Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

10 augustus

 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Aug 2006 7:22    Onderwerp: 10 augustus Reageer met quote

1914 German ships Goeben and Breslau reach Constantinople

After eluding their British pursuers—not once but several times—in a dramatic chase through the Mediterranean Sea, the German cruisers Goeben and Breslau safely anchor off the Dardanelles—the waterway connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara and the only passage from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea—at five o’clock on the afternoon of August 10, 1914, and are subsequently escorted by the Turks to safety in Constantinople.

When World War I broke out in August 1914, Germany had only two warships stationed in the Mediterranean: the battle cruiser Goeben and the light cruiser Breslau, both under the command of Wilhelm Souchon. Souchon, having heard over wireless radio on the afternoon of August 3 that Germany had declared war on France, was preparing to engage the French fleet in the Mediterranean when the order came at 2 a.m. on August 4 from the chief commander of the German navy, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, to head for Constantinople instead. Germany had decided to put every possible pressure on Turkey, with whom it had signed a treaty of alliance the day before, to declare war on the Allies. With Turkey on its side, Germany would control the Black Sea passage and effectively cut Russia off from the other Allies, as well as its supply routes. A landing of Souchon’s ships at Constantinople, it was reasoned, would help force Turkey out of its neutrality and into active participation in the war.

Meanwhile, the British Royal Navy, focusing on the Goeben and Breslau as the leading threat to the transport of French colonial troops from North Africa to France, had already ordered its Mediterranean fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir Berkeley Milne, to locate and track the two German ships, particularly the swift and powerful Goeben. As war had not yet been declared in Britain, Milne’s fleet could pursue, but not attack. On the morning of August 4, the British ships Indomitable and Indefatigable, unexpectedly encountered the Goeben and Breslau off the coast of Algeria. Neither ship fired, but each trained their guns on the other and their crews neglected to make the customary mutual salute. A chase ensued, as Indomitable and Indefatigable followed the two German ships toward Messina, Italy, where Souchon planned to obtain coal from German merchant steamers anchored there before making the trip to Constantinople, 1,200 miles away. The Goeben and Breslau outran their pursuers, pulling out of sight close to the end of that day.

Souchon maneuvered his ships into neutral Italian waters and anchored off Messina; the British ships, observing international law, did not pursue him. Thinking Souchon was either going to try to return to port in the Adriatic Sea or make an attempt to reach the western Mediterranean—and thus the Atlantic Ocean—Milne sent the Indomitable and Indefatigable west of Messina to block his path, never guessing the German ships were actually heading east, to Turkey. While refueling with difficulty in Messina, Souchon received a telegram canceling the order to go to Constantinople, as the Turkish leaders had rescinded permission for the Goeben and Breslau to pass through the Dardanelles. Under pressure from Italian authorities to leave immediately and knowing the British ships—their country now openly at war with Germany—were waiting for him in the Mediterranean, Souchon decided to head for Constantinople anyway, deciding “to force the Turks, even against their will, to spread the war to the Black Sea against their ancient enemy, Russia.”

When the Goeben and Breslau left Messina they were seen and pursued by only one light cruiser, the Gloucester. Equal to the Breslau in speed and gun power but easily outmatched by the Goeben, the Gloucester engaged in a brief trade of gunfire but mostly simply trailed the German ships as they headed in the direction of the Adriatic Sea, which a British squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Ernest Troubridge had earlier been sent to monitor in case of action by the Austrian navy. On the morning of August 7, in a massive opportunity lost, Troubridge declined to pursue the Goeben, believing that the ship, if intercepted, could use its 11-inch guns with their superior range—compared to the 9.2-inch guns on Troubridge’s ships—to destroy his four cruisers one after another. Troubridge justified his withdrawal by citing the order the British Admiralty had given the Mediterranean fleet not to engage “superior forces”—an order certainly intended not to prohibit action against the Goeben itself but against the Austrian navy if it appeared to accompany the German ships to safety.

Thus the Goeben and Breslau sped on, pursued only by the Gloucester. On the afternoon of August 8, with the Goeben poised to enter the Aegean Sea, the Gloucester gave up the chase, leaving Souchon free to meet up with another fuel ship in the Greek Isles and head on to Constantinople. The Turkish leader, Enver Pasha, under pressure from German authorities, finally agreed to allow the ships to enter the straits, and to fire on any British pursuer who tried to come after them. At nine o’clock on the evening of August 10, the Goeben and Breslau entered the Dardanelles.

The Goeben and Breslau were repaired, renamed and taken into the Turkish navy—on October 29, 1914, they took part in the attack by the Turkish fleet—commanded by Souchon—on Russia’s ports in the Black Sea, marking the Ottoman Empire’s official entrance into the First World War.

http://www.historychannel.com
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/De_ontsnapping_van_%22Goeben%22_en_%22Breslau%22
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Aug 2006 7:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 10. August

1914
Amtliches über den Fall von Lüttich
Französische Niederlage im Elsaß
Ein französischer Flieger heruntergeschossen
Die Erfolge der ersten Woche
Die Anzahl der Kriegsfreiwilligen
Von den Neutralen

1915
Lomza erobert
Luftangriff auf die Londoner Docks
Eine Brückenkopfstellung am Dnjestr erstürmt

1916
Acht französische Angriffe an der Somme gescheitert
Vergebliche italienische Angriffe gegen den Abschnitt von Plava
Räumung von Görz
Fliegerbombardement von Venedig

1917
Stärkstes Trommelfeuer zwischen Yser und Lys
Erfolgreicher Kampf um die Tore der Moldau

1918
Fortdauer der Schlacht zwischen Ancre und Avre
Ausdehnung der Schlacht bis zur Oise
Italienische Angriffe bei Asiago abgeschlagen

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/#chronik
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45457

BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Aug 2009 5:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

95 jaar geleden:
In de aanloop naar de Slag bij Halen:

Op 10 augustus 1914 rond 12u30 komen eenheden van het 12de regiment Husaren en het 7de Kurassiers in contact met de Belgen. Er barst een hevig gevecht los.
uit:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4115
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45457

BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Aug 2009 6:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En zie ook:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/De_ontsnapping_van_%22Goeben%22_en_%22Breslau%22
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 19:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 10 August 1914

Western Front
Liege: the Germans occupy the city.
Alsace: French fall back; Mulhausen evacuated.
Lorraine: French advance in force under General de Castelnau.

Eastern Front
East Prussia: Russians reach Tilsit.
Poland: Austrian First Army, under Dankl, enters Poland and advances towards Lyublin and Kyeltsi.

Naval and Overseas Operations
South Africa: Germans raid Cape Colony (from south-west Africa), but abandon Swakopmund and Luderitz Bay.

Political, etc.
France declares war on Austria-Hungary.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_08_10.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The first encounter on French soil

(...) The 10th August 1914 - At 0445 hours on the 10th August the French 14č Hussards (Hussars) moved out in the direction of Pillon and Arrancy (north east of Mangiennes). Advancing over the hill in front of the French lines they came across a large column of Germans coming down the far side of the valley towards Pillon.

The Hussars deployed their machine guns and opened up on the German infantry at 1500 metres and thus began the first battle on French soil since the Franco-Prussian War.

The German 6th Cavalry Division (Von Schmettow) was under orders to sound out the French defences along this corridor and by 0800 hours had engaged the 14č Hussards with the 13th and 9th Dragoons of the German 33rd Cavalry Brigade who were the advanced guard.

It soon became apparent to the French that the enemy opposing them was a considerable force which had already occupied most of the ground on the far side of Pillon.

The 14č Hussards realised that they were being pinned down and retired, warning the infantry along the Mangiennes line that a large force of Germans had entered Pillon and was approaching.

Having taken Pillon, General von Etzel (Commanding: 33rd Cavalry Brigade) crossed the valley and surveyed the French lines around Mangiennes. He could see that the French had entrenched themselves and that he was in an unfavourable position, having to descend a slope towards them. His superiors, however, insisted that Mangiennes be taken.

Just after 0900 hours the first shells start to fall on the French lines at Mangiennes. An attempt to push a company of the 130č RI across the river Loison was met by such a hail of bullets that they were quickly forced back.

By 1100 hours word had reached the French that the German cavalry were at Longuyon and advancing on Marville (about 10km to the north of Mangiennes). The French cavalry (9č DC) moved up to meet them head on, but despite a number of heroic cavalry charges, the Germans were well positioned in the woods and the villages, and the French cavalry was forced back.

Général Cordonnier of the 87č Brigade, whilst dealing with this imminent threat to his own positions, was also aware of the gunfire around Mangiennes and alerted the 120č RI to be ready to move.

At 1345 hours the German artillery launched a heavy bombardment (for the period) against the two battalions of the 130č RI. Fortunately for the defenders the three batteries of the I/42č RAC of the 4č DI had positioned themselves on the hills behind them at Chapelle St Jean and began picking off the German guns as soon as they had come into view.

It can be noticed that the battle is concerning dozens of guns and not hundreds as will be the case within months.

Lees er alles over op http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_mangiennes_01.htm en http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_mangiennes_02.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 August, 1914: Telegram from Wilhelm II to President Wilson

This is the text of a telegram handed to US Ambassador Gerard by Wilhelm II for delivery to President Wilson, in response to Wilson's offer to negotiate. The original telegram consisted of five pages of official telegraph message paper, handwritten in English, by Wilhelm II.
Note: Text between asterisks ( * ) was underlined in the handwritten original.


For the President of the United States personally.

10/VIII 14.

