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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2006 16:47    Onderwerp: 2 juli Reageer met quote

1917 Greece declares war on Central Powers

On this day in 1917, several weeks after King Constantine I abdicates his throne in Athens under pressure from the Allies, Greece declares war on the Central Powers, ending three years of neutrality by entering World War I alongside Britain, France, Russia and Italy.

Constantine, educated in Germany and married to a sister of Kaiser Wilhelm I, was naturally sympathetic to the Germans when World War I broke out in the summer of 1914, refusing to honor Greece’s obligation to support Serbia, its ally during the two Balkan Wars in 1912-13. Despite pressure from his own pro-Allied government, including Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos, and British and French promises of territorial gains in Turkey, Constantine maintained Greece’s neutrality for the first three years of the war, although he did allow British and French forces to disembark at Salonika in late 1914 in a plan to aid Serbia against Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces.

By the end of 1915, with Allied operations bogged down in Salonika and failing spectacularly in the Dardanelles, Constantine was even less inclined to support the Entente, believing Germany clearly had the upper hand in the war. He dismissed Venizelos in October 1915, substituting him with a series of premiers who basically served as royal puppets. Meanwhile, civil war threatened in Greece, as Constantine desperately sought promises of naval, military and financial assistance from Germany, which he did not receive. After losing their patience with Constantine, the Allies finally sent an ultimatum demanding his abdication on June 11, 1917; the same day, British forces blockaded Greece and the French landed their troops at Piraeus, on the Isthmus of Corinth, in blatant disregard of Greek neutrality. The following day, Constantine abdicated in favor of his second son, Alexander.

On June 26, Alexander reinstated Venizelos, who returned from exile in Crete, where he had established a provisional Greek government with Allied support. With a pro-Allied prime minister firmly in place, Greece moved to the brink of entering World War I. On July 1, Alexander Kerensky, the Russian commander in chief and leader of the provisional Russian government after the fall of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, ordered a major offensive on the Eastern Front, despite the turmoil within Russia and the exhausted state of Kerensky’s army. The offensive would end in disastrous losses for the Russians, but at the time it seemed like a fortuitous turn of events for the Allies, in that it would help to sap German resources. The following day, Greece declared war on the Central Powers.

The new king, Alexander, stated the case for war dramatically in his official coronation address on August 4: “Greece has to defend her territory against barbarous aggressors. But if in the trials of the past Greece has been able, thanks to the civilizing strength of the morale of the race, to have overcome the conquerors and to rise free amidst the ruins, today it is quite a different matter. The present cataclysm will decide the definite fate of Hellenism, which, if lost, will never be restored.” Over the next 18 months, some 5,000 Greek soldiers would die on the battlefields of World War I.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

July 2, 1914 – The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Autograph Letter of Franz Joseph to the Kaiser, Vienna, 2 July 1914

From Emperor Franz Joseph, Vienna, delivered to the Kaiser in Berlin on 5 July 1914 by the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, Count de Szogyeny-Marich. The annexe-memoire was drafted fully a month before Sarajevo.

I sincerely regret that You should have been obliged to give up Your intention of going to Vienna for the funeral ceremonies. I should have liked personally to express to You my sincerest thanks for Your sympathy in my keen sorrow -- a sympathy which has greatly touched me.

By Your warm and sympathetic condolence You have given me renewed proof that I have in You a sincere friend worthy of confidence and that I may count upon You in every hour of grave trial.

I should have liked very much to discuss with You the general situation, but as that has not been possible, I take the liberty of sending to You the subjoined mémoire prepared by my Minister of Foreign Affairs, which was drawn up before the terrible catastrophe of Sarajevo, and which now, following that tragic event, appears particularly worthy of attention.

The attack directed against my poor nephew is the direct consequence of the agitation carried on by the Russian and Serbian Pan-Slavists whose sole aim is the weakening of the Triple Alliance and the destruction of my Empire.

By the foregoing declaration, it is no longer an affair at Sarajevo of the single bloody deed of an individual but of a well-organized conspiracy, of which the threads reach to Belgrade and if, as is probable, it be impossible to prove the complicity of the Serbian Government, nevertheless it cannot be doubted that the policies leading to the reunion of all the Southern Slavs under the Serbian flag is favorable to crimes of this character and that the continuance of this state of things constitutes a constant danger to my house and to my realm.

This danger is rendered more grave from the fact that Roumania, despite the alliance with us, has entered into friendly relations with Serbia and, on her own territory, permits against us an agitation just as venomous as that allowed by Serbia.

It is painful to me to suspect the fidelity and the good intentions of so old a friend as Charles of Roumania, but he himself has twice declared during these last months to my Minister that by reason of the aroused and hostile sentiments of his people toward us he would not be in a position in case of need to carry out his obligations of alliance.

Furthermore, the Roumanian Government encourages openly the activities of the Kulturliga, favors a rapprochement with Serbia and carries on, with Russian aid, the creation of a new Balkan alliance which can only be directed against my Empire.

Once before, at the beginning of the reign of Charles, such political fancies as these propagated by the Kulturliga disturbed the good political sense of Roumanian men of state and the danger arose of seeing Your realm launched on a policy of adventure. But at that time Your venerated grandfather in an energetic and far-sighted fashion intervened and pointed out to Roumania the road which assured to her a privileged place in Europe, and she became the strong support of the existing order.

