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28 juli

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2006 6:09    Onderwerp: 28 juli Reageer met quote

1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

On July 28, 1914, one month to the day after Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife were killed by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, effectively beginning the First World War.

Threatened by Serbian ambition in the tumultuous Balkans region of Europe, Austria-Hungary determined that the proper response to the assassinations was to prepare for a possible military invasion of Serbia. After securing the unconditional support of its powerful ally, Germany, Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with a rigid ultimatum on July 23, 1914, demanding, among other things, that all anti-Austrian propaganda within Serbia be suppressed, and that Austria-Hungary be allowed to conduct its own investigation into the archduke’s killing. Though Serbia effectively accepted all of Austria’s demands except for one, the Austrian government broke diplomatic relations with the other country on July 25 and went ahead with military preparedness measures. Meanwhile, alerted to the impending crisis, Russia—Serbia’s own mighty supporter in the Balkans—began its own initial steps towards military mobilization against Austria.

In the days following the Austrian break in relations with Serbia, the rest of Europe, including Russia’s allies, Britain and France, looked on with trepidation, fearing the imminent outbreak of a Balkans conflict that, if entered into by Russia, threatened to explode into a general European war. The British Foreign Office lobbied its counterparts in Berlin, Paris and Rome with the idea of an international convention aimed at moderating the conflict; the German government, however, was set against this notion, and advised Vienna to go ahead with its plans.

On July 28, 1914, after a decision reached conclusively the day before in response to pressure from Germany for quick action—apart from Kaiser Wilhelm I, who by some accounts still saw the possibility of a peaceful diplomatic resolution to the conflict, but was outmaneuvered by the more hawkish military and governmental leadership of Germany—Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. In response, Russia formally ordered mobilization in the four military districts facing Galicia, its common front with the Austro-Hungarian Empire. That night, Austrian artillery divisions initiated a brief, ineffectual bombardment of Belgrade across the Danube River.

“My darling one and beautiful, everything tends towards catastrophe and collapse,” British naval official Winston Churchill wrote to his wife at midnight on July 29. He was proven right over the next several days. On August 1, after its demands for Russia to halt mobilization met with defiance, Germany declared war on Russia. Russia’s ally, France, ordered its own general mobilization that same day, and on August 3, France and Germany declared war on each other. The German army’s planned invasion of neutral Belgium, announced on August 4, prompted Britain to declare war on Germany. Thus, in the summer of 1914, the major powers in the Western world—with the exception of the United States and Italy, both of which declared their neutrality, at least for the time being—flung themselves headlong into the First World War.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On July 28th in military history....in 1914

On July 28th in military history….in 1914. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia and sets off World War I. World War I could be called the "War of Interlocking Treaties" or the "War of Use-It-Or-Loose-It". On June 28th, 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne in Sarajevo. Austria demanded that Serbia be punished and threatened to invade. However, Russia had signed a treaty with Serbia to protect their independence if attacked. Austria had a treaty with Germany that if Austria was attacked, Germany would come to their aid. Russia was part of the Triple Entente with Britain and France, so when one was attacked, the other two would come to their aid. There were other treaties involved, but these were the main treaties that pushed Europe to war.

Military staffs on the continent also had been working for years on calculations that involved the amount of time it would take to mobilize the military and send them to the front. The calculations were so specific that they could tell the government exactly how many miles of territory they would loose for every day that they delayed mobilizing the military, a "use-it-or-loose-it" scenario.

So, the leaders of Europe, faced with mutual-defense treaties on one hand and the military telling them that every day delayed equals the loss of X numbers of miles of territory on the other hand, it’s no wonder that World War I happened. It was more or less guaranteed.

