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31 Januari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2006 7:23    Onderwerp: 31 Januari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 31. Januar

1914

1915
Ein russischer Angriff bei Borzymow zurückgeschlagen
Die Kämpfe im Oberelsaß Mitte und Ende Januar 1915
Geschützkampf in Polen und Galizien

1916
Zwei nächtliche Zeppelin-Angriffe gegen Paris
Ruhe an den k. u. k. Fronten
Angriff auf die anatolische Küste

1917
Französische Angriffe an der lothringischen Grenze abgewiesen
Sturmerfolg an der Aa; über 900 Russen gefangen
Der Dank des Kaisers an das Volk
Verkündung des uneingeschränkten U-Boot-Krieges
Der Mißbrauch feindlicher Lazarettschiff
Note Österreich-Ungarns über den uneingeschränkten U-Boot-Krieg
Erste Wirkungen der deutschen Sperrgebietserklärung
Abänderung des norwegischen U-Boot-Erlasses
Der Untergang des Hilfskreuzers "Laurentic"

1918
Luftangriff auf Paris
Lebhafte Artilleriekämpfe auf der Hochfläche von Asiago
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2006 7:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 31

1917 Germans unleash U-boats

On this day in 1917, Germany announces the renewal of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic as German torpedo-armed submarines prepare to attack any and all ships, including civilian passenger carriers, said to be sighted in war-zone waters.

When World War I erupted in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson pledged neutrality for the United States, a position that the vast majority of Americans favored. Britain, however, was one of America's closest trading partners and tension soon arose between the United States and Germany over the latter's attempted blockade of the British isles. Several U.S. ships traveling to Britain were damaged or sunk by German mines and, in February 1915, Germany announced unrestricted warfare against all ships, neutral or otherwise, that entered the war zone around Britain. One month later, Germany announced that a German cruiser had sunk the William P. Frye, a private American merchant vessel that was transporting grain to England when it disappeared. President Wilson was outraged, but the German government apologized, calling the attack an unfortunate mistake.

The Germans' most formidable naval weapon was the U-boat, a submarine far more sophisticated than those built by other nations at the time. The typical U-boat was 214 feet long, carried 35 men and 12 torpedoes, and could travel underwater for two hours at a time. In the first few years of World War I, the U-boats took a terrible toll on Allied shipping.

In early May 1915, several New York newspapers published a warning by the German embassy in Washington that Americans traveling on British or Allied ships in war zones did so at their own risk. The announcement was placed on the same page as an advertisement for the imminent sailing of the British-owned Lusitania ocean liner from New York to Liverpool. On May 7, the Lusitania was torpedoed without warning just off the coast of Ireland. Of the 1,959 passengers, 1,198 were killed, including 128 Americans.

The German government maintained that the Lusitania was carrying munitions, but the U.S. demanded reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships. In August 1915, Germany pledged to see to the safety of passengers before sinking unarmed vessels, but in November sank an Italian liner without warning, killing 272 people, including 27 Americans. Public opinion in the United States began to turn irrevocably against Germany.

At the end of January 1917, Germany, determined to win its war of attrition against the Allies, announced the resumption of unrestricted warfare. Three days later, the United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany; just hours after that, the American liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. None of the 25 Americans on board were killed and they were picked up later by a British steamer.

On February 22, Congress passed a $250 million arms-appropriations bill intended to ready the United States for war. Two days later, British authorities gave the U.S. ambassador to Britain a copy of what has become known as the "Zimmermann Note," a coded message from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to Count Johann von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to Mexico. In the telegram, intercepted and deciphered by British intelligence, Zimmermann stated that, in the event of war with the United States, Mexico should be asked to enter the conflict as a German ally. In return, Germany would promise to restore to Mexico the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. On March 1, the U.S. State Department published the note and America was galvanized against Germany once and for all.

In late March, Germany sank four more U.S. merchant ships and, on April 2, President Wilson appeared before Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany. On April 4, the Senate voted 82 to six to declare war against Germany. Two days later, the House of Representatives endorsed the declaration by a vote of 373 to 50 and America formally entered World War I.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2006 7:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 31

1917 Germans unleash U-boats

On this day in 1917, Germany announces the renewal of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic as German torpedo-armed submarines prepare to attack any and all ships, including civilian passenger carriers, said to be sighted in war-zone waters.

When World War I erupted in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson pledged neutrality for the United States, a position that the vast majority of Americans favored. Britain, however, was one of America's closest trading partners and tension soon arose between the United States and Germany over the latter's attempted blockade of the British isles. Several U.S. ships traveling to Britain were damaged or sunk by German mines and, in February 1915, Germany announced unrestricted warfare against all ships, neutral or otherwise, that entered the war zone around Britain. One month later, Germany announced that a German cruiser had sunk the William P. Frye, a private American merchant vessel that was transporting grain to England when it disappeared. President Wilson was outraged, but the German government apologized, calling the attack an unfortunate mistake.

The Germans' most formidable naval weapon was the U-boat, a submarine far more sophisticated than those built by other nations at the time. The typical U-boat was 214 feet long, carried 35 men and 12 torpedoes, and could travel underwater for two hours at a time. In the first few years of World War I, the U-boats took a terrible toll on Allied shipping.

In early May 1915, several New York newspapers published a warning by the German embassy in Washington that Americans traveling on British or Allied ships in war zones did so at their own risk. The announcement was placed on the same page as an advertisement for the imminent sailing of the British-owned Lusitania ocean liner from New York to Liverpool. On May 7, the Lusitania was torpedoed without warning just off the coast of Ireland. Of the 1,959 passengers, 1,198 were killed, including 128 Americans.

The German government maintained that the Lusitania was carrying munitions, but the U.S. demanded reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships. In August 1915, Germany pledged to see to the safety of passengers before sinking unarmed vessels, but in November sank an Italian liner without warning, killing 272 people, including 27 Americans. Public opinion in the United States began to turn irrevocably against Germany.

At the end of January 1917, Germany, determined to win its war of attrition against the Allies, announced the resumption of unrestricted warfare. Three days later, the United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany; just hours after that, the American liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. None of the 25 Americans on board were killed and they were picked up later by a British steamer.

On February 22, Congress passed a $250 million arms-appropriations bill intended to ready the United States for war. Two days later, British authorities gave the U.S. ambassador to Britain a copy of what has become known as the "Zimmermann Note," a coded message from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to Count Johann von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to Mexico. In the telegram, intercepted and deciphered by British intelligence, Zimmermann stated that, in the event of war with the United States, Mexico should be asked to enter the conflict as a German ally. In return, Germany would promise to restore to Mexico the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. On March 1, the U.S. State Department published the note and America was galvanized against Germany once and for all.

In late March, Germany sank four more U.S. merchant ships and, on April 2, President Wilson appeared before Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany. On April 4, the Senate voted 82 to six to declare war against Germany. Two days later, the House of Representatives endorsed the declaration by a vote of 373 to 50 and America formally entered World War I.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2006 7:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 31

1917 Germans unleash U-boats

On this day in 1917, Germany announces the renewal of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic as German torpedo-armed submarines prepare to attack any and all ships, including civilian passenger carriers, said to be sighted in war-zone waters.

When World War I erupted in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson pledged neutrality for the United States, a position that the vast majority of Americans favored. Britain, however, was one of America's closest trading partners and tension soon arose between the United States and Germany over the latter's attempted blockade of the British isles. Several U.S. ships traveling to Britain were damaged or sunk by German mines and, in February 1915, Germany announced unrestricted warfare against all ships, neutral or otherwise, that entered the war zone around Britain. One month later, Germany announced that a German cruiser had sunk the William P. Frye, a private American merchant vessel that was transporting grain to England when it disappeared. President Wilson was outraged, but the German government apologized, calling the attack an unfortunate mistake.

The Germans' most formidable naval weapon was the U-boat, a submarine far more sophisticated than those built by other nations at the time. The typical U-boat was 214 feet long, carried 35 men and 12 torpedoes, and could travel underwater for two hours at a time. In the first few years of World War I, the U-boats took a terrible toll on Allied shipping.

In early May 1915, several New York newspapers published a warning by the German embassy in Washington that Americans traveling on British or Allied ships in war zones did so at their own risk. The announcement was placed on the same page as an advertisement for the imminent sailing of the British-owned Lusitania ocean liner from New York to Liverpool. On May 7, the Lusitania was torpedoed without warning just off the coast of Ireland. Of the 1,959 passengers, 1,198 were killed, including 128 Americans.

The German government maintained that the Lusitania was carrying munitions, but the U.S. demanded reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships. In August 1915, Germany pledged to see to the safety of passengers before sinking unarmed vessels, but in November sank an Italian liner without warning, killing 272 people, including 27 Americans. Public opinion in the United States began to turn irrevocably against Germany.

