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19 December

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Dec 2005 7:04    Onderwerp: 19 December Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

December 19

1915 Haig becomes commander-in-chief of the British army in France


In the wake of the British defeat at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, Sir Douglas Haig replaces Sir John French as commander-in-chief of all British forces on the Western Front.

Haig, who commanded the 1st Army of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) at Loos, had asked French to authorize the release of two reserve divisions before the battle. French eventually consented, but due to disorganization and the long distance they had to travel, the reserves arrived too late to make a difference. The offensive at Loos ended in failure, and the incident contributed to French’s removal from his position in December in favor of Haig, who enjoyed some influence with King George V.

The controversial Haig served as commander of the BEF through the end of the war—from devastating battles at Verdun and the Somme to the Allied offensives in 1918 that would lead to victory—despite criticism from such formidable detractors as British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, who wrote later that at times he wondered if he should have resigned rather than allow Haig to pursue his strategy.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Dec 2005 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 19. Dezember

1914
Russische Kavallerie bei Pillkallen geschlagen
Der Siegreiche Vormarsch in Südpolen
Ein russischer Bericht
Ägypten britisches Protektorat
Eine Proklamation des Khediven
Die Königs-Zusammenkunft in Malmö
Eine italienische Milliardenanleihe

1915
Abermaliger Fliegerangriff auf Metz
Streiffahrt der deutschen Flotte in der Nordsee
Verfolgungskämpfe in Montenegro

1916
Vordringen der Dobrudscha-Armee gegen die untere Donau
Vergebliche russische Angriffe im Mesteranesci-Abschnitt

1917
Erstürmung des Monte Asolone
Ein französischer Kreuzer torpediert

1918

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Dec 2005 10:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 december 1915: Duitsers lanceren een gasanval met fosgeen over een front van verschillende honderden meters ten NO van Ieper. Aan de andere kant zitten de britten van de 6e en de 49 e divisie. De Britten hadden de gasaanval zien aankomen en hadden voldoende voorzorgsmaatregelen genomen. Een Duitse infanterieaanval volgde niet.

Uit het dagboek van het 1ste battaljon Leicestershire Regiment:
71 Bde WO95/1621: 1 LEICS 1915-1916

Trenches at Wieltje 19/12/1915

5.10 am. Quiet night (18/19th). At 5.10 am red lights observed all along the front (sent up by Germans)
5.15 am. Our sentries in B q trench (right company) saw 2 Germans come out to within 100 yards from trench and bend down, apparently turning on a tap. GAS was heard issuing immediately at great pressure from cylinders. Before the sentry could fire, the gas was on him. The gas came out of cylinders under very great pressure and could be heard (like steam escaping) at least 200 yards behind the front line. Gas was chlorine and Prussic acid (?) (Gas has been now (27/1/16) proved to have been chlorine (CL2) and phosgene (C.O.C.L3) )
Gas was extremely volatile and travelled on fresh wind at enormous speed; it was received at Bn HQRS, 100 yards behind the front line, before it could be telephoned through that gas was being used.
Very deadly indeed and though the Battalion had had constant practise in use and application of tube helmets, those who could not get their helmets on or had lost them were overcome very quickly and died. They were overcome in about 5 minutes and lived in a comatose condition for 2 or 3 hours only.
A curious character of the gas was its “delayed action”: at noon (19th) list of casualties was 3 died of gas and 8 suffering from gas. At 6 pm over 100 in the front line were sufering very severely from this delayed action of the gas and men who attempted to come to the dressing station in St Jean fell on the way and were picked up insensible. The stretcher bearers worked all night carrying men down the road on anything available & collecting them on “company carts” etc.
6.20 am. At about 6.20 am (19th Dec) small parties Germans were seen moving about in front of their lines but no serious attack was made. The Germans then (6.20 am) commenced a furious bombardment of all our trenches, front and support, all roads in rear of trenches, all houses and villages and the main roads as far back as POPERINGHE which was also shelled heavily with all kinds of shells including some 17 inch. The Germans bombarded us with all sorts of shells, chiefly 4.5 inch, but with a large number of 8 inch as well. The batteries (English) were all shelled with gas shells (lacrymatory)
Bombardment was most intense and lasted in varying intensity 48 hours, the roads all round being absolute deathtraps. All telephone communication between Bn Hq and companies was cut at once and orderlies had to be used. They did their work splendidly under heavy shell fire and got through every message without casualties.
St Jean village where Bn Headquarters was (in a cellar), also our dressing station, was shelled with the utmost fury, movement being extremely difficult.
Casualties 5am 19th Dec to midnight 19/20th Dec.: 3 killed shell, 6 died of gas, 9 wounded, 3 missing and 53 suffering from gas.

En nog eentje, vertaald in het Nederlands:

PERSOONLIJK GETUIGENIS W.J. ADIE, CAPTAIN, R.A.M.C. (S.R.) attached 1st Leicestershire Regt.

Het was mooi weer op 19 december om twintig over vijf ’s morgens en een lichte bries blies uit de richting van de Duits linies naar de onze toe, niet rechtstreeks, maar ook wel een beetje uit het zuiden. Alles was rustig en behalve dat de wind wat gevaarlijk zat, was er niets verdachts. Het eerste teken (dat er gas was) was een luid gesis. Bijna op hetzelfde moment stegen uit de Duitse linies rode vuurpijlen op.en binnen vijf tot tien seconden bereikte een sterke gasgeur onze voorste linie. Het gas verplaatste zich erg snel (…)
Ik was op het hoofdkwartier een kopje thee aan het drinken voor ik met de kolonel de loopgraven zou inspecteren. Eerst dacht ik dat het theewater te sterk gechloord was maar even later was het alsof ik gas rook. Buiten de schuilplaats werd het duidelijk dat de lucht van een sterke en onmiskenbare chloorgeur was doordrongen. Ik sloeg alarm (…) Een dertigtal seconden later zette ik mijn gasmasker op. Dat was in het begin erg oncomfortabel maar na een paar minuten voelde ik me heel wat beter. Ongeveer een uur later verliet ik de dugout , ik snoof voorzichtig de lucht even op en stelde vast dat de gasgeur zo goed als verdwenen was. Alle telefoonlijnen waren door het bombardement afgesneden en het was een paar uur bezorgd wachten op nieuws. Rond acht uur kwam een ordonnans met een bericht uit de voorste linie: drie mannen waren bezweken aan het gas en ongeveer een dozijn vertoonde lichte vergiftigingsverschijnselen.
’s Middags probeerde ik de loopgraven te bezoeken Wegens het hevige bombardement (…)
raakte ik niet tot in de voorste linie. Om drie uur probeerde ik het weer en nu slaagde ik daar wel in. Ik onderzocht er de lichamen van de doden (…) In alle gevallen was er een probleem geweest met het snel opzetten van de “tube helmets”. (…) Deze mannen, blauw en opgezwollen, waren allemaal in tien tot vijftien minuten gestorven…
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Dec 2005 14:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 december 1915
Gallipoli

Onder dekking van sporadisch vuren is de helft van de 80.000 manschappen geevacueerd van het schiereiland. In de nacht vervoeren de bootjes nog eens 20.000 man naar de schepen.