http://thewarrenat.blogspot.com/2005/07/on-july-28th-in-military-historyin.html

The 28th of July 1914 AD

It is possible, if frivolous, to argue that WWI began because some foolish Serbian reservists in small steamships managed accidentally to cross to the Austro-Hungarian side of the river forming the border of their two countries on June 26 1914, the Austrians firing at them in retaliation for their trespass. This was the final spark that led to the ageing Austrian Emperor being persuaded to declare war on Serbia on July 28, the first of a series of declarations and counter-declarations that rapidly led to a global conflict. But the causes of WWI are notoriously complex; going back some would argue to the Treaty of Vienna after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo.
Some desired war – domestic politics in both France and Germany meant that governments welcomed the idea of a unifying cause to distract the left in Germany and right in France from upsetting the political status quo. In Russia, though on the surface the Tsar was in firm control, a noble cause for the motherland was equally interesting to the authorities. In Serbia and the rest of the Balkans, the idea of uniting the southern Slavs had huge force.
The vision of Slav unity drew Russia towards Serbia, and meant that powerful men in the Serb military arranged the terrorist assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo to move events on, and with his death create a giant gesture of defiance and purpose.
The arms race over the previous decades was another undeniable factor. The Dreadnoughts of the European navies symbolised the belief in coming conflict if you agree with one view, or the desire to avoid it by deterrence if you follow another. AJP Taylor propounded the theory that once events were set in motion, the detailed mobilisation plans that were meant to be a deterrent actually trapped the proponents into action.
Nationalism, economic and imperial greed – Trotsky famously revealed the plans to split the territorial proceeds of a putative war drawn up by Britain and Russia beforehand - national hatreds, resentment at slights and old conflicts, all were added to the mix.
Perhaps we can say that the war happened because everyone expected it to happen, and were confident of victory when it did. Britain did not enter the war officially until several days later, but preparations were well in train when those rather comically faulty navigators crossed to the wrong side of the stream and provided the excuse, or justification, for war.

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=223

En samenvattend, lieve kinderen:

23rd July: The Austro-Hungarian government makes fifteen demands on the Serbian government. This includes the demand they arrest the leaders of the Black Hand group based in Serbia and send them to face trial in Vienna.

24th July: Nikola Pasic and the Serbian government appeal to Russia for help against the proposed attack by the Austro-Hungarian Army.

25th July: Nikola Pasic tells the Austro-Hungarian government that he is unable to accept their fifteen demands, as it "would be a violation of Serbia's Constitution and criminal in law".

26th July: Russia promises that it will help Serbia if it is attacked by Austro-Hungary.

28th July: Austro-Hungarian declares war on Serbia.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWtimetable.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 July 1914: The Pledge Plan

Telegram from the Imperial Chancellor, von Bethmann-Hollweg, to the German Ambassador at Vienna, Tschirschky, July 28, 1914:

Telegram 174
Berlin, July 28, 1914
Urgent

The Austro-Hungarian government has distinctly informed Russia that it is not considering any territorial acquisitions in Serbia. This agrees with Your Excellency's report to the effect that neither the Austrian nor the Hungarian statesmen consider the increase of the Slavic element in the monarchy to be desirable. On the other hand, the Austro-Hungarian government has left us in the dark concerning its intentions, despite repeated interrogations. The reply of the Serbian government to the Austrian ultimatum, which has now been received, makes it clear that Serbia has agreed to the Austrian demands to so great an extent that, in case of a completely uncompromising attitude on the part of the Austro-Hungarian government, it will become necessary to reckon upon the gradual defection from its cause of public opinion throughout all Europe.

According to the statements of the Austrian General Staff, an active military movement against Serbia will not be possible before the 12th of August. As a result, the Imperial government is placed in the extraordinarily difficult position of being exposed in the meantime to the mediation and conference proposals of the other cabinets and if it continues to maintain its previous aloofness in the face of such proposals, it will incur the odium of having been responsible for a world war, even, finally, among the German people themselves. A successful war on three fronts cannot be commenced and carried on on any such basis.

It is imperative that the responsibility for the eventual extension of the war among those nations not originally immediately concerned should, under all circumstances, fall on Russia. At Mr. Sazonoff's last conversation with Count Pourtals, the Minister already conceded that Serbia would have to receive her "deserved lesson." At any rate the Minister was no longer so unconditionally opposed to the Austrian point of view as he had been earlier. From this fact it is not difficult to draw the conclusion that the Russian government might even realize that, once the mobilization of the Austro-Hungarian Army had begun, the very honor of its arms demanded an invasion of Serbia. But it will be all the better able to compromise with this idea if the Vienna Cabinet repeats at Petersburg its distinct declaration that she is far from wishing to make any territorial acquisitions in Serbia, and that her military preparations are solely for the purpose of a temporary occupation of Belgrade and certain other localities on Serbian territory in order to force the Serbian government to the complete fulfillment of her demands, and for the creation of guarantees of future good behavior -- to which Austria-Hungary has an unquestionable claim after the experiences she has had with Serbia. An occupation like the German occupation of French territory after the Peace of Frankfort, for the purpose of securing compliance with the demands for war indemnity, is suggested. As soon as the Austrian demands are complied with, evacuation would follow. Should the Russian government fail to recognize the justice of this point of view, it would have against it the public opinion of all Europe, which is now in the process of turning away from Austria. As a further result, the general diplomatic, and probably the military, situation would undergo material alteration in favor of Austria-Hungary and her allies.

