het verzoek om ontslag dat ik die morgen had geschreven, stuurde ik weg. Ik had het nu eigenlijk in andere bewoordingen moeten stellen.

Op de avond van de zesentwintigste reed ik naar Spa terug om afscheid te nemen van de heren met wie ik vele jaren lief en leed had gedeeld en om mijn persoonlijke zaken te regelen. In de middag van de zevenentwintigste was ik op het algemeen hoofdkwartier om afscheid te nemen. Ik was ontroerd. Het greep mij aan deze heren en het leger in deze moeilijke ogenblikken te verlaten. Gezien de opvatting die ik had over mijn positie als officier tegenover mijn hoogste superieuren, kon ik niet anders handelen dan ik deed, hoe zwaar het me ook viel.

Ik ben in mijn soldatenleven slechts een weg gegaan, de rechte weg van de plicht. Ik was slechts bewogen door één grote gedachte: de liefde tot het vaderland, tot het leger en tot het aloude koningshuis. Daarvoor had ik geleefd, ook de afgelopen vier jaar. Mijn enige streven was de vernietigingsdrang van de vijand te breken en Duitsland in de toekomst voor nieuwe vijandelijke aanvallen te behoeden.

Op 27 oktober stond ik in Spa, in de kracht van mijn leven, aan het einde van een militaire loopbaan die mij een geweldig werkterrein had geboden, maar ook een verantwoording die slechts weinige mensen krijgen opgelegd.

's Avonds verliet ik Spa. In Aken zocht ik mijn eerste standplaats op. Ik dacht aan Luik. Ik was daar niet geweken en dat was sindsdien niet veranderd. Mijn spieren spanden zich. Ik keerde terug naar het vaderland.

(Bron: Meine Kriegserinnerungen 1914-1918 door Erich Ludendorff - Berlijn 1919).
http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/keizer-wilhelm/vlucht/ludendorff.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Somewhere in Verdun, 10/26/1918

Dear Em.

Received a letter from you tonight dated Oct 1, and on my first glance at the envelope could not dope out who it was from, for I knew it was not your handwriting. I failed to look on the back or I would have known. You can appreciate how I felt when on openning it all inquisitiveness ceased for your handwriting greeted me. A letter from home. This letter and one from a chap that I met in the hospital was my quota this trip, and I am answering both right away, for Ive not only got the time but also as conveinient a place to write as Ive had for months.

If only I could say some thing now, I would probably repay you for all the mail you have sent me. I can appreciate the fact that you are buisy alright when you say that you leave the house at day break and don’t return until sun down. Ive got no kick coming in regard to mail and although I receive none too much you are writing as often as you can I know.

Glad to hear every one has got over their colds and, listen Em. Keep off that Spanish Influ stuff won’t you? Some kitten Ill say. I wonder whose kissing her now? So it looks just like a girl I used to know. I hope I see it some day any way. You say the weather is getting chilly now. Same here. Hope you get your coal before it gets much colder. They sure are long enough getting it to you.

Glad to hear you got in on the Liberty Loan which was such a success. Yes this is the next letter and it is stating that we are at the front, and some front believe me. I guess you read in the paper about the Yanks. We are in it. You say that the papers said “After a short rest.” Well there is a war on. Some of the boys you speak of as being home there in hospitals are the self same boys that left Westfield in August 1917 with me. Look them up, Im sure of at least five, that are back in God’s Country now although a little the worst for their experience. Elmer Lane of the Magoun Square Gang or the chap that our street at Lynnfield was named after (Cherry Lane) is there.

So you carry a cooked ration with you. So do we, all the time but its not like what Lena puts up. Its the darb at that though. I bet its tough getting up out of a bed at that in the morning. Im feeling great and am very lucky to be in good condition right now. A fellow has to. Have heard from this side that Batty, Jimmy and that bunch is on this side now. I wish them all the luck in the world. They will be used I beleive. It would sure be some news if I told you really where I was tonight, but mums the word you know. Don’t know how long I will be here nor will I kick while we are on this sector if I am here for some time.