Now the same danger threatens this kingdom; I fear that counsel alone is insufficient and that Roumania cannot be retained in the Triple Alliance unless, on the one hand, we make impossible the creation of the Balkan League under the patronage of Russia, by the entrance of Bulgaria into the Triple Alliance, and unless on the other hand, we make it clearly understood at Bucharest that the friends of Serbia cannot be our friends, and that Roumania cannot consider us as allies unless she detaches herself from Serbia and represses with all her force the agitation directed in Roumania against the existence of my Empire.

The efforts of my government should in consequence be directed toward isolation and the diminishment of Serbia. The first step in that direction will be to strengthen the present situation of the Bulgarian Government in order that the Bulgars, whose real interests coincide with ours, shall be preserved from a return to friendship with Russia.

If they realize at Bucharest that the Triple Alliance has decided not to abandon the alliance with Bulgaria, but that it is disposed to invite Bulgaria to an understanding with Roumania and to guarantee its territorial integrity, we may perhaps succeed in bringing her back from the dangerous step to which she has been led by her friendship with Serbia and her understanding with Russia.

If this should succeed, a reconciliation of Greece with Bulgaria and Turkey could be attempted. There would then arise, under the patronage of the Triple Alliance, a new Balkan alliance, the aim of which would be to put an end to the invasion of the Pan Slavist tide and to assure peace to our states.

But this will not be possible unless Serbia which is at present the pivot of Pan-Slavist policy is eliminated as a political factor in the Balkans.

And You, also after this last terrible happening in Bosnia, will see and know that one cannot think of smoothing out the differences that separate us from Serbia, and that the maintenance of peaceful policy by all the European Monarchies will be threatened as long as this focus of criminal agitation in Belgrade remains unpunished.

THE ANNEXE MEMOIRE.

Following the great disturbances of the last two years, the situation in the Balkans has cleared up to such a point that it is now possible to review the results of the crisis, and to establish in what measure the interests of the Triple Alliance, and m ore particularly those of the two Central Imperial Powers, have been affected by these events and what consequences result from them for European politics and for the Balkan policy of these Powers.

If without prejudice we compare the present state of affairs with that existing before the crisis, we must decide that the result looked at from the point of view of Austria-Hungary as well as from that of the Triple Alliance, cannot be considered in any way as favorable.

The principal point is that following the development which led to the second Balkan war, Bulgaria aroused herself from the Russian spell, and today can no longer be considered as an auxiliary of the Russian policy. The Bulgarian Government strives, on the contrary, to enter into more intimate relations with the Triple Alliance.

To these favorable elements, however, are opposed the unfavorable factors that weigh more heavily in the balance. Serbia whose policy has for years been animated by hostility toward Austria Hungary, and which is completely under Russian influence, has achieved an increase of territory and of population that exceeded by much her own expectations. Turkey, whose community of interests with the Triple Alliance was progressing well, and who constituted an important counterpoise against Russia and the Balkan States, has been almost entirely pushed out of Europe, and has seen her situation as a great power gravely compromised. Territorial proximity with Montenegro and the general strengthening of the Pan-Serbian idea have brought closer the possibility of a new expansion of Serbia by means of a union with Montenegro. Lastly in the course of the crisis, the relations of Roumania with the Triple Alliance have essentially changed.... We see, on the other hand, that Russian and French diplomacy have carried on a unified action, in conformity with a preconcerted plan to exploit the advantages obtained and to change certain factors that were from their point of view unfavorable....

The thought of freeing the Christian Balkan people from Turkish rule, in order to use them as a weapon against central Europe, has been for a long time the secret thought of Russian policy, by the traditional interest of Russia for these people. In these latter days has been developed the idea, put forward by Russia and taken up by France, of uniting the Balkan States into a Balkan alliance, in order by this means to put an end to the military superiority of the Triple Alliance. The first condition before the realization of this plan was that Turkey should be pushed back from the territory inhabited by the Christian nations of the Balkans, in order to increase the strength of these States and to render them free to expand to the west. This preliminary condition has been, on the whole, realized by the last war. On the other hand, after the end of the crisis, a division separated the Balkan States into two opposing groups of nearly equal strength: Turkey and Bulgaria on the one hand, and the two Serbian States, Greece and Roumania, on the other.

To put an end to this division in order to be able to use all the Balkan States or at least a decisive majority, to upset the balance of European power, was the latest task to which, after the end of the crisis, Russia and France applied themselves....

There is no doubt of the basis upon which, according to the intentions of French arid Russian diplomacy, these differences and rivalries might be reconciled and a new Balkan alliance created. What could be the actual aim of such an alliance in the present circumstances for the Balkan States? There is no longer reason to consider a common action against Turkey. It can, therefore, only be directed against Austria-Hungary and can only be accomplished on the basis of a program that should promise to all it members extensions of territory by a graduated displacement of their frontiers from the east to the west, at the expense of the territorial integrity of the Monarchy. A union of Balkan States upon any other basis would be impossible to imagine, but on this basis not only is it not impossible, but is in a fair way to be realized. One cannot question that Serbia under Russian pressure would consent to pay a considerable price in Macedonia for the entry of Bulgaria into an alliance directed against the Monarchy and looking forward to the acquisition of Bosnia and the adjacent territory.....

The relations of Austria-Hungary with Roumania may be at this moment characterized by the fact that the Monarchy relies entirely upon its alliance and, before as since, is ready to uphold Roumania with all its force if the casus foedoris shall arise, but that Roumania detaches itself one-sidedly from its obligations of alliance and shows to the Monarchy only the prospect of neutrality. Even the neutrality of Roumania is only guaranteed to the Monarchy by the personal affirmation of King Charles [a guaranty] which naturally is of value only for the duration of his reign and the accomplishment of which depends upon the King's keeping always the guiding hand on the direction of the foreign policy....