Your Excellency will kindly discuss the matter along these lines thoroughly and impressively with Count Berchtold, and instigate an appropriate move at St. Petersburg. You will have to avoid very carefully giving rise to the impression that we wish to hold Austria back. The case is solely one of finding a way to realize Austria's desired aim, that of cutting the vital cord of the Greater-Serbia propaganda without at the same time bringing on a world war, and, if the latter cannot be avoided in the end, of improving the conditions under which we shall have to wage it, insofar as is possible.

Wire report.

BETHMANN-HOLLWEG

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/pledplan.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 July, 1914: The Austro-Hungarian Declaration of War on Serbia

from: Collected Documents Relating to the Outbreak of the European War (London, 1915), p. 392. This is Document No. 45 quoted from the Serbian Blue Book.

"At 11:10 A.M. on July 28, 1914, Count Leopold von Berchtold, the Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs, sent the following telegram from Vienna to M. N. Pashitch, Serbian Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs. This declaration of war was received at Nish at 12:30 P.M."

[Telegraphic]
Vienna, July 28, 1914
The Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms. Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in state of war with Serbia.
COUNT BERCHTOLD

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/a-hdecwar.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 28 July, even though Serbia had accepted most of the ultimatum terms, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia was already planning partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary, but stated she had no aggressive intentions towards Germany. The German Kaiser telegraphed Tsar Nicholas II, stating that he would use his influence with Austria-Hungary.

On 28 July, at Bucharest, Romanian King Carol informed the Austria-Hungarian Ambassador that Romania's neutrality was determined by that of Italy. Bulgaria announced its neutrality. The British Fleet was ordered to sail to its war stations.

http://warchron.com/mobilizationWar.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Declaration of War (July 28, 1914)
Guest Author - Christa Mackey

On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand—heir to the Austria-Hungarian Epmire—was assassinated on the streets of Sarajevo. Three weeks later, the Austrian government decided that the only possibility was that Serbia (with whom there had been deep tensions) was solely to blame and, therefore, entirely responsible.

On July 23, 1914, an ultimatum arrived in Belgrade. The instructions were clear: read and give response by 6pm the following Saturday (July 25). An examination of the ultimatum lends credence to the theory that the ultimatum was intended to be unacceptable. Austria wanted war.

But why?

Looking back over European history at that time, in 1911, a small war broke out in North Africa between Italy and the Ottoman Empire (Turks). The Turks lost that battle and Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece decided to try to take away more land from the Ottoman Empire. The Turks, backed by Germany fought against Serbia (backed by France), and lost yet again. After squabbles with Bulgaria and Greece over the spoils of the victory, Serbia ended up holding a seaport in Albania—the nation that the Turks were forced to grant independence.

To say that Austria-Hungary government was displeased would be an understatement. They moved into Bosnia and removed as many Serbs as they could. The surge in Serbian nationalism disquieted Austria-Hungary and they wanted a war. Russia swore to back the Serbian military, but Germany refused to back Austria-Hungry in any offensive maneuver against Serbia. Fearing the forces of Russia without support, Austria-Hungary withdrew the idea of declaring war on Serbia. Not desiring war themselves, Serbia withdrew from the sea port in Albania.

Europe was a festering pot of paranoia during the years of 1911 through 1914. Russia wanted to go to war with Germany because Germany was gaining land in the Balkans, which could potentially hinder Russia’s trade with the Mediterranean. Austria-Hungary wanted to declare war on Serbia because Serbia was gaining influence and prestige. Germany wanted to support Austria-Hungary, but wasn’t quite ready to take on Russia. Germany also wanted to attack Britain, but wanted to wait until they had better access via the canal that would be completed in 1916.