Bron: The Almanac of World War I
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Tandorini



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Dec 2009 13:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 december 1914: Franse aanvallen op de Tete de Faux tot 24 februari 1915.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/T%C3%AAte_de_Faux
http://www.latetedesfaux.fr/page_histoire_de_la_tete_des_faux.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 17:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

C.Dahlen poetry: In the Shadow of Frost

Frost to Cox: Letter 19 - December, 1914

"You should have seen her standing there that night."
He arched his eyebrows, pursed his parted lips,
his greedy grin grew broad before he blushed.
"You should have seen her standing there that night."
He scowled as his tongue pushed out his cheek.
He bit his lower lip and turned away.
"You should have seen her standing there that night."
He held the yellowed snapshot in his hand.
A little girl in tights smiled at the lens.
Though syntax of a line remains the same,
a vital sentence means more than its words.
The ear recalls a vivid sentence form
and sounds of sense give meaning to the words.
so be content with content of the line.

http://sites.google.com/site/cdahlenpoetry/home/miscellaneous-sonnets/frost-to-cox-letter-19
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 17:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nerincx, A., Poster, 19 December 1914



http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/nerincx-poster-19-december-1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 17:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Abbas II of Egypt



HH Abbas II Hilmi Bey (also known as Abbas Hilmi Pasha) (14 July 1874 – 19 December 1944) was the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan (8 January 1892 – 19 December 1914). (...)

When the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in World War I, the United Kingdom declared Egypt an independent Sultanate under British protectorate on 18 December 1914 and deposed Abbas. Abbas supported the Ottomans in the war, including leading an attack on the Suez Canal. His uncles Hussein Kamel and then Fuad I, the British choices for their Protectorate, issued a series of restrictive orders to strip Abbas of property in Egypt and Sudan and forbade contributions to him. These also barred Abbas from entering Egyptian territory and stripped him of the right to sue in Egyptian courts.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbas_II_of_Egypt

Hussein Kamel of Egypt



Sultan Hussein Kamel (21 November 1853 – 9 October 1917) was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_Kamel_of_Egypt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 17:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Christmas Truce of 1914

19 December 1914 - An attack by 11th Brigade [1st Somerset Light Infantry, 1st Hampshire and 1st Rifle Brigade] on the "German Birdcage" east of Ploegsteert Wood fails with heavy casualties, many of which are caused by British heavy artillery firing short of target.

Lees verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/truce.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 17:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frank Costello (footballer)

Frederick "Frank" G. Costello (1884 – 19 December 1914) was an English professional footballer who played as a forward for Southampton and West Ham United prior to the First World War. (...)

During the First World War he was enlisted into the Royal Warwickshire Regiment and was killed in action in France on 19 December 1914.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Costello_(footballer)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 17:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE FIGHTING FOR THE FORTRESS OF PRZEMYŚ'L

(...) Between 19th December 1914 and 5th February 1915 there was no consecutive fighting. The bled Austria-Hungarian forces were not capable of further offensive activity. Food and maintenance became a problem. The provisions in the magazines which had been used by the field armies during their withdrawal before the second siege had run out. The soldiers had to be put on short rations, 13,000 horses had to be slaughtered to feed the army. (...)

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/przemysl.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly: "Courtsmartial and Revolution"
From Irish Work 19 December 1914.

“The Earl of Halsbury said that in deference to the wishes of the Government he would not press his objections, but he thought the proposal of this Bill was the most unconstitutional thing that had ever happened.”

The foregoing sentence is from a report of a debate in the House of Lords on the Defence of the Realm Consolidation Act, on Friday, November 27th. This precious Act gives the military authorities power to arrest civilians and try them by Courtsmartial, sets aside all the ordinary safeguards of civil liberty, and empowers these Courtsmartial to inflict the death penalty or any lesser sentence. In other words, and plainer language, it establishes Martial Law as the law of the land, and places the lives and liberties of all in the power of a military unaccustomed to the restraints of civilised courts of justice, and ignorant of the laws of evidence.

A German, a French, an Italian or an Austrian Government would have openly and honourably sought to attain those ends by a declaration of Martial Law; the hypocritical and cowardly gang of assassins who control the Government of the British Empire seek to achieve the same objects by clandestinely and treacherously destroying civil liberties whilst professing a desire to safeguard and protect them. This is but a fitting culmination to all the anti-democratic and liberty-hating diplomacy which brought about this war, and now seeks to destroy every agency which would help to unmask its injurious conspiracy against mankind, or tell the truth about the terrors that accompany it. As a result of this Act there is no longer liberty in Ireland – liberty of speech, liberty of association, liberty of the press, liberty of the subject are all gone. No longer may a man or woman demand to be tried by his or her peers in an open court-room, before the eyes and hearing of his or her fellows. At any time any man or woman may be arrested, day or night, and dragged off in secret, to be tried in secret, and condemned and assassinated in secret by the hired assassins of the British Empire.

Aye, there is no break in the continuity of the methods of British Imperial Rule in Ireland. Dublin Castle is always Dublin Castle, the same at all times, loathsome, lying, hypocritical, murderous.

Of course we have the word of this Government that no death sentences will be carried out until Parliament meets, and of course we all know what the word of the Government is worth. Belgium knows it now, knows that this Government pledged its honour to maintain Belgian neutrality, and then manoeuvred to leave Belgium irrevocably committed to sink or swim with one side in this struggle in which she was supposed to remain neutral. Ireland knows it, knows that the Liberal Government pledged its word to give Home Rule to all Ireland then pledged its word to Carson not to force Home Rule upon all Ireland, pledged its word to place a representative of Labour upon the Commission of Inquiry into the Dublin police outrages, then deliberately breaks its solemn word, and appointed no such representatives; pledged its word to appoint an independent Commission of Inquiry into the Bachelor’s Walk massacre, and yet declared in Parliament beforehand that the said Commission would exonerate the uniformed murderers of peaceful citizens. Aye, Ireland knows the value of a Government promise, as our fathers knew it in the past!

But let ‘messieurs, the assassins,’ beware. There are in Ireland today many scores of thousands of earnest men neither committed to the British Empire nor to the cause of revolution. For the most part these are men who, wearied of the chaos of Irish politics, gave a grudging adhesion to the parliamentary attempt to secure some form of Home Rule as an organised legal expression of Irish nationhood. Loyalty to the party entrusted with that task has kept these men silent and inactive even whilst that party was betraying their trust, and besmirching their ideals. Always the hope persisted that eventually Home Rule would come, and then these traitors would be punished by an outraged people. But if the British Government once more throws off the mask of constitutionalism and launches its weapons of repression against those who dare to differ from it, if once more it sets in motion its jails, its courtsmartial, its scaffolds, then the last tie that binds those men to the official Home Rule gang will snap. On that day we will see once again all the best and brightest in Ireland definitely arraying itself on the side of revolution, fully realising that freedom and the British Empire cannot co-exist in this country.

The constitutional mask, the simulacrum of civil liberty still paralyses the activities and holds the hand of many a true Irish patriot, as the boasted freedom of contract of the wage-system still hides from many a worker the reality of his slavery. But once let the Government drop that mask, or abandon that presence of civil liberty, and then the result will see such a resurrection of Irish revolutionary spirit such as has not been seen for generations.

A resurrection! Aye, out of the grave of the first Irish man or woman murdered for protesting against Ireland’s participation in this thrice-accursed war there will arise anew the spirit of Irish revolution.

“The graves of those murdered for freedom bear seed for freedom
Which the winds carry afar and re-sow.”


Yes, my lords and gentlemen, our cards are all on the table! If you leave us at liberty we will kill your recruiting, save our poor boys from your slaughter-house, and blast your hopes of Empire. If you strike at, imprison, or kill us, out of our prisons or graves we will still evoke a spirit that will thwart you, and, mayhap, raise a force that will destroy you.

We defy you! Do your worst!