At the end of January 1917, Germany, determined to win its war of attrition against the Allies, announced the resumption of unrestricted warfare. Three days later, the United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany; just hours after that, the American liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. None of the 25 Americans on board were killed and they were picked up later by a British steamer.

On February 22, Congress passed a $250 million arms-appropriations bill intended to ready the United States for war. Two days later, British authorities gave the U.S. ambassador to Britain a copy of what has become known as the "Zimmermann Note," a coded message from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to Count Johann von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to Mexico. In the telegram, intercepted and deciphered by British intelligence, Zimmermann stated that, in the event of war with the United States, Mexico should be asked to enter the conflict as a German ally. In return, Germany would promise to restore to Mexico the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. On March 1, the U.S. State Department published the note and America was galvanized against Germany once and for all.

In late March, Germany sank four more U.S. merchant ships and, on April 2, President Wilson appeared before Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany. On April 4, the Senate voted 82 to six to declare war against Germany. Two days later, the House of Representatives endorsed the declaration by a vote of 373 to 50 and America formally entered World War I.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2010 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 - Slag bij Bolimów.
Eén van de tientallen slagen, die de "eerste gasaanval" op 22 april 1915 tegen bewijst.


De Slag bij Bolimów volgde op een Duitse aanval die plaatsvond op 31 januari 1915 nabij Bolimów in Russisch Polen tussen het Keizerrijk Rusland en het Duitse Keizerrijk. De aanval maakte deel uit van het Duitse offensief tegen Warschau en was een afleidingsmanoeuvre voor de Winterslag in Mazoerië. Het Russische tweede leger, onder bevel van generaal Smirnow, stond opgesteld langs de spoorlijn Łódź-Warschau bij Bolimów. Tijdens deze slag werd door de Duitsers voor het eerst tijdens de Wereldoorlog op grote schaal gifgas ingezet. Op 31 januari 1915 vuurden ze ruim 18.000 artilleriegranaten met vloeibaar xylylbromide traangas (Weisskreuz) op de Russische stellingen af. Maar de wind stond verkeerd, zodat het gas terugdreef naar de linies van het Duitse 9de leger onder bevel van August von Mackensen. Door de vrieskou bevroor het vloeibare gas zodat het weinig effect had en Mackensen besloot de aanval af te blazen. Even later vielen 11 Russische divisies onder leiding van Wasilij Goerko de Duitse linies aan, maar de Duitse artillerie kon de Russen tegenhouden. De slag kostte het leven aan ruim 20.000 Duitsers en 40.000 Russen, maar droeg wel bij aan het Duitse succes in het noorden tijdens genoemde Winterslag in Mazoerië.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Slag_bij_Bolim%C3%B3w
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Snaaip @ 30 Jan 2010 20:56 schreef:
1915 - Slag bij Bolimów.
Eén van de tientallen slagen, die de "eerste gasaanval" op 22 april 1915 tegen bewijst.

Én gequoot, Snaaip: http://www.militair.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=55&t=6089&start=0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bert Van Hoorick

Bert Van Hoorick werd in volle oorlogstijd geboren op 31 januari 1915. Zijn vader vocht achter het front in de rangen van het Belgische leger en stierf 2 dagen voor de wapenstilstand. Het verlies van zijn vader zal mede de basis vormen voor zijn antimilitarisme. Als geen ander zal Bert zich zijn hele leven inzetten voor vrijheid, vrede en sociale rechtvaardigheid.

Tijdens zijn studies aan het Atheneum op de Graanmarkt, ontpopt hij zich als een welbespraakt scholierenleider en al op 18-jarige leeftijd wordt hij actief lid van de Belgische Werkliedenpartij en de Socialistische Anti-Oorlogsliga. Aan de universiteit te Gent krijgt hij bekendheid met de uitgave van een pamflet tegen de oorlog. In 1935 moet hij hiervoor verschijnen voor het Assisenhof. Een groot bijgewoonde solidariteitsactie grijpt plaats zowel in België als in Nederland. Hij wordt vrijgesproken.

http://users.telenet.be/patrickdesmedt/archief02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sunday 31st January 1915

As the men were standing to arms at 4 a.m. 4 or 5 shots rang out in quick succession and in a few minutes men had scuttled in from their bivouacs and manned the trenches. After this however all was quiet. Enquiries located the firing opposite one of No.3’s trenches and apparently one or more of the enemy’s snipers had crept down to the bank and could not resist the target offered by a careless sentry. The day which was extremely hot passed quietly. Officers took the opportunity of visiting the length of Canal occupied by the Regiment and for the purpose requisitioned pack horses and all manner of mounts. Capt Cameron who was indisposed yesterday continues unwell. Nothing of importance took place.

http://www.wanganuilibrary.com/ww1/2010/01/31/sunday-31st-january-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE GREAT ZEPPELIN RAID
night of Jan 31st-Feb 1st, 1916


Tom Morgan

This article was begun on January 31st, 1996, at just before 9.00 p.m. At around that time and on that date eighty years before, two German airships were flying South over Shropshire, and although they didn't know it, they would soon bomb my town, and almost kill my great grandfather, my grandmother and her sister.

On January 31st, 1916, nine airships left their bases, an unusually large number, intending to make a statement about the Germans' ability to raid the United Kingdom. This time they would not creep across the North Sea under cover of darkness to haphazardly bomb the South coast of England and slink back home. This time their orders were to fly across the entire breadth of England en masse and bomb Liverpool which, until then, had been considered well beyond the range of the raiders.

The unprecedented scale and audacity of this raid would show the British a thing or two. It would make them realise that nowhere was safe from aerial attack. No longer could anyone say they were out of reach. Even distant Liverpool had become, to use a phrase which would become commonplace in later wars, a legitimate target.

Mooi artikel. Lees verder op http://www.hellfire-corner.demon.co.uk/zeppelin.htm of op http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/memoir/zeppelin.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War diaries - The 1st King's (Liverpool Regiment )

This short extract covers 1st January to 3rd June 1916 covering operations at Givenchy, Calonne and Vimy Ridge. For many people, 1916 means only one thing: the Battle of the Somme, which commenced, for the infantry, on 1 June. This diary is an excellent illustration of the continual fighting and loss of experienced soldiers, even during relatively quiet times, before the Somme began

12829 Pte Michael Carty, a native of Widnes, killed in action on 31 January 1916 in the B2 Givenchy trenches. He is buried in Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner, Cuinchy.

30527 Pte Neil Durning, a native of Glasgow, killed in action on 31 January 1916 in the B2 Givenchy trenches. He is buried in Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner, Cuinchy.

28264 L/Cpl Harry Hetherington, 25, a native of Stockport, killed in action on 31 January 1916 in the B2 Givenchy trenches. He had previously served with the Manchester Regiment. He is buried in Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner, Cuinchy.

Lees verder: http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-1kings.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31 januari 1917

Het vrachtschip ss. 'Epsilon' van de Vrachtvaart Maatschappij Bothnia, onder kapitein J. Lieuwen, loopt bij het verlaten van de haven van Falmouth (onder gelijktijdig vertrek van de Nederlandse schepen ss. 'Mizar' en ss. 'Gamma'), op een door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'UC 11' gelegde mijn.
De bemanning weet zich te redden in de sloepen, waarna ze aan boord van het ss. 'Gamma' van Van Nievelt, Goudriaan & Co kunnen worden genomen.

http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/01/31-januari-1917.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fkoopvaardij%2Fkoopvaardij+%28Koopvaardij%29 via http://www.nieuws.be/nieuws/31_januari_1917_0dd814c6.aspx

BRITISH MERCHANT SHIPS LOST AT SEA DUE TO ENEMY ACTION

RAVENSBOURNE, 1,226grt, defensively-armed, 31 January 1917, 8 miles SE from Tyne, mined and sunk, 3 lives lost

DUNDEE, 2,278grt, defensively-armed, 31 January 1917, 10 miles N by W from St Ives Head, torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine, 1 life lost

IDA DUNCAN, tug, 139grt, 31 January 1917, ˝ mile E from S Gare LH, mined and sunk, 6 lives lost including Master

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1LossesBrMS1917.htm

Zie ook: http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1904381367?tag=navalhistoryn-21&camp=1406&creative=6394&linkCode=as1&creativeASIN=1904381367&adid=1HK8QMF5SKRGX420G347&
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Jan 2010 11:45, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Nursing Services during the Great War

31.01.17
Abbeville


Reinforcements: 23 VAD Members and 2 Special Probationers arrived from England and were posted.
Sick Sisters: Received telephone message from Boulogne to say that Sister Mabel Davis, QAIMNS, was on the seriously ill list, suffering from lymphangitis, and her friends had been notified.
Resignation: War Office letter received, notifying the acceptance of the resignation of Miss V. Chichester Constable, VAD, now sick in England.
Return from sick leave: War Office letter received notifying the return from sick leave of Staff Nurse D. M. Priestley, QAIMNSR.
Transfer: War Office letter received, notifying that Miss D. King, QAIMNSR, was found fit for duty and was being posted to a Home Hospital. Sent telegram to DGMS asking that Miss Lindsay, QAIMNSR and Miss Ord, TFNS, might be retained on Home Establishment, as before going on leave they had notified their intention of asking for an extension.

