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2 Februari

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2006 6:45    Onderwerp: 2 Februari Reageer met quote

February 2

1916 Zeppelin crashes into North Sea


Two days after nine German zeppelins dropped close to 400 bombs throughout the English Midlands, the crew of the British fishing trawler King Stephen comes across the crashed remains of one of the giant airships floating in the North Sea.

Developed by a German army officer, Count Ferdinand Zeppelin, and first flown in 1900, the zeppelin was an impressive aircraft by the beginning of World War I. With the capacity to carry five machine guns and up to 2,000 kilograms (4,400 pounds) of bombs, it could reach a maximum speed of 136 kilometers per hour (84.5 miles per hour) and a height of 4,250 meters (13,943 feet).

The first zeppelin attack on England took place on January 19, 1915, when two of the airships bombed the English coastal towns of Great Yarmouth and King’s Lynn, killing a total of four people. The first bombing raid on London came on May 31 of that year, when a single zeppelin dropped 90 small bombs and 30 grenades on the city, leaving seven dead and 35 wounded.

The raid of January 31, 1916, by nine zeppelins was one of the largest Britain saw during the war. The Germans bombed the West Midlands towns of Bradley, Tipton, Wednesbury and Walsall. Across the region, more than 70 people were killed and more than 100 injured in the attacks.

Just before daybreak on February 2, King Stephen skipper William Martin spotted a downed airship partially submerged in the North Sea. The skipper and his crew waited at a safe distance until daylight when they confirmed the wreckage was that of a German zeppelin with the identification mark L-19. With three of its four engines failing, the L-19 had reportedly come under Dutch fire, which punctured its gas cells and brought it down, killing some of the crew.

The nine unarmed men aboard the King Stephen saw that about 20 German soldiers had survived the crash. Fearful that the German airmen could easily overpower them and take control of the ship, Martin and his crew refused the soldiers’ pleas for help and did not take the men aboard, choosing instead to return to Britain to report their discovery to the authorities. The remaining crew of the L-19 disappeared with their craft. Word of the incident soon got out in both Germany and Britain--some saw Martin’s decision as a necessary one to protect his crew, while others, including some Britons, vilified Martin for what they saw as an unpardonable act of cruelty, even for wartime.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2006 6:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 2. Februar

1914


1915
Fortschreitende Angriffe südlich der Weichsel
Ungeheuerliche Entstellungen in den französischen Berichten
Erfolgreiche Kämpfe in Polen und Galizien
Deutsche Truppen an der Karpathenfront
Über die Tätigkeit der Kriegsgetreide GmbH
Russischer Angriff bei Artwin abgeschlagen
Englische Niederlagen in Mesopotamien

1916
Große Brände im Hafen von Saloniki
Erfolgreiches Vordringen in Albanien
Selbstmord des türkischen Thronfolgers
Der kühne Beutezug der "Möwe"
Ergebnisse des "Zeppelin"-Angriffs auf England
Der "Zeppelin"Angriff auf Saloniki
Rücktritt des russischen Ministerpräsidenten Goremykin

1917
Erfolgreicher Erkundungen an der Westfront
Neue U-Boot-Erfolge
Änderung des Sperrgebiets um England zugunsten Hollands
Beilegung des deutsch-norwegischen Zwischenfalles

1918
Anerkennung der Ukrainischen Republik durch den Vierbund
Erfolgreicher türkischer Vorstoß bei Jerusalem

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2010 16:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hélène Serafia (Hella S.) Haasse (Batavia, 2 februari 1918) is een van de meest gewaardeerde Nederlandse auteurs. Ze brak in 1948 door met Oeroeg. Met haar historische romans bereikt ze een zeer groot publiek.

http://www.literairnederland.nl/2008/06/hella-haasse/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2010 16:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cornell Daily Sun, Volume XXXVIII, Issue 96, 2 February 1918

GERMAN STATISTICS
PLACED END OF WAR
DURING LAST AUGUST


Admiralty Gave England Six
Months to Survive Submarine
Warfare
.

By The Associated Press.

Amsterdam, Feb. 1.— The Handelsblad
today publishes a series of
documents obtained secretly from
German archives showing the steps
which led to the adoption by Germany
of her unrestricted submarine
campaign a year ago.
The following is a summary of the
documents:
"At the close of 1915, the German
Admiralty prepared a memorandum
to show that unrestricted U-boat warifare
would compel Great Britain to
lsue for peace within six months. The
wording of this memorandum indicates
that the Admiralty already had
decided to adopt this intensified warfare
but deßired to convince the Emperor,
the Imperial Chancellor and
the Foreign Office of the certainty of
the good results on economic and'
general grounds rather than merely|
on military grounds.
Accordingly the memorandum
based its arguments on statistics of
ifood prices, freight and insurance
rates inGreat Britain. Itpointed outI
Ithe effect which even the restricted j
submarine warfare had shown on the
prices of the essential commodities,
'on the balance of trade, and on the
'moraleof the English people,and deduced
from thin that with unrestricted
submarine warfare England could
!hold out only a short period against
these factors.
The memorandum was first submitted
to Dr. von Bethroann Hollweg,
the Imperial Chancellor and then to
Dr. Karl Helfferlch, Vice Chancellor.
The latter rejected it on the grounds
that it was impossible to set a limit
on England's staying power and the
iabsence of authentic estimates of her
stock on hand and also because he
jfeared the action which would result
from neutrals, especially the United States

http://cdsun.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/newscornell?a=d&cl=CL2.1918.02&sp=CDS&d=CDS19180202&e=--------20--1-----all
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2010 16:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jack Barton served in the 1st AIF, 5th Division, 14th Brigade and the 54th Battalion.

This is his diary titled "A Year with the Platoon".

Saturday, 2nd February, 1918
C Company in local reserve and we supply ration parties front line fatigues such as wiring and digging while front line men would supply the covering parties.

http://barton101.com/wardiary/1918-02.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2010 16:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On the 2nd of February 1920 the Russo – Estonian Peace Treaty was signed in Tartu. The Treaty of Tartu strengthened national borders between the two countries and also contained guarantees from Soviet Russia which acknowledged Estonian independence "for all eternity". The Republic of Estonia was internationally recognized as an independent state and became a member of the League of Nations in 1921.

http://www.english.eesti.pl/index.php?op=holidays
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2010 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 2, 1914 – Charles Chaplin makes his film debut in the comedy short Making a Living.

Making a Living is the first film featuring Charlie Chaplin. It premiered on February 2, 1914. Chaplin plays Edgar English, a lady-charming swindler who runs afoul of the Keystone Cops.

Chaplin wore a large moustache and a top hat in this film; his famed screen persona of "The Little Tramp" did not appear until his next film, Kid Auto Races at Venice.

It was written and directed by Henry Lehrman.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Making_a_Living
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 0:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Crawfordsville District Public Library - World War I Letters

Amos Brenneman was born July 13, 1898, died February 9, 1956, and was buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Sheffield, Alabama. He served in the Company C, 167th U.S. Infantry, served overseas, and was injured in combat at Croix Rouge Farm in France on July 26, 1918. His nine letters extend from July 22, 1917 to January 17, 1919. Amos Brenneman remained in the military after the war, eventually achieving the rank of Master Sergeant.

2 February 1918: Amos Brenneman

Feb 2, 1918
Somewhere in France

Dear folks,
How are you all enjoying life this cold winter?
This leaves me feeling fine and hope it will find you all the same.
We sure have had some cold weather over in this part of the world; our first snow has lasted over a month.
It sure has gone hard with us who are not used to so much snow.
Say, Jack Haney got a discharge a few days ago; if he went straight on to Winfield he ought to be home there by now. I am sure you will see him and get all of the news.
Say, have you heard from me since I have crossed over?
I have written home but have not received any answer so I hope you all will get this one.

I got a packet from Corda C. today.
I sure did enjoy eating some of that old U.S. candy and smoking some
good cigars. because that sure is something you don't see in this part of the world -- if you do, it takes a rich man to get it.
You don't have any idea how high stuff is over here.
But we have as nice a time as is expected
We have a good Y.M.C.A; had a few moving pictures the other night. Enjoyed ourselves fine, and games and all others pastimes we can get up.
Say what is Roy doing now, and has papa still got his old job? The last
letter I got from Ben he talked like they was going to get him in the drafted
army. I hope they did not.
Is Della still at Guin? how is she and Lynn getting by now?

Well I hope it won't be long until we get to go back to the old U.S.A.
Well I guess this is about as much as the law allows,
So tell everybody I am making it right. Tell to write every day; I am anxious
to hear from you all.
We can only write one letter at a time, so I will write as often as I can, so I will close hoping to hear from you soon.

Pvt Amos D Brennman
COC 167 U.S. inf
A.S.F. N.I.A New York

http://www.cdpl.lib.in.us/research/brenneman/1918-02-02-amos.html & http://www.cdpl.lib.in.us/research/brenneman/index.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 0:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from 28 Canadian Battalion, France, February 2, 1918

Dear Mother

Your welcome letters and parcels of Dec 27 & Jan 4./18 and was so glad to know you are all so well at home and hope you just remain that way at least till I get back. and that I hope will be soon as people here and in Blighty can talk of nothing put peace. so if talking does any good we should soon get it and I believe it will myself. it cant [sic] come to soon to please me. what do you say. but as I am writing the old guns are rouring and that alone does not sound much like peace to any body.