Whether this death sentence upon Irish prisoners of these new Courtsmartial will or will not be carried out will depend, not upon the plighted honour or solemn assurances of Cabinet Ministers already foresworn and discredited even in their own country, nor yet upon any action of the degenerate Irish Members of Parliament who sat still and helped to destroy the constitutional rights of which they prate so loudly; nor yet upon the British Labour Members who, like all apostates, are readiest to stab and destroy all those who remain true to that ideal of democratic freedom they have deserted and dishonoured. No, the question of life and death will depend solely upon the temper of the people of Ireland. If they remain dumb, nerveless, lacking in intrepidity, quivering too mutely in the leash laid upon them by the apostles of ‘caution and restraint,’ then the blow will fall in increasing severity and ferocity, arrest will follow arrest, blow will follow blow, and sentences will increase in savagery in exact proportion to the tameness of the Irish people, until at last the death penalty will once more strike down those who embody the rebellious people of the Irish race. Oh, it is all well planned. Their fathers in Hell could not have planned it better!

Note: The Irish Worker was censored in late 1914 for its anti-war editorials, so Connolly presented this essay in a two-page pamphlet under the cover name Irish Work.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1914/12/crtrev.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James MacKenzie (VC)



James MacKenzie VC (2 April 1889 – 19 December 1914) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

MacKenzie was born in New Abbey, Dumfries in 1889 and enlisted in the Scots Guards on 16 February 1912. He embarked for France on 5 October 1914. He was 25 years old, and a private in the 2nd Battalion, Scots Guards, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 19 December 1914 at Rouges Blancs, France, Private MacKenzie rescued a severely wounded man from the front of the German trenches under a very heavy fire and after a stretcher party had been compelled to abandon the attempt. Private MacKenzie was killed later on that day while trying to carry out a similar act.

Private MacKenzie has no known grave but his name is listed on panel 1 the Ploegsteert Memorial to the Missing in Berks Cemetery Extension near Ploegsteert in Hainaut, Belgium. There is a memorial tablet at Troqueer parish church, Dumfries. His Victoria Cross is displayed at The Guards Regimental Headquarters (Scots Guards RHQ), London, England

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_MacKenzie_(VC)
Zie ook http://flower-of-scotland.skynetblogs.be/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

19 December 1915 - On the night of 19–20 December, the last Anzac and British troops were evacuated from Suvla and Anzac. The evacuation of these positions over the preceding two weeks had taken place virtually without casualties.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/november-december-1915.html

19-20 December - Gallipoli
The evacuation of Suvla and Anzac Cove. This was a surprisingly successful operation during which no New Zealand casualties were sustained. Of the 8556 New Zealanders who served on Gallipoli, 2721 died and 4752 were wounded an 87 per cent casualty rate.

http://www.army.mil.nz/culture-and-history/nz-army-history/historical-chronology/1902.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poperinghe - October 1915 to December 1915

Things do not improve. The weather turns truly awful and the now infamous Flanders Mud makes its appearance in the diary entries. Comments such as "Everything is filling with water, mud is everywhere. Shelling nightly." - 5th December, "Mud and slush in the camp defeats us" - 6th December and "Horse line a horrific mire" - 21st December.

Albert, of course, mentions none of these things to his family. From the card at the head of the page:

"This is in the same village as the church and it was in here that I spent a day with Harold Stirling. The trains run along this street and the station is just round the corner. Save these cards for me and I will tell you more about them another day. I used to go backwards and forwards from the village where we were stationed to here about 3 times a week and I also went to the Picture Palace here." Dated 19th December 1915 - he could be on his holidays...

http://freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hoddy/poper.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Douglas Haig's command, December 19, 1915, to November 11, 1918 (1922)
Author: Dewar, George A. B., Boraston, J. H.

http://www.archive.org/details/sirdouglashaigsc02dewauoft
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 December 1915 - The evacuation of Suvla Bay

The August offensive was the last major throw of the dice for the British allies in the Gallipoli campaign. In mid-September the weary New Zealanders were withdrawn to Lemnos for rest and reorganisation. By the time they returned to Anzac in November, the future of the campaign had been set.

Evacuation

The failure of the August offensive created doubts in London about the campaign, especially as the Western Front was assuming importance. General Sir Ian Hamilton, who was in charge of the British forces at Gallipoli, wanted more men. Opinion was against him. General Sir Charles Monro replaced him in mid-October and soon proposed evacuating the troops. Appalling weather conditions sealed the issue. A storm swept through the peninsula in late November. Water flooded the trenches and drowned men and drenched everything. The snow that followed left many dead from exposure. Survivors from both sides were miserable. In London, the authorities reluctantly agreed to a withdrawal.

In marked contrast to the shambolic landings of April, the evacuation went without a hitch. New Zealanders left Suvla and Anzac on 19 and 20 December. Helles was emptied of its last British soldiers on the night of 8 and 9 January 1916. The Turks still held the peninsula.

Gallipoli: the legacy

Left behind were the dead: 87,000 Turks and 44,000 British and French, including 8700 Australians and 2721 New Zealanders. The wounded numbered in the hundreds of thousands, perhaps as many as 160,000 Turks and up to about 100,000 British allies, including 20,000 Australians and nearly 5000 New Zealanders.

The numbers belie the rough parity of the two sides during the campaign. Thirteen Allied divisions faced a roughly comparable Turkish force of 14 divisions, which had the advantage of operating on the interior lines of their homeland. The Allied build-up was always too little, too late. Inadequate leadership played a part in the Allied failure too, and it is clear that the British seriously underestimated the strength of the Turkish defenders and the ability of their leaders.

The campaign was a costly failure for the Allied forces, and an even more expensive victory for the Turks. For the Turks, it was the beginning of a process of national revival. The hero of Gallipoli, Kemal, would eventually become the founding president of the Turkish Republic. For Australians and New Zealanders, the campaign has been seen as a key moment in a growing sense of national identity.

That significance would be in the future, for in the context of the Great War, the Gallipoli campaign had little impact. For the men who were there, their families and countless New Zealand communities, the effects would last for years.


Evacuating wounded from Anzac Cove

I dreamt about the horror until long after Gallipoli. Occasionally I still dream about it. Yes, sometimes. But very seldom. Mostly it's gone away now. Mostly it's gone.
George Skerret in Maurice Shadbolt, Voices of Gallipoli, 1988

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-gallipoli-campaign/the-end-of-the-campaign
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 December 1916 → Commons Sitting

ARMY BOOTS.


HC Deb 19 December 1916 vol 88 c1273 1273

Mr. LEWIS HASLAM asked the Financial Secretary to the War Office whether toe-plates are not being applied to the soles of Army boots when issued, and that officers state that an economy? would be effected by their application; will he state whether Army boots are being issued frequently or generally with out metal protection being applied to the soles; will he cause inquiries to be made among officers and men having had practical experience on active service as to the desirability of such application; is he aware that metal toe-plates are frequently supplied at the Front for repairs, and that such repairs would not be so soon needed if they were applied before the boots were issued; and whether the French soldiers are supplied with boots on the soles of which nails or other metallic means for preventing wear are applied?

Mr. MACPHERSON With the exception of boots for men in the Mechanical Transport, all Army boots are now fitted with toe-plates and heel-plates as well as hobnails in heel and sole; the outer sole is steel billed, to save wear. Boots are fitted in accordance with the indications of the military authorities in the field. I am not aware of the practice of the French authorities in regard to the fitting of their boots.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/dec/19/army-boots
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 18:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 19 december 1916
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

De Ver. Staten en Turkije

WASHINGTON, 18 December. (Reuter.) Het departement van buitenlandsche zaken deelt mede, dat Turkije's optreden tegen de Armeniërs en Syriërs aan de extra-territoriale overeenkomsten met de Ver. Staten plotseling een einde heeft gemaakt en een toestand heeft geschapen die de goedkeuring, door de Ver. Staten, van Foead bei's benoeming tot gezant te Washington, vertraagt.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-19-12-1916.html
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Christmas 1916 - with the 4th Field Ambulance, A.I.F.

