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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2006 7:29    Onderwerp: 4 juli Reageer met quote

1917 U.S. troops march through Paris to Lafayette’s tomb

On July 4, 1917, the day on which the United States celebrates its independence, U.S. troops make their first public display of World War I, marching through the streets of Paris to the grave of the Marquis de Lafayette, a French aristocrat and hero of the American Revolutionary War.

Though the first large numbers of U.S. troops arrived in St. Nazaire, France, on June 26, 1916, almost three months after the formal U.S. declaration of war in early April, they were by no means to have an immediate effect on the battlefields of World War I. First, the American troops, many of them new recruits or conscripts, needed to be trained and organized into efficient battalions. They also needed to be reinforced by more of their number before they could have the strength to face Germany on the Western Front.

The U.S. commander, General John J. Pershing, dedicated himself to the establishment of training facilities and supply operations—even so, he could only promise a significant American contribution to the fighting beginning some 10 or 12 months from that time, or the summer of 1918. As a result, though the U.S. entrance into the war gave a significant psychological—and financial—boost to the exhausted Allies, on the battlefields of France the Allied soldiers were still waiting, in vain, for the hordes of arriving Americans to relieve them.

On July 4, 1917, immense public enthusiasm greeted the first public display of American troops: a symbolic march through Paris, ending at the grave of Lafayette, who had commanded revolutionary troops against the British empire and who, by his own request, had been buried in soil brought from America. To the cheers of Parisian onlookers in front of the tomb, the American officer Colonel Charles Stanton famously declared “Lafayette, we are here!”

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jul 2010 12:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Funeral

July 4, 1914 – The Archduke's funeral takes place at Artstetten (50 miles west of Vienna), Austria-Hungary.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jul 2010 12:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

July Crisis

On July 2, the Saxon Ambassador in Berlin wrote back to his king that the German Army wanted Austria to attack Serbia as quickly as possible, as the time was right for a general war with Germany more prepared for war than either Russia or France. On July 3, the Saxon military attaché in Berlin reported that the German General Staff “would be pleased if war were to come about now”.

Wilhelm II declared on July 4 that he was entirely for “settling accounts with the Serbia”. He ordered the German ambassador in Vienna, Count Heinrich von Tschirschky, to stop advising restraint, writing that “Tschirschky will be so good to drop this nonsense. We must finish with the Serbs, quickly. Now or never!”. In response, Tschirschky told the Austro-Hungarian government that same day that “Germany would support the Monarchy through thick and thin, whatever action it decided to take against Serbia. The sooner Austria-Hungary struck, the better”.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/July_Crisis#3.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jul 2010 13:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary - Edward P. Cox

Sunday July 4th [1915]
Enemy again shelled the trenches
at QUINN'S from close range, our
howitzers being unable to accurately
get the enemys gun emplacement
which was cleverly sited. Only
1 man wounded by shell & parapets
a bit damaged. At 9 am 2 coys
of Canterbury Batt. relieved us.
we proceeding to MINE GULLY for
a few days change. At 3 pm
WWC & Taranaki Coys followed
The Maori contingent arrived
here yesterday & have been granted
their wish to be sent to the front.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d10.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jul 2010 13:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Boeing reportedly takes his first airplane ride on July 4, 1915.

On July 4, 1915, pilot Terah Maroney gives airplane rides to William E. Boeing (1881-1956) and U.S. Navy Lieutenant Conrad Westervelt in a small seaplane based on Lake Washington. Some historians doubt this date because it was a Sunday, and believe Boeing's first flight occurred later. Regardless, inspired by their first taste of flight, Boeing and Westervelt would join forces to found what would become the Boeing Airplane Company in 1916.

Boeing had been fascinated with flight since January 1910, when he attended the first U.S. air races in Los Angeles. He also may have witnessed Charles Hamilton’s aerial demonstrations later that year at the Meadows Race Track, which marked the first airplane flight in Seattle.

Boeing and Westervelt met at Seattle’s College Club in the summer of 1915. Discovering their mutual interest in flight, they resolved to find a pilot who would take them up. Two years after this inaugural flight, Boeing and Westervelt built their first plane, the “B&W,” and founded the Pacific Aero-Products Co. in 1916, which became The Boeing Company.

http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=367
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jul 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 July 1916, Commons Sitting

EXEMPTION OF CLERGY.


HC Deb 04 July 1916 vol 83 c1353 1353

Mr. OUTHWAITE asked the Prime Minister whether his attention has been drawn to the fact that whilst there are a number of men who refuse to undertake military service on conscientious grounds but who are subject to the Military Service Act, there are at the same time a number of men excepted as clergy who have no such objection; and will he consider the advisability of inviting or compelling these clergymen to take the places of the conscientious objectors in the ranks?