Under these conditions it is impossible to consider the alliance with Roumania as of sufficient certainty and extent to serve Austria-Hungary as a pivot in her Balkan policy....

To destroy, with the assistance of the Balkans, the military superiority of the two Imperial powers is the objective of Russia.

But while France seeks the weakening of the Monarchy, because that is favorable to her ideas of révanche, the designs of the empire of the Tsar have a much greater extent....

For Russia has recognized that the relation of her plans in Europe and in Asia, plans which correspond with internal necessities gravely affect the important interests of Germany, and must inevitably arouse her to resistance.

The policy of Russia is determined by an unchanging situation, and is consequently constant and foresighted. Russia's policy of encirclement directed against the Monarchy, which does not pursue a world policy, has for its final aim to make it impossible for the German Empire to resist the aims of Russia or her political and economic supremacy.

For these reasons those in charge of the foreign policy of Austria-Hungary are convinced that it is in the common interest of the Monarchy, as in that of Germany, to oppose energetically and in time in this phase of the Balkan crisis, the development foreseen and encouraged by Russia by a pre-concerted plan.

The above mémoire had just been finished when there occurred the terrible events of Sarajevo. The complete extent of this abominable assassination can hardly be realized; at all events it appears undeniable proof, if indeed any were yet lacking, of the impossibility of extinguishing the hatred between the Monarchy and Serbia, as well as the danger and the violence of the Pan-Serbian propaganda, which hesitates at nothing.

Austria-Hungary has not been lacking in good will and in the spirit of conciliation, to bring about reasonably good relations with Serbia, but it has just been shown that these efforts have been completely impotent and that the Monarchy must expect in the future to deal with the bitter, irreconcilable and aggressive enmity of Serbia.

In these conditions the Monarchy must tear away with a strong hand the net in which its enemy seeks to entangle it.

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/frzwilly.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Airships 1910 - 1914

LZ-1

Usage: prototype
First Flight: 02 July 1900
Length: 416 feet / 124.8 meters
Diameter: 38.2 feet / 11.64 meters
Gas Volume: 399,000 cu. feet / 11,970 cu. meters
Engines: Two 14.7 hp Daimler engines
Maximum Speed: 17.3 mph / 27.7 km/h

The first Zeppelin flight occurred on 2 July 1900 over Lake Constance in Bavaria. It lasted for only 18 minutes before the LZ-1 was forced to land on the lake after the winding mechanism for the balancing weight broke.

Once repaired, zeppelin technology proved its potential: her second flight was in early October 1900, and her third and final flight was on 24 October 1900.

With his financial resources depleted, Graf von Zeppelin was forced to disassemble the prototype, sell it for scrap, and close the company.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Åland Islands

The Battle of Aland Islands, or the Battle of Gotland, which took place on July 2, 1915 was a naval battle of World War I between the German Empire and the Russian Empire, assisted by a submarine of the United Kingdom. The engagement took place in the Baltic Sea off the shores of Gotland, Sweden, a country neutral in World War I.

The German mine-laying cruiser Albatross, screened by the armored cruiser Roon, the light cruisers Augsburg and Lubeck, and 7 torpedoboats, under Commodore Karf were laying mines off the Åland Islands. On the morning of 2 July, they were intercepted by a Russian squadron consisting of the armored cruisers Admiral Makaroff and Bayan and the light cruisers Oleg and Bogatyr, under Rear Admiral Mikhail Bakhirev.

In the artillery duel that followed, Albatross was badly damaged and beached on the Swedish coast, and Roon received multiple hits. Reinforcements on both sides sailed to join the engagement. The Russian armored cruiser Rurik and the destroyer Novik joined the fight as the German force retreated. As the German armored cruisers Prinz Adalbert and Prinz Heinrich sailed to reinforce the German squadron, Prinz Adalbert was torpedoed by the British submarine E 9 and limped to shore.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_%C3%85land_Islands
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Jul 2018 7:25, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli to 11th July, 1915 - The Fifth Battalion, Highland Light Infantry

The main objects the Allies had in view in their operations at Gallipoli may be briefly stated:

- To relieve the pressure on the Russians in the Caucasus by forcing the Turks to withdraw troops to the new front.
- To open the Black Sea to allied shipping by forcing the passage of the Dardanelles.
- By striking a blow towards Constantinople to compel the Turks to abandon their attacks on Egypt.

In Southern Russia there were immense stocks of wheat of which Western Europe was in need. If the operations were successful this wheat could be shipped from Odessa, and in exchange the Russians would receive munitions for the heroic fight they were putting up against Germany and Austria between the Baltic and the Carpathians.

Those of us who served at Gallipoli had not always these great issues before us. We were content to know that we were fighting the Turk who had basely sold himself to the Central Powers, and were upholding the Cross, like Crusaders of old, in its long struggle with the Crescent.

The evening of 2nd July was fine, with a fresh easterly breeze, and though the troops on the deck of the Racoon were packed like sardines the passage was a pleasant one. As we neared our destination artillery were at work on Achi Baba, and the flashes of the explosion followed by the dull boom of the guns were—to most of us—our first glimpse of actual warfare.

Arriving off Cape Helles in semi-darkness about 8 p.m., the Racoon slowed down and felt her way cautiously to the landing place at Sedd-el-Bahr, better known as "V" Beach, where she brought up alongside the River Clyde. The pontoons connecting that historic hulk with the shore had been much damaged the previous day by the enemy's big shells from Asia.