Private William Dalton Lycett, 2063, of the 4th Field Ambulance A.I.F. enlisted on 12th September 1914, he embarked on the 22nd December 1914 at Melbourne on the H.M.A.T. “Berrima”.

Tuesday 19th December, 1916 - Stayed in Y.M.C.A. by Amiens station all night, place crowded and had to stand up most of time, also very cold. Caught a train at 6-7 a.m. and arrived at Vignacourt about 7.30 a.m. Very large village and had to walk round for about an hour before found where our unit was billetted. Had breakfast and was glad to turn into bed in a loft full of straw. Slept through till tea-time when got up and had tea. Received some letters and Xmas cards then had yarn with the boys. Turned in about 8 p.m.

http://outofbattle.blogspot.com/2009/12/christmas-1916-with-4th-field-ambulance.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australians and the Western Front

Despite their training, most young Australians were completely unprepared for trench warfare and mechanised weaponry, which made for a terrifying and horrifying experience.

Went into the trenches today for the first and Fritz made it pretty lively - must have known it was my first. Lost my dinner.
- Sapper Samuel Francey, from Brisbane who served in the 3rd Division. Diary entry 19 December 1916, Armentieres. Killed in action at Messines, 7 July 1917.

http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/anzac/westernfront/
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Grigory Efimovich Rasputin

On Monday December 19, 1916 the corpse of Grigory Efimovich Rasputin was found and people knelt in the snow outside the Moika Palace to give their thanks to God and to Felix Yusupov, the man responsible for Rasputin's demise. On Tuesday, the Empress prayed over the corpse, smothering it with flowers and ikons. On Thursday night, Rasputin's body was buried in a plot of ground on the edge of the park at Tsarskoe Selo. His murderers could not be executed -- they were too popular. Not only that, Yusupov was married to the Tsar's niece, Irena. Instead, Yusupov was sent into temporary exile to his family estates to the south.

http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture5.html

Felix Yusupov

Prince Felix Felixovich Yusupov, Count Sumarokov-Elston (March 23, 1887, Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire – September 27, 1967, Paris, France), was best known for participating in the murder of Grigori Rasputin, the faith healer who was said to have influenced decisions of Tsar Nicholas II and Tsaritsa Alexandra Feodorovna. Felix Yusupov was never punished for this murder, well-known at the time, and a significant part of widespread Rasputin imagery was created by his own publications which demonized his victim.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Yusupov
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: 19 December 1917 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 19 December 1917

Spotlights over Paris Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)

Eastern Front

The Ukraine defies the Bolsheviks; Odessa supports it.

Southern Front

Brisk fighting in Piave delta; enemy stopped.

British guns heavily engaged at Montello.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Two U.S. submarines collide in fog; F.1 sunk, 19 lost.

Political, etc.

Unionist success in Canadian elections.

Conscription Law becomes effective.
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Telegrams of the Grand Duke Nicolai Mikhailovitch Romanov to Prince F. F. Yussoupov, senior.

[Sent after the assassination of Rasputin.]

(I) Koreiz. To Adjutant-General Prince Yussoupov.

From Petrograd. 19th December, 1916.

No. 121.

I consider your arrival here most desirable. I see Felix daily; he is calm, collected, makes an excellent impression upon me. Kind regards to the Princess and to Irina. Come.

NICOLAI MIKHAILOVITCH.

(2) Koreiz. To Adjutant-General Prince Yussoupov.

From Petrograd. 19th December, 1916.

No. 124

I am glad of your arrival. Shall tell you what I possibly can en route. The body [of Rasputin] was found this morning under the ice near the Petrovsky Bridge. Felix is calm; I often see him. Au revoir.

N. M.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/lettersyussupov.html
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Joseph Stewart Temple Fall



Joseph Stewart Temple Fall DSC & Two Bars, AFC (17 November 1895 - 1 December 1988) was a Canadian World War I flying ace with 36 credited victories.

Honours and awards

19 December 1917 - Bar to the Distinguished Service Cross - Flt. Lieut, (act. Flt. Cdr.) Joseph Stewart Temple Fall, D.S.C., R.N.A.S. In recognition of the conspicuous courage displayed by him in attacking enemy aircraft in superior numbers on many occasions. On the 15th October, 1917, he attacked an enemy machine from in front at very close range, at times within twenty-five yards. He then turned sharply and attacked from behind, sending the enemy machine down spinning on its back and emitting great volumes of black smoke.

19 December 1917 - Second Bar to the Distinguished Service Cross - Flt. Lieut, (act. Flt. Cdr.) Joseph Stewart Temple Fall, D.S.C., R.N.A.S. In recognition of his services on 1 and 13 November 1917, when he had successful engagements with three enemy machines. He has always shown great courage and gallantry in the face of the enemy, and maintained a high record of achievement, having destroyed many enemy machines.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stewart_Temple_Fall
Zie ook http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/canada/fall.php
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 18 Dec 2010 20:02, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NHL

December 19, 1917 in History: 1st NHL game played on artificial ice (Toronto)

http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1917/december_19_1917_78948.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Richard Maybery

Captain Richard Aveline Maybery MC and Bar (1895–19 December 1917) was a Welsh World War I flying ace.

Maybery was born in Brecon, Powys, Wales in January 1895, the only son of Aveline Maybery, a solicitor, and his wife Lucy. He was educated locally and at Wellington College, Berkshire, before going on to the Military College at Sandhurst.

After his graduation he joined the 21st (Empress of India's) Lancers. At the outbreak of war he served in the North West Frontier province until he was injured in a riding accident. Bored during his rehabilitation and unable to sit on a horse he became involved in observing for a unit of the Royal Flying Corps who were based nearby.

Later he travelled to Egypt where he trained to be a pilot, before he was posted to France with 56 Squadron, serving with aces James McCudden, Arthur Rhys Davids and Keith Muspratt.

Aggressive and headstrong, Maybery quickly accumulated a high victory tally, and he scored his 21st and final victory, on 19 December 1917, when he shot down an Albatros DV over Bourlon Wood. Maybery's SE5a was then either hit by anti aircraft fire or shot down by Vzfw. Artur Weber of Jasta 5 and crashed near the village of Haynecourt.

Maybery was buried at Flesquieres Hill British Cemetery, Nord, France.

His wartime tally consisted of 14 and 2 shared destroyed, and 5 'out of control'.

A marble plaque dedicated to the memory of Richard Aveline Maybery, can be found in Brecon Cathedral. The plaque includes the prayer:

“ Almighty God..... enable us who remain in the safety of our homes to be worthy of those who have died for us... grant us with a willing spirit to do whatever duty may be laid upon us. "

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Maybery
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LENIN ON THE ORGANISATION OF AN EXTRAORDINARY COMMISSION TO FIGHT COUNTER-REVOLUTION
[Letter to Dzerzhinskii, December 19, 1917]

In connection with your report today dealing with the struggle against sabotage and counter-revolution, is it not possible to issue the following decree:

STRUGGLE AGAINST COUNTER-REVOLUTION AND SABOTAGE

The bourgeoisie, landholders, and all wealthy classes are making desperate efforts to undermine the revolution which is aiming to safeguard the interests of the toiling and exploited masses. The bourgeoisie is having recourse to the vilest crimes, bribing society's lowest elements and supplying liquor to these outcasts with the purpose of bringing on pogroms. The partisans of the bourgeoisie, especially the higher officials, bank clerks, etc., are sabotaging and organising strikes in order to block the government's efforts to reconstruct the state on a socialistic basis. Sabotage has spread even to the food-supply organisations and millions of people are threatened with famine. Special measures must be taken to fight counter-revolution and sabotage. Taking these factors into consideration the Soviet of People's Commissars decrees: . . . .