CROWN COPYRIGHT: THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES, WO95/3989
http://www.scarletfinders.co.uk/57.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI. - Vol. 152. - January 31st, 1917.

The birth-rate in Berlin, it appears, is considerably lower this year than last. We can quite understand this reluctance to being born a German just now.

The official German films of the Battle of the Somme prove beyond doubt that if it had not been for the Allies the Germans would have won this battle.

The German military authorities have declined to introduce bathless days. Ablution, it appears, is one of the personal habits that the Teuton does not pursue to a vicious excess.

"We must all be prepared to make sacrifices," says the Berliner Tageblatt. We understand that, acting upon this advice, several high command officers have volunteered to sacrifice the CROWN PRINCE.

A Leicestershire farmer who applied for alien enemies to assist in farm-work was supplied with three Hungarians—a jeweller, a hairdresser and a tailor. His complaint is, we understand, that while he wanted his land to be well-dressed he didn't want it overdone.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14516/14516-h/14516-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 31 JANUARY 1918

GENERAL COURT MARTIAL - TRIAL OF LT.COL. TURNER - PARTICULARS OF CHARGES – TRIBUNAL OF SEVEN OFFICERS

A General Court-martial for the trial of Lieutenant Colonel C H TURNER of the 5th, Wellington, Regiment, late commandant of the Motuihi Island internment camp, was opened in Auckland on Tuesday morning.
Lt Col Turner stands arraigned as a result of the escape from Motuihi Island, on 13 December, of 10 prisoners of war and one civilian.

The Court is constituted as follows:
President: Colonel N P ADAMS, CMG, NZ Field Artillery
Members: Lt Col J L SLEEMAN, Imperial General Staff
Lt Col D PRINGLE, 2nd, Wellington & West Coast, Mounted Rifles
Lt Col E W PORRITT, 6th, Hauraki, Regt
Lt Col J A P FREDERICK, Otago Coast Defence Infantry
Lt Col J DEANS, 1st Mounted Rifles, CYC
Lt Col F T BELLRINGER, 11th Regt
Waiting Members:
Lt Col J HISLOP, 9th, Hawkes Bay, Regt
Lt Col J P STEVENSON, Auckland Coast Defence Infantry
Lt Col G J BEATTIE, NZ Field Artillery
Prosecutor: Captain P E BALDWIN
Counsel may appear on behalf of the prosecutor.
The Judge Advocate General, Col J R REED, K.C., will also be present. Captain J F PULLEN, Garrison Artillery, will appear for Lt Col TURNER.

The charges preferred against Lieut Col Turner are: That, being a member of the Defence Forces of New Zealand he, without reasonable excuse, allowed to escape persons committed to his charge, in that he, at Motuihi Island, on or about 13 December, 1917, while commandant of the said island and having the care, charge and custody of certain prisoners of war and interned alien enemies, to wit, one Lieutentant Commander Count von Luckner, Lieutenant Kirscheiss, Wireless Operator Grun, Wireless Engineer Freund, Naval Cadets von Zatorsi, Paulsen, Schmidt, Mellert & Klohn, Seaman H Erdmann, and one von Egidy, a Samoan Government official, allowed the said Lieut Cdr Count von Luckner and the others mentioned to obtain possession of a launch and to make other preparations for their escape, without taking reasonable means to prevent it and thus permitted the escape of the said Lieut Cdr Count von Luckner and the others mentioned...

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn31jan1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 11:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting - 31 January 1918

GERMAN PRISONERS.

HC Deb 31 January 1918 vol 101 cc1747-8 1747

§ 76. Mr. G. FABER asked the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central Division) if he 1748 will state the respective dates when Captain von Muller, of the "Emden," and Lieutenant von Tirpitz became our prisoners of war; and whether their release from this country for internment in Holland was made strictly according to their priority of capture in conformity with the arrangement recently entered into with Germany by our Government?

§ Mr. JAMES HOPE (Lord of the Treasury) I am informed that Lieutenant von Tirpitz was captured on 28th August, 1914, and Captain von Müller on 9th November. Their internment is strictly in accordance with the provisions of The Hague agreement as to priority of capture.

§ Mr. FABER Will the hon. Gentleman say whether, if the Germans on their part made arrangements to release prisoners, we should know it?

§ Mr. HOPE Certainly we should know it after it had taken place, but we cannot have a consignment of prisoners delayed until a list is sent to us to be certified. When the prisoners come into Holland a record is kept.

§ Sir CHARLES HENRY is the House to understand that no special request was made?

§ Mr. HOPE I have not heard of any such suggestion.

§ Mr. FABER Can the lion Gentleman say how many have been released on each side?

§ Mr. SPEAKER The hon. Member must give notice of that question.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jan/31/german-prisoners
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 12:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of George Square

The 1919 Battle of George Square, also known as Bloody Friday and Black Friday, was one of the worst riots in the history of Glasgow, Scotland, which took place on Friday, 31 January 1919. The dispute revolved around a campaign for shorter working hours, backed by widespread strike action. Clashes between police and protesters broke out, and led to the British Government sending soldiers to the city to prevent any further gatherings due to their fear of a workers revolution, described as a 'Bolshevist uprising' by the then Secretary of State for Scotland,[2] as had happened the previous year in the 1917 Russian Revolution and was occurring in Germany whilst the 'Forty Hours' strike unfolded.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_George_Square
Zie ook http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/redclyde/redclyeve14.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 21:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Toplis @ 31 Jan 2010 11:07 schreef:
Snaaip @ 30 Jan 2010 20:56 schreef:
1915 - Slag bij Bolimów.
Eén van de tientallen slagen, die de "eerste gasaanval" op 22 april 1915 tegen bewijst.

Én gequoot, Snaaip: http://www.militair.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=55&t=6089&start=0


Cool Beetje reclame maken is niet erg zeker? Doe ik al lang. Zelfs vaak een eigen geschreven artikel plaatsen in de Wikipedia met bronvermelding naar de Wiki. Allemaal reclame. Smile
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (31-01-1914)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1914/0131
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RAF: History of 6 Squadron

Formed at Farnborough on 31 January 1914, No 6 Sqn, RFC, worked up with fixed-wing aircraft and also had responsibility for the Kite Flight, transferred from No 1 Sqn. After arriving in France in August 1914, the Squadron immediately lost its aircraft to other under-strength units. In July 1915, equipped with BE2s, Capt G L Hawker was awarded the VC for outstanding courage and determination during 11 months of continuous operational flying. The Squadron finished the war flying RE8s, and shortly after the end of the War, it transferred to Iraq and re-equipped with Bristol Fighters.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/organisation/6squadron.cfm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE MORNING POST, JANUARY 31, 1914