1. H. R. H. Prince Henry was received by his Majesty King George V in London, who empowered him to transmit to me verbally, that England would remain neutral if war broke out on the Continent involving Germany and France, Austria and Russia. This message was telegraphed to me by my brother from London after his conversation with H. M. the King, and repeated verbally on the twenty-ninth of July.
2. My Ambassador in London transmitted a message from Sir E. Grey to Berlin saying that only in case France was likely to be crushed England would interfere.
3. On the thirtieth my Ambassador in London reported that Sir Edward Grey in course of a "private" conversation told him that if the conflict remained localized beween *Russia* -not Serbia -and *Austria*, England would not move, but if we "mixed" in the fray she would take quick decisions and grave measures; i.e., if I left my ally Austria in the lurch to fight alone England would not touch me.
4. This communication being directly counter to the King's message to me, I telegraphed to H. M. on the twenty-ninth or thirtieth, thanking him for kind messages through my brother and begging him to use all his power to keep France and Russia-his Allies-from making any war-like preparations calculated to disturb my work of mediation, stating that I was in constant communication with H. M. the Czar. In the evening the King kindly answered that he had ordered his Government to use every possible influence with his Allies to refrain from taking any provocative military measures. At the same time H. M. asked me if I would transmit to Vienna the Britiih proposal that Austria was to take Belgrade and a few other Serbian towns and a strip of country as a "main-mise" to make sure that the Serbian promises on paper should be fulfilled in reality. This proposal was in the same moment telegraphed to me from Vienna for London, quite in conjunction with the British proposal; besides, I had telegraphed to H. M. the Czar the same as an idea of mine, before I received the two communications from Vienna and London, as both were of the same opinion.
5. I immediately transmitted the telegrams vice versa to Vienna and London. I felt shat I was able to tide the question over and was happy at the peaceful outlook.
6. While I was preparing a note to H. M. the Czar the next morning, to inform him that Vienna, London and Berlin were agreed about the treatment of affairs, I received the telephones from H. E. the Chancellor that in the night before the Czar had given the order to mobilize the whole of the Russian army, which was, of course, also meant against Germany; whereas up till then the southern armies had been mobilized against Austria.
7. In a telegram from London my Ambassador informed me he understood the British Government would guarantee neutrality of France and wished to know whether Germany would refrain from attack. I telegraphed to H. M. the King personally that mobilization being already carried out could not be stopped, but if H. M. could guarantee with his armed forces the neutrality of France I would *refrain from attacking her, leave her alone* and employ my troops *elsewhere*. H. M. answered that he thought my offer was based on a misunderstanding; and, as far as I can make out, Sir E. Grey never took my offer into serious consideration. He never answered it. Instead, he declared England had to defend Belgian neutrality, which had to be violated by Germany on strategical grounds, news having been received that France was already preparing to enter Belgium, and the King of Belgians having refused my petition for a free passage under guarantee of his country's freedom. I am most grateful for the President's message.

WILLIAM, H. R.

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/wilhelm-wilson.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 09 Aug 2010 19:56, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 August, 1914: Secretary of State Bryan Opposes Loans to Belligerents
(United States, Senate Hearings, 74th Cong, 2d Sess., "Munitions Industry Hearings," Part 25, January 7, 8, 1936 (Washington, 1937), pp. 7665-6.

Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan's attempt to persuade President Wilson not to allow the United States to approve loans to belligerent nations. Bryan was unsuccessful, resigned his position, and was succeed by Robert Lansing, who took the position that the United States ought to permit such loans.

Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to President Woodrow Wilson, August 10, 1914:

I beg to communicate to you an important matter which has come before the Department. Morgan Company of New York have asked whether there would be any objection to their making a loan to the French Government and also the Rothschilds -- I suppose that is intended for the French Government. I have conferred with Mr. Lansing and he knows of no legal objection to financing this loan, but I have suggested to him the advisability of presenting to you an aspect of the case which is not legal but I believe to be consistent with our attitude in international matters. It is whether it would be advisable for this Government to take the position that it will not approve of any loan to a belligerent nation. The reasons that I would give in support of this proposition are:

First: Money is the worst of all contrabands because it commands everything else. The question of making loans contraband by international agreement has been discussed, but no action has been taken. I know of nothing that would do more to prevent war than an international agreement that neutral nations would not loan to belligerents. While such an agreement would be of great advantage, could we not by our example hasten the reaching of such an agreement? We are the one great nation which is not involved, and our refusal to loan to any belligerent would naturally tend to hasten a conclusion of the war. We are responsible for the use of our influence through example, and as we cannot tell what we can do until we try, the only way of testing our influence is to set the example and observe its effect. This is the fundamental reason in support of the suggestion submitted.

Second: There is a special and local reason, it seems to me, why this course would be advisable. Mr. Lansing observed in the discussion of the subject that a loan would be taken by those in sympathy with the country in whose behalf the loan was negotiated. If we approved of a loan to France we could not, of course, object to a loan to Great Britain, Germany, Russia, or to any other country, and if loans were made to these countries, our citizens would be divided into groups, each group loaning money to the country which it favors and this money could not be furnished without expressions of sympathy. These expressions of sympathy are disturbing enough when they do not rest upon pecuniary interests -- they would be still more disturbing if each group was pecuniarily interested in the success of the nation to whom its members had loaned money.

Third: The powerful financial interests which would be connected with these loans would be tempted to use their influence through the newspapers to support the interests of the Government to which they had loaned because the value of the security would be directly affected by the result of the war. We would thus find our newspapers violently arrayed on one side or the other, each paper supporting a financial group and pecuniary interest, All of this influence would make it all the more difficult for us to maintain neutrality as our action on various questions that would arise would affect one side or the other and powerful financial interests would be thrown into the balance.... As we cannot prevent American citizens going abroad at their own risk, so we cannot prevent dollars going abroad at the risk of the owners, but the influence of the Government is used to prevent American citizens from doing this. Would the Government not be justified in using its influence against the enlistment of the nation's dollars in a foreign war?

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/bryanloan.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 10 August, advancing troops of the Russian 1st Army reached Tilsit in East Prussia. There were skirmishes at Stalluponen. German airship Z.IV carried out a bombing attack on Mlava.

On the Southwest Front, the Austro-Hungarian 1st Army, under General Dankl, with I, V, and X Corps crossed the San River in Galicia, with its objective being Krasnik. The Austro-Hungarian 4th Army, commanded by General Auffenberg, was advancing north on Komarov. Both armies were supported by Army Group Kummer and a German Corps under von Woyrsch.

France and Austria-Hungary declared war on each other. The German battle cruiser Goeben and light cruiser Breslau entered the Dardanelles and became part of the Turkish Fleet, under the command of German Admiral Wilhelm Souchon. The Turks renamed them Yawuz Sultan Selim and Midilli

http://warchron.com/eastPrussia.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Colins, Leon, Poster, 10 August 1914

Description: "Secours aux Familles des miliciens rappelés sous les drapeaux ... Hulp aan de Familien der soldaten teruggeroepen onder de vaandels"; Help to the Families of the militiamen recalled under the flags. Poster re: indemnity to soldiers.

http://hpcanpub.mcmaster.ca/colins-leon-poster-10-august-1914
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Naval Historical Society of Australia

10 August 1914 - An Australian Government Order-in-Council was gazetted placing all Commonwealth Naval Forces, including the Naval Board, under British Admiralty control, for the duration of WWI.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1914-1918/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Siege of Novo-Georgievsk, 10-20 August 1915

Novo-Georgievsk was a great Russian fortress north west of Warsaw. It was defended by a series of outer forts, the most modern of which had been built in 1891. Its defences had been modified during the first year of the First World War.

At the start of August 1915 the Russians were on the verge of abandoning Warsaw. The Germans had broken through their lines at Gorlice-Tarnow (2-10 May), and had forced the Russians back all along their southern front. During July the Germans had then turned north, and were advancing to the east of Warsaw. On 13 July a second German army attacked towards the Narev river, north of Warsaw. By the end of July the first German troops were approaching Novo-Georgievsk.

At this point, with Warsaw about to be abandoned, the Russians should have evacuated Novo-Georgievsk. Instead, the Grand Duke Nicholas decided to defend the fortress and left its garrison of 90,000 in place. If this had been done in an attempt to delay the German advance on Warsaw it failed, for the city was evacuated on 5 August, ten days before the siege of Novo-Georgievsk began.

The Germans diverted 80,000 men to the siege, mostly from second-line formations. They were given part of the siege train used at Antwerp in 1914, including six 16 inch (400mm) and nine 12 inch (300mm) howitzers, and were placed under the command of General von Beseler, the German commander who had captured that city.

Novo-Georgievsk was completely surrounded on 10 August. The bombardment began a few days later, and concentrated on the north eastern segment of the defences, north of the Vistula. After a heavy bombardment three of the outer forts were attacked by twenty four German battalions and two of them captured. By the end on 19 August the Russians had been forced back to the inner defences north of the Vistula.

With no hope of being relieved and with their inner defences now vulnerable to bombardment, at 4 a.m. on 20 August the Russian defenders of Novo-Georgievsk surrendered. The Russians took 90,000 prisoners, amongst them thirty generals, and captured 700 guns. The siege of Novo-Georgievsk was the last time during the First World War that any side attempted to defend an isolated fortress of this type, ending a sequence that had included the sieges of Liege, Namur, Antwerp and Przemysl, each of which had eventually ended in the surrender of the fortress.