You ask me what I am doing over here well I am in the rifleman section had a chance to go scouting but did not take it tho if they gave me a chance to go snipering I would take it. as far as being more dangers than other thing, I dont think it is a bit more. if as dangers. but you see it does not matter what you are in England you have to start all over again once in France. it is the only way. and the men that get the the first chance at these thing are men that have been out here the longest. there has been quite a lot of the Birtle Boy wounded from reports I have been getting. of course I get all news from Canada for all we know is just what happens on our own front. so you see outside that we know very little all we know is we get our share of mud. might say that people in Can do not know the meaning of the word mud as it is in France the days are all the same to nine times out of ten if you ask one of the Boy what day it is they cant tell you. but as a rule can tell you how many days till pay day. But Hinie thats what we call the Huns they have Sunday reserved for extra heavy shelling and he opens up every Sunday morning and as a rule stays with it all day. we say we give Sunday to do his damndest for. any other day if he starts any thing our gun shut him up so quick that it is quite funny. our heavy gun can show him where he gets off at

Have been in luck this week for I got two of the best parcels from you any body could wish for. Realy Mother it must take up a lot of your time sending me so many but I look for them now and it would sure be hard to do with out them everything is so good and so different from what we can get here, that it makes it impossible to tell you how I enjoy them that Xmas cake and mince pie was a dream.

Will say buy buy now Mother Dear, with love and best wishes to you all at home I am

Your loving Son
V.D.Watt

http://www.umanitoba.ca/canadian_wartime/grade11/students/28_Battalion_Feb1918.shtml
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 19:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



Joyce’s birthday, 2 February, is also Candlemas Day and Ground Hog Day, making his birthday part religious festival, part popular festival. Joyce claimed to have been born on the same day as Irish author and friend James Stephens. However, it seems that Stephens was actually born in 1880 though he claimed to have been born on 2 February 1882. The coincidence of names was also important for Joyce who believed that names were signs (nomen est omen). Joyce had chosen Stephen, the name of the first Christian martyr, for his character and alter ego Stephen Dedalus, and the fact that James Stephens shared the names James and Stephen seemed a particularly good omen. Given these coincidences, Joyce even considered handing over the work on Finnegans Wake to Stephens.

Joyce was born in the same year as Wyndham Lewis, Frank Budgen and Eamon de Valera. Like Joyce, de Valera had very poor eyesight, and Joyce was delighted to discover that he and de Valera shared the same eye specialist, Dr Vogt in Zurich. Joyce thought it funny that Vogt, who never charged Joyce for any of his treatments or consultations, charged de Valera a great deal.

When Joyce’s names were recorded on his birth certificate, his middle name was misspelled, and so he was registered as James Augusta Joyce (rather than James Augustine Joyce). Joyce later uses a similar slip for Bloom’s name in Ulysses: Bloom’s name is recorded as Leopold Paula Bloom rather than Leopold Paul Bloom on his birth certificate. When Joyce met Paul Léon in the 1920’s he considered it a good omen that Léon’s names were Bloom’s names in reverse. Léon was Paul Leopoldovitch Léon.

Throughout his life, Joyce considered his birthday to be an auspicious day, and he often contrived to make it particularly special. In 1904, for instance, he spent that day at home suffering from a cold, but started work on converting his essay ‘A Portrait of the Artist’ into his first attempt at a novel, Stephen Hero. Later, his novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses were both published on 2 February. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man which began to appear in serial form in the Egoist magazine from 2nd February 1914. On 15 June 1914, Grant Richards finally published Joyce’s collection of short stories, Dubliners, and the following day, the 16th June 1914, Joyce wrote to his brother Stanislaus to say that he had already written the first chapter of Ulysses.

While still working on Ulysses, Joyce’s original intention was that the book would appear in the autumn of 1921. 1 + 9 + 2 + 1 = 13 which Joyce considered to be a lucky number – but he wasn’t sure, and in any case his extensive revisions and additions to the book delayed publication. Besides, his forthcoming 40th birthday seemed a more auspicious date: the 2nd February 1922 (2.2.22)!

Another name that was significant for Joyce was that of Harriet Weaver, editor of the Egoist magazine and one of Joyce’s patrons. The fact that Penelope in Homer’s Odyssey was also a weaver (of tapestries) seemed to Joyce to be an auspicious sign. In a letter of 1st Novmeber 1921, Joyce told Weaver that there was a coincidence of birthdays in connection with his books. He pointed out that the serialisation of A Portrait of the Artist had begun in her magazine on his thirty-second birthday, and finished 25 instalments later with the issue dated 1 September, Harriet Weaver’s own birthday. He then went on to claim that he had started writing Ulysses on 1 March 1914, Frank Budgen’s birthday, and finished writing it on 30 October 1921, Ezra Pound’s birthday. Somewhat wryly, he then wonders on whose birthday it might be published. However, Joyce had already announced the completion of the book on 29th not 30th of October in a letter to Robert McAlmon and a letter to Valery Larbaud, so it seems that he was bending the facts slightly to fit a neat coincidence.

Joyce’s final corrections to the proofs of Ulysses reached the printer, Maurice Danartiere, on 31 January, and Darantiere managed to get two copies, numbered 901 and 902, printed on 1 February. They were sent by train from Dijon to Paris where they arrived in the early hours of the morning of the 2nd. Sylvia Beach was waiting for the train and took the two copies by taxi to Joyce’s apartment as his birthday present. She gave one copy to him and placed the other copy on display in the window of her bookshop to announce its publication.

Joyce celebrated that evening with his friends at an Italian restaurant, sporting a new ring he had promised himself years before as a reward for finishing Ulysses. He ate nothing and kept the package containing the book under his chair until after dessert when he finally untied it and placed the book on the table. His friends gave a toast to him and to the new-born Ulysses.

Years later, Joyce hoped that Finnegans Wake would also be published on his birthday. First, he hoped it would appear in 1938, in time for his 56th birthday. When that didn’t happen, he hoped that it would appear on 4th July 1938, the anniversary of his father’s birth. On January 30th 1939, Faber & Faber sent a copy of the book (actually bound page proofs) to Joyce for his 57th birthday. On that 2nd of February, Joyce’s daughter-in-law Helen had a cake baked on top of which were replicas of his seven books in icing. The table was laid out to represent Paris and Dublin, and Nora wore an aquamarine ring that Joyce had given her as a symbol of the river Liffey. Despite this early launch of Finnegans Wake, the official publication date was not until 4th May 1939.

If Joyce’s own birthdays seemed to have particular significance, so also did the anniversaries of those closest to him. Joyce’s mother, May, died on 13th August 1903, and Joyce had an ambiguous attitude towards the number thirteen, thinking it sometimes lucky, though he wasn’t sure. His mother May had been born on 15th May and his parents had married in May 1880, so that month always seemed particularly lucky for Joyce. By coincidence, Joyce’s first short story, ‘The Sisters,’ was published in the Irish Homestead on 13 August 1904, exactly the first anniversary of his mother’s death.

Joyce’s father, John Joyce, had been born on 4th July 1849 and his younger brother George was buried on 4th July 1887. When Joyce’s son was born in July 1905, he named him Giorgio after his brother who died in 1902. When Joyce got married in 1931, he chose the 4th July as the date, perhaps because John Joyce had been grieved by Joyce and Nora’s elopement.

On his deathbed, John Joyce told his daughter May to tell Jim that he was born at 6 in the morning. At first, May thought her father was delirious, but apparently, Joyce had written to his father sometime before to find out the exact time of his birth because an astrologer was doing his horoscope. John Joyce died on 29 December 1931, just a month before Joyce’s 50th birthday. Joyce’s 50th birthday celebrations were somewhat muted because of Joyce’s depression, an atmosphere that was not helped when Joyce’s daughter Lucia, beginning to show signs of schizophrenia, threw a chair at Nora. Less than a fortnight later, Joyce’s grandson, Stephen James Joyce was born, and the coincidence of the birth of his grandson and the death of his father led him to write the poem ‘Ecce Puer.’

Joyce’s daughter Lucia was born on 26th July 1909 and Joyce picked the name Lucia after the patron saint of eyesight. He may have hoped that by naming his daughter in honour of St Lucy, it might help with his own eye problems. Lucia was given the middle name Anna since it was St Anne’s day and Nora’s mother’s name was Anne. Lucia’s increasing mental instability in later life caused Joyce a great deal of distress. He encouraged her to make a career for herself as a calligraphist and determined to see her book Chaucer ABC published on her birthday, 26th July 1936. With this in mind Joyce bought a moneybox to save in, and gave the key to his friend Paul Léon. He wrote to Harriet Weaver saying he hoped that, through publishing the book, Lucia would see that her whole past has not been a failure, and Harriet Weaver offered to share the costs of publication. Lucia died in England on 12 December 1982, the eve of St Lucy’s day.

Joyce died in Zurich of a perforated ulcer and generalised peritonitis on 13th January 1941, perhaps finally confirming that thirteen was an unlucky number for him. Nora died ten years later in 1951 and was also buried at Fluntern Cemetery, though initially she wasn’t buried in the same grave. They were reinterred together in a single plot in the cemetery on Bloomsday, the 16th June 1966. Their son Giorgio is also buried in the same plot. In a final coincidence, Joyce’s brother Stanislaus died in Trieste on Bloomsday, 16th June, 1955.

http://www.jamesjoyce.ie/detail.asp?ID=130
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 19:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nationaal Comité Herdenking Mobilisatie 1914


De drie kruisen van de Nationale Bond Het Mobilisatiekruis 1914-1918

Het "Nationaal Comité Herdenking Mobilisatie 1914" werd op 2 februari 1924 opgericht om de tiende verjaardag van de mobilisatie van augustus 1914 te herdenken. Deze herdenking moest, zo meende het Comité worden georganiseerd om de tienduizenden gemobiliseerde soldaten te bedanken voor de vier jaren die zij hadden moeten opofferen voor het behoud van de Nederlandse neutraliteit. Het Comité wilde het weinig krijgshaftige Nederlandse volk er ook op wijzen dat vrede, zo meende zij, "altijd kwam ná oorlog".