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EXTRAORDINARY COMMISSION TO FIGHT COUNTER-REVOLUTION
[Decree of the Sovnarkom, December 20, 1917]

The Commission is to be named the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission and is to be attached to the Soviet of People's Commissars. [This commission] is to make war on counter-revolution and sabotage .... The duties of the Commission will be:

1. To persecute and break up all acts of counter-revolution and sabotage all over Russia, no matter what their origin.
2. To bring before the Revolutionary Tribunal all counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs and to work out a plan for fighting them.
3. To make preliminary investigation only - enough to break up [the counter-revolutionary act]. The Commission is to be divided into sections :
(a) the information [section],
(b) the organisational section (in charge of organising the fight against counter-revolution all over Russia) with branches, and
(c) the fighting section.
The Commission will be formed tomorrow..... The Commission is to watch the press, saboteurs, strikers, and the Right Social-Revolutionaries. Measures [to be taken against these counter-revolutionaries are] confiscation, confinement, deprivation of [food] cards, publication of the names of the enemies of the people, etc.

http://www.dur.ac.uk/a.k.harrington/cheka.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 19:58    Onderwerp: 19 December 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 19 December 1916

Spotlights over Paris Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)

Eastern Front

Enemy's advance from the west checked 30 miles from Braila.

Russians in the Dobruja fall back towards Braila.

Political, etc.

Mr. Lloyd George's first speech as Premier on Government control of Shipping, National Service, etc.

German assurance given re: Captain Blaikie.

British Government prepared to recognise agents of Venizelist (National) Government.

Greek Government protests re: Venizelist occupation of islands under Allies' protection.

British safe conduct granted to Austria-Hungary Ambassador (Count Tarnowski) from U.S.A.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:00    Onderwerp: 19 December 1915 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 19 December 1915

Spotlights over Paris Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)

Western Front

Intense artillery activity on whole French front.

Heavy bombardment with gas near Ypres: line everywhere intact.

Eastern Front

Enemy columns dispersed with great losses north of Lake Miadzol (Dvinsk).

Southern Front

British attack at Cape Helles (Gallipoli) won 200 yards of trench.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Naval simultaneous bombardment Turkish front Cape Helles.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:02    Onderwerp: 19 December 1914 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 19 December 1914

Spotlights over Paris Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)

Western Front

Allied airmen bomb German airsheds at Brussels.

Germans counter-attack at Givenchy and Festubert.

Eastern Front

Galicia: Desperate sortie by Austrian garrison of Przemsyl repelled by Russians.

Naval and Overseas Operations

South Africa: Captain Fourie and Lieutenant Fourie condemned for high treason.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 19 december 1918
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Buitenlandsch nieuws

De secretaris van de Amerikaansche commissie voor hulpverschaffing aan de Armeniërs meldt, dat, als niet spoedig afdoende hulp wordt geboden, geen vierde gedeelte van de nu in het leven zijnde Armeniërs het tot den volgenden oogst zullen kunnen uithouden. Een brood kost nu al ƒ 2,50.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-19-12-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldier's Mail - Letters Home from a New England Doughboy 1916-1919



Base Hospital No. 88 at Langres, France, 12/19/1918

Dear Em,

Before saying anything I first want your forgiveness for my not writing while on my furlough. Im not sure whether I will get it or not (your forgiveness I mean). I had a wonderful time and after waiting for fifteen long months for it will have to admit that the seven short days were given over to nothing but enjoyment. Don’t think that I absolutly forgot you, the folks and home for that is one thing I did remember many times, which I think was more essential than just writing.

I think I told you before I left for this furlough that I had to my credit six months pay and 15 months reinlistment money. Some how or other I didn’t receive a cent of this nor have I yet. Had I got this I would have sent some wonderful presents that I saw at this resort. I got by though through the good fellowship of the other boys with what I borrowed. There was something doing every minute. The trip itself was worth going for and the beauty of La Bourboule will never be forgotten by me.

About 30 miles from our stopping place the train was split into two sections for the climb up through the mountains was very steep. Well Em it will have to be a better man than I am to explain these French Alps if they are to be given anywhere near the credit that is due them. As our section left the city of Clearmont (which is a very large place and the starting place of about all tourists to different places in the mountains) we could see the great peaks ahead rising up in our way but never hindering the progress of the little puffing engine that seemed to worm its way picking the gentlest grades but yet climbing as every foot went by. It was just before the sun was setting that we were surrounded with the grandest scenery that I ever did and I guess ever will gaze at. Yes Ill say surrounded, for Em no matter where one looked a feeling would get ahold of them and hold them spell bound. You’ve read of the towns nestled in the Alps, and they are not only nestled there but sleeping peacefully as though the peaks and the snow that caps these peaks were trusty watch men.

Looking out of the train window, away down there where it seems you could hit the little church steeple (if you were a German) with a stone, sleeps a town. Pretty little towns too. All of a sudden the train is but a toy for on looking from both sides of the car window nothing but mountains confront your view. The little train keeps puffing though, enters a tunnel through one of the mountains, comes out on the other side where lies on one side a valley at least ten miles wide and on the other a mountain it seems as high.

Rest well assured Em I did enjoy the trip and now I suppose I should discribe my stay at one of the most expensive tourists resorts in France. When one speaks of La Bourboule (and I suppose the rest of these places are the same) it is a city of hotels that is meant and a lot of places of amusment. This town (Ill call it town) sets up in the mountains, and while in it you would think you was at any one of our own summer resorts mostly Nantasket. Looming up on all sides are hills and the only reason I call them hills is because beyond these are still higher hills, but they are all mountains. A view from any window in any hotel (and there are many) is as good a picture as any one would care to look at. I wish I could have taken a picture of this place from a point from which I happened to see it. Say it was a picture.

Now I will tell you how I enjoyed myself. Mind, we were sent there as are all men on furlough, train fair, meals, and board, paid by the Government. We are put up at the best hotels and enjoy first class eats. The Y.M.C.A. has a building (The Palace) in which there is reading, writing, dance hall and canteen rooms, besides a grand theatre. Some thing doing at the Y. every afternoon and evening such as Stunt Night, games, good shows by French actors, fights, restling, and dancing. I was there twice when there was dancing and the Y girls were there beleive me. They are a lively bunch. When I wasn’t at the Y I was having a fine time also, which I don’t imagine is much news to you. I had a good time anyway so Ill can telling you any more about this 7 days leave and answer your letters which were handed to me on my arrival back to the company.

Your birthday cards and Lena’s too were both received yesterday and they were great. There is a lot of talk of our going home soon now, but talk and hopes aint going to get us there so I take no stock in what the papers say. That little kitten must have had a tough time of it and as I read your letter I could not for the life of me dope out what I was coming to or what became of the cat. I finally came to the place where it acted the goat and was glad when the assurance came that it was O.K.

When you speak of the cat coughing I might as well tell you that Ive got one of these again myself. I got quite a cold just before leaving La Bourboule and the trip on the train didn’t help it any. When I arrived at the company and on being examined by the doctor three words from my lips was enough to convince him that I got cold and away to the hospital I went. I will be back with the company again soon though. The flue is here now and they are acting very careful. My throat is coming along fine now and Im alright so don’t worry.

If Lena will remember I had the same kind of trouble with my throat the time I came back from Washington, and now you’ve got the story. These after war diseases you speak of are never getting me Em so don’t worry on that score. I spend too much time having a good time in my own silly way to get mixed up into anything like that.

While away on furlough I just simply raised the devil and smoked a lot of cigarettes, stayed out late nights and sang a lot of songs. Result – a very hoarse throat and a little cough. Im a great deal better off at that than a lot of so called wise guys that are not as noisy as I am when on a good time nor as brave when there is no one around to see them perform. Don’t worry about me Em. Ive come through so far and when the 26th goes home Im with it.