Rickard, J (30 August 2007), Siege of Novo-Georgievsk, 10-20 August 1915 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/siege_novo_georgievsk.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Solar eclipse of August 10, 1915

An annular solar eclipse occurred on August 10, 1915. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partially obscuring Earth's view of the Sun. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun, causing the sun to look like an annulus (ring), blocking most of the Sun's light. An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region thousands of kilometres wide.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse_of_August_10,_1915
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

10 August 1915 - End of August Offensive
Turkish troops, led by Colonel Mustafa Kemal, drove the British from Chunuk Bair but were unable to push the British, Indian and New Zealand troops back down the valleys to the beach. The August offensive had failed.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.html

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

10 August 1915
Lieutenant-Colonel Mustafa Kemal led Turkish soldiers in a fierce counter-attack against British troops on the peak of Chunuk Bair. The Turks drove the British from their positions and then charged over the rim of the mountain towards the sea. Here they were cut down in great numbers by machine-gun fire and naval bombardment. Nevertheless, the British had lost the heights and the August offensive was a failure.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.html

The End of Fighting

Fighting petered out at the close of 10 August with both sides suffering from exhaustion. The undisputed victors however were Kemal's Turkish force. While his troops suffered a heavier burden of casualties - somewhere between 9,000-20,000 as opposed to Birdwood's 12,000 - the latter had not achieved any of his stated aims. Furthermore the failure of the operation brought to an effective end Allied plans to break out of Anzac Cove.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/saribair.htm

Commonwealth War Graves Commission

The Gallipoli Campaign,1915

Mooie PDF... http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_gallipoli.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 09 Aug 2010 20:20, in toaal 3 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Messages
From Commanding Officer 4th Light Horse (Lt Col Leonard Long)
To Headquarters 2nd Light Horse Brigade


10th August 1915

Very quiet 24 hours. Deepened trenches and recesses. Enemy does not appear to be doing any further work on his trenches.

Casualties nil

http://percysmith.blogspot.com/2007/04/chapter-8-gallipoli-5-17-august-1915.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garrett War Diary - AUGUST 1915

At 10.00 am this morning we all lined the front of our tents and were inspected by the Doc,
"Whats wrong with you?"
"How long have you been here?"
"Put out your tongue."
And the result was that was that all of us were nearly booked to leave for Imbros, - presumably to guard prisoners, of which it is said we have captured thousands. So we were paraded at 6.oo p.m. and marched off to the shore, arriving there at about 7.30 we crossed over to an island connected by a causeway to the mainland and bivouacked for the night.
I slept in my overcoat with knapsack for a pillow.

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/aug1915.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of the Somme (1916)
British Topical Committee for War Films


Documentary Description

The Battle of the Somme, fought in the summer and autumn of 1916, was one of the largest battles of the First World War. With more than one million casualties, it was also one of the bloodiest battles in human history. The Allied forces attempted to break through the German lines along a 25-mile (40 km) front north and south of the River Somme in northern France. One purpose of the battle was to draw German forces away from the Battle of Verdun; however, by its end the losses on the Somme had exceeded those at Verdun.
The Battle of the Somme is a 1916 British documentary and propaganda film. Shot by two official cinematographers, Geoffrey Malins and John McDowell, the film depicts the British Army's preparations for, and the early stages of, the battle of the Somme. Premiered in London on 10 August 1916 and released generally on 21 August, while the battle continued in France, the film gave a very graphic depiction of trench warfare, showing dead and wounded British and German soldiers. The film was a massive success, selling some twenty million tickets in its first six weeks of release in Britain. It was later distributed in eighteen other countries.

Preserved in the film archive of the Imperial War Museum since 1922, the film was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2005. The film has since been digitally restored and released on DVD in 2008. The Battle of the Somme remains significant today as an early example of film propaganda technique, as an historical record of the battle, and as a frequent source of footage illustrating the First World War.

Production

Malins and McDowell shot the film before and during the Battle of the Somme, which started on 1 July 1916. They staged some of the scenes of troops going "over the top" before the battle started, but Malins captured many of the most famous scenes on the first day of the battle, when stationed near the front at Beaumont Hamel. From this position he filmed iconic images of the detonation of the massive mine beneath Hawthorn Ridge Redoubt as well as of the preparations and advance of the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers of the British 29th Division. (This same battalion had won six VCs at W Beach during the landing at Cape Helles, Gallipoli on April 25, 1915.)

Malins and McDowell did not set out to make a feature film, but once the volume and quality of their footage had been seen in London, the British Topical Committee for War Films decided to compile a feature-length film. William F. Jury produced the work, and it was edited by Malins and Charles Urban.

Release

The completed film spanned five reels and lasted 62 minutes and 50 seconds. Its first screening took place to an invited audience at the Scala Theatre on 10 August 1916, while the battle still raged. On 21 August the film began showing simultaneously in 34 London cinemas, opening in provincial cities the following week. The Royal Family received a private screening at Windsor Castle in September. The film was eventually shown in 18 countries.

Reception and Impact

British soldiers at rest in France also saw the film: here it provided new recruits with some idea of what they might soon face. The soldiers' main complaint was the failure of the film to capture the sound of battle. However, for a silent film, the titles could be remarkably forthright, describing images of injury and death.

British authorities showed the film to the public as a morale-booster and in general it met with a favourable reception. The Times reported on August 22 1916 that "Crowded audiences...were interested and thrilled to have the realities of war brought so vividly before them, and if women had sometimes to shut their eyes to escape for a moment from the tragedy of the toll of battle which the film presents, opinion seems to be general that it was wise that the people at home should have this glimpse of what our soldiers are doing and daring and suffering in Picardy".

By contrast others considered it immoral to broadcast scenes of violence, the Dean of Durham protesting "against an entertainment which wounds the heart and violates the very sanctity of bereavement". Others complained that such a serious film shared the cinema programme with comedy films. The British public responded to the film massively, purchasing an estimated 20 million tickets in two months. On this basis, The Battle of the Somme remains one of the most successful British films ever made.

However, historians believe that a lot of the available footage was censored from the final version shown to the public, as the War Office wanted the film to contain footage that would support the war effort and raise morale, which it did very successfully.

The film was shown in New Zealand and on October 16, 1916 Wellington's The Evening Post ran a review of it on page 3. It had been advertised in the paper four days earlier as "The extraordinary films of 'the big push' which were taken by the British War Office". It was also billed as "an awe-inspiring, glorious presentation of what our heroes are accomplishing today." The lengthy review concluded with the following: "These pictures of the Battle of the Somme are a real and valuable contribution to the nation's knowledge and a powerful spur to a national effort."

Restoration and DVD release

In 2005 The Battle of the Somme was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register for the preservation of global documentary heritage. In November 2008, following a lengthy restoration process led by the Imperial War Museum, a digitally remastered version of Battle of the Somme was released on DVD by Network to mark the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice. It included two new musical soundtracks by Laura Rossi and Stephen Horne, as well as an audio commentary by Roger Smither, keeper of the IWM’s Film and Photograph Archives, interviews with Smither, Rossi, Horne and Dr Toby Haggith, missing scenes and fragments linked to their originally intended position in the film, and a booklet with information on the film, its restoration and musical accompaniments. Tied to the release, the Imperial War Museum launched a minisite featuring viewing notes, further reading and teaching resources.

http://www.cosmolearning.com/documentaries/the-battle-of-the-somme-827/
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Battle_of_the_Somme_%28film%29
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mouquet Farm

Another Gallipoli veteran to die and on this battlefield was Lance Corporal John Nelson whose brother, Sergeant Major William Nelson, 23rd Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers, had been killed in the opening British attack at the Battle of the Somme just six weeks previously. Another sad story is that of Private Peter Pedretti, a young Swiss immigrant to Western Australia who was naturalised in 1914, joined up in January 1916, travelled to France and was killed in his first action on 10 August 1916 at Mouquet Farm.

Neither Nelson’s nor Pedretti’s remains were ever found and they are commemorated at the Australian National Memorial, Villers–Bretonneux. Jewell died well behind the lines in a military hospital and was buried in Warloy–Baillon Communal Cemetery Extension.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/mouquet-farm/16th-battalion.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brusilov Offensive

4 June to 10 August 1916: Brusilov Offensive
Russian troops of the Eastern Front force back the front line of the Austro-Hungarian troops south of the Pripet Marshes, Galicia. Some German reinforcements manage to slow the attack.

http://homepage.eircom.net/~tipperaryfame/wwar1003.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 August 1916 → Commons Sitting

RELIEF IN BELGIUM.


HC Deb 10 August 1916 vol 85 cc1201-2

Mr. EVELYN CECIL asked whether His Majesty's Government is satisfied that the funds of the National Committee for Relief in Belgium are in fact devoted to the relief of loyal Belgians in the occupied territory, and not to that of Germans or of Belgians working for the German Army; and whether the Government will continue to take steps to ensure the application of the funds to the purposes for which they were given?

Lord R. CECIL The answer to both parts of the question is in the affirmative. The work in the so-called "Zone of Occupation" in Belgium, under civil government, which comprises the bulk of the occupied territory, is now proceeding under satisfactory guarantees covering all domestic food produce. In certain respects violations of these guarantees by the Germans still arise, but the United States, Spanish and Netherlands Representatives at Brussels, as patrons of the Relief Commission, are taking energetic steps, and the Germans are well aware that a continuance of such violations will endanger the whole work. In the military zone, d'Etape, comprising East and West Flanders, and in the French provinces, the question of domestic supplies has been put on a clear basis by a demand made by the Allied Governments that the yield of the coming harvest shall be reserved for the civil populationֵ This demand is being and will be energetically pressed. In the whole territory His Majesty's Government are satisfied that the foodstuffs imported by the Relief Commission run no risk of appropriation by the enemy.

Mr. PRINGLE Do they not indirectly set free supplies which are of advantage to the Germans?

Lord R. CECIL I would not like to say that that never happens, because it is dangerous to speak so absolutely, but I do believe that on the whole the House may rest assured that the precautions taken are satisfactory.

Mr. WARDLE Is it a fact that the Germans are now deporting women from Belgium?

Lord R. CECIL I do not know how far that policy has been applied to Belgium. It has been applied in France, and a terrible and scandalous state of things has arisen.

Mr. SHIRLEY BENN Are we to take it the Government are still satisfied that the funds collected by the National Relief Commission for Belgium should be handed over to the neutral Commission for administration?