The militant Suffragists have only themselves to thank if in the future their tales of their sufferings in prison for the sake of "the cause" are received with polite incredulity. The letter from the Bishop of LONDON, published in another column, shows that even the most circumstantial and harrowing descriptions of Suffragists martyrdom may have no relation whatever to the truth. A short-time ago the bishop was waited upon by a deputation from the Women's Social and Political Union, who implored his assistance on behalf of a Miss PEACE, a prisoner in Holloway Gaol, who was supposed to be undergoing the most terrible torture at the hands of the officials. There seemed to be no question as to the barbarity of the treatment meted out to her since a fellow-prisoner had herself heard the unfortunate victim crying out in an agony of pain. According to the statement of this witness, she was awakened by a shriek, which was followed by loud, heartbreaking moans. Then a door was slammed and voice of suffering was stilled, which seemed to show that the torture-chamber was a padded room. Next morning this lady again heard people go to the same cell, and once more she had to listen to the terrible cries of pain. In fact, according to her account the shrieks and moans were to be heard twice a day during the time she was in prison. In corroboration of her tale she added that her taxi-driver had tears in his eyes as he helped her into her house. Whether he was thus affected by her highly-coloured narrative of her experiences, or whether he had himself heard through the prison-walls the pitiful sounds of the fell work that was being done within, is not explained. But, in any case, the BISHOP felt that it was his duty to investigate the case. The first point he noticed was that the building in which the supposed victim lay was some three hundred yards from the place in which the other lady, MISS ANSELL, had been confined, and that there were thick walls and a courtyard between the two. The shrieks and moans must have been exceptionally loud if they had been heard over this distance. But, as a matter of fact, the tortured prisoner, when questioned on the subject, stoutly denied ever having shrieked or ever having been placed in the padded cell. The BISHOP observed, further, that her face was fully rounded and showed no signs of emaciation or distress. She had no complaint to make of her treatment in prison. Her only grievance was that she had not been released under the new Act, as the other prisoner had. Such a release, as the HOME SECRETARY reminded the BISHOP in an interview, an only be granted on grounds of health, and, of course, only confers a conditional and temporary freedom. But Mr. McKenna repeated a previous assurance that if the prisoner would give a binding undertaking to refrain from further outrages she could at once secure an absolute release. In other words, she has only to pledge herself to refrain from breaking the law in order to bring her term of imprisonment to an end. It is difficult, therefore, to see that she has any just cause of complaint on this head. As for the heartrending account of brutal, unbearable, and persistent torture that was supposed to be shattering the health of the prisoner, it is not, as the BISHOP dryly remarks, "borne out by the facts of the case." It should be remembered that this is not the first occasion that the militant Suffragists have circulated tales of outrage suffered by themselves or their sympathisers which have been proved to be purely fictitious. There was the case of the male supporter who was supposed to have given his life for the "Cause." The story was that he had been so severely handled while being expelled from a meeting that he had succumbed to his injuries. After much hysterical writing in the Suffragist Press it was discovered that the individual in question was alive and well in Canada, and had never even been present at the scene of his martyrdom. The Suffragists, we understand, claim that in qualities of mind they are infinitely superior to mere men. So far as the power of imagination is concerned, their claim seems to be well founded.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~thelamp/sufferage/THE%20MORNING%20POST%20JANUARY%2031%201911.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Roestrijk staal"

Op 31 januari 1915 verschijnt er een belangrijk bericht in de New York Times. Volgens een in Engeland gestationeerde consul heeft een bedrijf in Sheffield een staalsoort ontwikkeld die niet roest. Het krantartikel meldt dat het staal niet alleen roestvast is, maar 'naar verluidt' ook niet vlekt, waardoor het bij uitstek geschikt is voor (tuin)meubilair.

http://www.fd.nl/artikel/20897834/roestrijk-staal
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

At ’Hillcrest’, 31 January 1915: A Summer’s Afternoon



http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/ObjectDetails.aspx?oid=108994
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Which of the following was not introduced as a new weapon during World War I?

A Big Bertha
B The Red Baron
C mustard gas
D flamethrowers

2. Why did most of the fighting in World War I take place in such a small area?
A There is only a small amount of flat land in Europe.
B Trench warfare immobilized the armies.
C The German and Allied armies were the largest.
D Germany’s military strategy was based on static warfare.

3. Who used chemical warfare first?
A Germany
B Great Britain
C Russia
D France

Antwoorden op http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101203215658AAw9St2
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Rishi Coffin from Giza and the Development of This Type of Mummy Case

While the work of the Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Expedition at Giza
yielded some of the most important monuments we have from the Old Kingdom, the excavations
also uncovered significant material from later periods in Egyptian history, much of which
has gone unnoticed and unpublished.
One interesting example are the fragments of a "rishi" type coffin now preserved in the
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Fig. I).1 These fragments were part of a burial at the edge of the
great Western Cemetery at Giza. This area was actually excavated by Clarence S. Fisher for the
University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. 2 Fisher worked in conjunction with Reisner
and left the cartonnage fragments at Harvard Camp as part of the study collection kept there at
the site (cf. DUNHAM 1972: 38-39).3
The fragments were part of a badly decomposed coffin found in a burial between Fisher's
mastabas 3040 and 3030. Fisher records his excavation of the area in his notes as:

Saturday, January 30, 1915.
.....Work was carried on again this morning clearing out hard-packed debris which was under (in
street south of 3030) the sand. In debris a number of small pottery ceremonial jars and saucers.
Finished clearing out sand and a little hard debris from between 3030 and 3040. In small
space under mastaba 3040 was found a number of small pottery ceremonial jars and saucers,
a rough flint spear head, a small piece of worked flint, and a fragment of a large pottery jar
of thick, rough ware."

Sunday, January 31, 1915
.....Work on pits A, B, C, D of 3041, a stone mastaba. Clearing out limestone debris from A and
sand from B, C, and D. In B a burial was uncovered about _ em. below top...... (Fisher's field
notes for Sunday, January 31, 1915)

http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/lacovara_fs_oconnor.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Bolimov, 1915 (Reconstruction)



Mooie foto... Nog meer op http://www.flickr.com/photos/stachowski/4689774272/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 De watersnood - Uit het dagboek van de pastoor.

Maandag 31 januari 1916: vandaag begonnen een noodbruggetje te maken van de pastorie naar de dijk, rechtdoor met toegang naar de kerk. Dat zal onze tocht naar de dijk zeer vergemakkelijken.

http://volendaminvogelvlucht.wordpress.com/boekfragmenten/1916-de-watersnood/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 30th and 31st January, 1916 - Hoyland departs on leave on the Saturday night and life goes on as usual on these two days, except that Siggers is rather off-colour with dysentery. A new officer from the Terriers is attached to us on the 30th. His name is Cottew– a full lieutenant.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/01/diary-entry-30th-and-31st-january-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S War College Division

31st January 1916 - The U.S War College Division warns its civilian employees "to engage in no discussion whatever concerning the progress of the European War".

http://www.worldwar-1.net/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 16:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMAS Anzac (1917)



HMAS Anzac (G00) (formerly HMS Anzac) was a Parker class destroyer leader that served in the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Australian Navy (RAN).

Anzac was laid down by William Denny and Brothers at Dumbarton, Scotland on 31 January 1916. She was launched on 11 January 1917, and commissioned into the RN on 24 April 1917 as HMS Anzac.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAS_Anzac_(1917)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Germany Resumes Unrestricted Naval Warfare, January 31, 1917

Today in 1917, the German government announced that its U-Boats would once again be allowed to practice unrestricted warfare against all allied shipping and any neutral ships that crossed into the waters around the British Isles. This announcement was the first in a series of events which lead to the entry of the United States into the First World War.

Submarines had been in use for more than a century by the time World War One began in 1914, but the German Navy utilized them in a new way and, in the process, introduced the world to a new concept: unrestricted submarine warfare. This policy stated that any vessel entering a pre-announced area would be subject to attack with no prior warning. Early in the war, Germany sought to quarantine the British Isles in an attempt to force an early end to the war. Their announcement of unrestricted warfare in February, 1915 was part of this plan. Little more than five weeks later, a German surface ship sank a privately-owned American vessel in British waters. President Wilson demanded and received an apology from the German government.

Another incident involving Americans occurred in May, 1915 when the British ocean liner Lusitania was sunk off the coast of Ireland by a U-boat. 1,200 passengers died; among them were 128 Americans. The United States demanded an end to unrestricted warfare anywhere in the Atlantic, a demand to which the German government agreed in August. Instead of sinking vessels without warning, the U-boats were to stop the ship, see to the safe evacuation of the crew and passengers, and then sink the ship. As one can imagine, this was not a very practical solution. Tensions flared once again in November, 1915 when an Italian liner was sunk without warning, killing 272 people.

Even though unrestricted warfare on the high seas never came to a complete end, Germany at least claimed compliance until January 31, 1917. When the German announcement of a return to the previous rules of engagement was released to the Allies, the United States broke off relations with Germany and began to get ready for war.

War may still have been avoided had it not been for two incidents. The first was the infamous “Zimmermann Note”, which will be covered with its own podcast in February. The second incident was the sinking of four US merchant ships at the end of March, 1917. A few days later, President Woodrow Wilson asked for and was given a declaration of war by Congress. That June, the first American troops landed in France. Over 2 million Americans served in Europe during World War One; 50,000 of them never came home.

http://mattstodayinhistory.blogspot.com/2006/01/germany-resumes-unrestricted-naval.html

January 31, 1917: Germany resumes submarine warfare

On January 31, 1917, Germany announces the renewal of unlimited submarine warfare in the Atlantic, and German torpedo-armed submarines prepare to attack any and all ships, including civilian passenger carriers, said to be sited in war-zone waters. Three days later, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Germany, and just hours after that the American liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. None of the 25 Americans on board were killed, and all were later picked up by a British steamer.