De Nederlandse regering heeft in 1918 nagelaten om onderscheidingen in te stellen voor de militairen en de mannen van Landweer, Landstorm en vrijwillige Burgerwacht.Het eren en belonen van deze mensen werd overgelaten aan het particulier initiatief.

Het comité Herdenking Mobilisatie 1914 stelde twee onderscheidingen in:

- Mobilisatiekruis 1914-1918 en het
- Witte Mobilisatiekruis 1914-1918.

Zij die hiervoor in aanmerking kwamen moesten de onderscheiding zèlf kopen.Ook andere verenigingen en bonden zamelden geld in en kwamen met hùn onderscheidingen.Wij noemen:

- Het Herinneringsmedaille Fort Honswijk 1914-1915
- Het Kruis voor oud-gedemobiliseerden 1914-1918 van de Amsterdamse Vrijwillige Burgerwacht
- Het Kruis voor oud-gedemobiliseerden 1914-1918 van de Amsterdamsche Vrijwillige Burgerwacht
- Het Kruis van Verdienste van de Nederlandse Bond van Vrijwillige Burgerwachten

Voor het beheer van de twee onderscheidingen en het uitreiken van de kruisen en de oorkonden werd op 19 september 1925 de Nationale Bond "Het Mobilisatiekruis" opgericht. De statuten van de bond werden in een Koninklijk Besluit van 7 oktober 1925 goedgekeurd. Deze goedkeuring was een formaliteit. De kroon beoordeelde van alle rechtspersonen of zij niet iets dat in strijd met de wet en de goede zeden zou zijn nastreefden. Men mag er geen officiële "goedkeuring" in zien. Op 26 november 1924 stond de Nederlandse regering de militairen van land- en zeemacht toe om het Mobilisatie-herinneringskruis op het uniform te dragen. Voor het witte kruis werd deze toestemming niet gegeven.

De Nationale Bond "Het Mobilisatiekruis" was gevestigd in 's-Gravenhage en het was de bedoeling dat zij tot 1954, de veertigste verjaring van de mobilisatie, zou blijven bestaan. Het bestuur stelde in 1939 een Kruis van Verdienste in. Dit kruis werd acht keer uitgereikt.
De Tweede Wereldoorlog maakte een voortijdig einde aan haar werkzaamheden.Van een grote herdenking in 1954 is niets geworden.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationaal_Comit%C3%A9_Herdenking_Mobilisatie_1914
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lichtmis

Ook: Vrouwendag, Maria-Lichtmis

2 Februari, speelt een belangrijke rol in de volksweerkunde.

Als op Lichtmis de zon scheen, was de boer niet blij, getuige de wijsheden:
Als Lichtmis in het donker huist / lacht de boer in zijn vuist;
Lichtmis donker / de boer 'n jonker;
Lichtmis helder / de boer in de kelder.


De imker zag daarentegen met Lichtmis graag helder weer:
Lichtmis helder en klaar / geeft een goed bijenjaar.

Het zingen van de leeuwerik op 2 februari werd gezien als lentebode. Volgens het volksgeloof geven de vier vrijdagen in februari het weer voor de vier jaargetijden aan. Tiesing meldt hierover: 'Was de eerste Vrijdag nao Lichtmissendag een mooie dag, dan was er een mooi veurjaor te waachten; tweede Vrijdag nao Lichtmissen wees de geaordheid van de zommer en de daarde die van de haarfst."

http://www.encyclopediedrenthe.nl/Lichtmis
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE MORNING POST FEBRUARY 2 1914

MILITANTS AND FORCIBLE FEEDING

THE BISHOP OF LONDON "IN BLINKERS"


Mrs. Dacre Fox, writing from Lincoln's Inn House, the headquarters of the Women's Social and Political Union, has replied to the Bishop of London's letter to Mrs. Diplock, the leader of the Union's deputation which waited upon him on Monday last regarding the health and treatment of Rachel Peace, a militant Suffragist, at present imprisoned at Holloway. After declaring the dissatisfaction of the Union with the result of Dr. Winnington-Imgram's visit, "erroneously characterised as an 'investigation,'" Mrs. Dacre Fox adds: "The whole truth of the matter is that, like others, you have allowed the Government and the prison officials to hoodwink you. It is obviously their business so to do. The Home Office agrees to an investigation, and at the same time makes it of no avail, by putting blinkers on the investigators. A whitewash brush, my Lord Bishop, has been placed in your hand by the authorities, in order that the public shall still remain in ignorance of the diabolical methods used by the Government in their desire to terrorise the militant women. The deputation which waited upon you on Monday was earnest in urging you to insist upon seeing for yourself the operation of forcible feeding. We are of opinion that had you strongly persisted you could have wrung from them the permission to be present. Obviously, in the circumstances, your investigation of the horrors of forcible feeding was no investigation at all."

The letter concludes: "Finally, you state in your letter to Mrs. Diplock that Mr. McKenna was prepared to release Miss Peace immediately if she would give an undertaking not to commit militance, such as burning houses. We would ask you, my Lord Bishop, what this offer, conveyed by you from the Home Secretary to Miss Peace, had to do with the investigation you had to make? We consider that by holding out this temptation to Miss Peace to sin against her conscience in forswearing what she believes to be right you were acting as an ally of the Government, and in this issue between it and us. The fact that the Home Secretary made such an offer is a proof that ordinary prisoners such an idea would never be entertained, nor would the offer be made. It is clear, the, that in the case of the Suffragists the Home Secretary is not punishing them for what they have done, but is inflicting, or threatens to inflict, this torture upon them to prevent them doing in the future what they believe to be their duty. An endeavour to force a recantation of principle is, and always has been, the essence of torture."

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~thelamp/sufferage/THE%20MORNING%20POST%20FEBRUARY%202%201914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 19:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | February 1915

Tuesday 2nd February 1915 - Dull, raining. Mess orderly. Porridge and bacon for brekker. Parade 10.40. Stiff. Everyone tired. Acted as flanker scout in open drill with sections extended.

Afternoon, raining, physical exercise in hut under Townsend. Simpson showed us new one, arms locked on floor, pull head over heels. Pulled Howard and Draycott. Also some wrestled Cumbrian style, hands clasped.

After break bayonet drill under Sgt. Mjr. Costello. Point downwards to man in trench, pull out by shortening under rt arm. When parry and too close to enemy, can shorten over rt arm. Still drizzling, heavier and heavier, in huts, cleaned rifle. Sing-song round piano (Camp Songs 1/6) after tea. Evening in Y.M.C.A.I., beat Stables, lost of Copplestone at chess.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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VAN LANDSCHOOT'S IN MILITAIRE DIENST

Wilfried Van Lantschoot - Antwerpen - W. O. 1

Wilfridus-Julius Van Lantschoot werd geboren op zaterdag, 16 maart 1895 te Ursel. Hij was de zoon van Petrus-Eduardus Van Lantschoot en Mathilde Van Lierde. Wilfridus-Julius Van Lantschoot huwde Margaretha De Sutter op 26 juli 1922 te Jette. Wilfridus overleed op donderdag, 26 juni 1969 te Mortsel in de ouderdom van 74. Hij werd begraven op 1 juli 2006 te Kerkhof, Mortsel.

Wilfridus Van Lantschoot begon zijn militaire dienst op 2 februari 1915 te Parigne-L'Eveque, France, onsnapt uit bezet Belgie vanuit Bree op 27 jan. 1915. Hij reist via Stampraai, Amsterdam en Rotterdam naar Engeland, waar hij zich inschrijft voor de duur van de oorlog.Op 9 mei 1915 benoemd tot de graad van korporaal. Op eigenvraag terug tot soldaat benoemd op 22/10/1915, vanwaar hij over geplaatst word naar het 10de linieregiment. Op 19 feb 1916 overgegaan naar het 1ste bataljon wielrijders.Op 24 maart 1917 gehospitaliseerd in Calais, France vanwaar hij de volgende dag overgebracht word naar het hospitaal in Rennes, France. Heropgenomen in dienst op 17 mei 1917.Op 4 feb 1918 opgenomen in de infirmerie divisie. Heropgenomen in getalsterkte op 6 feb 1918. Met onepaald verlof vanaf 19 aug 1919.

Eretekens:
Oorlogsvrijwilliger 1914-1918
Officier in de Kroonorde met zwaarden
Officier in de Leopold II orde met zwaarden
Oorlogskruis met Palm
Vuurkruis
Ijzerkruis
Overwinningsmedaille
Herinneringsmedaille


http://blog.seniorennet.be/van_landschoot/archief.php?startdatum=1174258800&stopdatum=1174863600
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The Dardanelles Campaign Chronology

2 February 1915 Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) is appointed to reorganize and command Nineteenth Division in Thrace.

http://www.ataturktoday.com/1915GallipoliCanakkale.htm
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French Naval Operations, Engagements and Ship Losses in the Adriatic in World War One
by Erwin Sieche

(...) A fortnight later the submarine CURIE lay in wait off the harbor barrage of Pola [Pula] to wait for her chance to intrude. Two days later, on 20 December, during an attempt to sneak into the harbour she got entangled in the outer wire net barrage and could not free herself. Forced to surface to get fresh air, she was sunk by gunfire of the destroyer MAGNET and the Tb 63T, taking with her three while 23 men were rescued. In the inter-war period the French named a submarine after the drowned 2nd officer, Pierre Chailley. Another sub received the name [Gabriel?] O'Byrne after the commander of the CURIE, who had died in France after having being released from A.-H. POW in 1917. The Austrians raised the wreck step by step from 39 m depth between 21 December 1914 and 2 February 1915. It had suffered only little damages and because of the urgent need for ocean-going submarines she was repaired and commissioned as A.-H. U 14 on 1 June 1915. (...)