Lord R. CECIL The Government are fully satisfied

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/aug/10/relief-in-belgium
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1st Hampshires – The Ypres Salient, Summer 1916

The next day the Battalion went into the front line, relieving the 1st Grenadier Guards. It was very hot and the trenches in most part were dry, unusually for Flanders, which normally had a very high water table. The spell in the line was relatively quiet, with the only interruptions being Trench Mortars and mainly snipers. Enemy Machine Guns were also more active at night.

On the 28th Major Armitage of the West Yorkshire Regiment arrived to take over command. It was most unusual for an officer from outside the Regiment to be posted, especially to take command. The losses on the Somme had been so great, however, that it is likely that the usual tribal considerations had fallen by the wayside.

On 31 July the Battalion was relieved, and went back into support at Elveringhe. The time in support, and the men found time to bathe in the lake at Elveringhe Chateau. Some training was carried out, as well as providing fatigues for night work. On 4 August the Battalion went back into the line. It was still extremely hot, but the men were able to get on with work to improve their trenches.

The quiet was shattered, however, on the 8th. A warning was issued the day before that the enemy might use gas, as the wind was from the north east. Sure enough, at 10.30pm on the 8th the Germans discharged Gas. 10 minutes later a raiding party of 20 to 30 enemy was spotted, but was beaten back by rifle fire and grenades. An artillery barrage was called up, which effectively cleared no-mans land in front of the Hampshires sector.

The day afterwards Major Armitage submitted a detailed report of the incident. The numerous anti-gas devices, such as ‘gas gongs’ and klaxons, had not worked. 3 men had been killed, 14 wounded and 8 missing. 3 men were killed by gas, 37 suffering from the effects of gas, and 1 from shell shock. 1 officer had been wounded, and 1 affected by gas.

The Battalion went back into support for some much-needed rest, but D Company in particular were still feeling the effects of gas. Working under the threat of gas not only caused horrific casualties, it also seriously hampered the ability of a unit to resist attack – men wearing gas masks found breathing, moving and fighting much more difficult.

Among the dead during this period were Lance Corporal Wilfrid Cox (18, Copnor) who was killed on 4 August 1916, Private Albert Harris (29, Fratton) who was killed during the Gas attack on 8 August 1916, and Sergeant H.W. Doige who died on 10 August 1916. Cox and Harris are buried at Essex Farm Cemetery, and Doige at Lijssenthoek.

http://dalyhistory.wordpress.com/2010/08/04/1st-hampshires-the-ypres-salient-summer-1916/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VC

10 August 1919 - Corporal A. Sullivan, VC
Corporal A. Sullivan, 45th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers (ex-AIF), originally from Crystal Brook, South Australia, wins the Victoria Cross at Dvina River, North Russia.

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/

Arthur Percy Sullivan

Arthur Percy Sullivan VC (27 November 1896 – 9 April 1937) was a banker, soldier, and an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. (...)

Sullivan enlisted as a volunteer private in 10th Battalion of the First Australian Imperial Force on 27 April 1918, and embarked for Europe in July 1918 as general reinforcements. Upon arriving in Europe, Sullivan transferred to the Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery on 5 October 1918, but the war in Europe ended on 11 November 1918, and Sullivan saw no action.

He was promoted to corporal on 23 May 1919, and joined the North Russia Relief Force on 28 May 1919, being officially discharged from the AIF at the same time. For the Russian campaign he was enlisted into LW de V. Sadlier-Jackson's 45th Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers, of the British Army.

The relief force landed at Archangel on 5 June 1919, and began to deploy immediately, in the process relieving the original expeditionary force which had been in Russia since 1918. By July 1919, 45th Battalion had moved 240 kilometres (150 miles) towards the front line.

On 10 August 1919, they had arrived at the Dvina front in northern Russia, where Sullivan's brigade were to launch an attack to aid the evacuation of the last remaining members of the 1918 expeditionary force, boost the morale of the White Russians, and harass and disrupt the Bolshevik positions. The attack was a great success with very few British casualties.[citation needed]

Despite the overall success of the attack, Sullivan's platoon was cut off from the rest of the brigade as they fought a rearguard covering action. In the course of fighting their way back to their own lines, Sullivan's platoon came under heavy fire whilst trying to traverse the Sheika River, which they had to cross by means of a narrow plank, and during the passage an officer and three men fell into a deep swamp. Without hesitation, Corporal Sullivan, under heavy fire, jumped into the river and rescued all four, bringing them out singly.

The Bolsheviks turned their fire intensely upon Sullivan, but he was able to complete the rescue. But for this daring action, the men would undoubtedly have drowned, as all ranks were exhausted and the enemy was less than 100 yards (91 m) away. For this act of gallantry in the face of the enemy, Arthur Sullivan was nominated for the award of the Victoria Cross.

The evacuation of all forces was completed by late September, 1919, and the North Russia Relief Force was demobilised upon their return to England.

Sullivan wished to return to Australia immediately without waiting for his investiture from King George V. It has been suggested that he was embarrassed at the prospect of meeting the King. He left England on 1 November 1919.

He was presented with his Victoria Cross in Adelaide on 12 July 1920 by Edward, the Prince of Wales during his royal tour of Australia, who smiled at Sullivan, and quipped "Aren't you the man who ran away from father?"

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Percy_Sullivan
Zie ook http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120152b.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 21:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11th Royal Fusiliers

10/8/17 At 4.30 am. the Battalion attacked WESTHOUK RIDGE in accordance with operation orders No 14. (attached to previous page.) The Companies were commanded as follows:- “A” Company 2nd. Lt. (A/Captain) F.W.E. Hoare, “B” Company Captain D.M. Fuller, “C” Company 2nd Lieut. M. Watt, “D” Company Lieut. A/Capt. H.M. Gray. The Battalion was Commanded by Major. A.E. Sulman, M.C. The Battalion strength on going into action was 37 Officers, 891 Other ranks. Strength on coming out of action 20 Officers 563 Other ranks. Attached is the story of the battle. The following are total of Casualties during this battle.

Capt. D.M.Fuller Killed Lieut.A/Capt. H.A.Gray Missing Lt.H.P.Cressy Missing
2nd.Lt.A/Capt. F.W.E.Hoare Killed 2nd.Lt.H.F.Day Killed 2/Lt. G.A. Rendle Missing
2nd.Lt.G.H.Stovold Missing 2nd.Lt.J.J.A.Horton Wounded 2nd.Lieut.V.Haddon Missing
2nd.Lt.H.P.Chaffey Killed 2nd.Lt.R.M.Watt Missing 2nd.Lt.R.E.Porter Died of Wds
2nd.Lt.A.G.Calthorp Missing 2nd.Lt.J.Lang Wounded 2nd.Lt.C.G.Gore Missing
2nd.Lt.G.W.H.Rogers Missing 2nd.Lt.B.H.Barnett Missing
Other Rank casualties 328

2.pm.
The Battalion was relieved by the 8th Norfolk Regiment and proceeded to CHATEAU SEGARD are No.1.

11TH BN. ROYAL FUSILIERS - REPORT OF OPERATIONS ON 9TH/10TH AUGUST 1917.

FORMING UP FOR THE ATTACK.

Tapes were laid in "no mans land" for the troops to form up on. The 11th Royal Fusiliers boundaries were from J.13.b.8.3. on left to J.13.d.9.6 on the right.

ZERO. The kick off at "Zero" was good with touch on left flank. On the right the 7th Queens Regt were late in starting and were 100 yards behind the line of 11th Royal Fusiliers first wave.

The companies were in position in good time.

FORMATION.

"B" and "D" Companies in front in two waves. "Moppers up" behind first wave.

"C" Company in Support along Battalion frontage.

"A" Company in Reserve behind "C" Company.

OBJECTIVES.

The two attacking Comapanies and the support Company reached the JARGON SUPPORT LINE from J.14.b.0.5. to about J.14.b.3.0 just north of FITZCLARENCE FARM. The right attacking Company with its supports lost direction to a certain extent and did not occupy about 150 yards of trench on the right of the Battalion frontage.

A Party of the 7th Queens Regt moved on the right flank of the 11th Royal Fusiliers but were not seen on the objective.

The objective was reached in good order and close behind the barrage, but came under destructive frontal machine gun fire. Time about 5.5am.

The Lewis Gunners of the 11th Royal Fusiliers and the 8th Northamptonshire Regt.clearing party came into action here in the attempt to counter the enemy's Machine Guns and snipers.

The position remained the same until about 6.am by which time all the Officers and many of the N.C.O.s were casualties. The enemy then developed a well planned counter attack from INVERNESS COPSE supported by strong Machine Gun fire. The attack took the form of bombing up trenches from the Southern flank and also took our right company in rear. The effect was the uncovered flank of the Battalion was rolled up and driven back to the crest line of the strong point in J.14.a which was consolidated and held until the battalion was relieved by the 8th Norfolk Regt.

The reserve Company in the attack reached its objective on the light railway line running by the farm in J.14.b. This turned out to be a very exposed position on the forward slope and became untenable when the Germans counter attacked from the Copse. This company commander, A/Capt F.W.E. Hoare, withdrew to the crest line mentioned and reorganised the Battalion until he was killed.

The main cause of the Battalion being unable to remain on its objective was the enemy being in possession of our right flank. This extended for 700 yards and the Germans had that space to manoeuvre in against our flank and rear. All the Officers and senior N.C.O.s becoming casualties just before the critical moment a very dangerous situation remained uncounteracted for want of leaders.