I hope you can read enough of this letter to know what I am writing about. I guess two sheets is pretty good this time, so trusting this finds you all well Ill close. Regards to all

Sam.
Samuel Ed. Avery #69762, Hdq Co. 103rd Inf. Am. Ex. Forces.

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2009/10/26/somewhere-in-verdun-10261918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Capture of Aleppo - Syria, 26 October 1918

A few weeks after the Liberation of Damascus, 1 October 1918, the British Commander, Sir Edmund Allenby continued a more cautious advance north. At first he wished to use the men of the Australian Mounted Division immediately after Damascus fell but the Division was stricken with illness making the formation virtually inoperative for a few weeks. In its place he sent the 5th Mounted Division supported by auxiliaries from the Northern Arab Army. The Australian contingent included the 1st Australian Armoured Car Section which travelled as the vanguard of the column.

After a few inconclusive skirmishes, the Turkish forces withdrew from Aleppo leaving it to the Allied forces to enter without opposition on 26 October 1918. The auxiliaries from the Northern Arab Army took this as an opportunity to loot the city as had been done in Damascus but this time the 1st Australian Armoured Car Section was employed to suppress the outbreak of lawlessness.

Subsequent to the capture, the Allied forces moved north in an advance to Mouslimmiye, where Mustafa Kemal (now in command of the Yıldırım Army Group) had rallied some men under XXII Corps HQ. Kemal held his positions until 31 October, when hostilities ceased following the signing of the Armistice of Mudros.

http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog/2067870/the-capture-of-aleppo-syria-26-october-1918-outline/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Dutch Left from 1914 to early 1920's: 1918: Between revolution and opportunism

The abortive revolution of November 1918.
It was a party that was growing numerically, but threatened with falling apart, that went into the ordeal of the revolutionary events in November.

The events in Germany, where the government fell at the end of October, created a real revo­lutionary atmosphere in Holland. Authentic mutinies broke out in the military camps on 25 and 26 October 1918. They had come in the wake of a permanent workers' agitation against hun­ger, in September and October in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

It was symptomatic to see Troelstra's official social democracy radicalizing itself. To the great astonishment of the other leaders of the SDAP, the party boss started making inflammatory speeches about revolution, about the seizure of power by the working class.

http://en.internationalism.org/book/export/html/2995
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2010 12:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Sawelson - Citation for Congressional Medal of Honor

Rank and organization: Sergeant, United States Army, Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division
Place and date: At Grand-Pre, France, 26 October, 1918
Entered service at: Harrison, New Jersey
Birth: Newark, New Jersey

CITATION - Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sergeant Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left his shelter and crawled through heavy machine gun fire to where the man lay, giving what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machine gun bullet.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/sawelson.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Slag aan de IJzer - 26 oktober 1914

In het bruggenhoofd Diksmuide werd de Brigade Meiser door twee bataljons Senegalezen en een Belgisch bataljon van de 5de Divisie vervangen.

De Vierde en Vijfde Divisie behielden hun posities, maar onderdelen van de Eerste en Tweede Divisie verlieten de linie Beverdijk-Reigersvliet en trokken zich terug op de spoorwegberm omdat nu een (Belgische) inundatie op komst was. Alle voorbereidende maatregelen hiertoe waren uitgevoerd.

In de nacht van 26 op 27 oktober mislukte een eerste poging met het Oud-Veurnesas (Kattensas) doordat het stijgende zeewater de sluisdeuren deed dichtklappen. De volgende nacht lukte het maneuver wél, maar de kleine sluis (5,60 m opening) kon onvoldoende water doorlaten. Cogge voorspelde dat het minstens drie dagen zou duren vooraleer met deze sluis voldoende water aangevoerd kon worden.