Bosnian Serbs despised the Hapsburg rule. Franz Josef I had visited Sarajevo in 1910, with two rows of armed guards separating him from the Serbs in attendance. Archduke Franz Ferdinand would not take such precautions in June of 1914. A Serbian student, who had been rejected for military service, wanted to prove his worth to his country. Gavrilo Princip, along with several other co-conspirators, went to the rally in Sarajevo with the sole purpose to assassinate the heir to the Hapsburg empire. Which, they eventually succeeded in doing.

Archduke Ferdinand was sympathetic to the Serbs. He, in fact, was quite unpopular among many of Austria’s conservatives. Ferdinand wanted autonomy for the Serbs—just like what had been granted to the Hungarians.

The limo in which the Archduke and his wife rode made a wrong turn. In the process of correcting the turn, they were both shot and bled to death as they were taken to the hospital. Princip, who had a very clear shot at the Archduke, was beaten and taken to prison.

Upon hearing of the assassination, Serbian leaders issued their heart-felt condolences to the Austria-Hungary empire and sought out those who had aided in the assassination. The people had been celebrating the death of the Hapsburg heir, but the government ordered them home and shops closed in mourning of the loss.

Austria went to Germany and stated the Serbs needed to be punished. Wilhelm agreed and assumed his cousin, Tsar Nicolas II of Russia would as well. Neither assumed war would be the answer. In fact, no one in the rest of the world even knew that thoughts of war were brewing within the heads of the leaders of Austria.

The blame was not placed on a lack of security. The blame was placed on the Serbs. In particular, they blamed the Serbian government because the assassins were Serbian nationalists—which the government had been encouraging. On July 23, 1914, an ultimatum arrived in Belgrade. On it were ten items that the Serbian government had to agree to. Of those ten, only item six was disagreeable to Serbia—the involvement of Austria-Hungarian agents in the investigation of the assassination. That one issue violated the Constitution of Serbia.

It was enough to start a War.

On July 28, 1914, at 11am, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. It would be the first great war the world had ever seen. The question remains, however, of whether Princip had been contracted by the Austrian conservatives to assassinate the Archduke, or if Princip acted on his own free will. We may never know the truth, but we can certainly speculate and draw our own conclusions.

http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art23131.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armenian Genocide Information And Recognition

Tuesday, July 28, 1914 - Negotiations are started between the Turkish and German Imperial governments.
Wednesday, July 28, 1915 - Sabit, the governor-general of Kharput Province, informs the Interior Ministry that all the road are filled with the bodies of women and children and time cannot be found to bury them.
Wednesday, July 28, 1915 - The governor-general of Erzerum Province reports of widespread looting and rape.
Wednesday, July 28, 1915 - The Interior Ministry issues a circular telegram instructing that the Muslim population be settled in the large Armenian villages.
Wednesday, July 28, 1915 - The deportation of the Armenians of the town of Aintab begins.
Wednesday, July 28, 1915 - The deportation of the Armenians of the town of Kilis begins.
Wednesday, July 28, 1915 - The deportation of the Armenians of the town of Adiaman begins.
Wednesday, July 28, 1915 - Professor Kakig Ozanian of the American College and others from Marsovan (Merzifon), together with the Armenian community leader Dikran Diranian and others from Samsun, are transported to the prisons of Sivas to be killed.

http://www.genocide1915.info/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wednesday 28th July 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

‘The enemys new gun fired several shells during the day, it appears to be situated somewhere near the Olive Grove. Another 4.7 naval gun was brought ashore today. We received a tin of milk to 4 men with our rations today, several occasions lately we have had rice and raisons issued to us and the milk will be very acceptable with them.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/07/28/wednesday-28th-july-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pozieres

(...) By 27 July the 2nd Australian Division had taken over the whole front at Pozieres. The 2nd had never fought a pitched battle but they had served on Gallipoli and were therefore 'old hands'.

The Germans, watching the preparations for a new offensive effort, systematically and endlessly pounded the Australians with artillery and in one heavy concentration part of the 24th Battalion was annihilated. 'The shelling of Pozieres,' wrote historian Bean, 'did not merely probe character and, nerve; it laid them stark naked as no other experience of the AIF ever did.