There was a remarkable amount of rifle ammunition used in this battle and the Lewis Guns that survived used all their drums before returning.

http://www.resthepast.co.uk/army/wardiaries/royalfusiliers/11btn/11thRF.html &
http://www.resthepast.co.uk/army/wardiaries/royalfusiliers/11btn/11thRF_report.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brandhoek New Military Cemetery

Brandhoek New Military Cemetery is best known for being the final resting place of Captain Noel Chavasse VC & Bar, and his grave was marked by a forest of wooden crosses. Given the small area of this cemetery, it is surprising to find that there are 558 burials. We were specifically visiting Second Lieutenant Frank Roberson of 7th Bn. Queen's (Royal West Surrey) Regiment who hailed from Purley, but is not commemorated on the local war memorials to our knowledge. He had enlisted into the Honourable Artillery Company in 1915 and gained his commission on December 1916. He suffered shrapnel wounds to his abdomen during an attack at Inverness Copse on 10 August 1917, and died of his wounds at 44th CCS on 12 August 1917.

A Tour of the Ypres Salient - May, 2007, http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/gardiner1.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 21:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

How to create a tradition: the Seamen's Union and the Great Strike of 1917
Robert Bollard

Looking back from the present at the vibrant and powerful labour movement of the twentieth century, it is all too easy to succumb to nostalgia. The culture of unionism that prevailed in places like the waterfront or the coal mines seems so powerful and so ingrained. The traditions of collectivism, the hatred of scabs, the automatic assumption – extending out from the bastions of the movement into less organised sections of the class – that unionism was a good thing: all this appears in retrospect as a golden tradition from a golden age. It appears at once magical and unattainable – something that has slipped from our grasp never to return, like periwigs or top hats, suburban football teams or long-playing records. To recover it seems as impossible as the recovery of old forms of civility or deference must appear to commentators from the right.

Culture and tradition can appear, like the weather or the economy, to be forces that are beyond the control of human agency. They can be seen as static reflections of more profound forces and relations, or as simple accumulations of prejudice inherited from the past, waiting for the blast of technological innovation and economic change to eradicate them, like a sandblaster on a sandstone edifice. But they are more than this. Traditions are not simply accumulated, they can also be invented, and they are invented, moreover, for a reason. That reason can involve the justification of oppression and exploitation; it can also involve the justification of resistance to oppression or exploitation. More than this, traditions like the culture of unionism are not simply a reflection of economic relations, they also reflect the actions of men and women that are embodied in those relations; they reflect the class struggle – and this reflection is not passive. Traditions in turn influence the struggle they reflect, strengthening a political attempt to alter the prevailing economic relations. The working class, as Thompson argued, makes itself, and it does not make itself in a passive way, simply voicing opinions that reflect everyday experience. Nor is the process gradual. The development of tradition is driven in a powerful way by the rhythms of class struggle.

The Seamen's Union, before it was decimated by technological change and flags of convenience, was, for most of the twentieth century a bastion of left-wing politics and militancy. For much of the century it was under Communist leadership – it was one of the unions that were rebuilt by Communist militants in the 1930s and '40s. It was at the forefront of political intervention by the left of the trade union movement against the Vietnam War. In fact, the Seamen's Union is the one union in Australia to have come under Communist leadership before the watershed of the Great Depression. For seven tumultuous years, under the leadership of Tom Walsh, it served as a beacon of radicalism and militancy; its temporary eclipse, in the years after 1925, accompanied as it was by the arrest and attempted deportation of its leaders, demonstrated the horror with which it was viewed by the conservative governments of those years.

This paper looks at the beginning of the Walsh years. It attempts to explain how the militancy and left wing traditions of the seamen were established in the final years of the Great War. It focuses, inevitably, on the wartime radicalisation of the labour movement and on the accompanying strike wave. It also includes a discussion of the great seamen's strike of 1919. It particularly focuses, however, on what was, arguably, the most cataclysmic event in the class struggle in the early twentieth century in Australia – the Great Strike of 1917. The seamen were caught up in this tumultuous event and transformed by it. Investigating how this occurred provides a fascinating insight into how sudden and profound transformations in the culture and traditions of groups of workers can take place – how militancy ingrained itself in a previously passive and conservative section of the class. Moreover, to understand how such a transformation occurred is to understand how it might happen once again. There was nothing automatic in the militancy of the big battalions that dominated the class battlefields of the last century; those militant traditions were a creation of human agency. Militancy had to be argued for, and an understanding of its contingency reminds us that there is nothing automatic or inevitable about the passivity and disorganisation of the new sections of the working class that have been created by the economic re-organisation of the last few decades.

The performance of the union under Walsh was impressive. In 1919, the union won a dramatic strike outside the bounds of arbitration, winning a 35 shilling a week increase in pay. Cahill and Fitzpatrick, in their history of the Seamen's Union, made the observation that real wages for Australian seamen continued to rise up until 1925, while British seamen over the same period, under a notoriously right-wing union leadership, saw their wages halved.[1]

Yet the Australian Seamen's Union, before 1917, had no reputation for radicalism. The following table shows the growth in strike rates in the wharf and shipping sector in NSW:

Strike days lost in NSW – Waterfront and Shipping[2]

Year - Days Lost
1914 - 7,060
1915 - 10,730
1916 - 8,645
1917 - 677,243
1919 - 1,182,933

Before 1917 there were no big strikes on the waterfront or in the shipping sector, which were lumped together by the Bureau of Statistics Labour Reports. The union reflected this passivity in the politics of its officials who were not only industrially conservative, but aligned with the right-wing of the movement.

What caused the sudden transformation in 1917? In discussing the 1919 strike, Ian Turner made the point that there was an accumulation of wartime grievances that the Seamen's Union officials, wedded to the creaky mechanism of arbitration, were unable to address.[3] This was clearly a key element in the transformation of the seamen. The following chart shows the dramatic effect of the wartime, and immediate post-war, surge in the cost of living, and the wage rises of three different groups of workers: the coal miners, the wharfies and the seamen. It illustrates the failure of arbitration to cope with the explosion in the cost of living generated by the war, and explains why the seamen eventually abandoned arbitration for direct action.[4]

The three groups of workers achieved widely varying wage outcomes over this period charted here. The miners received a small increase in pay from Justice Higgins in January 1916. The dramatic spikes in their pay, shown on this chart in 1917 and 1919, were due to direct action – the famous successful strike of November 1916 (reflected in the 1917 rise) and a threatened strike when coal stocks were low in April 1919. The wharfies, who remained wedded to the idea of arbitration throughout this period, received only a modest increase from Justice Higgins in 1919 – which, as this chart shows, amounted to a real wage cut of some significance. The seamen were also granted a modest – dare one say 'piddling' – pay rise by Higgins in December 1918. This was a powerful demonstration of the ineffectiveness of arbitration and clearly played a role in their adoption of direct action in 1919. The change in their fortunes once they did so is dramatically demonstrated.

The problem is however, that, as the first table indicating strike days lost shows, the initial spike in strike figures in the shipping sector precedes the wages strike of 1919. It was the seamen's participation in the Great Strike of 1917 that was the decisive break in their industrial behaviour – an event that also preceded Walsh's takeover of the union. Why then did the seamen join in the strike of 1917? The accumulation of grievances – particularly wage grievances – might explain why they were discontented, but they did not strike over wages in 1917. What happened was that, as part of a movement of a hundred thousand, which included the coal miners and wharfies among others, they struck in solidarity with the workers in the railway workshops in Sydney. More specifically, they followed the lead of the wharfies who had struck a few days before them. In Melbourne the seamen's strike was most clearly connected with the wharfies' strike. The seamen walked off ship-by-ship rather than work alongside the scabs who filled the waterfront.[5] In Sydney, however, there was more to the strike than this. A Newcastle paper described the scene in Sydney on 10 August 1917:

There was a complete stoppage of work along the waterfront to-day owing to the wharf labourers' strike. The seamen are restive, and any attempt on the part of steamship owners to introduce free labour would bring them out immediately. It is not likely that the owners will try to utilise any other labour.[6]

Lees verder op http://www.historycooperative.org/proceedings/asslh2/bollard.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great Ones and the Great War: Siegfried Sassoon’s Bitter Poem, “Great Men”

Wounded for the second time, Captain Siegfried Sassoon produced a caustic poem from his hospital bed in August 1918 to attack the British elite. It was these Great Men whom he held accountable for the perpetuation of the First World War, those who were heedlessly disregarding its massive human cost for the sake of their own personal interests.
For many British soldiers and civilians alike, the First World War had become hopeless and seemingly endless by the summer of 1918. Even as the first gains were being made in the pivotal battle of Amiens, which would finally lead the protracted war toward a conclusion, British Prime Minister Lloyd George stood in the House of Commons on 7 August to deliver an encouraging speech to the disillusioned, reminding the nation of the reasons that had first led Britain to go to war and that now required the fight to go on, praising the valour of the millions of soldiers who had fought and were yet fighting for the British Empire.

Siegfried Sassoon was one of those many soldiers. He had lived the sporting life before the war, hunting, playing cricket, and dabbling in poetry, but he was quick to volunteer for service even before war was declared in August 1914, becoming a lieutenant and later captain in the Royal Welch Fusiliers. The record of his military service is somewhat complex and paradoxical. In many ways Sassoon was an enthusiastic soldier, particularly after losing his brother and a close friend early in the conflict. He was subsequently awarded the Military Cross for his brave attempts to remove the dead and wounded from the midst of battle. Yet later, influenced by Bertrand Russell and others, he adopted pacifist ideas. After being wounded in the shoulder during the Second Battle of the Scarpe in April 1917, he refused to fight any further and issued a declaration accusing the British leaders of needlessly perpetuating the war and the British civilians at home of being complacent and unsympathetic to the dying soldiers. Soon, however, Captain Sassoon found his refusal to return to combat to be both ineffective at instigating change and an affront to his personal loyalty to the men in his company, so he returned to duty. Mistakenly shot in head by a sergeant in his own unit in July 1918, he returned to England, once again with mixed emotions, to recover.