The PRIME MINISTER (Mr. Asquith) No, Sir, I do not propose to adopt the suggestion.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/jul/04/exemption-of-clergy
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jul 2010 19:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S. Independence Celebrated on the Wrong Day?
John Roach for National Geographic News

On Sunday, the Fourth of July, millions of U.S. citizens will fire up the barbeque and shoot off fireworks in celebration of the Declaration of Independence, a now-sacred document that declares the independence of what were then 13 united colonies from England.

But the Continental Congress voted for the Declaration of Independence on the second of July in 1776. No one signed it until August 2, and the last signatures didn't come until the end of November.

"The only thing that happened on the fourth was they approved the document," said Ronald Hoffman, director of the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.

Several members of the Congress who voted for independence never signed the document, and several members who signed the document, were absent when the vote was taken, Hoffman added.

John Adams, the second President of the United States, was in 1776 a delegate to the Continental Congress representing the colony of Massachusetts. He wrote in a letter to his wife, Abigail, on July 3, 1776, that "the second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epocha in the history of America."

Pauline Maier, a professor of U.S. history and authority on the American Revolution, said that "in 1777, Congress didn't think of recalling the event until it was too late to celebrate the second, and the fourth became standard."

And much to the chagrin of Adams—who played an active role in revising drafts of the declaration into its final form—Virginia representative Thomas Jefferson, who drafted the original, took much of the credit as the sole author of the document.

"John Adams's claim to share in the glory of independence was well founded," Maier said. "He did far more than Jefferson to bring Congress to the point of approving separation from Britain."

Coincidentally, Jefferson and Adams both died on July 4, 1826, 50 years after the Declaration of Independence was approved.

Declaring Independence

Gordon Wood, a history professor at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, said that today many U.S. citizens fail to understand the gravity of the Declaration of Independence.

"Most people don't think about it too much," he said. "It's an occasion for cookouts and firecrackers, but at the time it was a big deal—breaking away from the British Empire and establishing independence."

The declaration sets forth a list of grievances with the King of England, George III, that justified a breaking of ties between the colonies and the mother country. At the time, the British Empire was all-powerful. A group of colonies breaking away was an unprecedented event, Wood said.

"Now Britain seems like small potatoes compared to the power of the U.S. The whole relationship has been reversed," he said.

The declaration was drafted by a committee of five appointed by the Continental Congress on June 11, 1776. Members included Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Robert Livingston of New York, and Jefferson of Virginia.

The committee selected Jefferson to draft the document, which members of the committee revised and then submitted to the Continental Congress on June 28. The Congress tabled it.

"After approving a resolution on Independence submitted by Richard Henry Lee on July 2, Congress took up the tabled draft declaration and, as a committee of the whole, edited it, then finally approved the version it had edited on July 4," Maier said.

Slavery Debate

According to Hoffman, the debate over Jefferson's original draft was heated.

"Jefferson's original draft included a strong condemnation of slavery and the slave trade," he said. "The southern delegation wouldn't go along with it, so Jefferson backed off and allowed it to be removed."

The removal of the antislavery language, according to Hoffman, left Jefferson feeling like the British had the moral high ground. The last royal governor of Virginia, John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, had offered freedom to any slaves who joined in the fight on the side of the king.

"Jefferson felt the rebels needed to justify the revolution on behalf of equality, and you can't have equality when you have a society based on slavery," Hoffman said. "Jefferson's inability to square that circle embedded the contradiction between slavery and freedom at the core of the founding of the United States."

Whether Jefferson felt he lost the moral high ground to the British or not, Maier said that today most Americans revere Jefferson as the father of independence itself and of the declaration.

"We forget the large number of people who were involved, not only the drafting committee and in Congress, but in the towns, counties, and state legislatures that also declared their support for independence, often explaining their reasons in the late spring and early summer of 1776," she said.

Although Fourth of July celebrations were standard fare throughout the 19th century, the day was not an official paid holiday for federal employees until 1941.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/06/0629_040629_july4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jul 2010 19:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leon Trotsky - On the Events in Dublin (July 1916)
Written: Nashe Slovo, 4th July, 1916

The former prominent colonial bureaucrat of Great Britain, Sir Roger Casement, by conviction a revolutionary Irish nationalist, the go-between for Germany and the Irish uprising, on being sentenced to death declared, ‘I prefer to sit on the bench of the accused than in the seat of the accuser,’ before the reading of the sentence, which ran according to the old formula that Casement should be ‘hung by the neck until dead’, at which God was invited to have mercy on his soul.