On 28 July, the 7th Brigade was assigned to form the centre of the attacking force between the 5th and 6th Brigades. But the attack failed with the 2nd Division losing some 3500 men. One of the great difficulties in night attacks was that in the uproar, the confusion and the blackness soldiers could not find their way. Digging jump-off trenches from which attacking troops would begin their advance was an almost impossible task. A famous letter written at this time by Melbourne journalist Lieutenant J. A. Raws, who, with his brother, was killed in the Somme battle, described the battle scene. No account of the horror of Pozieres is likely to equal this description written by Raws:

... we lay down terror-stricken along a bank. The shelling was awful ... we eventually found our way to the right spot out in no-man's-land. Our leader was shot before we arrived and the strain had sent two other officers mad. I and another new officer took charge and dug the trench. We were shot at all the time... the wounded and killed had to be thrown to one side ... I refused to let any sound man help a wounded man; the sound had to dig ... we dug on and finished amid a tornado of bursting shells ... I was buried once and thrown down several times ... buried with dead and dying. The ground was covered bodies in all stages of decay and mutilation and I would, after struggling from the earth, pick body by me to try and lift him out with me and find him a decayed corpse ... I went up again the night and stayed up there. We were shelled to hell ceaselessly. X- went mad and disappeared... there remained nothing but a charred mass of debris with bricks, stones, girders and bodies pounded to nothing ... we are lousy, stinking, unshaven, sleepless ... I have one puttee, a man's helmet, another dead man's protect dead man's bayonet. My tunic rotten with other men's blood and partly spattered with a comrade's brains.

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-battles/ww1/france/somme-1916.htm#Pozieres
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dick's Diary - The 1916 war diaries of 2nd Lieut. Richard T C Willis Fleming

28 July 1916 - Enemy planes came over about seven thirty this morning, but no mountain battery to open fire on her. News came in this morning that the Turks were shelling Hill 100, and later they were reported to be advancing in force on Katia and the Anzacs falling back.

Stood by at the guns for the rest of the day, but I think they won't attack before dawn tomorrow. We've made a new F.O.O. which commands a much better view of our zone. We are in readiness now to turn out a mobile column. They are pretty certain to send one out tomorrow I should think, if the Turks entrench at Katia.

Franklyn is back from hospital, but the major doesn't think he is fit enough to go out, so I shall be taking the right section into action tomorrow if we go out and Franklyn shows no signs of being fitter.

The men are as keen as mustard and longing to get out at the Turk. I am just off to the F.O.O.

http://www.willisfleming.org.uk/dicksdiary/entries/1916/07/friday-28-july-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thiepval Memorial

Behind the Thiepval Memorial is a unique cemetery – the Anglo–French Cemetery. It contains the bodies of 600 soldiers – 300 Frenchmen and 300 British and Commonwealth soldiers. It was decided to build this cemetery in 1932 to symbolise the alliance of the British Empire and the French Republic, the central alliance that had fought the ‘Great War’ against Germany. Of France, Captain Francis Coen, 18th Battalion AIF, of Yass, New South Wales, who died fighting at Pozières on 28 July 1916, wrote to his mother:

...these poor people know the horrors of war, and yet their heroism and their love of France is so great, so noble, that they hide their grief, and present only smiling and apparently happy faces to the outside world … it is a privilege for one to be given the opportunity of spending a portion of this life in fighting for the liberty of a people so truly noble.
Captain Francis Coen, letter, 2 May 1916, AWM 1DRL/0203

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/thiepval/anglo-french-cemetery.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1916

28 July 1916 - Albert and Nelson Noakes serving with 24th and 29th Battalions, Australian Imperial Force, respectively. Sons of Thomas and Mary Ann Noakes of Byron Lodge, Addlestone, Surrey, England. Albert lies in Serre Road Cemetery No 2, while Nelson died of wounds and is buried in Boulogne Eastern Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 July 1917 - Pte Alexander Falconer

697054 Pte Alexander Falconer, 31st Bn CEF (Alberta Regt).

Born in Forrest, Ontario on 1 June 1885, Alexander was a farmer by trade. He enlisted into the army on 12 September 1916 before being sent to the 31st Bn serving in France. Alexander was killed in the front lines in the vicinity of Cité St.Laurent during the night of the 28/29 July 1917 after being gassed during a surprise German gas bombardment (delivered by trench-mortar). He is now buried in Noeux les Mines Communal Cemetery (grave ref: II G 5).