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/fadri.htm
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T. E. Lawrence to D. G. Hogarth

Grand Continental Hotel
Cairo

2.2.1915

A long time since I wrote to you:- but office from 9a.m. till 10p.m. and all confidential work doesn't tend to letter writing: one has a pen in one's hand all day, and is sick of the thing by dark... We nearly wired for you the other day, to come and do civil governor of our conquests... but we decided it was too small a job to warrant it... How amused old Catoni would have been.

The P.E.F. are foolish in their generation, and so no doubt children of light. I hope Musil's knowledge among the Turks is more use than mine among the English. The Egyptian army officer is pathetically ignorant of across the border. Woolley sits all day doing précis, and writing windy concealers of truth for the press.... Newcombe runs a gang of most offensive spies, and talks to the General. I am map officer, and write geographical reports, trying to persuade 'em that Syria is not peopled entirely by Turks.... Aubrey Herbert unearths futile conspiracies.

The ten principals of the last conspiracy were sold by their underlings, and then came each one independently and secretly by night to the General, and gave away his fellows. It was so hard to keep them from meeting on the doorstep... and when the plot matured it was like the man who was Friday. None the less the Egyptian townsmen do hate us so. I thought it was only a coldness... but it is a most burning dislike. They are also very much afraid.

L.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/150202_hogarth.htm
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Sir John French's Sixth Despatch

The sixth Despatch of Field Marshal Sir John French, Commander in Chief of the British Armies in France and Flanders. Printed in the Second Supplement to the London Gazette of 16 February 1915. It covered operations undertaken by the BEF over the dreadful winter of 1914-1915.



The following Despatch was received on the 12th February, 1915: -
From the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, The British Army in the Field.
To the Secretary of State for War, War Office, London, S.W.

General Headquarters,
2nd February, 1915.

My Lord,
I have the honour to forward a further report on the operations of the Army under my command.

1. In the period under review the salient feature was the presence of His Majesty the King in the Field. His Majesty arrived at Headquarters on the 30th November, and left on the 5th December. At a time when the strength and endurance of the troops had been tried to the utmost throughout the long and arduous Battle of Ypres-Armentieres the presence of His Majesty in their midst was of the greatest possible help and encouragement. His Majesty visited all parts of the extensive area of operations and held numerous inspections, of the troops behind the line of trenches. On the 16th November Lieutenant His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K.G., Grenadier Guards, joined my Staff as Aide-de-Camp.

2. Since the date of my last report the operations of the Army under my command have been subject almost entirely to the limitations of weather. History teaches us that the course of campaigns in Europe, which have been actively prosecuted during the months of December and January, have been largely influenced by weather conditions. It should, however, be thoroughly understood throughout the country that the most recent development of armaments and the latest methods of conducting warfare have added greatly to the difficulties and drawbacks of a vigorous winter campaign. To cause anything more than a waste of ammunition long-range artillery fire requires constant and accurate observation; but this most necessary condition is rendered impossible of attainment in the midst of continual fog and mist. Again, armies have now grown accustomed to rely largely on aircraft reconnaissance for accurate information of the enemy; but the effective performance of this service is materially influenced by wind and weather. The deadly accuracy, range and quick-firing capabilities of the modern rifle and machine gun require that -a fire-swept zone be crossed in the shortest possible space of time by attacking troops. But if men are detained under the enemy's fire by the difficulty of emerging from a water-logged trench, and by the necessity of passing over ground knee-deep in holding mud and slush, such attacks become practically prohibitive owing to the losses they entail.

During the exigencies of the heavy fighting which ended in the last week of November the French and British Forces had become somewhat mixed up, entailing a certain amount of difficulty in matters of supply and in securing unity of command. By the end of November I was able to concentrate the Army under my command in one area, and, by holding a shorter line, to establish effective reserves. By the beginning of December there was a considerable falling off in the volume of artillery fire directed against our front by the enemy. Reconnaissance and reports showed that a certain amount of artillery had been withdrawn. We judged that the cavalry in our front, with the exception of one Division of the Guard, had disappeared. There did not, however, appear to have been any great diminution in the numbers of infantry holding the trenches.

3. Although both artillery and rifle fire were exchanged with the enemy every day, and sniping went on more or less continuously during the hours of daylight, the operations which call for special record or comment are comparatively few. During the last week in November some successful minor night operations were carried out in the 4th Corps.

On the night of the 23rd-24th November a small party of the 2nd Lincolnshire Regiment, under Lieutenant E. H. Impey, cleared three of the enemy's advanced trenches opposite the 25th Brigade and withdrew without loss.

On the night of the 24th-25th Captain J. R. Minshull Ford, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and Lieutenant E. L. Morris, Royal Engineers, with 15 men of the Royal Engineers and Royal Welsh Fusiliers, successfully mined and blew up a group of farms immediately in front of the German trenches on the Touquet-Bridoux Road which had been used by German snipers.

On the night of the 26th-27th November a small party of the 2nd Scots Guards, under Lieutenant Sir E. H. W. Hulse, Bt., rushed the trenches opposite the 20th Brigade; and after pouring a heavy fire into them returned with useful information as to the strength of the Germans and the position of machine guns. The trenches opposite the 25th Brigade were rushed the same night by a patrol of the 2nd Rifle Brigade, under Lieutenant E. Durham.

On the 23rd November the 112th Regiment of the 14th German Army Corps succeeded in capturing some 800 yards of the trenches held by the Indian Corps, but the General Officer Commanding the Meerut Division organized a powerful counter-attack, which lasted throughout the night. At daybreak on the 24th November the line was entirely re-established. The operation was a costly one, involving many casualties, but the enemy suffered far more heavily. We captured over 100 prisoners, including 3 officers, as well as 3 machine guns and 2 trench mortars.

On December 7th the concentration of the Indian Corps was completed by the arrival of the Sirhind Brigade from Egypt.

On December 9th the enemy attempted to commence a strong attack against the 3rd Corps, particularly in front of the trenches held by the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and the Middlesex Regiment. They were driven back with heavy loss, and did not renew the attempt. Our casualties were very slight.

During the early days of December certain indications along the whole front of the Allied Line induced the French Commanders and myself to believe that the enemy had withdrawn considerable forces from the Western Theatre. Arrangements were made with the Commander of the 8th French Army for an attack to be commenced on the morning of December 14th. Operations began at 7 a.m. by a combined heavy artillery bombardment, by the two French and the 2nd British Corps. The British objectives were the Petit Bois and the Maedelsteed Spur, lying respectively to the west and south-west of the village of Wytschaete. At 7.45 a.m. the Royal Scots, with great dash, rushed forward and attacked the former, while the Gordon Highlanders attacked the latter place. The Royal Scots, commanded by Major F. J. Duncan, D.S.O., in face of a terrible machine gun and rifle fire, carried the German trench on the west edge of the Petit Bois, capturing two machine guns and 53 prisoners, including one officer. The Gordon Highlanders, with great gallantry, advanced up the Maedelsteed Spur, forcing the enemy to evacuate their front trench. They were, however, losing heavily, and found themselves unable to get any further. At nightfall they were obliged to fall back to their original position. Captain C. Boddam-Whetham and Lieutenant W. F. R. Dobie showed splendid dash, and with a few men entered the enemy's leading trenches; but they were all either killed or captured. Lieutenant G. R. V. Hume-Gore and Lieutenant W. H. Paterson also distinguished themselves by their gallant leading. Although not successful, the operation was most creditable to the fighting spirit of the Gordon Highlanders, most ably commanded by Major A. W. F. Baird, D.S.O. As the 32nd French Division on the left had been unable to make any progress, the further advance of our infantry into the Wytschaete Wood was not practicable. Possession of the western edge of the Petit. Bois was, however, retained. The ground was devoid of cover and so water-logged that a rapid advance was impossible, the men sinking deep in the mud at every step they took. The artillery throughout the day was very skilfully handled by the C.R.A.'s of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Divisions: Major-General F. D. V. Wing, C.B., Brigadier-General G. F. Milne, C.B., D.S.O., and Brigadier-General J. E. W. Headlam, C.B., D.S.O. The casualties during the day were about 17 officers and 407 other ranks. The losses of the enemy were very considerable, large numbers of dead being found in the Petit Bois and also in the communicating trenches in front of the Gordon Highlanders, in one of which a hundred were counted by a night patrol. On this day the artillery of the 4th Division, 3rd Corps, was used in support of the attack, under orders of the General Officer Commanding 2nd Corps. The remainder of the 3rd Corps made demonstrations against the enemy with a view to preventing him from detaching troops to the area of operations of the 2nd Corps.

From the 15th to the 17th December the offensive operations which were commenced on the 14th were continued, but were confined chiefly to artillery bombardment. The infantry advance against Wytschaete Wood was not practicable until the French on our left could make some progress to afford protection to that flank.

On the 17th it was agreed that the plan of attack as arranged should be modified; but I was requested to continue demonstrations along my line in order to assist and support certain French operations which were being conducted elsewhere.