Should the sentence be carried out? This question must have given Asquith and Lloyd George many troubled hours. To execute Casement would make it even more difficult for the opportunist, nationalist and purely parliamentary Irish party, led by Redmond, to ratify a new compromise with the government of the UK on the blood of the insurrectionaries. To pardon Casement, after having carried out so many executions, would mean an open ‘display of indulgence to a high-ranking traitor’. This is the demagogic tune of the British social-imperialists of the Hyndman type – downright blood-thirsty hooligans. But however the personal fate of Casement is resolved the sentence on him will bring to a conclusion the dramatic episode of the Irish uprising.

In so far as the affair concerned the purely military operations of the insurrectionaries, the government, as we know, turned out comparatively easily to be master of the situation. The general national movement, however it was expressed in the heads of the nationalist dreamers, did not materialize at all. The Irish countryside did not rise up. The Irish bourgeoisie, as also the upper, more influential layer of the Irish intelligentsia, remained on the sidelines. The urban workers fought and died, together with revolutionary enthusiasts from the petty-bourgeois intelligentsia. The historical basis for the national revolution had disappeared even in backward Ireland. Inasmuch as the Irish movements in the last century had assumed a popular character, they had invariably fed on the social hostility of the deprived and exhausted pauper-farmer towards the omnipotent English landlord.

But if for the latter Ireland was only an object of agrarian plunder and exploitation, for British imperialism it was a necessary guarantee of their dominion over the seas. In a pamphlet written on the eve of the war, Casement, speculating about Germany, proves that the independence of Ireland means the ‘freedom of the seas’ and the death blow to the naval domination of Britain. This is true in so far as an ‘independent’ Ireland could exist only as an outpost of an imperialist state hostile to Britain and as its military naval base against British supremacy over the sea routes. It was Gladstone who first expounded with full clarity the military imperialist consideration of Great Britain over the interests of the Anglo-Irish landlords and laid the basis for the wide agrarian legislation by which the state transferred to the Irish farmers the landlords’ land, very generously compensating the latter, of course. Anyway, after the agrarian reforms of 1881-1903, the farmers turned into conservative small property owners, whose gaze the green banner of national independence is no longer able to tear away from their plots of land.

The redundant Irish intelligentsia flowed in their thousands into the towns of Great Britain as lawyers, journalists, commercial employees, etc. In this way, for the majority of them, the ‘national question’ got lost. On the other hand, the independent Irish commercial and industrial bourgeoisie, in so far as it has formed over the past decades, immediately adopted an antagonistic position towards the young Irish proletariat, giving up the national revolutionary struggle and entering the camp of imperialism. The young Irish working class, taking shape in an atmosphere saturated with the heroic recollections of national rebellions, and clashing with the egoistic, narrow-minded, imperial arrogance of British trade unionism, naturally swing between nationalism and syndicalism, ever ready to unite these two concepts in their revolutionary consciousness. It attracts the young intelligentsia and individual nationalist enthusiasts, who, in their turn, supply the movement with a preponderance of the green flag over the red. In this way, the ‘national revolution’, even in Ireland, in practice has become an uprising of workers, and the obviously isolated position of Casement in the movement only serves to emphasize this fact still deeper.

In a pathetic and shameful article, Plekhanov recently pointed to the ‘harmful’ character of the Irish uprising for the cause of freedom, rejoicing that the Irish nation ‘to their credit’ had realized this and not supported the revolutionary madmen. Only complete patriotic softening of all the joints could lead anyone to interpret the situation as if the Irish peasants had declined to participate in the revolution from the standpoint of the international situation, thus saving the ‘honour’ of Ireland. In actual fact they were led only by the obtuse egoism of the farmer and complete indifference to everything beyond the bounds of their plots of land. It was precisely because of this and only this that they supplied the London government with such a quick victory over the heroic defenders of the Dublin barricades. The undoubted personal courage, representing the hopes and methods of the past, is over. But the historical role of the Irish proletariat is only beginning. Already into this uprising – under an archaic banner – it has injected its class resentment against militarism and imperialism. That resentment from now on will not subside. On the contrary, it will find an echo throughout Great Britain. Scottish soldiers smashed the Dublin barricades. But in Scotland itself coal-miners are rallying round the red flag, raised by Maclean and his friends. Those very workers, who at the moment the Hendersons are trying to chain to the bloody chariot of imperialism, will revenge themselves against the hangman Lloyd George.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1916/07/dublin.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 15:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S.S. Roosevelt, leads a marine parade through the Ballard locks to dedicate the Lake Washington Ship Canal on July 4, 1917.