When World War I erupted in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson pledged neutrality for the United States, a position that the vast majority of Americans favored. Britain, however, was one of America's closest trading partners, and tension soon arose between the United States and Germany over the latter's attempted quarantine of the British isles. Several U.S. ships traveling to Britain were damaged or sunk by German mines, and in February 1915 Germany announced unrestricted warfare against all ships, neutral or otherwise, that entered the war zone around Britain. One month later, Germany announced that a German cruiser had sunk the William P. Frye, a private American vessel that was transporting grain to England when it disappeared. President Wilson was outraged, but the German government apologized and called the attack an unfortunate mistake.

The Germans' most formidable naval weapon was the U-boat, a submarine far more sophisticated than those built by other nations at the time. The typical U-boat was 214 feet long, carried 35 men and 12 torpedoes, and could travel underwater for two hours at a time. In the first few years of World War I, the U-boats took a terrible toll on Allied shipping.

In early May 1915, several New York newspapers published a warning by the German embassy in Washington that Americans traveling on British or Allied ships in war zones did so at their own risk. The announcement was placed on the same page as an advertisement of the imminent sailing of the British-owned Lusitania ocean liner from New York to Liverpool. On May 7, the Lusitania was torpedoed without warning just off the coast of Ireland. Of the 1,959 passengers, 1,198 were killed, including 128 Americans.

The German government maintained that the Lusitania was carrying munitions, but the U.S. demanded reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships. In August, Germany pledged to see to the safety of passengers before sinking unarmed vessels but in November sunk an Italian liner without warning, killing 272 people, including 27 Americans. Public opinion in the United States began to turn irrevocably against Germany.

In 1917, Germany, determined to win its war of attrition against the Allies, announced the resumption of unrestricted warfare. The United States broke off relations with Germany, and on February 22 Congress passed a $250 million arms appropriations bill intended to make the United States ready for war. Two days later, British authorities gave the U.S. ambassador to Britain a copy of the "Zimmermann Note," a coded message from German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann to Count Johann von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to Mexico. In the telegram, intercepted and deciphered by British intelligence, Zimmermann stated that, in the event of war with the United States, Mexico should be asked to enter the conflict as a German ally. In return, Germany promised to restore to Mexico the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. On March 1, the U.S. State Department published the note, and American public opinion was galvanized against Germany.

In late March, Germany sunk four more U.S. merchant ships, and on April 2 President Wilson appeared before Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany. On April 4, the Senate voted 82 to six to declare war against Germany. Two days later, the House of Representatives endorsed the declaration by a vote of 373 to 50, and America formally entered World War I.

On June 26, the first 14,000 U.S. infantry troops landed in France to begin training for combat. After four years of bloody stalemate along the western front, the entrance of America's well-supplied forces into the conflict was a major turning point in the war. When the war finally ended, on November 11, 1918, more than two million American soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, and some 50,000 of these men had lost their lives.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/germany-resumes-submarine-warfare
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 17:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Germany's Policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 31 January 1917

Reproduced below is the text of the diplomatic note sent by the German government - via their Ambassador to the U.S. Count Johann von Bernstorff - to the U.S. Secretary of State, Robert Lansing.

In the note the Bernstorff announced a re-opened German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare (initially introduced and then rapidly abandoned in 1916 owing to U.S. protests), to take effect the day following the date of the note (i.e. 1 February 1917). The German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg spoke before the Reichstag on the same day to explain the reasons for the policy.

In effect the policy set in place a blockade of Britain and her European allies, to be applied to belligerent and neutral shipping alike. The German government argued that such a policy was implemented only as an aggressive form of defence.

Reaction to the policy was rapid; the Allied powers inevitably decried its aggression, as did the U.S. government, which broke off diplomatic relations on 3 February 1917. On the same day President Woodrow Wilson appeared before Congress to announce his reasons, receiving virtually unanimous support in doing so.

Reaction among other neutrals was similarly one of dismay.

German Ambassador Count Johann von Bernstorff to Robert Lansing, U.S. Secretary of State

Washington D.C., 31 January 1917

Mr. Secretary of State:

Your Excellency was good enough to transmit to the Imperial Government a copy of the message which the President of the United States of America addressed to the Senate on the 22nd inst. The Imperial Government has given it the earnest consideration which the President's statements deserve, inspired, as they are, by a deep sentiment of responsibility.

It is highly gratifying to the Imperial Government to ascertain that the main tendencies of this important statement correspond largely to the desires and principles professed by Germany. These principles especially include self-government and equality of rights for all nations. Germany would be sincerely glad if, in recognition of this principle, countries like Ireland and India, which do not enjoy the benefits of political independence, should now obtain their freedom.

The German people also repudiate all alliances which serve to force the countries into a competition for might and to involve them in a net of selfish intrigues. On the other hand, Germany will gladly cooperate in all efforts to prevent future wars.

The freedom of the seas, being a preliminary condition of the free existence of nations and the peaceful intercourse between them, as well as the open door for the commerce of all nations, has always formed part of the leading principles of Germany's political program. All the more the Imperial Government regrets that the attitude of her enemies, who are so entirely opposed to peace, makes it impossible for the world at present to bring about the realization of these lofty ideals.

Germany and her allies were ready to enter now into a discussion of peace, and had set down as basis the guarantee of existence, honour, and free development of their peoples. Their aims, as has been expressly stated in the note of December 12, 1916, were not directed toward the destruction or annihilation of their enemies and were, according to their conviction, perfectly compatible with the rights of the other nations.

As to Belgium, for which such warm and cordial sympathy is felt in the United States, the Chancellor had declared only a few weeks previously that its annexation had never formed part of Germany's intentions. The peace to be signed with Belgium was to provide for such conditions in that country, with which Germany desires to maintain friendly neighbourly relations, that Belgium should not be used again by Germany's enemies for the purpose of instigating continuous hostile intrigues.

Such precautionary measures are all the more necessary, as Germany's enemies have repeatedly stated, not only in speeches delivered by their leading men, but also in the statutes of the Economical Conference in Paris, that it is their intention not to treat Germany as an equal, even after peace has been restored, but to continue their hostile attitude, and especially to wage a systematical economic war against her.

The attempt of the four allied powers to bring about peace has failed, owing to the lust of conquest of their enemies, who desired to dictate the conditions of peace. Under the pretence of following the principle of nationality, our enemies have disclosed their real aims in this way, viz., to dismember and dishonour Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. To the wish of reconciliation they oppose the will of destruction. They desire a fight to the bitter end.

A new situation has thus been created which forces Germany to new decisions. Since two years and a half England is using her naval power for a criminal attempt to force Germany into submission by starvation. In brutal contempt of international law, the group of powers led by England not only curtail the legitimate trade of their opponents, but they also, by ruthless pressure, compel neutral countries either to altogether forego every trade not agreeable to the Entente Powers, or to limit it according to their arbitrary decrees.

The American Government knows the steps which have been taken to cause England and her allies to return to the rules of international law and to respect the freedom of the seas. The English Government, however, insists upon continuing its war of starvation, which does not at all affect the military power of its opponents, but compels women and children, the sick and the aged, to suffer for their country pains and privations which endanger the vitality of the nation.

Thus British tyranny mercilessly increases the sufferings of the world, indifferent to the laws of humanity, indifferent to the protests of the neutrals whom they severely harm, indifferent even to the silent longing for peace among England's own allies.

Each day of the terrible struggle causes new destruction, new sufferings. Each day shortening the war will, on both sides, preserve the lives of thousands of brave soldiers and be a benefit to mankind.

The Imperial Government could not justify before its own conscience, before the German people, and before history the neglect of any means destined to bring about the end of the war. Like the President of the United States, the Imperial Government had hoped to reach this goal by negotiations.

Since the attempts to come to an understanding with the Entente Powers have been answered by the latter with the announcement of an intensified continuation of the war, the Imperial Government - in order to serve the welfare of mankind in a higher sense and not to wrong its own people - is now compelled to continue the fight for existence, again forced upon it, with the full employment of all the weapons which are at its disposal.

Sincerely trusting that the people and the Government of the United States will understand the motives for this decision and its necessity, the Imperial Government hopes that the United States may view the new situation from the lofty heights of impartiality, and assist, on their part, to prevent further misery and unavoidable sacrifice of human life.

Inclosing two memoranda regarding the details of the contemplated military measures at sea, I remain, etc.

Memoranda Enclosed with Count Bernstorff's Note

From February 1, 1917, sea traffic will be stopped with every available weapon and without further notice in the following blockade zones around Great Britain, France, Italy and in the Eastern Mediterranean:

In the North: The zone is confined by a line at a distance of twenty sea miles along the Dutch coast to Terschelling Lightship, the meridian of longitude from Terschelling Lightship to Udsire; a line from there across the point 62 degrees north, 0 degrees longitude, to 62 degrees north, 5 degrees west; further to a point three sea miles south of the southern point of the Faroe Islands; from there across a point 62 degrees north, 10 degrees west, to 61 degrees north, 15 degrees west; then 57 degrees north, 20 degrees west, to 47 degrees north, 20 degrees west; further, to 43 degrees north, 15 degrees west; then along the parallel of latitude 43 degrees north to twenty sea miles from Cape Finisterre, and at a distance of twenty sea miles along the north coast of Spain to the French boundary.