4. In his desire to act with energy up to his instructions to demonstrate and occupy the enemy, the General Officer Commanding the Indian Corps decided to take the advantage of what appeared to him a favourable opportunity to launch attacks against the advanced trenches in his front on the 18th and 19th December. The attack of the Meerut Division on the left was made on the morning of the 19th with energy and determination, and was at first attended with considerable success, the enemy's advanced trenches being captured. Later on, however, a counter attack drove them back to their original position with considerable loss. The attack of the Lahore Division commenced at 4.30 a.m. It was carried out by two companies each of the 1st Highland Light Infantry and the 1st Battalion, 4th Gurkha Rifles, of the Sirhind Brigade, under Lieutenant-Colonel E. W. H. Ronaldson. This attack was completely successful, two lines of the enemy's trenches being captured with little loss. Before daylight the captured trenches were filled with as many men as they would hold. The front was very restricted, communication to the rear impossible. At daybreak it was found that the position was practically untenable. Both flanks were in the air, and a supporting attack, which was late in starting, and, therefore, conducted during daylight, failed; although attempted With the greatest gallantry and resolution. Lieutenant-Colonel Ronaldson held on till dusk, when the whole of the captured trenches had to be evacuated, and the detachment fell back to its original line. By the night of the 19th December nearly all the ground gained during the day had been lost.

From daylight on the 20th December the enemy commenced a heavy fire from artillery and trench mortars on the whole front of the Indian Corps. This was followed by infantry attacks, which, were in especial force against Givenchy, and between that place and La Quinque Rue. At about 10 a.m. the enemy succeeded in driving back the Sirliind Brigade, and capturing a considerable part of Givenchy, but the 67th Rifles and 9th Bhopals, north of the canal, and the Connaught Rangers, south of it, stood firm. The 15th Sikhs of the Divisional Reserve were already supporting the Sirhind Brigade. On the news of the retirement of the latter being received, the 47th Sikhs were also sent up to reinforce General Brunker. The 1st Manchester Regiment, 4th Suffolk Regiment, and two battalions of French Territorials under General Carnegy were ordered to launch a vigorous counter attack from Pont Fixe through Givenchy to retake by a flank attack the trenches lost by the Sirhind Brigade. Orders were sent to General Carnegy to divert his attack on Givenchy Village, and to re-establish the situation there. A battalion of the 58th French Division was sent to Annequin in support. About 5 p.m. a gallant attack by the 1st Manchester Regiment and one company of the 4th Suffolk Regiment had captured Givenchy and had cleared the enemy out of the two lines of trenches to the North-East. To the east of the village the 9th Bhopal Infantry and 57th Rifles had maintained their positions, but the enemy were still in possession of our trenches to the north of the village. General Macbean, with the Secunderabad Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Battalion, 8th Gurkha Rifles, and the 47th Sikhs, was sent up to support General Brunker, who at 2 p.m. directed General Macbean to move to a position of readiness in the second line trenches from Maris northward, and to counter-attack vigorously if opportunity offered. Some considerable delay appears to have occurred and it was not until 1 a.m. on the 21st that the 47th Sikhs and the 7th Dragoon Guards under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel H. A. Lempriere, D.S.O., of the latter regiment, were launched in counter-attack. They reached the enemy's trenches, but were driven out by enfilade fire, their gallant Commander being killed. The main attack by the remainder of General Macbean's force, with the remnants of Lieutenant-Colonel Lempriere's detachment (which had again been rallied), was finally pushed in at about 4.30 a.m., and also failed. In the northern section of the defensive line the retirement of the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Gurkha Rifles, at about 10 a.m. on the 20th, had left the flank of the 1st Seaforth Highlanders, on the extreme right, of the Meerut Division line, much exposed. This battalion was left shortly afterwards completely in the air by the retirement of the Sirhind Brigade. The 58th Rifles, therefore, were ordered to support tbe left of the Seaforth Highlanders, to fill the gap created by the retirement of the Gurkhas. During the whole of the afternoon strenuous efforts were made by the Seaforth Highlanders to clear the trenches to their right and left. The 1st Battalion, 9th Gurkha Rifles, reinforced the 2nd Gurkhas near the orchard where the Germans were in occupation of tbe trenches abandoned by the latter regiment. The Garhwal Brigade was being very heavily attacked, and their trenches and loopholes were much damaged; but the brigade continued to hold its front and attack, connecting with the 6th Jats on the left of the Defora Dun Brigade. No advance in force was made by the enemy, but the troops were pinned to their ground by heavy artillery fire, the Seaforth Highlanders especially suffering heavily.

Shortly before nightfall the 2nd Royal Highlanders on the right of the Seaforth Highlanders had succeeded in establishing touch with the Sirhind Brigade; and the continuous line (though dented near the orchard) existed throughout the Meerut Division. Early in the afternoon of December 20th orders were sent to the 1st Corps, which was then in general army reserve, to send an infantry brigade to support the Indian Corps. The 1st Brigade was ordered to Bethune, and reached that place at midnight on 20th-21st December. Later in the day Sir Douglas Haig was ordered to move the whole of the 1st Division in support of the Indian Corps. The 3rd Brigade reached Bethune between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m. on the 21st, and on the same date the 2nd Brigade arrived at Lacon at 1 p.m. The 1st Brigade was directed on Givenchy, via Pont Fixe, and the 3rd Brigade, through Gorre, on the trenches evacuated by the Sirhind Brigade. The 2nd Brigade was directed to support; the Dehra Dun Brigade being placed at the disposal of the General Officer Commanding Meerut Division. At 1 p.m. the General Officer Commanding 1st Division directed the 1st Brigade in attack from the west of Givenchy in a north-easterly direction, and the 3rd Brigade from Festubert in an east-north-easterly direction, the object being to pass the position originally held by us and to capture the German trenches 400 yards to the east of it. By 5 p.m. the 1st Brigade had obtained a hold in Givenchy, and the ground south as far as the canal; and the 3rd Brigade had progressed to a point half a mile west of Festubert. By nightfall the 1st South Wales Borderers and the 2nd Welsh Regiment of the 3rd Brigade had made a lodgment in the original trenches to the north-east of Festubert, the 1st Gloucestershire Regiment continuing the line southward along the track east of Festubert. The 1st Brigade had established itself on the east side of Givenchy. By 3.p.m. the 3rd Brigade was concentrated at Le Touret, and was ordered to retake the trenches which had been lost by the Dehra Dun Brigade. By 10 p.m. the support trenches west of the orchard had been carried, but the original fire trenches had been so completely destroyed that they could not be occupied.This operation was performed by the 1st Loyal North Lancashire Regiment and the 1st Northamptonshire Regiment, supported by the 2nd King's Royal Rifle Corps, in reserve. Throughout this day the units of the Indian Corps rendered all the assistance and support they could in view of their exhausted condition.

At 1 p.m. on the 22nd Sir Douglas Haig took over command from Sir James Willcocks. The situation in the front line was then approximately as follows: - South of the La Bassee Canal the Connaught Rangers of the Ferozepore Brigade had not been attacked. North of the canal a short length of our original line was still held by the 9th Bhopals and the 57th Rifles of the same brigade. Connecting with the latter was the 1st Brigade holding the village of Givenchy and its eastern and northern approaches. On the left of the 1st Brigade was the 3rd Brigade.

Touch had been lost between the left of the former and the right of the latter. The 3rd Brigade held a line along, and in places advanced to, the east of the Festubert Road. Its left was in communication with the right of the Meerut Division line, where troops of the 2nd Brigade had just relieved the 1st Seaforth Highlanders. To the north, units of the 2nd Brigade held an indented line west of the orchard, connecting with half of the 2nd Royal Highlanders, half of the 41st Dogras and the 1st Battalion, 9th Gurkha Rifles. From this point to the north the 6th Jats and the whole of the Garhwal Brigade occupied the original line which they had held from the commencement of the operations. The relief of most units of the southern sector was effected on the night of 22nd December. The Meerut Division remained under the orders of the 1st Corps, and was not completely withdrawn until the 27th December. In the evening the position at Givenchy was practically re-established, and the 3rd Brigade had re-occupied the old line of trenches.

During the 23rd the enemy's activities ceased, and the whole position was restored to very much its original condition. In my last despatch I had occasion to mention the prompt and ready help I received from the Lahore Division, under the command of Major-General H. B. B. Watkis, C.B., which was thrown into action immediately on arrival, when the British Forces were very hard pressed during the battle of Ypres-Armentieres. The Indian troops have fought with the utmost steadfastness and gallantry whenever they have been called upon.

Weather conditions were abnormally bad, the snow and floods precluding any active operations dxiring the first three weeks of January.

5. At 7.30 a.m. on the 25th January the enemy began to shell Bethune, and at 8 a.m. a strong hostile infantry attack developed south of the canal, preceded by a heavy bombardment of artillery, minenwerfers and, possibly, the explosion of mines, though the latter is doubtful. The British line south of the canal formed a pronounced salient from the canal on the left, thence running forward toward the railway triangle and back to the main La Bassee- Bethune Road, where it joined the French. This line was occupied by half a battalion of the Scots Guards, and half a battalion of the Coldstream Guards, of the 1st Infantry Brigade. The trenches in the salient were blown in almost at once; and the enemy's attack penetrated this line. Our troops retired to a partially prepared second line, running approximately due north and south from the canal to the road, some 500 yards west of the railway triangle. This second line had been strengthened by the construction of a keep half way between the canal and the road. Here the other two half battalions of the above-mentioned regiments were in support. These supports held up the enemy who, however, managed to establish himself in the brick stacks and some communication trenches between the keep, the road and the canal and even beyond and west of the keep on either side of it. The London Scottish had in the meantime been sent up in support, and a counter-attack was organised with the 1st Royal Highlanders, part of the 1st Cameron Highlanders, and the 2nd King's Royal Rifle' Corps, the latter regiment having, been sent forward from the Divisional Reserve. The counter-attack was delayed in order to synchronise with a counter-attack north of the canal which was arranged for 1 p.m. At 1 p.m. these troops moved forward, their flanks making good progress near the road and the canal, but their centre being held up. The 2nd Royal Sussex Regiment was then sent forward, late in the afternoon, to reinforce. The result was that the Germans were driven back far enougli to enable a somewhat broken line to be taken up, running from, the culvert on the railway, almost due south to the keep, and thence south-east to the main road. The French left near the road had also been attacked and driven back a little, but not to so great an extent as the British right. Consequently, the French left was in advance of the British right and exposed to a possible flank attack from the north. The Germans did not, however, persevere further in their attack. The above-mentioned line was strengthened during the night; and the 1st Guards Brigade, which had suffered severely, was withdrawn into reserve and replaced by the 2nd Infantry Brigade.