In disembarking we had to clamber up an accommodation ladder to the River Clyde, follow a devious path through her battered interior, descend a gangway from the bow, and pick our way ashore over a miscellaneous assortment of half-sunken pontoons, boats and planks—no easy task in the dark for a man laden with rifle, pick or shovel, pack, blanket, ground-sheet, and 150 rounds of ammunition.

About 9.30 p.m. as the first men were quitting the Racoon, a message was passed back that the O.C. troops was urgently wanted on shore. When he had triumphed over the difficulties of the obstacle course and reached the roadway at the pier-head, the C.O. found an officer of the Divisional Staff awaiting him.

The S.O. was a little excited and the instructions he gave were not so clear as one could have desired. The patch on which we were forming up was a favorite target for the enemy's shells from Asia. They were in the habit of devoting special attention to it on nights when they thought troops were being landed. We were to proceed to No. 1 area—wherever that might be. A guide would accompany each party and an officer of the Divisional Staff would be with the first party. We must move in absolute silence; no lights or smoking. We would be exposed to shell-fire whenever we passed the crest of the rise from the beach, where we ought to adopt an extended formation. At our destination we would find some trenches, but not sufficient to accommodate the whole Battalion, and it was up to us to lose no time in digging ourselves in.

The C.O. was hustled off with two platoons of "A" Company before these were properly landed. Where we were bound for and exactly what we were to do when we got there, none of us knew, except presumably the Staff Officer who accompanied us and perhaps the N.C.O. who acted as guide. But subsequent happenings proved that they were almost as ignorant on these points as ourselves.

Winding up a steepish rise through a region which seemed crowded with dug-outs and piles of stores, we gained the crest where we had been urged to extend. It was pitch dark, with a steadily increasing drizzle of rain and an occasional rumble of thunder. In front there were as yet no indications of shell-fire, only an intermittent crackle of distant musketry.

So far as we could judge we were moving on a fairly defined road or path, of uncertain surface, much cut up by traffic, and at many places pitted with shell craters. To estimate the distance traversed was impossible, but we must have been descending the gradual slope for over half an hour when our guides began to exhibit symptoms of indecision. The truth was soon out—they did not know where they were.

We ought before this to have struck the trenches allotted to us: possibly we had passed them in the dark. It transpired that neither Staff Officer nor N.C.O. had even been near the spot except in daylight, but both still professed confidence in their ability to locate the trenches. It was explained to us that these lay between the Pink Farm Road on which we had been moving, and the Krithia Road, which was some distance to our right. So we turned off the road towards the right and commenced our search.

After wandering in the rain for half an hour, we came upon what appeared to be a wide ditch sheltered by some straggling trees. Our guides decided that this must be a section of the elusive trenches, and at their suggestion Major Downie and his half-company were bestowed in it temporarily while the rest of us continued our quest for the remaining trenches.

Our progress was frequently interrupted by flares sent up from the trenches somewhere in front. To our inexperienced eyes it seemed that the lights were very near us, for they showed up vividly the whole ground over which we were moving, every little clump of scrub standing out sharp and distinct as in the glare of a powerful searchlight. From repeated study of Notes on Trench Warfare in France, we had become permeated with the theory that where one's presence is revealed by a flare, safety from rifle or machine gun fire is only to be attained by lying down and remaining perfectly motionless. So to the first few flares we made profound obeisance, groveling on the wet ground or behind the nearest patch of scrub as long as the stars illuminated the landscape. But familiarity breeds contempt, and as we gradually realized that the flares were much further to our front than we had thought, the necessity for this uncomfortable performance became less and less obvious until we discarded it altogether.

After ages of fruitless wandering we stumbled against a landmark which our guides recognized as within a hundred yards of the long sought trenches—a large tree marking the sight of an Artillery Ammunition Dump known, inappropriately enough, as Trafalgar Square. Here were one or two dug-outs in which the party in charge of the Dump slumbered peacefully. After we had circled the tree several times without result, the gunner N.C.O. in charge of the station was roused and questioned. Yes, he knew where the trenches were—quite close at hand.

With great good nature he rolled out of his blankets, and clambered out of his subterranean shelter to find them for us. The prospect brightened considerably, but only to become darker than ever when after a quarter of an hour's further walking he, too, proved at fault. Then suddenly it occurred to him that he had turned to the left on leaving his dug-out instead of to the right, and had been leading us away from our goal.

Wearily we retraced our steps, and then finally we found the trenches. The manner of the discovery was simplicity itself. As a matter of fact the C.O. fell into one of them, getting rather wet and clayey in the process.

In the meantime the second half of "A" Company had arrived on the scene, but we now found ourselves faced by another problem—the locating of the trench (or ditch) in which we had left Major Downie with his half-company. This threatened to prove as hard a task as that which we had just accomplished, and the C.O. remarked he would keep an eye on the trench he had found lest it should attempt to disappear again, and a party was sent off to find Major Downie.

And, after all, Major Downie found himself for us. His arrival was almost dramatic. He, too, fell into the trench. He had heard the search party calling for him and had come out to meet them. Missing them in the dark he had chanced upon the trench from the front and tripped over the parapet. With his assistance it did not take long to retrieve the missing half-company.

Installments of "B" Company began to arrive. Casting about to the front, rear and flanks of our original discovery, traces of other less finished trenches were found, and parties were set to work to complete and extend them with the object of having some apology for cover ready for the whole Battalion, before daylight could reveal our presence to the enemy.