In the South - The Mediterranean: For neutral ships, remains open the sea west of the line Pt. Des Espiquettes to 38 degrees 20 minutes north and 6 degrees east; also north and west of a zone sixty sea miles wide along the North African coast, beginning at 2 degrees longitude west. For the connection of this sea zone with Greece there is provided a zone of a width of twenty sea miles north and east of the following line: 38 degrees north and 6 degrees east to 38 degrees north and 10 degrees west, to 37 degrees north and 11 degrees 30 minutes east, to 34 degrees north and 22 degrees 30 minutes east. From there leads a zone twenty sea miles wide, west of 22 degrees 30 minutes eastern longitude, into Greek territorial waters.

Neutral ships navigating these blockade zones do so at their own risk. Although care has been taken that neutral ships which are on their way toward ports of the blockade zones on February 1, 1917, and have come in the vicinity of the latter, will be spared during a sufficiently long period, it is strongly advised to warn them with all available means in order to cause their return.

Neutral ships which on February 1st are in ports of the blockade zones can with the same safety leave them.

The instructions given to the commanders of German submarines provide for a sufficiently long period during which the safety of passengers on unarmed enemy passenger ships is guaranteed.

Americans en route to the blockade zone on enemy freight steamers are not endangered, as the enemy shipping firms can prevent such ships in time from entering the zone.

Sailing of regular American passenger steamers may continue undisturbed after February 1, 1917, if:

(A) The port of destination is Falmouth.

(B) Sailing to or coming from that port course is taken via the Scilly Islands and a point 50 degrees north, 20 degrees west.

(C) The steamers are marked in the following way, which must not be allowed to other vessels in American ports: On ship's hull and superstructure three vertical stripes one metre wide, each to be painted alternately white and red. Each mast should show a large flag checkered white and red, and the stern the American national flag. Care should be taken that, during dark, national flag and painted marks are easily recognizable from a distance, and that the boats are well lighted throughout.

(D) One steamer a week sails in each direction with arrival at Falmouth on Sunday and departure from Falmouth on Wednesday.

(E) United States Government guarantees that no contraband (according to German contraband list) is carried by those steamers.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uboat_bernstorff.htm
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T. E. Lawrence to his family

Arab Bureau
Savoy Hotel
Cairo

31.1.17

Am back in Cairo, though only for a few days. Left Yenbo about a fortnight ago, for Um Lejj, by sea. Landed at Urn Lejj and came up by land to Wejh, which we took without fighting. A landing party from the ships had practically done the work the day before. I snatched a week's leave, to come up here and buy some things, before going off to Sherif Feisul again. As I have not had any letters lately (due to my moving about, and the difficulty of posts in the Red Sea) I cannot answer any particular questions. Things in Arabia are very pleasant, though the job I have is rather a responsible one, and sometimes it is a little heavy to see which way one ought to act. I am getting rather old with it all, I think! However it is very nice to be out of the office, with some field work in hand, and the position I have is such a queer one- I do not suppose that any Englishman before ever had such a place. All of which is rather tantalising reading to you, because I cannot enter into details. I act as a sort of adviser to Sherif Feisul, and as we are on the best of terms, the job is a wide and pleasant one. I live with him, in his tent, so our food and things (if you will continue to be keen on such rubbish!) is as good as the Hejaz can afford. Personally I am more and more convinced that it doesn't matter a straw what you eat or drink, so long as you do not do either oftener than you feel inclined. It has been very cold down there lately: the thermometer one morning was down to 500 which struck us as rather serious!

The war in Arabia is going on very well: the Arabs are very keen and patriotic, and the Turks are beginning to get really frightened. I hope to write a better letter tomorrow: this is only a scrawl to catchthe mail.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170131_family.htm
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Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg's Speech to the Reichstag Regarding Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 31 January 1917

Reproduced below is German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg's address to the German Reichstag on 31 January 1917 regarding the re-introduction of the policy of unrestricted U-boat warfare the following day.

This followed the despatch, on the same day, of a diplomatic note to the U.S. Secretary of State, Robert Lansing. In the note the German government announced a re-opened German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare (initially introduced and then rapidly abandoned in 1916 owing to U.S. protests), to take effect the day following the date of the note (i.e. 1 February 1917).

In effect the policy set in place a blockade of Britain and her European allies, to be applied to belligerent and neutral shipping alike. The German government argued that such a policy was implemented only as an aggressive form of defence.

Reaction to the policy was rapid; the Allied powers inevitably decried its aggression, as did the U.S. government, which broke off diplomatic relations on 3 February 1917. On the same day President Woodrow Wilson appeared before Congress to announce his reasons, receiving virtually unanimous support in doing so.

Reaction among other neutrals was similarly one of dismay.

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg's Address to the Reichstag on the German Policy of Unrestricted U-boat Warfare, 31 January 1917

On December 12th last year I explained before the Reichstag the reasons which led to our peace offer. The reply of our opponents clearly and precisely said that they decline peace negotiations with us, and that they want to hear only of a peace which they dictate. By this the whole question of the guilt for the continuation of the war is decided. The guilt falls alone on our opponents.

Just as definite stands our task.

The enemy's conditions we cannot discuss. They could only be accepted by a totally defeated people. It therefore means fight.

President Wilson's message to Congress shows his sincere wish to restore peace to the world. Many of his maxims agree with our aims, namely, the freedom of the seas, the abolition of the system of balance of power, which is always bound to lead to new difficulties, equal rights for all nations, and the open door to trade.

But what are the peace conditions of the Entente? Germany's defensive force is to be destroyed, we are to lose Alsace-Lorraine and the eastern provinces of the Ostmarken, the Danube monarchy is to be dissolved, Bulgaria is again to be cheated of her national unity, and Turkey is to be pushed out of Europe and smashed in Asia.

The destructive designs of our opponents cannot be expressed more strongly. We have been challenged to fight to the end. We accept the challenge. We stake everything, and we shall be victorious.

By this development of the situation the decision concerning submarine warfare has been forced into its last acute stage. The question of the U-boat war, as the gentlemen of the Reichstag will remember, has occupied us three times in this committee, namely, in March, May and September last year.

On each occasion, in an exhaustive statement, I expounded points for and against in this question. I emphasized on each occasion that I was speaking pro tempore, and not as a supporter in principle or an opponent in principle of the unrestricted employment of the U-boats, but in consideration of the military, political and economic situation as a whole.

I always proceeded from the standpoint as to whether an unrestricted U-boat war would bring us nearer to a victorious peace or not. Every means, I said in March, that is calculated to shorten the war is the humanest policy to follow. When the most ruthless methods are considered as the best calculated to lead us to a victory and to a swift victory, I said at that time, then they must be employed.

This moment has now arrived. Last autumn the time was not yet ripe, but today the moment has come when, with the greatest prospect of success, we can undertake this enterprise. We must, therefore, not wait any longer. Where has there been a change?

In the first place, the most important fact of all is that the number of our submarines has very considerably increased as compared with last spring, and thereby a firm basis has been created for success.

The second co-decisive reason is the bad wheat harvest of the world. This fact now already confronts England, France and Italy with serious difficulties. We firmly hope to bring these difficulties by means of an unrestricted U-boat war to the point of unbearableness.

The coal question, too, is a vital question in war. Already it is critical, as you know, in Italy and France. Our submarines will render it still more critical. To this must be added, especially as regards England, the supply of ore for the production of munitions in the widest sense, and of timber for coal mines.

Our enemy's difficulties are rendered still further acute by the increased lack of enemy cargo space. In this respect time and the U-boat and cruiser warfare have prepared the ground for a decisive blow.

The Entente suffers in all its members owing to lack of cargo space. It makes itself felt in Italy and France not less than in England. If we may now venture to estimate the positive advantages of an unrestricted U-boat war at a very much higher value than last spring, the dangers which arise for us from the U-boat war have correspondingly decreased since that time.

A few days ago Marshal von Hindenburg described to me the situation as follows: "Our front stands firm on all sides. We have everywhere the requisite reserves. The spirit of the troops is good and confident. The military situation, as a whole, permits us to accept all consequences which an unrestricted U-boat war may bring about, and as this U-boat war in all circumstances is the means to injure our enemies most grievously, it must be begun."