While this was taking place another, and equally severe attack was delivered north of the canal against the village of Givenchy. At 8.15 a.m., after a heavy artillery bombardment with high explosive shells, the enemy's infantry advanced under the effective fire of our artillery, which, however, was hampered by the constant interruption of telephonic communication between the observers and batteries. Nevertheless, our artillery fire, combined with that of the infantry in the fire trenches, had the effect, of driving the enemy from his original direction of advance, with the result that his troops crowded together on the north-east corner of the village and broke through into the centre of the village as far as the keep, which had been previously put in a state of defence. The Germans had lost heavily, and a well-timed local counter-attack, delivered by the reserves of the 2nd Welsh Regiment and 1st South Wales Borderers, and by a company of the 1st Royal Highlanders (lent by the 1st Brigade as a working party- this company was at work on the keep at the time), was completely successful, with the result that, after about an hour's street fighting, all who had broken into the village were either captured or killed; and the original line round the village was re-established by noon. South of the village, however, and close to the canal, the right of the 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers fell back in conformity with the troops south of the canal; but after dark that regiment moved forward and occupied the old line. During the course of the attack on Givenchy the enemy made five assaults on the salient at the north-east of the village about French Farm, but was repulsed every time with heavy loss.

6. On the morning of the 29th January attacks were made on the. right of the 1st Corps, south of the canal in the neighbourhood of La Bassee. The enemy (part of the 14th German Corps); after a severe shelling, made a violent attack with scaling ladders on the keep, also to thenorth and south -of it. In the keep and on the north side the Sussex Regiment held the enemy off, inflicting on him serious losses. On the south side the hostile infantry succeeded in reaching the Northamptonshire Regiment's trenches; but were immediately counterattacked and all killed. Our artillery cooperated well with the infantry in repelling the attack. In this action our casualties were inconsiderable, but the enemy lost severely, more than 200 of his killed alone being left in front of our position.

7. On the 1st February a fine piece of work was carried out by the 4th Brigade in the neighbourhood of Cuinchy. Some of the 2nd Coldstream Guards were driven from their trenches at 2.30 a.m., but made a stand some twenty yards east of them in a position which they held till morning. A counter-attack, launched at 3.15 a.m. by one company of the Irish Guards and half a company of the 2nd Coldstream Guards, proved unsuccessful, owing to heavy rifle fire from the east and south. At 10.5 a.m., acting under orders of the 1st Division, a heavy bombardment was opened on the lost ground for ten minutes; and this was followed immediately by an assault by about 50 men of the 2nd Coldstream Guards with bayonets, led by Captain A. Leigh Bennett, followed by 30 men of the Irish Guards, led by Second Lieutenant F. F. Graham, also with bayonets. These were followed by a party of Royal Engineers with sand bags and wire. All the ground which had been lost was brilliantly retaken; the 2nd Coldstream Guards also taking another German trench and capturing two machine guns. Thirty-two prisoners fell into our hands. The General Officer Commanding 1st Division describes the preparation by the artillery as "splendid, the high explosive shells dropping in the exact spot with absolute precision."

In forwarding his report on this engagement, the General Officer Commanding First Army writes as follows: - " Special credit is due-
(i) To Major-General Haking, Commanding 1st Division, for the prompt manner in which he arranged this counterattack and for the general plan, of action, which was crowned with success.
(ii) To the General Officer Commanding the 4th Brigade (Lord Cavan) for the thorough manner in which he carried out the orders of the General Officer Commanding the Division.
(iii) To the regimental officers, noncommissioned officers and men of the 2nd Coldstream Guards and Irish Guards, who, with indomitable pluck, stormed two sets of barricades, captured three German trenches, two machine guns, and killed or made prisoners many of the enemy."

8. During the period under report the Royal Flying Corps has again performed splendid service. Although the weather was almost uniformly bad and the machines suffered from constant exposure, there have been only thirteen days on which no actual reconnaissance has been effected. Approximately, one hundred thousand miles have been flown. In addition to the daily and constant work of reconnaissance and co-operation with the artillery, a number of aerial combats have been fought, raids carried out, detrainments harassed, parks and petrol depots bombed, etc. Various successful bomb-dropping raids have been carried out, usually against the enemy's aircraft material. The principle of attacking hostile aircraft whenever and wherever seen (unless highly important information isi being delivered) has been adhered to, and has resulted in the moral fact that enemy machines invariably beat immediate retreat when chased. Five German aeroplanes are known to have been brought to the ground, and it would appear probable that others, though they have managed to reach their own lines, have done so in a considerably damaged condition.

9. In my despatch of 20th November, 1914, I referred to the reinforcement of Territorial Troops which I had received, and I mentioned several units which had already been employed in the fighting line. In the positions which I held for some years before the outbreak of this war I was brought into close contact with the Territorial Force, and I found every reason to hope and believe that, when the hour of trial arrived, they would justify every hope and trust which was placed in them. The Lords Lieutenant of Counties and the Associations which worked under them bestowed a vast amount of labour and energy on the organization of the Territorial Force; and I trust it may be some recompense to them to know that I, and the principal Commanders serving under me, consider that the Territorial Force has far more than justified the most sanguine hopes, that any of us ventured to entertain of their value and use in the field. Commanders of Cavalry Divisions are unstinted in their praise of the manner in which the Yeomanry regiments attached to their brigades have done their duty, both in and out of action. The service of Divisional Cavalry is how almost entirely performed by Yeomanry, and Divisional Commanders report that they are very efficient. Army Corps Commanders are loud in their praise of the Territorial Battalions which form part of nearly all the brigades at the front in the first line, and more than one of them have told me that these battalions are fast approaching- if they have not already reached-the standard of efficiency of Regular Infantry.

I wish to add a word about the Officers Training Corps. The presence of the Artists' Rifles (28th, Battalion, The London Regiment) with the Army in France enabled me also to test the value of this organization. Having had some experience in peace of the working of the Officers Training Corps, I determined to turn the Artists' Rifles (which formed part of the Officers Training Corps in peace time) to its legitimate use. I therefore established the battalion as a Training Corps for Officers in the field. The cadets pass through a course, which includes some thoroughly practical training as all cadets do a tour of 48 hours in the trenches, and afterwards write a report on what they see and notice. They also visit an observation post of a battery or group of batteries, and spend some hours there. A Commandant has been appointed, and he arranges and supervises the work, sets schemes for practice, administers the school, delivers lectures, and reports on the candidates. The cadets are instructed in all branches of military training suitable for platoon commanders. Machine gun tactics, a knowledge of which is. so necessary, for all junior officers, is a special feature of the course of instruction. When first started the school was able to turn out officers at the rate, of 75 a month. This has since been increased to 100. Reports received from Divisional and Army Corps Commanders on officers who have been trained at the school are most satisfactory.

10. Since the date of my last report I have been able to make a close personal inspection of all the units in the command. I was most favourably impressed by all I saw. The troops composing the Army in France have been subjected to as severe a trial as it is possible to impose upon any body of men. The desperate fighting described in my last despatch had hardly been brought to a conclusion when they were called upon to face the rigours and hardships of a winter campaign. Frost and snow have alternated with periods of continuous rain. The men have been called upon to stand for many hours together almost up to their waists in bitterly cold water, only separated by one or two hundred yards from a most vigilant enemy. Although every measure which science and medical knowledge could suggest to mitigate these hardships was employed, the sufferings of the men have been very great. In spite of all this they presented, at the inspections to which I have referred, a most soldier-like, splendid, though somewhat warworn appearance. Their spirit remains high and confident; their general health is excellent, and their condition most satisfactory. I regard it as most unfortunate that circumstances have prevented any account of many splendid instances of courage and endurance, in the face of almost unparallelled hardship and fatigue in war, coming regularly to the knowledge of the public.

Reinforcements have arrived from England with remarkable promptitude and rapidity. They have been speedily drafted into the ranks, and most of the units I inspected were nearly complete when I saw them. In appearance and quality the drafts sent out have exceeded my most sanguine expectations, and I consider the Army in France is much indebted to the Adjutant-General's Department at the War Office for the efficient manner in which its requirements have been met in this most essential respect. With regard to these inspections, I may mention in particular the fine appearance presented by the 27th and 28th Divisions, composed principally of battalions which had come from India. Included in the former division was the Princess Patricia's Royal Canadian Regiment. They are a magnificent set of men, and have since done excellent work in the trenches. It was some three weeks after the events recorded in paragraph 4 that I made my inspection of the Indian Corps, under Sir James Willcocks. The appearance they presented was most satisfactory, and fully confirmed my first opinion that the Indian troops only required rest, and a little acclimatizing, to bring out all their fine inherent fighting qualities. I saw the whole of the Indian Cavalry Corps, under Lieutenant-General Rimington, on a mounted parade soon after their arrival. They are a magnificent body of Cavalry, and will, I feel sure, give the best possible account of themselves when called upon. In the meantime, at their own particular request, they have taken their turn in the trenches and performed most useful and valuable service.