As the night wore on additional parties joined up from the beach.

The Whitby Abbey had now arrived and was disembarking the left half-Battalion. The first party of "C" Company reached the trenches about 5 a.m. The enemy must have spotted us soon after daylight, for they saluted us with a few rounds of shrapnel at irregular intervals. These did little damage, but served to stimulate the flagging energies of the digging parties, encouraging them to special effort to get the trenches completed.

It was 8.30 a.m. before Major Jowitt appeared with the last party landed. By this time sufficient trenches of sorts to accommodate the Battalion had been completed.

While getting "D" Company into our most advanced trench, Capt. Findlay was slightly wounded by shrapnel. He was sent back to Mudros on the Whitby Abbey which had brought him across a few hours before. His first visit to Gallipoli had not been a prolonged one.

Throughout the day the enemy sprayed our trenches with occasional bursts of shrapnel. By this time we had discovered that they were officially described as "rest" trenches, and were some considerable distance behind the firing-line. So we "rested" as best we could, each man effecting such improvements to his own personal bit of cover as could be carried out unostentatiously behind the shelter of the parapet.

That afternoon Colonel Morrison and Major Jowitt, with other senior officers of the Brigade, were shown round some of the forward communication and support trenches, and had the general situation explained to them.

The night was devoted by all ranks to the improvement of our trenches and to sleep when we were satisfied with our handiwork. More rain fell, and we got very wet and smeared with that remarkably tenacious mud which only Gallipoli can produce.

http://www.bigenealogy.com/5thbattalion/gallipoli_11_july_1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary - Edward P. Cox

Friday 2nd July - About 5 am enemy shelled our trenches at QUINN'S and blew out a machine gun emplacement fortunately without injury to men or the gun. Our guns replied and Turk soon ceased fire. Only damage was parapets & bomb screens were knocked about.

9 am WWC & H Bay Coys relieved us as usual. Fine day but dull which is nice change from hot sun.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d10.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of Gallipoli and The Dardanelles I

28 June / 2 July 1915
Gazetted 1 September 1915
2nd Lt H.James, Worcestershire Regiment

During the fighting for the village of Krithia the attack of the 29th Division, astride Gully Ravine, was initially successful. However, due to sparse artillery support (partially due to the shortage of high explosive shell) the attack of the 156th Brigade of the 52nd Lowland Division, thrown piecemeal into battle with little chance to familiarise with conditions in the line, had failed. The newly appointed 29th Division al commander, Major General Beauvoir de Lisle, ordered the resumption of the attack ‘at all costs’ H –hour was to be 0900 hrs on 2 July and the attack consisted of detachments of the Hampshire and Worcestershire Regiments. Conditions were appalling; the trenches over which the battle now raged were clogged with corpses and in the smoke and dust communication was near impossible. James was in charge of a bombing party armed with jam tin grenades; the Turks had proper bombs, far more effective than the jam tins. Soon, James’s party was reduced to a handful and soon he was alone, all his men having been killed or wounded. Until reinforcements arrived he held the trench with two rifles and a sack of home-made bombs. He remained in the Army after the war and retired as a major in 1930 dying as a virtual recluse in 1958

http://www.gallipoli-association.org/contentpage.asp?pageid=42

WORCESTERSHIRE AND SHERWOOD FORESTERS REGIMENT VICTORIA CROSS WINNERS

Lieutenant Herbert James VC 4th Battalion the Worcestershire Regiment At Krithia Gallipoli on 3 July 1915 when a flanking battalion had lost most of its officers he gathered a body of men and led them forward under heavy fire, then organised and led forward a second party. Later, when in command of a party of bombers he held a Turkish communication trench alone under murderous fire until a barrier had been built behind him.

London Gazette 1 September 1915

http://www.wfrmuseum.org.uk/vcwinners.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of Gallipoli and The Dardanelles II

18/19 June and 1 / 2 July 1915, Area of Gully Ravine, Helles
Gazetted 1 September 1915
Capt. G.O’Sullivan, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
Cpl J.Somers, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers

The fighting at this stage was centred around Gully Ravine, the nullah running up from Gully Beach towards Krithia and a key tactical feature of the battlefield throughout the Helles campaign. The Turks were keen to regain what was known as ‘Turkey Trench’ and succeeded in driving the South Wales Borderers out of it. A counter attack by the Inniskillings and Borderers led by Capt. O’Sullivan drove the Turks back. Throughout the fighting, O’Sullivan had been closely supported by Cpl Somers, who, as an enthusiastic cricketer, revelled in grenade throwing. He continued the fight after O’Sullivan had been carried off wounded and held his ground against all attacks. O’Sullivan spent some weeks in hospital but returned to the battalion in time to take part in the disastrous attack on Scimitar Hill on 21 August when he was killed, having led a last charge up the hills with the words ‘…one more charge for the honour of the old Regiment’. Somers died at home in Ireland in may 1918, almost certainly as the result of gas poisoning sustained on the western front.

http://www.gallipoli-association.org/contentpage.asp?pageid=42
Zie ook http://www.ww1photos.com/RoyalInniskillingFusiliers.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth Appleton Diaries - Volume 3 (8 May to 15 November 1916)