On July 4, 1917, for the dedication ceremonies of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, the U.S.S. Roosevelt leads a marine parade of 300 commercial and pleasure craft through the Ballard locks to Lake Union and Lake Washington.

The S.S. Roosevelt was famous for transporting Admiral Robert Peary (1856-1920) on his North Pole expedition in 1909. Between February 5, 1916 and the July 4 dedication ceremonies, 17,000 vessels had already passed through the ship canal.

Although once envisioned as an access point to a new Naval base, the Ship Canal project, which connected Puget Sound, Lake Union, and Lake Washington, had been so long delayed that the base had already been built across the sound in Bremerton. In any case, naval ships soon became too broad across the beam to enter the larger of the two locks.

The locks were later renamed for General Hiram Chittenden (1858-1917), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers officer who championed construction of the Ship Canal.

http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=1422
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 15:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WORDS MATTER - The Quotations That Shape, Reflect, And Explain America

“Lafayette, we are here!” – Charles Stanton, July 4, 1917

They numbered fewer than 200 men, but they were significant. Led by General John Pershing, they were the first American military force to ever reach the continent of Europe, pulling into port at Boulogne, France to calls of, “Vive l’Amerique!” 93 years ago today to support the Allied Powers in World War I.

The total number of troops in the American Expeditionary Force (AEF; pictured left in Paris parade) would eventually swell to over one million. More than 50,000 Americans would die in battle and an additional 60,000-plus Americans died from non-battle causes, mainly influenza and other illness. The United States entered World War I for many reasons, but this rationale was often framed within the context of supporting friends, such as France, who had come to America’s aid at a time of great need.

This sentiment is reflected in the words of an American lieutenant colonel Charles Stanton. Remembering the enormous contribution of French Marie Joseph Yves Roches Gilbert du Motier, who was better (and far more succinctly) known as the Marquis de Lafayette. Following a parade through Paris amidst the enthusiastic and welcoming embrace of the French, Pershing, Stanton, and the American troops arrived at the grave of the Marquis. Though the words are often incorrectly attributed to the better-known Pershing, it was Stanton who then said the ultimate return-the-favor quote:

“Nous voila, Lafayette (Lafayette, we are here!“)

The gratitude from the Americans was well deserved. The Marquis de Lafayette was a 19-year-old military officer from France who was so moved by reports of the colonial push for independence that he decided to come to America and serve in battle against the British. Benjamin Franklin urged General George Washington to accept Lafayette as an aide-de-camp because of the Frenchman’s strong reputation and in hopes that the young French officer could help summon increased French support for the revolutionary cause. Franklin’s assessment proved wise, as Lafayette returned to France between tours in the colonies–where he served and suffered wounds in battles including Brandywine, Monmouth, and Yorktown– and played a key role in attracting critically needed French resources for the American troops.

The Marquis de Lafayette died in Paris on May 20, 1834, almost ten years after returning to the United States as an official guest of President James Monroe. During this visit, he toured every state and traveled over 6,000 miles. In 2002, an act of the U.S. Congress made Lafayette only the sixth of seven people an honorary citizen of the United States. He is buried in Paris under soil from the site of the Revolutionary War’s Battle of Bunker Hill.

Leuke site! http://www.iancfriedman.com/?p=1188
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 15:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

4 juli 1917 - “Rekening van de wed. Jos Versmissen en zonen: eene doodskist gemaakt voor een Rus à 25fr.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.521.8 Bewijsstukken der rekening 1917)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender

Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

4 juli 1917 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Bestevaer' van de rederij Phs. van Ommeren uit Rotterdam, op weg van Londen naar Rotterdam met stukgoed, onder kapitein H. de Kok, wordt op de Noordzee voor de ingang van de Nieuwe Waterweg door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'UC 21'getorpedeerd en tot zinken gebracht. Acht van de 18 bemanningsleden komen hierbij om het leven, waaronder de kapitein, de stuurman en de tweede machinist. Bron: 'De Zee' (1917)

http://www.scheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=7&d=4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 16:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag om Hamel - 4 juli 1918

Toen het Duitse offensief eind april 1918 in de richting van Amiens eindigde, vroegen de Geallieerde strijdkrachten zich af waar de Duitsers de volgende keer zouden aanvallen. De Australiërs moesten de linie ten oosten van Villers-Bretonneux bewaken vanwaar ze de Duitsers tussen april en juli 1918 bleven bestoken met een tactiek die ‘vriendelijke inname’ werd genoemd. Dit hield in dat er vijandelijke partouilles belaagd werden, dat er voortdurend kleine aanvallen op Duitse linies gedaan werden, dat er slecht verdedigde stukken van die linies veroverd werden, kortom dat het leven van de Duitse soldaten tegenover hen zo moeilijk mogelijk gemaakt werd. Tijdens deze maanden werkte het Britse en Franse hoge bevel aan een nieuw offensief dat ten oosten van Villers-Bretonneux gelanceerd zou worden en waarbij de Canadezen en de Australiërs zich in de voorhoede zouden bevinden in een gebied ten zuiden van de Somme.