11. The Rt. Rev. Bishop Taylor Smith, C.V.O., D.D., Chaplain-General to the Forces, arrived at my Headquarters on 6th January, on a tour of inspection throughout the command. The Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster has also visited most of the Irish Regiments at the front and the principal centres on the Line of Communications. In a quiet and unostentatious manner the chaplains of all denominations have worked with devotion and energy in their respective spheres. The number with the forces in the field at the commencement of the war was comparatively small, but towards the end of last year the Rev. J. M. Simms, D.D., K.H.C., Principal Chaplain, assisted by his Secretary, the Rev. W. Drury, reorganised the branch, and placed the spiritual welfare of the soldier on a more satisfactory footing. It is hoped that the further increase of personnel may be found possible. I cannot speak too highly of the devoted manner in which all chaplains, whether with the troops in the trenches, or in attendance on the sick and wounded in casualty clearing stations and hospitals on the line of communications, have worked throughout the campaign.

Since the commencement of hostilities the work of the Royal Army Medical Corps has been carried out with untiring zeal, skill and devotion. Whether at the front under conditions such as obtained during the fighting on the Aisne, when casualties were heavy and accommodation for their reception had to be improvised, or on the line of communications, where an average of some 11,000 patients have been daily under treatment, the organisation of the Medical Services has always been equal to the demands made upon it. The careful system of sanitation introduced into the Army has, with the assistance of other measures, kept the troops free from any epidemic, in support of which it is to be noticed that since the commencement of the war some 500 cases only of enteric have occurred. The organisation for the first time in war of Motor Ambulance Convoys is due to the initiative and organising powers of Surgeon-General T. J. O'Donnell, D.S.O., ably assisted by Major P. Evans, Royal Army Medical Corps. Two of these convoys, composed entirely of Red Cross Society personnel, have done excellent work under the superintendence of Regular Medical Officers. Twelve Hospital Trains ply between the front and the various bases. I have visited several of the trains when halted in stations, and have found them conducted with great comfort and efficiency.

During the more recent phase of the campaign the creation of Rest Depots at the front has materially reduced the wastage of men to the Line of Communications. Since the latter part of October, 1914, the whole of the medical arrangements have been in the hands of Surgeon-General Sir A. T. Sloggett, C.M.G., K.H.S., under whom Surgeon-General T. P. Woodhouse and Surgeon-General T. J. O'Donnell have been responsible for the organisation on the Line of Communications and at the front respectively.

12. The exceptional and peculiar conditions brought about by the weather have caused large demands to be made upon the resources and skill of the Royal Engineers. Every kind of expedient has had to be thought out and adopted to keep the lines of trenches and defence work effective. The Royal Engineers have shown themselves as capable of overcoming the ravages caused by violent rain and floods as they have been throughout in neutralising the effect of the enemy's artillery. In this connection I wish particularly to mention the excellent services performed by my Chief Engineer, Brigadier-General G. H. Fowke, who has been indefatigable in supervising all such work. His ingenuity and skill have been most valuable in the local construction of the various expedients which experience has shown to be necessary in prolonged trench warfare.

13. I have no reason to modify in any material degree my views of the general military situation, as expressed in my despatch of November 20th, 1914.

14. I have once more gratefully to acknowledge the valuable help and support I have received throughout this period from General Foch General D'Urbal and General Maud'huy of the French Army.

I have the honour to be,
Your Lordship's most obedient Servant, J. D. P. FRENCH,
Field-Marshal,
Commanding-in-Chief,
The British Army in the Field.

http://www.1914-1918.net/french_sixth_despatch.html
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GERMAN SAFE CONDUCT PASS, 2 FEBRUARY 1917, FOR C.R.B. STEAMER "FEISTEIN"



http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/comment/CRB/images/CRB07.jpg via http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/comment/CRB/CRB1-TC.htm
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LETTER, 2 FEBRUARY 1915, WHITLOCK To HOOVER



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Chinatown, N.Y.C. - Chinese New Year feast, Feb. 2, 1916



Chinese man standing alongside food on table. Date Created/Published: 1916 Feb. 2

http://irapl.altervista.org/nit/viewpics.php?title=Chinatown,+N.Y.C.+-+Chinese+New+Year+feast,+Feb.+2,+1916
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William Hackett VC

In January 1916 news of Arthur arrived by letter. At the age of fourteen, he had already left school and begun work – underground at Manvers Main Colliery. After only four weeks he had been involved in an accident with runaway mine trucks. The boy was seriously injured, his right leg having to be amputated below the knee. Being illiterate, William Hackett asked a friend, Sapper J R Evans, to write home for him:

2nd February, 1916 - It is very hard to have his leg off but God knows best...its very hard for me to be in this foreign land and have a lad placed in hospital…I cannot help him but I know you will do all you can.

http://www.tunnellersmemorial.com/WilliamHackettVC.htm
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Conscription

Britain introduced conscription for the first time on 2 February 1916.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/timeline/1915.htm
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Corpo Expedicionário Português in France

The CEP began arriving at the harbour of Brest on 2 February 1917. From February 1917 until 28 October of the same year, a total of 59383 men were shipped to France. From Brest, the troops embarked on a three day long train travel until the concentration area of the CEP in the area of Aire-sur-la-Lys/Thérouanne, where they underwent training in trench and gas warfare prior to occupying their assigned position in the frontline. They also received British equipment, including helmets, and weaponry (namely the Short Magazine Lee Enfield and the Lewis gun).

http://www.worldwar1.com/france/portugal.htm
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2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles - CEF WAR DIARIES 1914 -1919

Fri., Feb 2, 1917 - HEAD QRS BOIS DES ALLEAUX

6 AM - Weather fine – some snow during night.

9 AM - In accordance with Battalion Operation Order No.37., "B" and "D" Companies – 2nd C.M.R.Battalion left BOIS des Alleaux for the trenches – ARIANE – relieving the 1st C.M.R. Battalion., route via MONT ST. ELOY and MAROEUIL.

4 PM - Relief complete – no casualties.
Forward Headquarters established at ARIANE – A. 20.D.4.5. North West of ECURIE.

http://www.webarts.org.uk/2CMR/wdFeb1917.htm
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Cabinet Conclusion 7. Food Supplies: Statement in the United States of America. 2 February 1917

http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-23-1-wc-52-52.pdf
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Jagdstaffel 19

Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 19 was founded on 25 October 1916. It flew its first combat patrols five days before Christmas, 1916.

The new jasta drew first blood on 6 April 1917, credit being given to Leutnant Walter Böning.

On 2 February 1918, Jasta 19 was detailed into Jagdgeschwader II along with Jasta 12, Jasta 13, and Jasta 15.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdstaffel_19
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'The War Illustrated', 2nd February, 1918: 'German Spies in France. Facts And Fictions of Germany's Secret Service'
by Tighe Hopkins

How France Faced Hun Spies

With Some Consideration of Women's Part in a Despicable Business

Concerning the thoroughness of our anti-spy service at home I have probably said enough. There will be many revelations when the war is concluded, but the reader already perceives that the enemy overreached himself from the first.

Widely as it extended, we had the whole of his system in check before hostilities began ; and since then, in London and the chief provincial towns, at every port in the kingdom, and every point of significance on the coast, we have spoiled, anticipated, or confounded all his moves. As his cleverest agents failed to know the movements of British troops in the very earliest clash of arms; so have they failed these many, many months to send to Berlin tidings more secret than the rest of us have read in the day's newspaper. Stieber's ghost, revisiting the glimpses of the moon, has either chuckled over or bemoaned his fate.

At the front, when the campaign was shaping, the Germans tried many devices. A year or so before the war a young German cavalry officer, whose name I cannot recall, was on the jaunt in North America. He was studying, with practical intent, the ways of the declining Red Man, and quite early in the war the Germans were making some use of his knowledge.

Some Primitive Tricks

They tried, for instance, the. Red Man's smoke signals (volumes of smoke variously arranged on rising ground) ; but when these had been effectually "smoked" by our own people, it was observed that the enemy's gunners were less skilful in judging their distances. Other tricks adopted from primitive codes, such as chalk-marks, the breaking of trees or branches, the disposition of squares of turf, etc., were very soon discovered — and, after all, most of them had been tried by that fairly astute commander Napoleon I.

Touching counter-espionage in France. I must be brief, and I pretend to no extraordinary sources of information. Little has been published here except what bears on a very few notorious cases ; but it will, in course of time, be known that the French methods of counter-espionage were not inferior to our own. They could not have been, for secret service in France is no modern organisation ; it is found very well developed in the days of the monarchy. In the present century the Third Division (acting independently of the Prefect of Police himself, who is politician rather than policeman) is at least as formidable, an institution as any similar one in Germany ; and, when need arises, as deadly and deadening in its modes of operation. Again, the French War Office had learned its lesson long before Germany took the field in 1914. The tragedy, swift and overwhelming, of 1870 was not forgotten, and into the innermost sanctum of the War Office every secret of importance had flowed in the hour of mobilisation. As the world has seen, there was no surprising France this time !

The Kaiser has had long to wait for his performance of Sudermann at the Francais. In one rather horrible example we have seen that in this war, at any rate, France will take no risks — will, on the contrary, exact the last frightful penalty — in the matter of espionage. I hardly fancy that Napoleon (who, to be sure, made no bones over the shooting of a d'Enghien) would have whisked that unhappy dancing-girl at dawn from her cell in a Paris prison to a courtyard in the Dungeon of Vincennes, there to gather in her breast the bullets of a firing-party ; but, if the facts lie open, the history comprised in them is still veiled to us.