[July] 2. The last 8 days - guns have been firing the whole time - fine big ones they need to be
for us to hear them so distinctly - & how the china must be rattling at the Clearing Stations.
The Germans have been giving themselves up & coming across in dazed groups - which is fine
- How absolutely glorious if we knock them right out & level them flat - & our Infantry &
Cavalry - have a walk over - such as shall make good reading in history. We had a quiet day
yesterday - sent more patients to England - Took the 1/2 day - & went to Gonneville with
Matron & Toby. We walked there - along the Havre Rd. 9.Ks. had tea at the famous old inn - I
must have told you about - found a couple of Padres at tea before us - so we all came back in
their car, along the valley - by Criquetot. Parry Evans - & Mr. Girdlestone. There was a
wonderful sunset last night - the sea like a mill pond - & the reflection on it like molten gold -
too bright to look at - & as it changed - through every colour in the paint box - it became more
& more beautiful. I must dress for church now - it is past 6 - Wonder if the others will bathe.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Vol3/PDF/1916_07July.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Coppard

George Coppard was born in Brighton on 26th January, 1898. After attending Fairlight Place School he left at thirteen to work at a taxidermists.

Like many young men, Coppard volunteered to join the British Army in August, 1914. Although only sixteen, he was accepted after claimed he was three years older. He became a member of the Royal West Surrey Regiment and sent to Stoughton Barracks in Guildford for training.

Private Coppard was sent to France in June, 1915 as a member of a Vickers machine-gun unit. In September of that year he took part is the Artois-Loos offensive where the British Army suffered 50,000 casualties. The following he was involved in the Battle of the Somme.

On 17th October, 1916, Coppard was accidentally shot in the foot by one of his friends. For a while, Coppard was suspected of arranging the accident with his friend and he was sent to hospital with a label attached to his chest, SIW (Self-Inflicted Wound). Both men were eventually cleared of the charge but it was not until May, 1917, that Coppard was able to return to the Western Front. Soon afterwards, he took part in the Third Battle of Arras and in October, 1917, was promoted to the rank of corporal.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWcoppard.htm

George Coppard was a machine-gunner at the Battle of the Somme.

In his book With A Machine Gun to Cambrai, he described what he saw on the 2nd July, 1916.

The next morning we gunners surveyed the dreadful scene in front of our trench. There was a pair of binoculars in the kit, and, under the brazen light of a hot mid-summer's day, everything revealed itself stark and clear. The terrain was rather like the Sussex downland, with gentle swelling hills, folds and valleys, making it difficult at first to pinpoint all the enemy trenches as they curled and twisted on the slopes.

It eventually became clear that the German line followed points of eminence, always giving a commanding view of No Man's Land. Immediately in front, and spreading left and right until hidden from view, was clear evidence that the attack had been brutally repulsed. Hundreds of dead, many of the 37th Brigade, were strung out like wreckage washed up to a high-water mark. Quite as many died on the enemy wire as on the ground, like fish caught in the net. They hung there in grotesque postures. Some looked as though they were praying; they had died on their knees and the wire had prevented their fall. From the way the dead were equally spread out, whether on the wire or lying in front of it, it was clear that there were no gaps in the wire at the time of the attack.

Concentrated machine gun fire from sufficient guns to command every inch of the wire, had done its terrible work. The Germans must have been reinforcing the wire for months. It was so dense that daylight could barely be seen through it. Through the glasses it looked a black mass. The German faith in massed wire had paid off.

How did our planners imagine that Tommies, having survived all other hazards - and there were plenty in crossing No Man's Land - would get through the German wire? Had they studied the black density of it through their powerful binoculars? Who told them that artillery fire would pound such wire to pieces, making it possible to get through? Any Tommy could have told them that shell fire lifts wire up and drops it down, often in a worse tangle than before.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWsomme.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Mallory

George Mallory, was the commander of the 40th Siege Battery at the Somme. He wrote a letter to his wife, Ruth Mallory on 2nd July, 1916.

Our part was to keep up a barrage fire on certain lines, "lifting" after certain fixed times from one to another more remote and so on. Of course we couldn't know how matters were going for several hours. But then the wounded - walking cases - began to pass and bands of prisoners. We heard various accounts but it seemed to emerge pretty clearly that the attack was held up somewhere by machine-gun fire and this was confirmed by the nature of our own tasks after the "barrage" was over. To me, this result together with the sight of the wounded was poignantly grievous. I spent most of the morning in the map room by the roadside, standing by to help Lithgow (the Commanding Officer) to get onto fresh targets.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWsomme.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The capture of Mametz, 1 - 5 July 1916

2-4 July 1916: Fricourt captured; 7th Division inches forward; time is wasted

On these days the 7th Division pushed forward in the enemy trench complex and materially assisted in the eventually successful attack of 17th (Northern) Division that captured Fricourt on 2 July. Two batteries of XIV Brigade RHA under command of 7th Division moved up into Queen's Nullah and began firing to cut the barbed wire defences in front of Mametz Wood. At 3pm on 3rd July, patrols were reporting that Mametz Wood was empty of German troops. This was not entirely true. 2nd Royal Irish Regiment and 1st Royal Welsh Fusiliers of 7th Division's 22nd Brigade were ordered up to occupy a line on the southern edge of the wood, but it was not until dawn on 4 July that they were fully in position. During the night, a detachment of 55th Landwehr was discovered in the wood by a patrol of the 2nd Royal Irish Regiment and driven off.