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1378-28-july-1917-pte-alexander-falconer.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EYES OF THE ARMY - The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

July 28, 1917 Letter from Capt. Marley
Fort Sheridan, Ill.

My dear Lawrence-

I must offer apologies to you for not having written you sooner, but tho’t I had. However I have just found out that I did not. Was very glad to hear you had enlisted. I knew you would and if you get a chance to go up for a commission take it. Had you been able to stay I feel sure you would have been one of those selected as officers. Your work was very satisfactory in the Battery & I disliked very much seeing you go. I feel sure you have the qualifications of an officer and your education and intelligence are quite in line with what is desirable in an officer. I should not hesitate to recommend you for examination for commission or for commission in either the Infantry or Artillery.

I feel sure that hereafter the system of officering the Armies to be raised after these contemplated at present be by promotion and commission from the ranks. I have heard that you are a non-commissioned officer, if it is true congratulations. Keep your eye on and work for commissioned grade – Study & work hard, be anxious to absorb knowledge from any one who has it and if you have the wide awake interest and knowledge you exhibited here you will make it alright. If it is a recommendation you want let me know, you can make your own way. Keep your eyes & ears open, use your common sense and keep your mouth closed unless asked about something is the rule for all soldiers who succeed. Let me hear from you again. I shall take great interest in hearing of your advance.

Very truly yours
James P. Marley
Capt U.S.A.

WVM Curator: While the Museum has the vast majority of letters Mortimer wrote to his family, we unfortunately have precious few that were written to him. Simply enough, Mortimer, because of space considerations while on active service, was unable to save many of the letters he received.

This particular letter, written by a Captain James Marley, may have been saved by Mortimer or his family because it touches on Mortimer's discharge and subsequent reenlistment. The letter, overall, is congratulatory, with Marley expressing confidence in Mortimer's abilities. Receiving such a letter must have been a soothing balm for Mortimer, clearly upset over having been discharged on account of his weight.


http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/july-28-1917-letter-to-lawrence-from-cap[/b]
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 21:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Picnic: July 1917
by Rose Macaulay (1881-1958, written in 1917)

We lay and ate the sweet hurt-berries
In the bracken of Hurt Wood.
Like a quire of singers singing low
The dark pines stood.

Behind us climbed the Surrey Hills,
Wild, wild in greenery;
At our feet the downs of Sussex broke
To an unseen sea.

And life was bound in a still ring,
Drowsy, and quiet and sweet….
When heavily up the south-east wind
The great guns beat.

We did not wince, we did not weep,
We did not curse or pray;
We drowsily heard, and someone said,
‘They sound clear today’.

We did not shake with pity and pain,
Or sicken and blanch white.
We said, ’If the wind’s from over there
There’ll be rain tonight’.

Once pity we knew, and rage we knew,
And pain we knew, too well,
As we stared and peered dizzily
Through the gates of hell.

But now hell’s gates are an old tale;
Remote the anguish seems;
The guns are muffled and far away.
Dreams within dreams.

And far and far are Flanders mud,
And the pain of Picardy;
And the blood that runs there runs beyond
The wide waste sea.

We are shut about by guarding walls;
(We have built them lest we run
Mad from dreaming of naked fear
And of black things done).

We are ringed all round by guarding walls,
So high, they shut the view.
Not all the guns that shatter the world
Can quite break through.

Oh guns of France, oh guns of France,
Be still, you crash in vain….
Heavily up the south wind throb
Dull dreams of pain…..

Be still, be still, south wind, lest your
Blowing should bring the rain…...
We’ll lie very quiet on Hurt Hill,
And sleep once again.