Women as Spies

On the general question as regards France. I think the chronicles of the war will show : (1) That in the first few days the law of 1886, dealing with espionage, was revised from top to bottom (2) that this revised measure was followed almost immediately by a fresh one ; and (3) that in certain quiet districts where German spies, quartered on a business footing in shops and offices, had long lain under suspicion, there was lynch law here and there for a week or so.

Does any reader by chance recall in this connection a scene of the ghastliest in Zola's novel of the war of 1870 ? If he has the stomach for it, he may read the page again. There is, I think, an English version, "The Downfall,"

That rattle of musketry against a wall of Vincennes (where have smouldered, since, the fall of the Bastille, some of the most tragic memories of older France) brings into mind for a moment the part .of the woman as a spy in this war. It has been a very small one. It has been very small, I mean, in its results. This war has changed and revolutionised all the methods of fighting, extending down to the subterranean activities of the spy. So indiscriminately ruthless have the methods of Germany been that on every side the intelligence of her enemies has been sharpened against her, and in no other war has espionage been tackled on our side so cleverly, so determinedly, so closely.

In almost all of our wars up to now espionage has been regarded and treated as a part of the game that could not safely be neglected, but also as an incident chiefly of the theatre of battle from day to day. Germany taught us to look for the spy at home, to look for him before the war began, and to lay nets for him everywhere. We did this, and in doing it we undid the spy. Where the most cunning of the Kaiser's men came to grief, there was no peculiar chance for his women.

In Despicable Service

Spying has been in this war such a nerve-wrecking business as never before. Suspicion has been universal, pursuit has never slackened, conviction and penalty have been as one. In a drama as fierce as this only one or two women have come into the foreground. The French Government shot one at Versailles and one at Marseilles.

Scotland Yard will by and by tell what it thinks of the woman as a spy, and it will be an echo of one of the most famous of the asides of Napoleon, who put the sex to the test with a cynicism bred of experience. It is to the credit of the woman that she fails as a spy ; arid Stieber, the great, unblushing genius of the business, had an instinctive knowledge of her weakness for the part. "Is it a big affair you have, sire ?" Said Stieber to his old master. "Well, then, anybody but a woman ! "

The German experts have always made use of women, but almost always also in a subordinate capacity. For a career in spying, demanding steady and persistent nerve, they have usually chosen a woman of the type of the dancing-girl. In a service such as this a woman may touch the depths. I have referred once or twice to the book that carries the name of Olga von Kopf. There is, I think, a. touch of fraud in it throughout, but the writer has probably been in touch with spies of her sex. She says (and is careful to add that she is speaking of German women) : "One woman openly bragged before me that she had strangled a French woman spy. who had thwarted her in Constantinople; another admitted that she had poisoned a Russian officer, only meaning to drug him. On meeting these persons face to face, hearing their conversation, and observing their dress and manners, I could not help despising myself for ever entering the same service."

All Ciphers Discovered

We shall be a step to the good if no woman ever enters it again.

Missing his aim in every other field of espionage, there was yet, at the beginning of the war, one opening for an enemy who has trusted so much to the arts that flow from science. He ought at least to have discovered a new thing in cipher-writing. Naturally, it has been supposed that he has done so. Members of Parliament have risen in alarm in the House on this subject. Their fears have been unfounded. The Germans have invented no new code. No cipher employed in diplomacy, in war, in crime has stood for long the scrutiny of experts ; and Napoleon was right in saying (after he had put to the proof the best specimens of masters in the aft) that every trick of writing — with figures, with letters, with hieroglyphics — was valueless. At the War Office, the Home Office, Scotland Yard, or in that quiet place, "Somewhere, W.C.," to which no member of the public has penetrated, the measure has been taken of all the German ciphers. *

From A to Z the war has blown to pieces the German spy system. What of credit will remain .to Germany when the war is over we need not at present be too curious to ask. But with the spy system of the " All-Highest " some historian will certainly tickle the palate of posterity.

http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Spies/Spies_France_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Begg



Charles Begg was New Zealand's most decorated member of the Medical Corps during the First World War. Born in Dunedin in September 1879, he attended Kaikorai School and Otago Boys' High School before studying medicine at the University of Otago Medical School in 1898. He graduated with distinction from the University of Edinburgh in 1903. He became an MD in 1905 and the following year returned to New Zealand, where he went into general practice in Wellington. In December 1909 he married Lillian Treadwell. The couple had two sons.

With the outbreak of the First World War Begg was appointed to command the New Zealand Field Ambulance. The Field Ambulance arrived in Egypt in December 1914. Stationed at Zeitoun, it saw its first action during a Turkish attack in early February 1915. There were few casualties to deal with in this exchange. All of this was about to change when they departed for Gallipoli on 17 April 1915.

When the Anzacs landed on 25 April, casualties were unexpectedly heavy. Begg sent his bearer sections ashore while his surgical teams provided treatment on various ships. As the casualties built up many did not get the surgery they needed. On 28 April Begg dug in a dressing station on the beach, where surgeons worked despite being under constant fire. In late June the station was destroyed by a Turkish shell. Begg was wounded but relocated his depleted unit further along the beach. By early August over 15,000 wounded Anzacs had been treated at this one dressing station.

The workload after the assault on Chunuk Bair in early August became almost impossible to cope with. Hundreds of men lay unprotected on the beach. Begg appealed directly to his superiors and infantry units arrived to help the bearers. The navy resumed its barge transport for the wounded. By 13 August the beach had been cleared.

At this point Begg contracted paratyphoid fever and was evacuated to a hospital ship. After a short break in England to convalesce he returned to Gallipoli in early November. He helped in the preparations for the successful withdrawal of Allied soldiers shortly before Christmas 1915.

Attention now turned to the Western Front where the New Zealand Division arrived in April and May 1916. Respiratory and enteric diseases, infectious fevers, venereal disease, scabies, trench foot and battle fatigue were some of the wider medical problems facing the Medical Corps. The appalling conditions experienced during the battle of the Somme in September and October 1916 posed a particularly severe test.

In October 1916 Begg became deputy director of medical services II ANZAC Corps. Emphasis was placed on improving the general health of the troops through better food, accommodation, health education, immunisation, sanitation and counselling. Despite a severe winter the condition of the men improved.

At Passchendaele in October 1917 the muddy conditions made it impossible to use wheeled vehicles. Teams of six bearers spent up to seven hours battling knee-deep mud to carry the wounded anywhere between 3 and 5 kilometres to a dressing station.

By mid-1918 troops were hit by the first wave of the influenza pandemic. Begg was now given the added responsibility of caring for wounded from the French Fifth Army. For this he was honoured with the highest order of the Croix de Guerre by the French president. He received numerous other honours for his service, including Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (CB), Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George (CMG). He was also Mentioned in Dispatches (MiD) on three separate occasions.

At the end of November 1918 Charles Begg returned to London as director of medical services. He was reunited with his wife and sons but it was to be a brief reunion. He developed influenza in January and died from acute pneumonia on 2 February 1919. He was buried with full military honours in Walton-on-Thames three days later.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/people/charles-begg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'League of Nations', New York Tribune, 2 February 1919.



http://library.syr.edu/digital/exhibits/g/Gropper/case2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Friedrich Ebert

Ebert worked tirelessly for German democracy against a Bolshevik-style takeover. Unfortunately he had to use the remnants of the old army to achieve this. This brought bitterness on the left, but little gratitude from the right and no help from the Allies. The Versailles Treaty weakened the position of Ebert and his colleagues. Elected President of Germany on 2 February 1919, Ebert faced a hateful campaign against his personal integrity which continued to his death.

http://www.answers.com/topic/friedrich-ebert
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2014 11:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kopvaardij - 2 februari 1915

Het tankschip ss 'Chester' (1888) van de American Petroleum Company te Rotterdam, op weg van New York naar Rotterdam, is op de Atlantische Oceaan zinkende, na getroffen te zijn door een orkaan.

De bemanning weet het schip te verlaten na het in brand gestoken te hebben, waarna het schip op 4 februari zinkt. De bemanning kan hierbij worden gered door het Amerikaanse ss. 'Philadelphia'.

http://koopvaardij.blogspot.nl/2014/02/2-februari-1915.html
Ook: http://www.aukevisser.nl/esso/id23.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Feb 2014 11:55, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2014 11:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"De Legerbode" - 2 februari 1915

http://nl.scribd.com/doc/91709243/De-Legerbode-2-februari-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2014 11:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroonland in Panama Canal, 1915

SS Kroonland is seen on 2 February 1915 at the Culebra Cut while transiting the Panama Canal. Kroonland was the largest passenger ship to that time to transit the canal.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kroonland_in_Panama_Canal,_1915.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2015 13:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 2. Februar 1917: Änderung des Sperrgebiets um England zugunsten Hollands

Berlin, 2. Februar. (Amtlich.) Die Ostgrenze des Sperrgebiets um England ist folgendermaßen geändert worden: Vom Punkt 52 Grad 30 Minuten Nordbreite 4 Grad Ostlänge über Punkt 56 Grad Nordbreite 4 Grad Ostlänge nach Punkt 56 Grad Nordbreite 4 Grad 50 Minuten Ostlänge. Im übrigen verläuft die Grenze wie bisher.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_02_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2015 13:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2. Februar 1917: Sonder-Blatt der Bonner Zeitung

http://www.archive.nrw.de/LAV_NRW/LAV_NRW_dok/20/SN013-649_Kriegssammlung_BonnerZeitung/SN013-649_1917-02/SN013-649_1917-02-02.pdf

Overigens met eindeloze doorklikmogelijkheden!
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