Give my regards to all and tell them that I will write as soon and as much as I can. I am at Base Hospital #88 Langres France. Don’t address my mail here though for I will soon be back with the company as soon as they are sure I have not got the flue, and that very soon. Will send some souviners as soon as I get some jack.

Hoping to see you son after this letter reaches you if not before I am your brother

Sam.
S. E. Avery #69762, Hdq Co. 103rd Inf. A.E.F.

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2009/12/19/base-hospital-no-88-at-langres-12191918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DE "GUARDS" DIVISION IN DUITSLAND.

Op 18 november 1918 krijgt de "Guards" Division het bevel om op te trekken naar de Rijn. Op 11 december trekken de eerste eenheden van deze Divisie Duitsland binnen. Op 14 december wordt de 2nd Guards Brigade per train naar Keulen gestuurd. Dezelfde dag zijn zij ter plaatse en onmiddellijk wordt het Hoofdkwartier van de "Guards" Division aldaar gevestigd. (klaar op 18 december 1918). Op 19 december komen de resterende brigades (1st, 3rd en 4th) van de "Guards" Division te Keulen aan.

Zij blijven er in de regio tot 20 februari 1919. Dan begint de repatriëring van de "Guards" Division naar Groot-Brittannië. Op 29 april 1919 zijn de laatste manschappen van deze divisie uit het Duitse straatbeeld verdwenen.

http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/guards.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

My Mother by Norman Rockwell - December 19, 1918 Issue of Life Magazine



My Mother, this Norman Rockwell painting, appeared on the cover of Life Magazine published December 19, 1918. An alternate title for this illustration is Soldier with French Woman.

The days and months immediately after World War One must have felt almost heavenly to both soldiers and civilians alike.

Here we see a young American soldier and an older French woman. Implied in this painting is a relationship between them. Perhaps the woman's family has taken the soldier under their wing while he is still stationed in France.

She is knitting, carrying on her duties and interests like she did before the war. Her life is steadily drifting back towards normal.

The soldier has received mail from home. He has opened his letter. Inside is a photograph of his mother. He has obviously missed her as much as she has missed him.

The name on the envelope is a familiar name for Rockwell enthusiasts. The soldier is Pvt. Sammy Smith. Pvt. Smith has been identified in at least one other Rockwell painting, They Remembered Me from Leslie's December 22, 1917 cover.

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-life-magazine-cover-1918-12-19-my-mother.html
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19 December 1919 → Written Answers (Commons)

WOMEN'S CORPS.


HC Deb 19 December 1919 vol 123 cc859-60W 859W

Viscount ELVEDEN asked the Secretary of State for War what number of women belonging to the Women's Legion and Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps are at present serving in France and Bel- 860W gium and with the British Army of Occupation on the Rhine; and how soon these women will be demobilised?

Mr. CHURCHILL There are no members of the Women's Legion or Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps with the British Army of Occupation on the Rhine. As regards the Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps in France, I would refer to my reply on Wednesday last to the hon. Member for Stratford. There are 350 members of the Women's Legion employed in France; these will be considerably reduced in January next, and the whole of them will be demobilised by the end of March

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/dec/19/womens-corps
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Martin Savage



Volunteer Martin Savage Irish: Máirtín Sabhaois (1898 – 19 December 1919) was an Officer in the Dublin Brigade of the Irish Republican Army, from Ballisodare, County Sligo. On 19 December 1919 he was killed during a gun battle after an ambush at Ashtown, near the border of County Meath and County Dublin, during the early stages of the Irish War of Independence.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Savage
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin: "Speech At A Meeting In Presnya District On The Anniversary Of The December Uprising, 1905"
Delivered: 19 December, 1919

Comrades, we are gathered here today to celebrate the anniversary of the December uprising in Moscow and the battle that took place in Presnya District fourteen years ago.

Comrades, the 1905 insurrection in Moscow was one of the greatest movements by Russian worker revolutionaries and although it could not have been a success at that time it was nevertheless of tremendous significance. It is only today, when we have before us a picture of the many years of historical preparatory work for the Russian revolution, that we can properly appreciate the significance of the December uprising in 1905 and of the battles that the workers of Red Presnya then fought against the forces of tsarism. Comrades, we now see clearly how insignificant the forces of the Russian workers then were; and we see that the sacrifices made at that time have been repaid a hundredfold.

I must say, however, that in December 1905, tsarism had to muster all its forces in order to suppress the still weak, embryonic revolt of the workers. The Moscow organisation of our Party has recently published two collections of reminiscences of the December insurrection, the events in Presnya, and about the way the weak underground Party organisation of that time prepared the insurrection and about the tremendous enthusiasm with which not only factory workers, but all the working people of Moscow supported it. Among these newly published articles there is a particularly interesting one by a gendarme and police officer which admits that the revolutionaries in December 1905 still did not know how weak they, the supporters of tsarism, were at that time. “If the blow struck by the revolutionaries had been a little more powerful and had lasted a little longer,” admits this servant of the tsar, “we should not have been able to hold out, with the disorder that was beginning to make itself felt among us.” This admission, made by a member of the secret police, is especially interesting; it shows that the sacrifices made by the workers of Presnya in the cause of freedom and the emancipation of the workers were not made in vain, that even then their heroic example demonstrated the strength of the working class to all enemies and at the same time ignited those millions of sparks that later, in a long and toilsome manner, over a period of many years, burst into flame and produced the victorious revolution.

After 1905 the working-class movement in Russia experienced the most difficult and bloody period of its history. Tsarism showed unprecedented brutality in dealing with the heroes who revolted in Moscow in 1905. After the suppression of the Moscow uprising the working class of Russia made several more attempts to rise to the level of a mass struggle. In the spring of 1906 there were mass strikes and the beginnings of a peasant movement; in 1907 another attempt was made these attempts, however, could only slow down the forces of reaction but were unable to check them. And long years passed during which the movement was forced to hide in the underground, when hundreds and thousands of the sons of the working class perished on the gallows, in prisons, in exile and in penal colonies.

Then we saw that in 1910, 1911 and 1912 the working class again began to muster its forces and we saw how, after the Lena massacre in April 1912, a wave of powerful mass strikes began to rise which spread from one end of the country to the other and gave tsarism such a jolt that by the summer of 1914 events went as far as barricades in Petrograd; it is possible that one of the reasons accelerating the tsarist government’s desperate decision to start the war was their hope of crushing the revolutionary movement in that way. Instead of crushing it, however, the war was the cause of the revolutionary movement spreading to all advanced countries.

As we can see clearly enough, the four-year war was carried on by predators, not only by German but also by British and French imperialism, for the purpose of plunder. When the Germans, in 1918, imposed the plundering Treaty of Brest-Litovsk upon us, there was no end to the shouts disapproving of that treaty in France and Britain, and when a year later, in that same year of 1918, Germany was defeated and the German Empire collapsed, the French and British capitalists then imposed the Treaty of Versailles on conquered Germany; this is now an example of measures still more brutal, more violent, than we had at Brest-Litovsk.

We now see how, week by week, the eyes of hundreds, thousands and millions of workers in France, Britain and America are being opened; they were duped and were assured that they were fighting a war against German imperialism and they have now seen that millions of people were killed and maimed in that war. And for what? For the enrichment of an insignificant handful of millionaires who since the war have become multimillionaires and who have brought all countries to the brink of ruin.