Oh we’ll lie quite still, not listen nor look,
While the earth’s bounds reel and shake,
Lest, battered too long, our walls and we
Should break…....should break……....

http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/97023-Rose-Macaulay-Picnic--July-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 21:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Silent Protest - parade organized by Harlem religious and civic leaders and the NAACP, 1917

On July 28, 1917, in New York City, a silent parade was staged in protest of the East St. Louis, Illinois, massacre of July 2, 1917, as well as the recent lynchings in Waco, Texas, and Memphis, Tennessee. The march was organized by the NAACP, churchmen and other civic leaders to protest the violent events against African Americans around the country. The United States had just entered World War I and many were questioning the use of African-American soldiers to fight in a war that President Woodrow Wilson had described as necessary to the survival of democracy abroad, especially at a time when these same men and their families were denied their basic rights here in the United States. President Wilson continually dismissed the requests of African-American leadership to address the problem of lynching and was considered by many to be one of the most racist presidents ever to occupy the White House. The lynching and murdering of blacks was on the rise. And in the wartime climate many African Americans were migrating to the North, both to escape racial oppression in the South and to secure the plentiful jobs in the munitions centers and factories in the Northern urban centers.

The riots in East St. Louis began when whites, angry because African Americans were employed by a factory holding government contracts, went on a rampage. Over $400,000 worth of property was destroyed. At least 40 African Americans were killed. Men, women and children were beaten, stabbed, hanged and burned. Nearly 6,000 African Americans were driven from their homes.

Across the country, people were aghast at the violence. On July 28, 8,000 African Americans, primarily from Harlem, marched silently down Fifth Avenue. They were dressed in their finest clothes and marched to the sound of muffled drums. They carried picket signs while thousands of New Yorkers watched from the sidewalks. The children marched as well as the adults. Some of the banners read: "Mother, do lynchers go to heaven?" "Mr. President, why not make America safe for democracy?" "Thou shalt not kill." "Pray for the Lady Macbeths of East St. Louis." "Give us a Chance to Live."

The New York Age reported on the march:

They marched without uttering one word or making a single gesticulation and protested in respectful silence against the reign of mob law, segregation, "Jim Crowism" and many other indignities to which the race is unnecessarily subjected in the United States. (1917)

Lynching was never declared a felony by the judicial system of the United States.

http://www2.si.umich.edu/chico/Harlem/text/silentprotest.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Buzancy 28 July 1918

By 28 July 1918 the 15th Division found themselves opposite and required to take the village and Château of Buzancy.

To try and allay German fears other villages in the general area had also been subjected to sudden bombardments for the preceding 18 hours. It was intended that by midday on the 28th the Germans would have become wearied from the constant alerts for attacks that never materialised.

The plan was for five companies of the French 91st RI to attack the wood and a stronghold south of Buzancy whilst the Scots would attack the village itself. The attack was fixed for 12:30 hours and 8th Bn Seaforth Highlanders and 1/5th Bn Gordon Highlanders would lead the assault.

Despite the lack of cover for the advancing soldiers the Château was soon taken, but the village proved to be a harder nut to crack and was reminiscent of some of hard slogs on the Somme in 1916.

Almost every house in France has its cellar and the Germans had swiftly turned each in Buzancy into strongholds requiring the Highlanders to fight their way through the streets, house by house, cellar by cellar. Engineers were used to detonate charges whilst a French flame-thrower team proved their value in clearing the buildings.

By 13:30 hours the Brigade had captured all of its objectives but on their right there was still no sign of the 91st RI. By 15:35 hours, word had got through to General Reed in command of the 15th Division that the 91st RI had been back by the strong point in front of it and could make no progress. This left the Highlanders in a precarious position.

German counter attacks and barrages were falling on them as they were forced to retire back across the open ground to prevent themselves being surrounded. Six hours after they had launched their heroic attack Highlanders found themselves back in their starting lines.

The Division counted the days fighting as one of the most gruelling it had ever undergone. No small words from a unit that had been in the thick of the fighting since the Battle of Loos in September 1915.

Before further plans to take the village could be formulated the 15th discovered that they were being moved to the right and swapping places with the French 87th Division.

A few days later following the German withdrawal and an Allied advance to the Vesle River, the 15th were finally brought out of the line and relieved by the French 17th Division. In writing to General Reed some weeks later General Gassouin wrote of his soldiers admiration for what the Highlanders had achieved at Buzancy, the evidence of their feat of arms being evident throughout the village. To this end he had requested his engineers to erect a small monument in honour of the gallant Scotsmen.