While Sassoon was in “Blighty” recuperating at the American Red Cross Hospital No. 22 in London, a remembrance service was held on Sunday 4 August 1918 to commemorate the fourth anniversary of the war’s inception. Near the Marble Arch in Hyde Park, amid a crowd of almost 20,000 people which included both the Lord Mayor and the Bishop of London, a shrine was erected on which the public laid flowers in recognition of the soldiers who had fallen in the years of war. Sassoon recorded his disgust at this event in his diary, calling it a vulgar and insulting display. He also perceived a self-interested motive on the part of Waring & Gillow, furniture makers turned aircraft manufacturers, who had made a gift of the expensive shrine. With this event still vivid in his mind, he probably read the Prime Minister’s hollow praise to the British soldiers a few days later in the newspapers. Freshly embittered toward those he held responsible for the war, Sassoon jotted down a poem entitled “Great Men” on 10 August 1918.

Great Men

The great ones of the earth
Approve, with smiles and bland salutes, the rage
And monstrous tyranny they have brought to birth.
The great ones of the earth
Are much concerned about the wars they wage,
And quite aware of what those wars are worth.

* * *

You Marshals, gilt and red,
You Ministers and Princes, and Great Men,
Why can’t you keep your mouthings for the dead?
Go round the simple Cemeteries; and then
Talk of our noble sacrifice and losses
To the wooden crosses.


http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/case-study/great-ones-and-great-war-siegfried-sassoon-s-bitter-poem-great-men
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Peace Treaty of Sčvres, 10 August, 1920
(never adopted, superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne).

Section I, Articles 1 - 260
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Section_I,_Articles_1_-_260

Section II, Annex II, and Articles 261 - 433
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Section_II,_Annex_II,_and_Articles_261_-_433

The Treaty of Sčvres (10 August 1920) was the peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World War I. The Treaty of Versailles was signed with Germany before this treaty to annul the German concessions including the economic rights and enterprises. Also, France, Great Britain and Italy signed a secret "Tripartite Agreement" at the same date.[1] The Tripartite Agreement confirmed Britain's oil and commercial concessions and turned the former German enterprises in the Ottoman Empire over to a Tripartite corporation. The open negotiations covered a period of more than fifteen months, beginning at the Paris Peace Conference. The negotiations continued at the Conference of London, and took definite shape only after the premiers' meeting at the San Remo conference in April 1920. France, Italy, and Great Britain, however, had secretly begun the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire as early as 1915. The delay occurred because the powers could not come to an agreement which, in turn, hinged on the outcome of the Turkish national movement. The Treaty of Sčvres was annulled in the course of the Turkish War of Independence and the parties signed and ratified the superseding Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_S%C3%A8vres
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 09 Aug 2010 21:47, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Excerpts from letter from Kate Richards O'Hare to "Sweethearts," 10 August 1919

August 10, 1919.

Dear Sweethearts:
* * *
Physically I am not as well as I have been the last few weeks. I am suffering from slight touches of my old enemy[A]. It has not been very severe, but it makes me rather apprehensive. I wish you would see Dr. H. at once and ask him to send me the treatment that he has used several times in the past. He will remember the large, disk-shaped tablets that look as if they were made of white wax. I don't know what they contained, but they always helped me at once. I think the proper thing for him to do is to write Dr. McNerney, the prison physician, that he has treated me for this particular trouble quite frequently and tell him what the tablets are. I think they should be sent to Dr. McN. and he will give them to me. I am also suffering a great deal from my feet swelling. They will be quite normal in the morning, but swollen very badly by night. I think this comes from the unnatural position at the machine, the constant sitting and the total lack of exercise.

We spend nine hours at the machine, and the other time locked in a crowded cell. On Monday and Tuesday we have one hour in the yard, on Wednesday less than half an hour, on Thursday and Friday no recreation whatever, Saturday we have three hours in the park and on Sunday from two to three hours in the courtyard. The little time we have in the yard is from five to six and that is the very hottest part of the day. It is absolutely impossible to walk in the broiling sun on the blistering cement pavement so we hug the hot wall as closely as possible for a bit of shade. No seats are provided and after our long day in the hot shop we go to the hotter courtyard and sit on the pavement or the tiny strip of ground bare of everything but broken brick, bits of rock and broken bottles. At the park we might really get a little real exercise but the space that we are permitted to cover is so circumscribed that it really amounts to the same old milling round and round like squirrels in a cage. I really think I have suffered more from lack of exercise than any other one thing; you know I was always passionately fond of walking, and the utter lack of opportunity to move about hurts me dreadfully.

Another painful condition has developed that troubles me somewhat. Our machines are old, decrepit and in the most deplorable condition of repair. They rattle and shake from the palsy of age and misuse and you can imagine what that does to the nerves of a person who knows as much of mechanics as I do and has due respect for good machinery and a passion for working with good tools. I have had my years of training in the machine shop and the youth who is our "boss" is as innocent of any knowledge of mechanics as he is of everything else, I am not permitted to make the slightest adjustment or even clean the machine, and I used it three months with never a cleaning. There is a knee-press by which we raise the pressure foot with our knee instead of our hand. In order to free the very heavy material under the feed and cross seams without knotting the thread or breaking the needle we must always keep our knee against this press. It beats a constant tattoo on our flesh and this has developed ugly and severely painful varicose veins where the press strikes my knee. So you see that I will carry the scars of this experience to my grave, not only mental and spiritual scars but physical ones as well.

The excessive heat of the early part of the week was deadly also and had its effect in pulling down my strength, but most of all I have suffered from lack of sleep. It was not only the ordeal of trying to sleep in the stifling cell where the steel walls were so hot you could not touch them, but the suffering of those about me was harder to bear. The poor Indian girl who is dying of syphilis is finding it so terribly hard to die. She has all the stamina of her race and the battle between the white man's disease and the Indian's firm hold on life is a sickening thing to witness! What strange problems we have in ethics, morals and humanity! Society shuts this poor girl up in prison because she killed the man who contaminated her; we force her to live thro long years of living hell, eaten by a loathsome disease and crushed by our prison system, a frightful menace to all who come near her, and our sense of humanity compels medical science to prolong the agony as long as possible. How different the ethics of the Indian, who ended the misery of hopelessly incurable and suffering. Alice is much of a stoic and endures the frightful agony with the most astounding poise, but these hellish nights her restless moaning and stifled groans make my nights hideous and effectually murder sleep. In the second cell from me is a poor, half-demented creature, a mental, spiritual and physical wreck. She suffers from a form of hysteria which causes her to sob and moan and weep for hours and hours at a time, and it seems to me that she always chooses the early morning hours when we might possibly get a little sleep. Day after day I have gone into the shop for the fearful grind there with less than two hours' sleep and for a person who requires as much asleep as I do, you can imagine the effect.
* * *
I had a nice letter from Z.[probably William E. Zeuch-- see Document 6A] and hope he will spend part of his vacation with you in St. Louis. Tell him that I do not underestimate the depth and importance of the volcanothat has broken forth in the Socialist movement. I think I sense its importance and the vital effect that it will have on all forward movements, but I simply say that it was inevitable and necessary and that out of the disruption will come new alignments, that will be bigger, broader and more serviceable to humanity. I am not one to weep over outworn things, and it is the spirit of human progress and not the letter of an ism that concerns me. You are perfectly right when you say that it will be on a bread and butter basis that the people of this nation and all nations will settle the mighty problems brought to a crisis by the war. The masses of mankind have been quickened into an all consuming hunger for life and life abundant, and they will not be hampered by treaties written by old diplomats, creeds expounded by old theologians, economic theories spun by old economists, or isms propagated by old propagandists. Mankind vibrant with the old, old hunger for bread, for love, for life, will pay no more attention to our isms than to the sophistries of diplomats, the lies of political economists of the capitalist ilk or the dead creeds of a dead religion. They will not hunt up the secretary of the Socialist local or peruse Marx to find out what they should do to be saved. If we have anything to offer that sounds sensible and workable they will seize upon it, tho they may deface our label and lay profane hands upon sacred words.

I have illusions about being a modern Joan of Arc prancing forth to lead the armies of social revolution to victory. I am just wondering if my brain is nimble enough and my legs are limber enough to avoid being stepped on by that "common herd" in the irresistible stampede that is sweeping over the world.

Z. seemed glad that I was "philosophical." Yes, I am as philosophical as my physical discomforts will permit me to be, and after the grilling day in the shop I array myself in a shocking state of undress, sit in my little rocker and read with vast amusement and many chuckles the capitalist newspapers. It is joy pure and unalloyed to me to peruse the piteous squeaks and despairing wails of the erstwhile arrogant "press." The antics of the wise men in Washington remind me very much of the senseless scuttling about of the army of cockroaches that I uncover when I lift a book or paper in my cell. How shriekingly funny is all the wild hullabaloo about the "profiteers," and poor Rose Pastor Stokes got ten years for mildly suggesting that there were such animals in a most unladylike little note.
* * *
My precious paper is almost gone and I will be forced to close. Of course there are many things I still want to say, but they must wait until another time. The fifteenth of the month is "pay day" when I draw my munificent salary. I suppose I will be transferred to B class and then I can write two letters a week. It seems a terribly long time since I have seen any of my darlings, but I know you will arrange your visits to the best possible advantage.

I must close now with lots of love and kisses to my darlings, and looking forward to the time when I can see you all once more. Give my love to our friends and comrades and tell them not to worry about me, I will come through all right.

Lovingly,

KATE.

http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/kro/doc008f.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 21:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De slag bij Orsmaal-Gussenhoven, 10/08/1914

Na de Duitse inval heeft het Belgisch veldleger zich teruggetrokken in de richting van Antwerpen achter de rivier de Grote Gete. De meer ten oosten gelegen Kleine Gete wordt verdedigd door enkele eenheden van de cavalarie en cyclisten.