Comrades, we are living in difficult times insofar as concerns the misfortunes that have overtaken the industrial, especially the urban, workers. You know how difficult this situation is and how hungry and cold our working class is. And we also know that not only backward Russia who was torn by war for four years and after that has had for another two years to pursue a war imposed on her with the help of Britain and France-Russia was not the only country that has been ruined, but the most advanced and wealthy countries, the victor countries such as, for instance, France and the U.S.A., have also been brought to the brink of ruin. They are experiencing a coal crisis, they have to curtail the railway services because their industry and transport were crushed and ruined to an unparalleled degree by four years of war. Huge productive forces were destroyed in that imperialist war and we see as a result that the road which the Russian working class showed all workers, showed the whole world as far back as 1905 when it revolted against tsarism, the path which was followed by the Russian working class when it overthrew the bourgeoisie—that path is now attracting the attention and winning the sympathy of workers of all, even the most advanced, countries.

I have already said, comrades, that this winter we have to endure unparalleled hardships and calamities. We say to ourselves, however, that we shall stand firm to the end, because the best of the workers, the most politically conscious workers and peasants, have, despite all calamities and hardships, been helping us, helping us by forming the Red Army which is bringing us to final victory. We know that now that Kolchak’s forces have been completely routed and the recent revolts in Siberia have seemingly deprived the remnants of Kolchak’s army of the possibility of joining up with Denikin, and now that huge military forces have been captured at Novo-Nikolayevsk, there is obviously no longer Kolchak’s army. In the South, where Denikin was able to boast of his successes, we now see the steadily growing offensive of our Red Army. You know that Kiev, Poltava and Kharkov have been captured and our advance on the Donets Basin, the source of coal supplies, is proceeding at an extremely rapid rate.

We therefore see, comrades, that all those terrible misfortunes which the working class has borne for the sake of our full victory over capital, all the sacrifices that have been made are now bringing good results. We see that capitalists abroad who have, until now, been handing out millions of rubles and every kind of war materiel, first to Kolchak, and then to Yudenich and Denikin, are now beginning to hesitate.

You know that they cut Russia off from other countries by the iron ring of the blockade and you know that they did not let our representatives go to other countries. You know that Comrade Litvinov, one of the revolutionaries who fought with the Bolsheviks against tsarism even before 1905, was our Ambassador to Great Britain and that there was not a workers’ meeting that did not greet him with such applause and with such stormy protests against their own government, that the British went to the trouble of deporting him. Today, those people who hate Litvinov so heartily have given him permission to go to Copenhagen, and not merely permission, but also the means (Comrade Litvinov arrived there on a British cruiser). We also know that every day of Comrade Litvinov’s stay in Copenhagen is an ever greater victory for Russia. Workers’ representatives and the correspondents of thousands of bourgeois newspapers are constantly approaching him for an explanation of the change that has taken place. We know that the change has come because the Western bourgeoisie can no longer keep up the blockade and help the Russian counter-revolutionary generals with millions of rubles because the working class of each of those rich and advanced countries will not let them.

Perhaps the most vivid expression of the turn that has come in the politics of the European countries is the voting of the deputies in the Italian chamber which we know of from the report sent by wireless from France to America and picked up by our wireless station. The report was this. When the question of Russia was discussed in the Italian chamber, and when the socialists proposed the immediate recognition of the Soviet Republic, a hundred voted for and two hundred against the proposal; that means that only the workers were in favour of recognising the Soviet Republic and all the bourgeois deputies rejected it. After that, however, the Italian chamber passed a unanimous motion to the effect that the Italian Government approach the allies with a view to stop the blockade altogether and put an end to all intervention in Russian affairs. That was a decision adopted by a chamber that consists to the extent of two thirds, if not three-quarters, of landowners and capitalists, that was adopted in one of the victor countries and that was adopted simply under pressure from the working-class movement.

The decision shows clearly that a real turning-point in international politics is approaching arid that the tremendous inner forces of the working-class movement of every country have actually brought about what we have always hoped for, which we told the workers of Russia would happen, and for the sake of which, we told them, it was worth while struggling and making heavy sacrifices, that the sacrifices would have to be made, so that the troubles and torments, the hunger and cold that we are suffering from will not have been in vain. In this way we are not merely saving Russia, we are winning the sympathy and support of millions and millions of workers of other countries with every week of struggle. That is why today, when we remember our comrades who fell, the heroes of Red Presnya, the memory of them gives us greater enthusiasm and firm resolution to bring victory near.

Despite all difficulties and all sacrifices we shall go forward ourselves and will lead the workers of all countries to full victory over capital. (Applause.)

http://marxistsfr.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/dec/19.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

@ Peter L: Graag bronvermelding bij alle geplaatste posts. Dank!
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 22:49    Onderwerp: 19 December Reageer met quote

Beste Collegae,

Sorry, dit had ik even over het hoofd gezien. Hieronder alsnog de bronvermelding :

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1917_12_19.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_12_19.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1915_12_19.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_12_19.htm

Groeten

Peter L
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Dec 2010 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SPEECH OF PREMIER LLOYD-GEORGE ON THE GERMAN
PROPOSALS IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS


December 19, 1916

The responsibilities of the new Government have been suddenly
accentuated by a declaration made by the German Chancellor, and I
propose to deal with that at once. The statement made by him in the
German Reichstag has been followed by a note presented to us by the
United States of America without any note or comment. The answer
that will be given by the Government will be given in full accord with all
our brave allies. Naturally there has been an interchange of views, not
upon the note, because it has only recently arrived, but upon the speech
which propelled it, and, inasmuch as the note itself is practically only a
reproduction or certainly a paraphrase of the speech, the subject-matter
of the note itself has been discussed informally between the Allies, and
I am very glad to be able to state that we have each of us, separately and
independently, arrived at identical conclusions. I am very glad that the
first answer that was given to the statement of the German Chancellor
was given by France and by Russia. They have the unquestioned
right to give the first answer to such an invitation. The enemy is still
on their soil. Their sacrifices have been greater. The answer they
have given has already appeared in all the papers, and I simply stand
here today on behalf of the Government to give a clear and definite
support to the statement which they have already made. Let us ex-
amine what the statement is and examine it calmly. Any man or set
of men who wantonly or without sufficient cause prolong a terrible
conflict like this would have on his soul a crime that oceans could not
cleanse. Upon the other hand it is equally true that any man or set of
men who from a sense of weariness or despair abandoned the struggle
without achieving the high purpose for which he had entered into it
would have been guilty of the costliest act of poltroonery ever perpe-
trated by any statesman. I should like to quote the very well-known
words of Abraham Lincoln under similar conditions:--"We accepted
this war for an object, a worthy object, and the war will end when
that object is attained. Under God I hope it will never end until that
time." Are we likely to achieve that object by accepting the invitation
of the German Chancellor? That is the only question we have to put
to ourselves.

There has been some talk about proposals of peace. What are the
proposals? There are none. To enter, on the invitation of Germany,
proclaiming herself victorious, without any knowledge of the pro-
posals she proposes to make, into a conference is to put our heads
into a noose with the rope end in the hands of Germany. This coun-
try is not altogether without experience in these matters. This is
not the first time we have fought a great military despotism that was
overshadowing Europe, and it will not be the first time we shall have
helped to overthrow military despotism. We have an uncomfortable
historical memory of these things, and we can recall when one of the
greatest of these despots had a purpose to serve in the working
of his nefarious schemes. His favorite device was to appear in the
garb of the Angel of Peace, and he usually appeared under two condi-
tions. When we wished for time to assimilate his conquests or to
reorganize his forces for fresh conquests, or, secondly, when his sub-
jects showed symptoms of fatigue and war weariness the appeal was
always made in the name of humanity. He demanded an end to blood-
shed, at which he professed himself to be horrified, but for which he
himself was mainly responsible. Our ancestors were taken in once,
and bitterly they and Europe rue it. The time was devoted to re-
organizing his forces for a deadlier attack than ever upon the liberties
of Europe, and examples of that kind cause us to regard this note
with a considerable measure of reminiscent disquietude.