The monument was initially erected at the point to which the furthest fallen Highlander had fallen, however it has since been moved into the Buzancy Cemetery for safe keeping.

In a simple statement the inscription reads:

Here the noble thistle of Scotland will flourish forever amongst the roses of France
17th French Division
to
15th (Scottish) Division


http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_soissons_retz_2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The war diary of the 33rd London Regiment

15 - 28 July 1918: St Sylvestre Cappel
The battalion was engaged in improving the Winnezeele line. Gas drill during working hours. Each company, in turn, left off working party (the) company Lewis gunners for instruction in Lewis gunnery, also one platoon for general training. In addition,battalion carried out one hours training each day on completion of work. Draft of 67 OR joined on 18th inst.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-33London.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2010 21:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 July 1919 → Commons Sitting

MUSICAL AND ARTISTIC RECREATION.


HC Deb 28 July 1919 vol 118 c1822 1822

Mr. SUGDEN asked the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will call a conference of representatives from the Musicians' Union, theatre and cinema proprietors, the musical colleges, and universities of Great Britain arid Ireland to consider the creation of a State Department especially to deal with the musical and artistic recreation of the people?

Mr. SHORTT The answer is in the negative.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/jul/28/musical-and-artistic-recreation
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2012 20:45    Onderwerp: On This Day - 28 July 1914 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 28 July 1914

Countdown to War

Austria issues manifesto and declares war on Serbia at noon: refuses proposals of mediation or Conference: has no quarrel with Russia.

Russia says mobilisation of Southern Corps will be announced tomorrow, but she has no aggressive intentions against Germany.

Russian Ambassador at Vienna wires to M. Sazonov that Austrian general mobilisation order has been signed.

Kaiser wires to Tsar he will use his influence with Austria.

Germany conciliatory, but throws responsibility of possible war on Russia.

End of Caillaux trial: Madame Caillaux acquitted.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_07_28.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2012 20:58    Onderwerp: On This Day - 28 July 1915 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 28 July 1915

Western Front

Air-raid on St. Omer.

Eastern Front

Germans cross Vistula between Warsaw and Ivangorod.

Russians repulsed south-west of Gora Kalvariya (south of Warsaw).

Austrians repulsed beyond the Kamienka (Upper Vistula).

Southern Front

Austrians repulsed in Carnia.

Italian offensive in Cordevole Valley (Ventian Alps) progressing.

Italians evacuate positions just west of Gorizia.

Political, etc.

Final debate on Compulsory Service; Mr. Asquith reviews situation.

Mr. Lloyd George speaks on munitions.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1915_07_28.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2012 21:01    Onderwerp: On This Day - 28 July 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 28 July 1916

Western Front

British capture of Delville Wood and Longueval village; make further progress near Pozieres.

Enemy raids near Neuve Chapelle repulsed.

French gains west of Thiaumont (Verdun).

Zeppelin raid on east coast. No damage.

Eastern Front

Sakharov enters Brody, having captured 40,000 prisoners and 49 guns in 12 days. Further north, Lesch and Kaledin attack on Upper Stokhod, crossing river at many points.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres


Patrol engagements with Turks east of Suez Canal.

Political, etc.


American Ambassador in London presents formal protest against the policy of the "Black List".


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_07_28.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2012 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 28 July 1917

Western Front

Successful British raids.

British air raid into Belgium.

Eastern Front

Further Russian retreat in Galicia; enemy reach Russian frontier.

Romanian advance in Moldavia continues.

Political, etc.

Royal Warrant authorising formation of "Tank Corps".

Imperial and Prussian Cabinets reconstructed.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1917_07_28.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2012 21:03    Onderwerp: On This Day - 28 July 1918 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 28 July 1918

Western Front

French advance, occupying Fere-en-Tardenois; British retake Montagne de Bligny (Ardre valley).


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1918_07_28.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jul 2014 13:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 juni 1914

Vandaag 100 jaar geleden stuurde graaf Leopold von Berchtold, de toenmalige minister van Buitenlandse Zaken van Oostenrijk-Hongarije, een telegram naar M.N. Pashitch, toenmalige Eerste mininster en minister van Buitenlandse Zaken van Servië. Het telegram werd om 12u30 te Niš in ontvangst genomen, en waren de beide landen officieel met elkaar in oorlog.


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