Terwijl deze plannen werden ontwikkeld stuitten de Duitsers in het zuiden weer op de Fransen. In een paar dagen hadden ze het front meer dan veertig kilometer in de richting van Parijs opgeschoven en bevonden ze ongeveer waar ze in 1914 waren geweest, op aanvalsafstand van de stad. De Geallieerden waren niet zeker van het preciese doel van de Duitsers, omdat er ook vijandelijke voorbereidingen werden gemaakt voor een ander offensief in het noorden van Vlaanderen. Over het algemeen nam men aan dat in plaats van Parijs als doel, de Duitsers waarschijnlijk probeerden om de Britse reservisten erbij te betrekken om de Britse Expeditie Strijdkrachten uit te putten. In ieder geval was het nog steeds een gespannen tijd voor de Britten en de Fransen – de strijdkracht van de Verenigde Staten was nog niet vertoond en de Duitsers hielden nog steeds het initiatief.

Op dat moment werd het bevel van het Australische Korps overgegeven aan een Australiër, luitenant-generaal John Monash. De eerste grote actie van het Korps onder bevel van Monash was de aanval op een gedeelte van de Duitse linie dat in een kleine salient rond Le Hamel uitstulpte, ten noordoosten van Villers-Bretonneux. De voorbereidingen voor de aanval waren bijzondere grondig en uitgebreid, wat Monash karakteriseerde. De Slag om Hamel werd op 4 juli 1918 gestreden en is beroemd als een voorbeeld voor wat militairen een ‘all-arms’ strijd noemen. Dit betekende eenvoudigweg dat er ter ondersteuning van de opmars van de infanterie een grote reeks andere wapens beschikbaar was om grond te winnen – tanks, artillerie en machinegeweren, alsook communicatie-eenheden enz. Deze droegen allen bij tot een goed geplande aanval. Bij de Australiërs waren een aantal Amerikanen ondergebracht en het was geen toeval dat de aanval op 4 juli, onafhankelijksdag, gepland was.

De strijd bij Le Hamel was een briljant succes en was na ongeveer 90 minuten voorbij. Op sommige plaatsen werd de opmars door Duitse machinegeweren verhinderd. Soldaat Henry Dalziel van het 15de Bataljon (Queensland en Tasmanië), slechts met een revolver gewapend, bestormde Duitse soldaten met machinegeweren en veroverde de post. Vice-korporaal Thomas Axford van het 16de Bataljon (West-Australië) gebruikte granaten om een andere post van machinegeweren te vernietigen die in handen was van 16 Duitsers. Dalziel en Axford werden het Victoriakruis toegekend.

Met de strijd in Le Hamel werd ook de eerste Eremedaille in de Eerste Wereldoorlog verleend aan een soldaat van het Amerikaanseleger, korporaal Thomas Pope. In zijn eervolle vermelding staat dat hij ‘een nest van machinegeweren bestormde, verschillende leden van de bemanning met een bajonet doodde en terwijl hij schrijlings over zijn geweer stond de anderen op afstand hield tot er versterking kwam die hen gevangen nam.’

Een hoogtepunt in de strijd bij Le Hamel was het succes van de Britse tanks. Australische soldaten waren erg sceptisch over de waarde van deze machines sinds hun rampzalige mislukking in april 1917 bij Bullecourt. Deze nieuwe tanks waren echter sneller en gemakkelijker wendbaar en de Australische infanterie kon er goed mee samenwerken. Eén van de bevelhebbers van een tank vertelde hoe de Australiërs nooit voelden dat de aanwezigheid van een tank hen ‘vrijstelde om te vechten en [ze] maakten onmiddellijk gebruik van elke gelegenheid die de tanks creëerden’. Transporttanks, een andere vernieuwing, brachten voorraden achter de opmars aan, een taak die normaal gesproken door honderden infanteristen werd uitgevoerd. Eskadron nr 3 van het Australische Vliegkorps, dropten met weer een andere vernieuwing per parachute munitie bij de Australische troepen. De Australiërs leden 1400 slachtoffers en de onervaren Amerikanen die goed vochten, verloren 176 slachtoffers. Alle doelwitten werden ingenomen en meer dan 1600 Duitsers werden gevangen genomen. Charles Bean, de officiële historicus van Australië, schreef:

Het voornaamste resultaat van Hamel was dat de zorgvuldige voorbereiding van Monash een voorbeeld werd voor bijna elke volgende aanval van de Britse infanterie met tanks gedurende de rest van de oorlog.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/hamel-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 16:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag om Hamel - 4 juli 1918 - VC's

Henry Dalziel

Henry Dalziel VC (18 February 1893–24 July 1965) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Dalziel's VC was the 1000th awarded.

He was 25 years old, and a Driver in the 15th Battalion (Queensland & Tasmania), Australian Imperial Force during the First World War when, during the Battle of Hamel, the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 4 July 1918 at Hamel Wood, France, when determined resistance was coming from an enemy strong-point which was also protected by strong wire entanglements, Private Dalziel, armed only with a revolver, attacked an enemy machine-gun. He killed or captured the entire crew and, although severely wounded in the hand, carried on until the final objective was captured. He twice went over open ground under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire to obtain ammunition and, suffering from loss of blood, continued to fill magazines and serve his gun until wounded in the head.

His citation, published in the London Gazette on 17 August 1918 read:

"For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when in action with a Lewis gun section. His company met with determined resistance from a strong point which was strongly garrisoned, manned by numerous machine-guns and, undamaged by our artillery fire, was also protected by strong wire entanglements. A heavy concentration of machine-gun fire caused many casualties, and held up our advance. His Lewis gun having come into action and silenced enemy guns in one direction, an enemy gun opened fire from another direction. Private Dalziel dashed at it and with his revolver, killed or captured the entire crew and gun, and allowed our advance to continue. He was severely wounded in the hand, but carried on and took part in the capture of the final objective. He twice went over open ground under heavy enemy artillery and machine-gun fire to secure ammunition, and though suffering from considerable loss of blood, he filled magazines and served his gun until severely wounded through the head. His magnificent bravery and devotion to duty was an inspiring example to all his comrades and his dash and unselfish courage at a critical time undoubtedly saved many lives and turned what would have been a serious check into a splendid success."

He later achieved the rank of Sergeant.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Dalziel

Thomas Axford

Thomas Leslie "Jack" Axford VC, MM (18 June 1894 – 11 October 1983), was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. (...)

Axford enlisted in the Australian military forces in 1912. He served in the 84th Infantry Regiment of the Citizen Military Forces until July 1915, and enlisted in the 11th Reinforcements of the 16th Battalion (S.A. and W.A.), Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 9 August 1915. He left for the front on board the HMAT Benalla in November.[1]

Axford was wounded in August 1916, and in August 1917 was so badly wounded that he did not rejoin his battalion until January 1918. In February 1918, he was promoted to lance corporal. On 24 May 1918, Axford was awarded the Military Medal.[2][3]

On 4 July 1918, the following deed took place for which Axford was awarded the VC:

On 4 July 1918 during the attack at Vaire and Hamel Woods, France, when the advance of the adjoining platoon was being delayed in uncut wire and machine-gun fire, and his company commander had become a casualty, Lance-Corporal Axford charged and threw bombs amongst the enemy gun crews. He then jumped into the trench, and charging with his bayonet, killed 10 of the enemy and took six prisoners. He threw the machine-guns over the parapet and the delayed platoon was able to advance. He then rejoined his own platoon and fought with it during the remainder of the operations.

In addition to the VC, Axford was also that month promoted to corporal.

Axford returned to Western Australia in October 1918, and was discharged on 2 February 1919.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Axford
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 16:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag om Hamel - 4 juli 1918 - Medal of Honor

Thomas A. Pope

Thomas A. Pope (December 15, 1894 – June 14, 1989) was a soldier in the United States Army who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the World War I.

Pope was born in Chicago, Illinois in December 15, 1894 and died June 14, 1989. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia. His grave can be found in section 35, lot 3157.

Medal of Honor citation - Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company E, 131st Infantry, 33d Division. Place and date: At Hamel, France, 4 July 1918. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919.

Citation: His company was advancing behind the tanks when it was halted by hostile machinegun fire. Going forward alone, he rushed a machinegun nest, killed several of the crew with his bayonet, and, standing astride his gun, held off the others until reinforcements arrived and captured them.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_A._Pope
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Address of President Wilson, July 4, 1918, Mount Vernon

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1593225/

Die 4 Punkte der Rede des Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika Woodrow Wilson in Mount Vernon.