Lees verder op http://www.wo1.be/nl/geschiedenis/slagen-in-de-westhoek/het-ijzerfront/26-oktober-1914

Fietsen door een verwoest gewest

In de periode 18-31 oktober 1914 werd de Slag om de IJzer gevoerd. Het werd snel duidelijk dat de Belgen en hun geallieerde bondgenoten het laatste strookje vrij België niet langer in handen konden houden, tenzij rigoureuze maatregelen werden genomen. Dat hield in dat het gebied tussen de IJzer en de spoorwegbedding van de spoorlijn Nieuwpoort-Diksmuide onder water moest worden gezet om een verdere Duitse opmars te voorkomen en tegelijkertijd een veilige barrière te hebben voor de eigen manschappen. (...)

Op 26 oktober 1914 werd een eerste inundatiepoging ondernomen door de Spaanse sluis op de Oude Veurnevaart (ook Oud-Veurnesas of Kattesas genoemd) open te zetten. Dat was onvoldoende om de Duitsers tegen te houden. Er moest een tweede sluis worden geopend om het gewenste resultaat te krijgen. Die maakte het echter ook noodzakelijk dat eerst alle openingen in de spoorwegberm moesten worden dichtgemaakt, een karwei dat enkele dagen en nachten in beslag nam.

Lees verder op https://historiek.net/sporen-van-de-slag-om-de-ijzer/44811/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ingelmunster tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog

(...) Op bevel van de Duitse overheid werd de bevolking op 26 oktober 1914 gevraagd om alle duiven op te sluiten. De Duitsers beschouwden de diertjes als staatsgevaarlijk omdat ze berichten konden overbrengen. De bezetter besliste een paar dagen later om alle duiven te verzamelen op één plaats. Op 4 november 1914 telde men 2766 duiven die waren vastgezet op de zolder van de oude tapijtmanufactuur. Duitse soldaten lieten de duiven los in de dreef en kregen het bevel om zoveel mogelijk beestjes neer te schieten. In 1915 volgde een soortgelijke verordening. Op 1 juni 1915 werden er 553 duiven geteld. Opnieuw kregen de Duitse soldaten de opdracht om de duiven af te slachten. (...)

Lees verder op https://denhert.wordpress.com/ingelmunster-tijdens-de-eerste-wereldoorlog/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914)

26 oktober 1914 De dood sloeg de weer onverbiddelijk toe onder de massa vluchtelingen in de Noorderkempen. In Baarle-Hertog overleed ‘...in het lokaal genaamd St. Remi’ de elf maanden oude baby Willem Brion uit Mechelen. (onuitgegeven kroniek van Jan Huijbrechts)

26 oktober 1914 Ook aan de IJzer was voor velen het uur van de dood nabij: de Slag om de IJzer woedde van 16 tot 31 oktober 1914. John Van Tongerloo stierf op 26 oktober tijdens een artilleriebeschieting in St.-Joris a/d IJzer. Hij was in Baarle-Nassau geboren op 21 april 1892. Tot januari 1914 woonde hij in Meerle, waarna hij als bakkersgast naar Gilze-Rijen vertrok. John was soldaat van het 9de linieregi­ment.

https://www.amaliavansolms.org/1ste-wereld-oorlog/187-05-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

“Au pont de la Lys”: een gebouw met een bewogen geschiedenis

Dit bouwwerk aan de Leiebrug werd in de 18de eeuw opgetrokken als herberg De Werelt en in 1866 stichtte Pierre Tack (1918-1910), een advocaat en politicus die tevens minister van Financiën van België is geweest, er het café Au pont de la Lys.

Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914-1918) werd de stad Kortrijk bezet door de Duitse troepen omwille van haar strategische ligging vlakbij het front en een drukke spoorweglijn. De stad voorzag onder meer in de inkwartiering, de verzorging en het onderhoud van Duitse soldaten die naar het front trokken en terugkeerden. De burgers werden onderworpen aan een streng bezettingsregime, gekenmerkt door voedselschaarste, opeisingen en dwangmaatregelen.