The Admiralty Staff and the High Seas Fleet entertain the firm conviction - a conviction which has its practical support in the experience gained in the U-boat cruiser warfare - that Great Britain will be brought to peace by arms.

Our allies agree with our views. Austria-Hungary adheres to our procedure also in practice. Just as we lay a blockaded area around Great Britain and the west coast of France, within which we will try to prevent all shipping traffic to enemy countries, Austria-Hungary declares a blockaded area around Italy.

To all neutral countries a free path for mutual intercourse is left outside the blockaded area. To America we offer, as we did in 1915, safe passenger traffic under definite conditions, even with Great Britain.

No one among us will close his eyes to the seriousness of the step which we are taking. That our existence is at stake every one has known since August 1914, and this has been brutally emphasized by the rejection of our peace offer.

When in 1914 we had to seize and have recourse to the sword against the Russian general mobilization, we did so with the deepest sense of responsibility toward our people, and conscious of the resolute strength which says, "We must, and, therefore, we can."

Endless streams of blood have since been shed, but they have not washed away the "must" and the "can."

In now deciding to employ the best and sharpest weapon, we are guided solely by a sober consideration of all the circumstances that come into question, and by a firm determination to help our people out of the distress and disgrace which our enemies contemplate for them.

Success lies in a higher Hand, but, as regards all that human strength can do to enforce success for the Fatherland, you may be assured, gentlemen, that nothing has been neglected. Everything in this respect will be done.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uboat_bethmann.htm
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Mehmet Talaat (1874-1921)

Mehmet Talaat Bey or Mehmet Talaat Pasha was the principal architect of the Greek Genocide. He held the position of Minister of the Interior and in 1917 became Grand Vizier. He assumed primary responsibility for planning and implementing the Genocide. Henry Morgenthau, United States ambassador to the Ottoman Empire between 1913 and 1916, wrote in his memoirs:

"This procedure against the Greeks not improperly aroused my indignation. I did not have the slightest suspicion at that time that the Germans had instigated these deportations, but I looked upon them merely as an outburst of Turkish ferocity and chauvinism. By this time I knew Talaat well; I saw him nearly every day, and he used to discuss practically every phase of international relations with me. I objected vigorously to his treatment of the Greeks; I told him that it would make the worst possible impression abroad and that it affected American interests."

Talaat issued summary orders by telegram to provincial governors for the deportation of Ottoman Greeks. For example, in May 1914 Talaat authorized the deportation of Greeks from the Smyrna province on the pretext that Ottoman Greeks were a threat to the national security of the Empire. According to an Austro-Hungarian agent, on 31 January 1917 Talaat Bey declared: "... I see that time has come for Turkey to have it out with the Greeks the way it had it out with the Armenians in 1915." In February 1917 Talaat became Grand Vizier earning him the title Pasha. He resigned from his post in October 1918. Talaat was sentenced to death in absentia by Turkish Court Martial for his role in the genocide. He fled to Germany but was identified and assassinated in Berlin in 1921 by Soghomon Tehlirian.

http://www.greek-genocide.org/perpetrators.html
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The New York Times, 31 January 1917: "260 LOST ON THE LAURENTIC"

Later News Increases Death Roll in Sinking of Auxiliary

LONDON, Jan. 31---About 260 men were lost in the sinking of the auxiliary cruiser Laurentic, many of them having been killed by the explosion of the mine which sent the former White Star liner to the bottom Thursday, says a dispatch to the Press Association from Belfast.

The dispatch says the Laurentic struck the mine off the north coast of Ireland and sank in about ten minutes. A big hole was blown in the side of the ship.

Several boats were quickly launched, and, filled with scores of men, were engulfed in the vortex of the sinking steamer. For a time the sea was dotted with struggling men, some of whom were taken into other boats and saved. The remainder could not be rescued. A half gale was blowing, and the weather was intensely cold. Most of the rescued men were only half clad, and all of them, especially those wounded by the explosion, suffered greatly for hours.

A previous dispatch from London stated that the British Admiralty announced the loss of the Laurentic and the saving of 12 officers and 109 men. As the ship carried a naval reserve complement of 300, the message indicated that the number of lives lost was about 180.

http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/discus/messages/6937/94082.html?1254260275
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Alice Wheeldon



A photograph taken in January 1917. Left to right: A prison wardress, Hettie Wheeldon, Winnie Mason and Alice Wheeldon.

On 27th December 1916, Alex Gordon arrived at Alice's house claiming to be a conscientious objectors on the run from the police. Alice arranged for him to spend the night at the home of Lydia Robinson. a couple of days later Gordon returned to Alice's home with Herbert Booth, another man who he said was a member of the anti-war movement. In fact, both Gordon and Booth were undercover agents working for MI5 via the Ministry of Munitions. According to Alice, Gordon and Booth both told her that dogs now guarded the camps in which conscientious objectors were held; and that they had suggested to her that poison would be necessary to eliminate the animals, in order that the men could escape.

Alice Wheeldon agreed to ask her son-in-law, Alfred Mason, who was a chemist in Southampton, to obtain the poison, as long as Gordon helped her with her plan to get her son to the United States: "Being a businesswoman I made a bargain with him (Gordon) that if I could assist him in getting his friends from a concentration camp by getting rid of the dogs, he would, in his turn, see to the three boys, my son, Mason and a young man named MacDonald, whom I have kept, get away."

On 31st January 1917, Alice Wheeldon, Hettie Wheeldon, Winnie Mason and Alfred Mason were arrested and charged with plotting to murder the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George and Arthur Henderson, the leader of the Labour Party.

At Alice's home they found Alexander Macdonald of the Sherwood Foresters who had been absent without leave since December 1916. When arrested Alice claimed: "I think it is a such a trumped-up charge to punish me for my lad being a conscientious objector... you punished him through me while you had him in prison... you brought up an unfounded charge that he went to prison for and now he has gone out of the way you think you will punish him through me and you will do it."

Helemaal te lezen op http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/CRIwheeldonA.htm
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January 31 in German History

January 31, 1917 - Germany, concerned about American public opinion, had taken a policy on May 10, 1916 limiting submarine warfare. On January 31, 1917, however, unrestricted submarine warfare was reinstated. The U.S. broke diplomatic relations on February 3.

January 31, 1925 - Death of Ulrich Wille in Meilen, Switzerland (born in Hamburg, Germany). Wille was a Swiss army officer. After study of Prussian army organization, he reformed the Swiss army along those lines. He published a new cavalry code in 1892. During World War I he was commander in chief of the Swiss army.

http://www.germanculture.com.ua/january/jan31.htm
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Over There by Norman Rockwell, January 31, 1918 Issue of Life Magazine



Among his other admirable traits, Norman Rockwell was very patriotic. His subject matter during the First World War is evidence of that fact.

Here we see four American soldiers, infantrymen, in harm's way in a foreign country. They all appear to be young men. Completely seperated from the tents in the background, they all appear to be having a wonderful time.

These four doughboys are spending this night sitting beside a roaring fire. They are singing. One is playing a small banjo called a banjo-ukelele.

We can't be absolutely certain whether they are singing Cohan's stirring patriotic song or some other favorite of the day. Either way, they certainly look animated and excited in their performance. Rockwell was a master at conveying just such complex emotions in his paintings.

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-life-magazine-cover-1918-1-31-over-there.html
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Battle of May Island

The Battle of May Island is the name given to the series of accidents that occurred during Operation E.C.1 in 1918. Named after the Isle of May, an island in the Firth of Forth, close by, it was a disastrous series of accidents amongst Royal Navy ships on their way from Rosyth in Scotland to fleet exercises in the North Sea. On the misty night of 31 January to 1 February 1918, five collisions occurred, involving eight different vessels. Two submarines were lost and three other submarines and a light cruiser were damaged. 270 men died, all of the Royal Navy. Although it took place during the First World War it was an entirely accidental tragedy and no enemy forces were present. It was therefore not a Battle and was only referred to as such with black humour.

The subsequent investigation and court martial were kept quiet, with much of the information not released until the 1990s.



Around 40 naval vessels left Rosyth on the Firth of Forth, Scotland on the afternoon bound for Scapa Flow in Orkney where the exercise, EC1, involving the entire Grand Fleet would take place the following day.

The vessels included the 5th Battle Squadron of three battleships with their destroyer escorts, the 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron of four battlecruisers and their destroyers, two cruisers and two flotillas of K-class submarines each led by a light cruiser. The K class submarines were specially designed to operate with a battle fleet. They were large boats for their time, at 339 feet long, and were powered by steam turbines to allow them to travel at 24 knots on the surface to keep up with the fleet.

The two flotillas were the 12th Submarine Flotilla, consisting of HMS K3, K4, K6 and K7 led by HMS Fearless and the 13th Submarine Flotilla, led by HMS Ithuriel composed of K11, K12, K14, K17 and K22.