Vom 4. Juli 1918.

Folgendes sind die Ziele, für die die verbundenen Völker der Welt kämpfen und die ihnen zugestanden werden müssen, ehe Friede sein kann:

I. Die Vernichtung jeder willkürlichen Macht allerorts, die für sich allein, heimlich und nach eigener Wahl den Weltfrieden stören kann, oder, wenn sie zur Zeit nicht vernichtet werden kann, wenigstens ihre Herabdrückung zu tatsächlicher Machtlosigkeit.

II. Die Regelung aller Fragen, mögen sie Staatsgebiet, Souveränität, wirtschaftliche Vereinbarungen oder politische Beziehungen betreffen, auf der Grundlage der freien Annahme dieser Regelung seitens des dadurch unmittelbar betroffenen Volkes und nicht auf der Grundlage des materiellen Interesses oder Vorteiles irgendeiner anderen Nation oder irgendeines anderen Volkes, das um seines äußeren Einflusses oder seiner Vorherrschaft willen eine andere Regelung wünschen könnte.

III. Die Einwilligung aller Nationen, sich in ihrem Verhalten zueinander von denselben Grundsätzen der Ehre und der Achtung vor dem gemeinsamen Recht der zivilisierten Gesellschaft leiten zu lassen, die für die einzelnen Bürger aller modernen Staaten in ihren Beziehungen zueinander gelten, dergestalt, daß alle Versprechen und Abmachungen gewissenhaft beobachtet, daß keine Sonderanschläge und Verschwörungen angezettelt werden, daß keine selbstsüchtigen Schädigungen ungestraft zugefügt werden, und daß wechselseitiges Vertrauen geschaffen werde auf der vornehmen Grundlage wechselseitiger Achtung vor dem Recht.

IV. Die Errichtung einer Friedensorganisation, die es sicherstellen soll, daß die Gesamtmacht der freien Nationen jede Rechtsverletzung verhüten und dazu dienen wird, Frieden und Gerechtigkeit dadurch noch sicherer zu machen, daß sie ein bestimmtes Tribunal der Meinungen schafft, dem alle sich beugen müssen und durch das jede internationale Readjustierung, über die sich die direkt beteiligten Völker nicht freundschaftlich einigen können, sanktioniert werden soll.

Diese großen Ziele lassen sich in einem Satze zusammenfassen. Was wir suchen, ist die Herrschaft des Rechtes, gegründet auf die Zustimmung der Regierten und gestützt durch die organisierte Meinung der Menschheit.

http://www.documentarchiv.de/in/1918/4-punkte-wilsons-mount-vernon.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2010 16:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pogrom

4 juli 1919: Diverse pogroms in Kiëv, Brailov en Borsjtsjagovka. 67 joden werden vermoord, 110 raakten gewond en vele vrouwen en jonge meisjes werden verkracht. Daders stonden in verbinding met niemand minder dan Petljoera.

http://www.faq-online.nl/index.php?file=news&id=1070
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Jul 2011 6:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the Frontline: Somme 1916

War Diary Entry: July 4th 1916

Thiepval Wood again bombarded both morning and afternoon it must be getting a regular shambles. They put a lot of 5.9 shells Hamel during the day all round the KOSB & SWB hd qrs. An exceptionally heavy rain storm came on just after midday ,it kept on raining most of the afternoon. All the trenches were washed out and fell in in many places; in the low part of Hamel all the trenches cellars and dugouts were flooded.


An order came from the Army (we are now in the reserve Army since 2 days) that the line had to be pushed out in front tonight, Fuller & Bayley came up about 6pm with 2 RE subalterns on their way up to mark it out, the 2 subalterns have a pleasant night in store for them. We received information during the afternoon that the 49th Divn were going at 2am tomorrow morning to try and clear the germans out of the lengths of trench which the 49th hold on the high ground, but which the Germans occupy down by the river end. They were also going for the Hill & Mound. After this rain the marsh will be absolutely impassable so they will not be able to reach them. We have offered to take on the Mill (a very small ruin in the marsh) instead of them, & are sending out half a dozen men to reconnoitre it tonight.
A 5.9” shell landed full in our office at Englebelmer yesterday laying it level with the ground. All our people were out at the time.