We feel that we ought to know, before we can give favorable con-
sideration to such an invitation, that Germany is prepared to accede
to the only terms on which it is possible for peace to be obtained and
maintained in Europe. What are those terms? They have been re-
peatedly stated by all the leading statesmen of the Allies. My right
honorable friend has stated them repeatedly here and outside, and
all I can do is to quote, as my right honorable friend the leader of the
House did last week, practically the statement of the terms put forward
by my right honorable friend--

"Restitution, reparation, guarantee against repetition"--so that
there shall be no mistake, and it is important that there should be no
mistake in a matter of life and death to millions.

Let me repeat again--complete restitution, full reparation, effectual
guarantee. Did the German Chancellor use a single phrase to indicate
that he was prepared to accept such a peace? Was there a hint of
restitution, was there any suggestion of reparation, was there any
invitation of any security for the future that this outrage on civiliza-
tion would not be again perpetrated at the first profitable opportunity?
The very substance and style of this speech constitutes a denial of
peace on the only terms on which peace is possible. He is not even
conscious now that Germany has committed any offense against the
rights of free nations. Listen to this from the note:--"Not for an
instant have they (they being the Central Powers) swerved from the
conviction that respect of the rights of other nations is not in any
degree incompatible with their own rights and legitimate interests."
When did they discover that? Where was the respect for the rights of
other nations in Belgium and Serbia? That was self-defense! Men-
aced, I suppose, by the overwhelming armies of Belgium, the Germans
had been intimidated into invading Belgium, and the burning of Belgian
cities and villages, to the massacring of thousands of inhabitants, old
and young, to the carrying of the survivors into bondage. Yea, and
they were carrying them into slavery at the very moment when this
note was being written about the unswerving conviction as to the
respect for the root of the rights of other nations. Are these outrages
the legitimate interest of Germany? We must know. That is not the
moment for peace. If excuses of this kind for palpable crimes can
be put forward two and a half years after the exposure by grim facts
of the guarantee, is there, I ask in all solemnity, any guarantee that
similar subterfuges will not be used in the future to overthrow any
treaty of peace you may enter into with Prussian militarism.

This note and that speech prove that not yet have they learned
the very alphabet of respect for the rights of others. Without rep-
aration, peace is impossible. Are all these outrages against humanity
on land and on sea to be liquidated by a few pious phrases about
humanity? Is there to be no reckoning for them? Are we to grasp the
hand that perpetrated these atrocities in friendship without any repara-
tion being tendered or given? I am told that we are to begin, Germany
helping us, to exact reparation for all future violence committed after
the war. We have begun already. It has already cost us so much, and
we must exact it now so as not to leave such a grim inheritance to our
children. As much as we all long for peace, deeply as we are horri-
fied with war, this note and the speech which heralded it do not afford
us much encouragement and hope for an honorable and lasting peace.
What hope is given in that speech that the whole root and cause of
this great bitterness, the arrogant spirit of the Prussian military caste,
will not be as dominant as ever if we patch up peace now? Why,
the very speech in which these peace suggestions are made resound to
the boast of Prussian military triumph. It is a long pæan over the
victories of von Hindenburg and his legions. The very appeal for
peace was delivered ostentatiously from the triumphal chariot of
Prussian militarism.

We must keep a steadfast eye upon the purpose for which we
entered the war, otherwise the great sacrifices we have been making
will be in vain. The German note states that it was for the defense
of their existence and the freedom of national development that the
Central Powers were constrained to take up arms. Such phrases even
deceive those who pen them. They are intended to delude the German
nation into supporting the designs of the Prussian military caste. Who
ever wished to put an end to their national existence or the freedom
of their national development? We welcomed their development as
long as it was on the paths of peace--the greater their development
upon that road, the greater would all humanity be enriched by their
efforts. That was not our desire, and it is not our purpose now.

The Allies entered this war to defend Europe against the aggres-
sion of Prussian military domination, and, having begun it, they must
insist that the only end is the most complete and effective guarantee
against the possibility of that caste ever again disturbing the peace of
Europe. Prussia, since she got into the hands of that caste, has been
a bad neighbor, arrogant, threatening, bullying, shifting boundaries
at her will, taking one fair field after another from weaker neigh-
bors, and adding them to her own domain. With her belt ostenta-
tiously full of weapons of offense, and ready at a moment's notice to
use them, she has always been an unpleasant, disturbing neighbor in
Europe. She got thoroughly on the nerves of Europe. There was no
peace near where she dwelt. It is difficult for those who are fortunate
enough to live thousands of miles away to understand what it has
meant to those who live near. Even here, with the protection of
the broad seas between us, we know what a disturbing factor the
Prussians were with their constant naval menace.

But even we can hardly realize what it has meant to France and to
Russia. Several times there were threats directed to them even within
the lifetime of this generation which presented the alternative of war
or humiliation. There were many of us who hoped that internal
influences in Germany would have been strong enough to check and
ultimately to eliminate these feelings. All our hopes proved illusory,
and now that this great war has been forced by the Prussian military
leaders upon France, Russia, Italy, and ourselves, it would be folly, it
would be a cruel folly, not to see to it that this swashbuckling through
he streets of Europe to the disturbance of all harmless and peaceful
citizens shall be dealt with now as an offense against the law of
nations. The mere word that led Belgium to her own destruction will
not satisfy Europe any more. We all believed it. We all trusted it.
It gave way at the first pressure of temptation, and Europe has been
plunged into the vortex of blood.

We will therefore wait until we hear what terms and guarantees
the German Government offer other than those, better than those,
surer than those, which she so lightly broke. Meantime, we shall put
our trust in an unbroken army rather than in a broken faith.

For the moment I do not think it would be advisable for me to add
anything upon this particular invitation. A formal reply will be
delivered by the Allies in the course of the next few days. I shall
therefore proceed with the other part of the task which I have in front
of me. What is the urgent task in front of the Government? To com-
plete, and make even more effective, the mobilization of all our national
resources--a mobilization which has been going on since the com-
mencement of the war--so as to enable the nation to bear the strain,
however prolonged, and to march through to victory, however lengthy,
and however exhausting may be the task. It is a gigantic task.

Let me give this word of warning, if there be any who have given
their confidence to the new Administration in expectation of a speedy
victory, they will be doomed to disappointment. I am not going to
paint a gloomy picture of the military situation. If I did it would not
be a true picture. But I must paint a stern picture, because that ac-
curately represents the facts.

There is a time in every prolonged and fierce war when in the
passion and rage of conflict men forget the high purpose with which
they entered it. This is a struggle for international right, international
honor, international good faith--the channel along which peace,
honor, and good will must flow amongst men. The embankment labor-
iously built up by generations of men against barbarism has been
broken, and had not the might of Britain passed into' the breach,
Europe would have been inundated with a flood of savagery and un-
bridled lust of power. The plain sense of fair play amongst nations,
the growth of an international conscience, the protection of the weak
against the strong by the stronger, the consciousness that justice has
a more powerful backing in this world than greed, the knowledge that
any outrage upon fair dealing between nations, great or small, will
meet with prompt and meritable chastisement--these constitute the
causeway along which humanity was progressing slowly to higher
things. The triumph of pressure would sweep it all away and leave
mankind to struggle helpless in the morass. That is why since this
war began I have known but one political aim; and for it I have fought
with a single eye--that is the rescue of mankind from the most over-
whelming catastrophe that has ever yet menaced its well-being.

http://www.questia.com/read/3552157
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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