At 9.45pm on 3 July, Fourth Army issued orders to prepare for an attack on the second German position, Longueval to Bazentin le Petit. "Preparations" meant capturing enough ground to bring artillery up to be able to bombard the second position. And that meant, for XV Corps, the capture of Mametz Wood. The tired 7th Division was relieved by the 38th (Welsh) Division at night.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat15G_Mametz.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 23:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NEW-ZEALAND-L Archives

MOORE, Lieutenant Stanley - Advice has been received of the death from
wounds in France on 2 July of Lt Moore who was chief instructor in physical
training in the Auckland Province until his departure on active service. He
was born in Gisborne, being the third son of the late Mr Robert Moore and
was 29 years of age. Eleven years ago he joined the Royal NZ Artillery and
on the institution of the territorial training scheme was promoted to the
instructional staff as sergeant major. His appointment under the Education
Board was made several years ago. Lieut Moore was well known as an amateur
heavy-weight boxer. His wife and child reside on College Hill. A brother,
a brother in law and five cousins are on active service in France. [AWN
13.07.1916]

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/NEW-ZEALAND/2002-01/1011860383
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 23:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914
Countdown to War

Announcement that the Kaiser will not attend the Archduke's funeral.
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1915
Western Front

German success near Four de Paris (Argonne); severe fighting; enemy repulsed near Blanleuil.

Eastern Front

Austrians (Archduke Josef Ferdinand ) occupy Krasnik; heavy Austro-Russian engagements between Vistula and Bug.

Southern Front

Great battle for Carso Plateau begins.

Italians nearing Tolmino (Jul.).

Naval and Overseas Operations

German cruiser "Pommern" sunk by British submarine in Danzig Bay.

Russian warships sink the "Albatross" off Gothland.

Political, etc.

Munitions Bill sent to House of Lords after third reading
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1916
Western Front

British capture Fricourt; relinquish captured trenches at Gommecourt. French take Curlu, Frise, Bois de Mereaucourt and Herbecourt.

Eastern Front

Russians take offensive at Smorgon and Baranovichi, and penetrate German lines.

Germans continue advance on Lutsk salient. South of Dniester they regain Tlumacz.

Southern Front

Skirmishes near Salonika; artillery duels on lower bank of Vardar.

Heavy artillery fire and sharp infantry attacks in Trentino and Carso.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks take Kermanshah; Russians driven east on road to Hamadan.
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1917
Western Front

British aeroplanes bomb Bruges.

British advanced posts driven back short distance from Lens.

German attacks repulsed north of the Aisne.

Eastern Front

Russian offensive progresses in the region of Zborow (east of Lemberg); 6,300 prisoners taken.

Political, etc.

King and Queen attend service at Westminster Abbey for jubilee of Canadian Federation.
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1918
Western Front

Germans re-capture ground north-west of Albert.

French advance north of River Aisne near Moulin sous Touvent (north-west of Soissons).

1,019,115 U.S. troops embarked for France up to date: 291 lost at sea.

Southern Front

Successful Italian attack on Austrians in Piave delta begins - 1,900 prisoners.

Political, etc.

Opening of International Commercial Conference at Westminster.

Establishment of (British) Central Council of Agriculture.

Statement of General Botha re: military and police measures.

Publication of Austrian Docialists' Declaration re: peace.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1918_07_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

East St. Louis Race Riot: July 2, 1917

The city of East St. Louis was the scene of one of the bloodiest race riots in the 20th century. Racial tensions began to increase in February, 1917 when 470 African American workers were hired to replace white workers who had gone on strike against the Aluminum Ore Company. (...)

On July 2, 1917, the violence resumed. Men, women, and children were beaten and shot to death. Around six o’ clock that evening, white mobs began to set fire to the homes of black residents. Residents had to choose between burning alive in their homes, or run out of the burning houses, only to be met by gunfire. In other parts of the city, white mobs began to lynch African Americans against the backdrop of burning buildings. As darkness came and the National Guard returned, the violence began to wane, but did not come to a complete stop.

In response to the rioting, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sent W.E.B. DuBois and Martha Gruening to investigate the incident. They compiled a report entitled “Massacre at East St. Louis,” which was published in the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis. The NAACP also staged a silent protest march in New York City in response to the violence. Thousands of well-dressed African Americans marched down Fifth Avenue, showing their concern about the events in East St. Louis.

http://www.blackpast.com/?q=aah/east-st-louis-race-riot-july-2-1917

July 2, 1917 - East St. Louis

Here is a contemporary account:

On the first of July, 1917, between 9 o'clock and midnight, two automobiles loaded with white men drove through the negro settlement of East St. Louis shooting toward negro homes. This naturally aroused the colored people so that by midnight great numbers of negroes were marching the streets in the colored settlement portion of East St. Louis armed with shotguns, rifles and revolvers. The police department having been informed of these conditions ordered a sergeant of police, two patrolmen and a chauffeur to proceed at once in an automobile to the south part of East St. Louis, the seat of the trouble. Upon reaching Fifteenth Street and Bond Avenue, this detail of police encountered about one hundred negroes marching in the street in battle array. After some conversation between the police and the negroes, the negro mob fired into the automobile, killing the sergeant of police and one patrolman. 'This occurred about 12.15 a. m. of the second of July, 1917.

From 8 o'clock a. m. to 10 o'clock a. m. on July 2, 1917, the automobile that had been occupied by the policemen and which was riddled with bullets was standing in front of the police station at East St. Louis, around which automobile crowds of people had gathered. Some of the leaders called on these people generally to go to a certain hall to discuss the situation. At this meeting incendiary speeches were made and when the crowd left the hall, it marched down Collinsville Avenue, the principal business street of East St. Louis. Assaults on colored people by this crowd began to be made about 10 o'clock a. m. and continued until 11 p. m. of July 2, developing into the most lawless and disgraceful race riot. About 8 o'clock in the evening of that day the white mob began applying the torch, burning large areas of houses occupied by colored people. In this riot, eleven white men and probably one hundred colored people lost their lives. Many of the bodies were completely burned, some were thrown in the Cahokia Creek, and the exact number of those killed will never be known.