In Orsmaal-Gussenhoven worden de bruggen verdedigd door eenheden van het 3de regiment lansiers. Kapitein-Commandant Knapen voert het bevel over de eenheid aan de brug aan de Gethestraat. De verdedigers van brug op de Grote Steenweg staan onder bevel van Luitenant Graaf van der Burch.

De Duitse 2de Cavalarie Divisie heeft als opdracht om vanuit Sint-Truiden op te rukken in de richting van Tienen. Op 10 augustus 1914 rond 12u30 komen eenheden van het 12de regiment Husaren en het 7de Kurassiers in contact met de Belgen. Er barst een hevig gevecht los.

De Duitsers slagen er in de namiddag in om de Gethe door te waden ten westen van Orsmaal. De brug in het meer noordelijk gelegen Helen-Bos moet worden prijsgegeven. De verdedigers hiervan wijken naar de pachthoeve Marcoer die al snel wordt belegerd. Hier sneuvelen zeven lansiers. Hun bevelhebber luitenant Halleux raakt gekwetst aan het hoofd en overlijdt 3 dagen later in het Sint-Janshospitaal in Brugge.

Uiteindelijk moeten de Belgen wijken onder de Duitse druk. De beide bevelhebbers van de posten aan de bruggen sneuvelen. Aan het kerkje van Orsmaal worden 22 Belgische doden begraven.

Interessant! Lees verder op http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4115
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Strijd om Luik van 5 augustus tot 16 augustus 1914

Het Transport van de Houwitsers naar Luik - Zondag, maandag, dinsdag 9, 10 en 11 augustus 1914
Op negen augustus dreigde dezelfde situatie te ontstaan als in de eerder door de Duitsers verwoeste dorpen van België. Het gerucht ontstond dat er geschoten zou zijn vanuit een huis op de Place de l’Úniversité op een marcherende colonne Duitse soldaten. Daarbij zouden zes soldaten en een luitenant gewond geraakt zijn.. Het huis waaruit werd geschoten, zou zijn bezet door Russische studenten en omgebouwd tot een soort fort.

Het duurde niet lang of het verzet was gebroken en het huis ingenomen. De Duitsers staken het daarna , samen met zes andere huizen, in brand.
Na goede artilleristen en geschikte vervoermiddelen te hebben gevonden werd de laatste hand gelegd aan het transport van de twee „Dicke Bertha” houwitsers.
De houwitsers verlieten op maandag tien augustus de fabrieken van Krupp in Essen. In de nacht van tien op elf augustus passeerden de gevaarten de grens met België. Maar twintig kilometer na de Belgische grens werd door de Belgen bij Herbesthal een spoorwegtunnel opgeblazen waardoor het kanon niet verder vervoerd kon worden. Men kon de rails en tunnel onmogelijk herstellen zodat de houwitsers nu per paardenkracht en motorvoertuigen verder
vervoerd moesten worden. Deze laatste achttien kilometer waren voor de mensen die voor het vervoer verantwoordelijk waren, een ware hel. Door het gewicht van het kanon begaven motoren van voertuigen het en van paardetuigen bleef eveneens weinig over en het kostte de grootste inspanning om de zware kolossen op de plaats van hun bestemming te krijgen.

http://www.ssew.nl/strijd-om-luik-5-augustus-tot-16-augustus-1914
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Feldpostbriefe - Lettres de poilus: »... wer fällt, der stirbt den Heldentod«

Mit Feldpostbriefen erinnern Deutschlandfunk und Radio France montags bis freitags an den Ersten Weltkrieg - das Material schickten Hörerinnen und Hörer


Begrifflich bilden die beiden Weltkriege, die Europa in diesem ausgehenden Jahrhundert heimgesucht haben, ein Zwillingspaar. Dessen ungeachtet denkt man in Deutschland, wenn vom Weltkrieg die Rede ist, aus vielerlei Gründen zuallererst an den Zweiten Weltkrieg. In Frankreich ist das anders. Für die Franzosen ist der Erste Weltkrieg »la grande guerre«, der Große Krieg, der seinen festen Platz im Buch des nationalen Stolzes hat.

Bei allen Unterschieden in der Auffassung überwiegt ein gemeinsames Grundverständnis: Nach einem Wort des amerikanischen Diplomaten George F.Kennan war der Erste Weltkrieg die »Urkatastrophe des 20.Jahrhunderts«. Von ihm nahm alles seinen Ausgang. Ohne ihn wäre es zu der Tragödie, die mit dem Jahre 1933 begann, nicht gekommen. Ohne ihn hätte es kein Hitler-Reich gegeben, auch kein Sowjetimperium, keine KZ's, keinen Gulag.

Im Wald von Compičgne unterzeichneten der Oberbefehlshaber der französischen Streitkräfte, General Foch, und der Reichstagsabgeordnete Erzberger am 11.November 1918 die Waffenstillstandsbedingungen. Damit waren die Kriegshandlungen zu Ende, die auf beiden Seiten zusammen schätzungsweise 3,2 Millionen Soldaten den Tod gebracht hatten.

An die 80.Wiederkehr des Waffenstillstands erinnert eine neue Serie des Deutschlandfunks. Das Besondere daran ist zunächst die Form: Statt auf historische oder militärische Analysen stützt sich die Serie auf subjektive Eindrücke, vermittelt in Briefen von der Front an die Heimat und umgekehrt. Die zweite Besonderheit: Es handelt sich um Briefe sowohl deutscher wie französischer Soldaten. Denn die Serie wurde zusammen mit Radio France geplant und produziert. »Gestiftet« hat diese in ihrer Art erstmalige Kooperation das Deutsch-Französische Jugendwerk.

Es sind die Hörerinnen und Hörer beider Radioprogramme, die den »Stoff« für die Serie geliefert haben. Radio France und der Deutschlandfunk riefen im Frühjahr die Hörerschaft auf, Feldpostbriefe von Angehörigen zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Deutschlandfunk war es der ehemalige Bundesaußenminister Genscher, der den Aufruf sprach. Das Echo war erfreulich groß. Tausende Briefe erreichten die Funkhäuser in Paris und Köln. Wie zu erwarten war die Auswahl, die von namhaften Historikern und von beiden Redaktionen getroffen wurde, außerordentlich schwierig. Diejenigen Einsender, deren Material nicht berücksichtigt werden konnte, bitte ich an dieser Stelle um Verständnis.

Der Deutschlandfunk startet mit der Serie »Feldpostbriefe - Lettres de poilus« am 2.November. Vier Wochen lang, jeweils montags bis freitags, werden die Briefe deutscher und französischer Soldaten in den »Informationen am Morgen« (immer ab 8.20 Uhr) präsentiert. Die Hörbilder lassen durchaus Unterschiede kenntlich werden, es überwiegen jedoch die Gemeinsamkeiten: dasselbe Schicksal, dieselben Empfindungen.

Wir können uns heute kaum vorstellen, mit welcher Begeisterung die Soldaten 1914 in den Krieg zogen, hier wie dort, überzeugt von der Gerechtigkeit der eigenen Sache und im festen Glauben an einen ruhmreichen Sieg nach kurzem Feldzug. »Es ist eine herrliche Zeit«, schreibt am 10.August 1914 ein 35jähriger deutscher Hauptmann seiner Frau. »Wir sitzen lange Strecken auf den Maschinengewehren, die auf den offenen Wagen stehen. Wie einer sagte: ›Man sieht nochmals alles, was man verteidigen soll.‹ Unendliche Mengen von guten Dingen auf den Verpflegungsstationen, enorme Begeisterung überall. Wenn Du noch dabei wärst, wäre es die schönste Reise, die ich je gemacht habe.«

Ähnlich ein französischer Reservist, der bei Agen im Südwesten mobilisiert wurde. »Alles ist ruhig, man könnte meinen, daß es ins Manöver geht. Die Hinweisschilder weisen von Agen nach Berlin, und die Haut Wilhelms (des deutschen Kaisers, Anm.) wird eines Tages zum Verkauf anstehen. Ich habe meine alten Kameraden gesehen, jeder ist froh, nach Deutschland zu ziehen.«

Man kam nicht nach Deutschland. Im Osten Frankreichs erstarrte der Feldzug bald im Stellungskrieg. Sinnloses Blutbad setzte ein, fern allen Heroismus. Am 11.November 1915 kommentiert ein »Feldgrauer« sarkastisch die Nachrichten aus der Heimat: »Da wird nun die Stadt beflaggt. Alles brüllt Hurra, wenn ein Sieg errungen ist. Aber was damit verbunden ist, bleibt außer Acht. Daß hunderte Leichen herumliegen, in den Drahthindernissen hängen, überhaupt, wie ein Angriff zugeht, daran wird nicht gedacht. Und wer fällt, der stirbt den Heldentod. Auch ein schönes Wort, das hier keinen Anklang mehr findet. Das war einmal!«

Für die Redaktion der Briefe zeichnen Ursula Welter und Christoph Heinemann verantwortlich, für die Produktion Karl-Heinz Stevens und Genia Hoppenrath. Die Musik stellte Ludwig Rink zusammen. (Zu dieser Sendung erscheint auch eine CD;)

Günter Müchler

http://www.dradio.de/dlf/sendungen/feldpost/
Zie ook http://histoforum.digischool.nl/veldpost/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ROTTERDAM EN DE BELGISCHE VLUCHTELINGEN IN DE EERSTE WERELDOORLOG
DOOR M.H.C.H. LEENDERS EN W.G.M. ORTH-SANDERS

Door de oorlog nam de werkloosheid in Nederland toe. In Rotterdam
hielden zich twee instanties bezig met de ondersteuning van
de Rotterdamse werklozen. Allereerst het al langer functionerend
Burgerlijk Armbestuur, dat het aantal zogenaamde 'posten', zijnde
een of meer samenwonende personen, zag toenemen van 1321
in augustus 1914 tot ruim 2000 midden september van dat jaar.
Verder was er de nieuwe Algemene Commissie tot Steun die in september
1914 4198 'posten' voor haar rekening nam. Deze commissie
viel onder het Nationale Steuncomité dat op 10 augustus
1914 op initiatief van de koningin was opgericht. Het hoofddoel
van dit comité was het werken aan het herstel van het economische
leven en het voorkomen van werkloosheid. Daarnaast
werkte zij mee aan het lenigen van ontstane nood en het beschikbaar
houden van levensmiddelen en de eventuele distributie ervan.
Dit Nationale Steuncomité heeft de hele oorlog door wekelijks bedragen
aan Rotterdam overgemaakt.