In deze periode werd de herberg Au pont de la Lys uitgebaat door Octave Debaere en zijn echtgenote Emma Tyberghien als onderkomen voor Duitse wachters en officiers en als badhuis voor Duitse soldaten, zoals op de foto te zien is (“Badezeit, Wannenbäder für Offiziere & Mannschaften”). Voor het café was dit een zeer bewogen periode. Zo vond er op 26 oktober 1914 een schietpartij plaats in de herberg naar aanleiding van een ruzie tussen twee dronken Duitse officieren.

Verder lezen op https://picturingbelgium14-18.com/2017/01/24/au-pont-de-la-lys-een-gebouw-met-een-bewogen-geschiedenis/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Olivier von Beaulieu-Marconnay

Olivier (Freiherr) "Bauli" von Beaulieu-Marconnay' (* Berlijn, 14 september 1898, † Arlon , 26 oktober 1918) was een Duitse vliegende aas en behaalde 25 overwinningen. Hij was één van de jongste azen uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog en behoorde ook tot de zogenaamde kindsoldaten. Ondanks zijn leeftijd en zijn korte diensttijd in de Luftstreitkräfte was hij ongetwijfeld één van de succesvolste vliegende azen uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

(...) Op 2 September 1918, ondertussen bijna 19 jaar oud, nam hij de leiding over van Jasta 19. Op 16 Oktober 1918 werd hij door zijn eigen luchtmacht geraakt (vermoedelijk Jasta 74) en moest met zijn Fokker D.VII (1399/18) een noodlanding maken. De zwaargewonde Bauli werd overgebracht naar Arlon waar hij op 26 oktober 1918 op 20 jarige leeftijd overleed, vermoedelijk door een wondinfectie.

Alwéér van onze eigen WIKI... een máchtige bron! http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Oliver_Freiherr_von_Beaulieu-Marconnay
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ZEITZEICHEN 26. Oktober 1915: Tod des Komponisten August Bungert

Die Zeitgenossen des Komponisten August Bungert haben, zumal in seiner Geburtsstadt Mülheim an der Ruhr, den Tod August Bungerts am 26. Oktober 1915 sehr bewusst wahrgenommen. Immerhin war Bungert zu seinen Lebzeiten ein durchaus bekannter, prominenter Künstler, der sich vor allem mit Liedkompositionen, aber auch mit dramatischen Werken für die große Opernbühne einen Namen gemacht hatte.

Lees verder op https://www.muelheim-ruhr.de/cms/zeitzeichen_26_oktober_1915_tod_des_komponisten_august_bungert.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

26 oktober 1916 - Alveringem in de Groote Oorlog

Hubert Van Aerschot is op 10 januari 1894 geboren in de Brabantse stad Aarschot. De ongehuwde zoon van Joseph Edouard en Maria Catharina Grandjean treedt als oorlogsvrijwilliger in dienst van het Belgisch leger.
De man komt op 26 oktober 1916 in Oeren, nu een deelgemeente van Alveringem, om het leven tijdens een tragisch ongeval, met name door de ontploffing van het slaghoed van een oorlogspatroon.
Het slachtoffer wordt op 28 oktober 1916 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Adinkerke, grafnummer 1093.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/26-oktober-1916

Agathon Vandenabeele is op 13 oktober 1894 geboren in het West-Vlaamse dorp Handzame, nu een deelgemeente van Kortemark. De ongehuwde zoon van René Marie en Louisa Vandepitte treedt in 1913 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.
Tijdens zijn wachtbeurt in de loopgraven in eerste lijn in Diksmuide krijgt hij een kogel in de rechterkant van het hoofd en wordt met een schedelbreuk met overvloedige bloeding geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Hoogstade, dat gevestigd is in het Gasthuis Clep. Hij overlijdt daar op 26 oktober 1916 om 6 uur 's morgens.
Het slachtoffer wordt begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Hoogstade, grafnummer 615.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/26-oktober-1916-1
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Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Okt 2017 9:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Beschadigde Duitse betonnen observatiepost bij Passendale, 26 september 1917

Foto... https://www.kb.nl/sites/default/files/wrecked.german.observation.post_imp.war_.mus_.jpg
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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