At 18:30 the vessels weighed anchor and the entire fleet steamed in a single line nearly 30 miles (50 km) long. At the head of the line were the two cruisers Courageous and Ithuriel followed by the rest of the 13th Submarine Flotilla. These were followed by the battlecruiser squadron, HMAS Australia, HMS New Zealand, Indomitable and Inflexible with their destroyers. After these came the 12th Submarine Flotilla and finally the battleships.

To avoid attracting German U-boats, particularly as one was suspected to be in the area, after dark each vessel showed only a dim stern light to the following vessel and they all maintained radio silence. As each group passed the Isle of May at the mouth of the firth, they altered course and increased speed to 20 knots.

As the 13th Submarine Flotilla passed the island, a pair of lights (possibly minesweeping naval trawlers) were seen approaching the line of submarines. The flotilla altered course sharply to port to avoid them but K14's helm jammed and she veered out of line. Both K14 and the boat behind her, K12 turned on their navigation lights and eventually K14s helm was freed and she tried to return to her position in the line. The next submarine in line, K22 had lost sight of the rest of the flotilla in the mist and veered off the line with the result that she hit K14. Both submarines stopped whilst the rest of the flotilla, unaware of what had happened continued out to sea. K22 radioed in code to the cruiser leading the flotilla to say that she could reach port but that K14 was crippled and sinking.

About fifteen minutes later, the 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron passed the island and the two submarines, but the battlecruiser Inflexible hit K22 causing further damage. The battlecruiser bent the first 30 feet of K22's bows at right angles, and wrecked the ballast and fuel tanks. She settled by the bow until only the conning tower showed.

Meanwhile, Leir, captain of Ithuriel, had received and decoded the message about the first collision between the two submarines and turned back to help them. As the submarines behind her turned to follow her, the 2nd Battle Squadron passed through the line, and it was only through emergency turns by both groups of vessels that further accidents were narrowly avoided.

As the 13th Flotilla reached the Isle of May, they encountered the outbound 12th Submarine Flotilla. The leader of the 12th Flotilla, Fearless loomed out of the mist and collided with K17 which sank within a few minutes, although most of her crew were able to jump overboard.

As the submarines following Fearless turned to avoid their now stationary flotilla leader, the battlecruiser Australia narrowly missed K12 which turned to get out of the way, putting her on a collision path with K6. K6 tried to avoid her but in doing so hit K4, nearly cutting the latter in half. The seriously damaged K4 sank with all of her crew, during which she was hit by K7.

At this point the 5th Battle Squadron of three battleships and their destroyers passed through the area unaware of what had happened, some of the destroyers cutting down the survivors of K17 struggling in the water. Only nine of the 56 men originally on board the submarine survived and one of these died of his injuries shortly afterwards.

Within 75 minutes, the submarines K17 and K4 had been sunk, and K6, K7, K14, K22 and Fearless had been damaged and over a hundred people killed on the night, with a total loss of 270 persons altogether, including those later dying of wounds. The accident was kept secret during the war, and a memorial cairn was finally erected 84 years later, on 31 January 2002 at Anstruther harbour opposite the Isle of May.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_May_Island & http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?191291-Battle-of-May-Island-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 18:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 31 Januari 1918.

Valkenswaard. Zondag j.l. werden door den ontvanger van Bergeyk vier personen waaronder twee vrouwen en twee mannen, bekeurd wegens het smokkelen van schoenen.
- Dinsdag j.l. werden door de kommiezen alhier vijf personen uit Eindhoven aangehouden wegens smokkelen van zeep, vet en kwatta. Alles werd in beslag genomen en de rest zal wel volgen.

Borkel en Schaft. Onze dorpsgenoot den heer Jacq. Lemmens behaalde bij het theoretisch en practisch examen in het hoefbeslag het rijksdiploma in de militaire rijkshoefsmidsschool te Amersfoort. Den geslaagde van harte proficiat.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 18:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gregorian calendar

(...) And as a gesture of modernity these days and months are now the same as those used by the rest of the world. From midnight on 31 January 1918 Lenin converts Russia to the Gregorian calendar. The next day is declared to be February 14.

http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=qxm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 18:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kaiserschlacht - The Redoubts at St Quentin

(...) Thus on 31 January 1918 the 1/5th Bn Gordon Highlanders found themselves posted from the 51st (Highland) Division to the 61st which in theory was supposed to be made up of units from the south Midlands.

The Highlanders were given the task on their arrival to occupy and defend the Fresnoy le Petit Redoubt and it can be well realised that they only had, at best, six weeks before the Germans launched their offensive. Not long in which to conduct a transfer, settle in and dig defences.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_kaiser_06.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 18:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A cartoon by Norman Lindsay in the Bulletin, 31 January 1918...



... showing the arrival of the Americans into the war. "Sammy" was a nickname for the Americans, derived from the term "Uncle Sam".

Caption Reads: "Crowd in Sammy, there's not time to lose"

http://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/1918/soldier/sammy.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 19:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 31 January 1919





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19190131.2.58
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Kirkwood being detained by police during 1919 Battle of George Square on 31 January 1919



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1919_Battle_of_George_Square_-_David_Kirkwood.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Kirkwood described the meeting that took place at George Square on 31st January 1919 in his autobiography My Life of Revolt (1935)

Emerging from the entrance door of the City Chambers, I saw William Gallacher coming in, his face streaming with blood. I saw the police using their batons mercilessly. I did not know that the Sheriff had read the Riot Act. Stones and bottles were flying through the air; the crowds were surging this way and that, driven by policemen.

I ran out, with arms widespread, to appeal for restraint and order. Then I knew - no more. I had been struck with a baton from behind.

When I came to, I was lying in the quadrangle surrounded by police, one of whom was bandaging my wounds. News flies quickly.

My first thought was to ask John Muir to go to my wife to tell her I was all right. He went at once, but before he arrived my wife had already been told that I had been killed.

Emanuel Shinwell described the meeting that took place at George Square on 31st January 1919 in his autobiography Conflict Without Malice (1955)

At the Central Police Station some of my friends were also being charged. Willie Gallagher was there, despite the fact that he had actually been given police protection so that he could bawl out to the crowd: "March off, for God's sake." David Kirkwood had also been arrested. He was excitable but was really a peaceable soul and had, as a matter of fact, been hit on the head by a policeman almost as soon as he ran down the steps of the City Chambers, being attacked from the back as he raised his hand to quieten the crowd. That might not have meant his discharge at the subsequent trial except for the lucky fact that a press photographer took a picture of the policeman's baton raised and Kirkwood collapsing - evidence which, of course, meant his dismissal from the case when the picture was exhibited.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUkirkwoodD.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 20:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PERMANENT COURT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE - Proposals before 1919 Paris Peace Conference

31 January 1919 Conference of American and British representatives holds that "provisions regarding the method of arbitration ... were not essential, and that a general provision might be inserted for the creation of a Permanent Court."

http://www.worldcourts.com/pcij/eng/timeline.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extracts from an ordinary Glasgow man's diaries

Friday, 31 January - WILD scenes in George Square today with the strikers. Riot Act read by the proper official. Documents torn from his hands, and he gets bashed with a bottle. Mounted police charge with batons, and about 50 people qualify for the hospital. I went to the square at night for a constitutional, but kept a wary eye on police. The soldiers arrive, fully armed, steel helmets etc. So I gradually faded away. I'm afraid there will be bloodshed.

Saturday, 1 February - THOUSANDS of troops drafted into Glasgow today. All public buildings, stations and bridges have sentries with fixed bayonets and 'tin hats'. In the afternoon, I took Tommy and Agnes into the square to see the unusual spectacle. Troops billeted in the Post Office, municipal buildings and all round about. The hooligans, loafers or strikers kept quiet. The three strike leaders, Gallacher, Kirkwood and Shinwell arrested. We got safely home. There must be a hundred or so shop windows smashed in the town. We are the people.

http://heritage.scotsman.com/people/Drawing-on-the-past-Extracts.6542800.jp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2011 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Timeline of the Irish War of Independence

31 January 1919: Following a meeting of the Executive of the Irish Volunteers, the editorial of An t-Óglach (the official publication of the Irish Volunteers) states that the formation of Dáil Éireann "justifies Irish Volunteers in treating the armed forces of the enemy - whether soldiers or policemen - exactly as a National Army would treat the members of an invading army".

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Timeline_of_the_Irish_War_of_Independence
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2015 7:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ger @ 31 Jan 2015 20:40 schreef:
Lees verder:

http://historiek.net/de-eerste-gifgasaanval-tijdens-de-eerste-wereldoorlog/47776/

Bron: Historiek.net
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