Lees beslist verder op http://rjb.x-cago.com/GARJB/1992/12/19921231/GARJB-19921231-0261/story.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1915

10 augustus 1915 - ’s Avonds omstreeks 8 uur wordt een man in de Haarlemmerstraat aangereden door een dame op een fiets. Hij valt en komt terecht onder een tramwagen van lijn 5, met als gevolg dat hij overreden wordt en de dood vindt.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1915.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Querido

Emanuel Querido (1871) opende in 1898 zijn eerste boekhandel, gaf in 1904 als boekhandelaar/uitgever zijn eerste boek uit, begon in 1911 een verzendboekhandel, werd in 1915 chef van de boekenafdeling van De Bijenkorf in Amsterdam en meldde op 10 augustus 1915 de oprichting van Em. Querido's Uitgeversmaatschappij. Nederlandse en vertaalde literatuur, kinderboeken en vaak van politieke betrokkenheid getuigende non-fictie bepaalden de eerste jaren het beeld.

http://www.scholieren.com/boekverslagen/25307
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Eemlander - 10 augustus 1916

Berooving? De wissellooper P., te Erica, had voor den kassier Walburg Smidt, te Emmen, f 3000 geďnd. Op den terugweg werd hij onwel en ging aan den weg zitten. Volgens zijn zeggen is hij in slaap geraakt en bemerkte bij zijn ontwaken dat de tasch met geld verdwenen was. De politie doet onderzoek.

http://www.b-zwart.nl/ericapagina/index.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

10 augustus 1917 - Het trommelvuur is weer aan gang en een nieuwe aanval in verwachting. Zal het deze keer tot een doorbraak komen?

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0036.php
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, Vrijdag 10 augustus 1917

Dezer dagen is te Domburg de jaarlijksche tentoonstelling van schilderijen geopend. De ultra-modernen zullen er hun hart kunnen ophalen, want er is een keur van schilderproducten aanwezig van de hand der volgelingen van P. van Wijngaert c.s. en de „minder-modernisten” zijn haast niet vertegenwoordigd. Eenige blauwe, gele en roode blokjes, los van elkander op een zwarten achtergrond aangebracht door Theo van Doesburg, worden u in den catalogus aangekondigd als: vijfde compositie (1917) motief: „de drie gratiën” en eenige driehoeken en cirkelsegmenten als „dansfiguren”. Verder zijn er „landschappen” met zwarte contouren, opgebouwd uit kubus-achtige blokken, en waarin de huizen zoo scheef staan, als waren zij door een aardbeving geteisterd, een en ander van de hand van Jean Colette. Voorts de onwezenlijke „schilderijen” van Mevr. Fernhout-Toorop enz. Voor niet-aanhangers der „nieuwe strooming” is de expositie zeer weinig belangwekkend, en het schijnt ons dan ook een fout van het Comité zoo weinig rekening te houden met den smaak van het publiek, dat, over het geheel genomen, nu eenmaal van die buitenissigheden niet is gediend.

Jan Heyse, die verleden jaar zoo mooi uitkwam met zijn „Prinsje” en „Oud stadje” en zijn drieluik kan dezen keer het peil der expositie niet naar boven brengen met zijn twee inzendingen. Er is nu niets op deze tentoonstelling, dat hevig ontroert; wel zijn er, gelukkig, enkele fraaie stukken, waaronder wij noemen die van W. J. Schülz en het stilleven van P. Schultze, alsmede den door L. Schelfhout ingezonden vrouwekop, en een teekening van Mevr. Elout-Drabbe. Ook is er een symbolische teekening van J. Toorop, getiteld „Brugge of de Goddelijke Heidegang.” Mej. Wichers Wierdsma houdt van bizarre teekeningen: de palen van haar „paalhoofd” geven den indruk van even zoovele doodsbeenderen. Haar ex-libris ontwerpen zijn echter zeer zeker karakteristiek.

De liefhebbers der minder-moderne kunst zullen beter doen hunne schreden te richten naar Vlissingen of Veere. In eerstgenoemde plaats zijn thans schilderijen te zien van den Haagschen Kunstkring „Hollande-Belge” gecombineerd met het werk van Walchersche schilders, terwijl in Veere in het „Schotsche huis” mede veel schoons is te genieten.

http://nl.wikisource.org/wiki/Anoniem/Zonder_titel/17, via http://kranten.kb.nl/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (10-08-1918)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1918/0810
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter Home: August 10, 1918

Dear Father and Mother:-

Your letter of July 5 recieved about two days ago. We have had it quite easy lately as we are haveing quite a rest. But I guess we all earned it for we were sure busy for a while. We were in a good sized town for about a week which seems more like civilization. I met a French Family by the name of Schalles they may be some distant relation to us. They were refugees from Alsace[?]. I recieved the razor blades O.K. Rose sent me some pictures of You and Mama allso of Elsie[sister] & Rose. I allso recieved some pictures from Mae not long ago. the last time we were in the line I saw some tanks in Action they are sure some boat. The looks of them is enough to scare a boche out of 10 years growth. I saw in the Durango paper that Ray and Robert Armstrong had enlisted.

There are lots of girls running street cars here in the bigger towns and working in the mills and heaveing coal I guess that would be quite a sight in the states. Will close for now with love your son

Robert E. Schalles
1st Amb Co.
American E F
via
New York

http://www.robertschallesmemorial.com/LettersSub/b08101918.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 22:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Erich Loewenhardt

Erich Loewenhardt kwam in maart 1917 bij Jasta 10, dat deel uitmaakte van het door Richthofen gecommandeerde Jagdgeschwader 1. Een jaar later, hij was toen net 20, had hij 15 tegenstanders neergehaald en kreeg hij het commando over Jasta 10. Met zijn nieuwe Fokker D.VII brak toen een voor hem buitengewoon succesvolle periode aan. In enkele maanden tijd wist hij het totaal van zijn overwinningen op 54 te brengen. Op 10 augustus 1918 kwam hij om het leven tijdens een luchtgevecht met het Britse No.56 Squadron. Bij Chaulmes (Fr.) botste Loewenhardt in de lucht met zijn kameraad Alfred Wenz. Beide piloten sprongen uit hun toestel, maar Loewenhardts parachute opende zich niet. Wenz bracht het er levend af.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/berlijn/deel-06-luchtmacht/index.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13473
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Aug 2010 23:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nederlander in Amerikaanse Dienst

Na de oorlog ging de 2e Infanterie Divisie tijdelijk naar Duitsland, waar Louis Van Iersel op 18 maart 1919 uit handen van de beroemde Amerikaanse bevelhebber John. J. Pershing, namens de Amerikaanse president en het Congres, de ‘Medal of Honor’ ontving. In totaal werden er 135 militairen die tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog in het Amerikaanse leger hadden gediend geridderd met de ‘Medal of Honor’. Het was vrij uitzonderlijk dat een vreemdeling deze onderscheiding kreeg. Op 25 september 1919 verkreeg hij het Amerikaans staatsburgerschap. Voor vreemdelingen die in het Amerikaanse leger hadden gediend, ging het verkrijgen van het Amerikaans staatsburgerschap eenvoudiger en sneller. Hij was nu Amerikaan, maar wilde toch een Nederlandse bruid. Louis keerde terug naar Nederland en trouwde op 4 augustus 1920 in Dussen met Hendrika Johanna de Ronde. Inmiddels was het gezin uitgebreid met een zoon Adriaan, in augustus 1920 ca. 4 maanden oud. Op 10 augustus 1920 vertrok het gezin met het stoomschip ‘Rotterdam’ vanuit Rotterdam naar New York, waar het op 20 augustus arriveerde. Het gezin kreeg later nog drie zonen. Louis van Iersel en zijn drie zonen namen tijdens de Tweede wereldoorlog vrijwillig dienst. In 1987 overleed Louis van Iersel op 93 jarige leeftijd. Hij ligt begraven op de beroemde Amerikaanse begraafplaats Arlington.

http://ssew.nl/nederlander-amerikaanse-dienst
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Finnbar
Moderator


Geregistreerd op: 5-11-2009
Berichten: 6975
Woonplaats: Uaso Monte

BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Aug 2011 5:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUGUST 10, 1914

The Belgian Front.
==(to Aug.12) After frantic preparations, two super-heavy siege mortars are transported by herculean effort from the Krupp Works at Essen to Ličge

The BEF.
==The first BEF troop train reaches Southampton

The Northwestern Front.
==French GQG ‘confirms’ that the main German offensive will not come through Belgium

Lorraine.
==The French defeat a German brigade at Mangiennes

Alsace.
==The French are driven from Mulhouse [700.AM]
== ~Joffre forms the Army of Alsace under Pau, on the French far right flank



===> http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne02.htm
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Finnbar
Moderator


Geregistreerd op: 5-11-2009
Berichten: 6975
Woonplaats: Uaso Monte

BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Aug 2014 6:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Yvonne @ 10 Aug 2009 5:58 schreef:
95 jaar geleden:
In de aanloop naar de Slag bij Halen:

Op 10 augustus 1914 rond 12u30 komen eenheden van het 12de regiment Husaren en het 7de Kurassiers in contact met de Belgen. Er barst een hevig gevecht los.
uit:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4115



100 jaar ...
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Pagina 1 van 1

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group