==> http://somme95.blogspot.com/2011/07/war-diary-entry-july-4th-1916.html

Letter to Mother: July 4th 1916

You are right. Just north of river. Don’t expect I shall see John, he will probably go S of us, where they seem to be doing very well. Hope Raymond is through with his operation by now and getting on all right, also that Peggy is recovering,.
Yr loving son
Cuthbert

==> http://somme95.blogspot.com/2011/07/letter-to-mother-july-4th-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jul 2011 6:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Diary Entry - 4rd July, 1916

Tuesday, and I started for Ablain at ten thirty for the pay at the field cashier's. When we got there we met Bee on the same stunt so, as our wagon lines are close to one another, we rode down together. We just got there at the end of stables so Siggers and I paid out straightaway. At one we lunched with Bee at an estaminet and at one thirty Siggers and I set out for Bethune to get new carpets et cetera for the Mess. At Noeux les Mines we stepped into a passing ambulance and were hurled into town in about eight minutes, getting there soon after three. Having had tea - oh I forgot to add that the rain started at one and continued heavily until five pm; one gets so used to it that one does not notice it - and completed all purchases we caught another ambulance reaching Noeux at six forty and so on to the battery, arriving about eight thirty.

==> http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/07/diary-entry-4th-july-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2012 11:19    Onderwerp: On This Day - 4 July 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 4 July 1916

Western Front

- Heavy thunderstorms impede operations.

- British take Bernafay Wood, east of Montauban; make air attacks on Comines, Combles, St. Quentin.

- French capture Estrees, Belloy-en-Santerre, and Sormont Farm: advance from Curlu towards Hem.

- Germans regain Thiaumont (Verdun).

Eastern Front

- Second Great Russian advance in the Ukraine under General Lesch; they cross Styr at Kolki and Rafalovka and drive the Austrians towards the Stokhod. Further south they cut Carpathian railway at Mikolichin.

Southern Front

- Italians continue to advance in Trentino.

Naval and Overseas Operations

- The "Goeben" and "Breslau" bombard Russian ports in Black Sea.

Political, etc.

- Ignatius Tribitch Lincoln, ex-M.P., sentenced to three years penal servitude for forgery.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_07_04.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2017 11:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aanloop naar de Eerste Wereldoorlog: 4 juli 1914
Gepubliceerd 4 juli 2014 | Door Erlend van Ark

Zaterdag 4 juli 1914.
Artstetten. Vandaag was de begrafenis van aartshertog Frans Ferdinand en zijn vrouw Sophie Chotek. De begrafenis vond niet plaats in de hoofdstad Wenen maar het kleine Artstetten, een kasteel van de Habsburgse dynastie. Volgens omstanders was de ceremonie vrij armoedig. Het echtpaar laat drie jonge kinderen achter.
Na de begrafenis stuurt de Oostenrijkse minister Berchtold een jonge diplomaat, graaf Alexander von Hoyos naar Berlijn met een persoonlijke brief van keizer Frans Jozef aan de Duitse keizer Wilhelm II. In de brief vraagt Frans Jozef om Duitse steun voor acties tegen Servië. Frans Jozef schrijft dat er al genoeg bewijzen zijn tegen Servië om die acties te rechtvaardigen. Hoyos schijnt een van de haviken te zijn op het Auswärtiges Amt (ministerie van buitenlandse zaken). Dus hij zal de Duitsers proberen te overtuigen van de noodzaak Servië hard te straffen.
Ondertussen krijgt Pasic antwoord uit St. Petersburg. De Russische minister van buitenlandse zaken Sergej Sazonov laat Pasic weten dat hij zich geen zorgen hoeft te maken over de Oostenrijkse beschuldigingen (die in de rest van Europa toch niet worden geloofd volgens Sazonov). De Russen denken dat het bij woorden zal blijven en dat Oostenrijk-Hongarije niet tot het uiterste zal gaan om Servië te straffen. Pasic is hier niet gerust op.

http://www.historien.nl/aanloop-naar-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-4-juli-1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jul 2017 11:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alan Seeger en Bernard Kacenelen - Een bekende en een onbekende legionair uit het Franse Vreemdelingenlegioen tijdens WOI
door Eric R.J. Wils

Wat verbindt de bekende Amerikaanse oorlogsdichter Alan Seeger, geboren in 1888, en de onbekende Pool Bernard Kacenelen, geboren in 1884, met elkaar? Beiden waren soldaat tweede klasse in het Régiment de Marche de la Légion Étrangère en sneuvelden op 4 juli 1916 tijdens de beginfase van de slag om de Somme. Ze liggen waarschijnlijk begraven in hetzelfde massagraf op de Franse militaire begraafplaats Lihons. Sinds 1914 broeders in de strijd en vervolgens ook broeders in de dood.

Lees verder op http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/alan-seeger/index.html
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