During all of this time, there was not the slightest effort made on the part of the police force of East St. Louis nor the sheriffs force of St. Clair County to stop the riot.

http://transylvaniandutch.blogspot.com/2009/04/july-2-1917-east-st-louis.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to General Clayton

Cairo, 10th July, 1917

SECRET

General Clayton,

I left Wejh on May 9th, 1917 with Sherif1 Nasir Ibn Ali Ibn Radhi Beni Hussein of Medina as O.C. Expedition, and Nessib Bey El Bekri as Political Officer to deal with villagers and townspeople. Sherif Feisal's instructions were to open Akaba for use as a base of supply for the Arab forces, and to sound the possibilities of Sherifian action in East and South Syria.

We marched to Abu Raga where we increased our force to 36 men, and thence to the Railway at km. 810.5 which we dynamited on May 19th. Our route then lay by Fejr to Maigua in Wadi Soilan, for Jarf to see Nuri and Nawwaf. We heard however that they were to the North of us, so marched to Nebk (near Kaf) on June 2nd, where we met Auda Abu Tayi, and the Huweitat. Sherif Nasir stayed in Kaf to enrol Rualla, Shererat and Huweitat for the Akaba expedition.

I rode on June 4th with 2 men into Wald Ali2 country, via Burga and Seba Biar to Am El Barida near Tudmor on June 8th. Here I met Sheikh Dhami of the Kawakiba Aneza and heard that Hachim was away N.E. and Ibn Murshid confined in Damascus. I therefore went West with Dhami and his 35 men (whom I enrolled) to Ras Baalbek on June 10th and dynamited a small plate girder bridge there.3 From Ras Baalbek we rode South to El Gabban, in the Ghuta 3 miles from Damascus where on June 13th I met Ali Riza Pasha Rehabi,4 G.O.C. Damascus. Thence I rode to El Rudeine where I met Sheikh Saad Ed Din Ibn Ali of the Leja5 and passed on to Salkhad to see Hussein Bey El Atrash.6 From Salkhad we went to Azrak and saw Nuri and Nawwaf,7 and returned to Nebk on June 18th.

I found the enrolment finished. Nessib Bey El Bekri went to Salkhad with Hussein El Atrash with the instructions attached,8 and with Nasir I marched on June 19th to Bair where we reopened the dynamited wells. From Bair I rode to Ziza and saw Fawaz Ibn Faiz,9 and thence West of Amman to Urn Keis on June 23rd where I looked at railway bridge Z in the Yarmuk valley and saw Shererat and Beni Hassan Sheikhs. From Um Keis I went to Ifdein (Mafrak on the map) the first station below Deraa, and destroyed a stretch of curved rails at km. 173.10 From Ifdein we rode to Zerga, and thence to Atwi, where we failed to take the station, but killed 3 out of the 5 of the garrison, captured a large flock of sheep and destroyed a telegraph party of 4 men repairing the wire. We also dynamited a stretch of line. From Atwi I rode back to Bair, and rejoined Sherif Nasir who had meantime prepared the Western Huweitat. On June 30th we moved to El Jefer, clearing one well, and thence to km. 479 which we destroyed on a large scale, while a column was attacking N. of Maan near Aneyza. We then marched towards Fuweileh, where the gendarmes post had been destroyed by an advance column. They met us with the news of the re-occupation of Fuweileh by the belated relief expedition of 4/174/59 from Maan. We wiped out the battalion on July 2nd (taking the O.C., a mountain gun and 160 prisoners) at Abu El Lissan, and sent a flying column North which defeated the Turkish post at Hisha (railhead 5 miles East of Shobek), occupied Wadi Musa, Shobek, Tafileh, and is now near Kerak to take action there.

From Fuweileh we captured the post of Mreigha and then moved to Guweira where we met Ibn Jad of the Akaba Huweitat, and took 100 men and 5 officers. From Guweira we marched on to El Kethira (wiping out a post of 3 officers and 140 men) and thence to El Khadra in the North of Wadi Ithm, where the Akaba garrison surrendered at discretion. We entered Akaba on July 6th, with 600 prisoners, about 20 officers, and a German unteroffizier well-borer. I rode the same day for Suez with 8 men and arrived at El Shatt on July 9th.

As a result of the journeys and interviews noted above, between June 5th and July 6th, I am of opinion that given the necessary material assistance Arab Forces can be arranged about the end of August as in the sketch map attached. These levies will not (any more than the Hedjaz Beduin) be capable of fighting a pitched battle, but forces 1, 2, 4 and 5 may be able to ensure a cessation of traffic on the railways in their areas, and forces 6 and 7 should suffice for the expulsion of all Turkish posts in their districts, and the occupation of all ways of communication. Force 3 is our striking force (of perhaps 6,ooo not bad men) and may be able to rush Deraat, or at least should cut off the garrison there and hold up the line in the neighbourhood. I would propose to cut the bridge at Hemmah from Um Keis by force 2, if possible, as a preliminary of action, and if Damascus could be taken over by a part of force 3 it would mean a great accession of strength to the Arab cause.

These various operations fortunately need not be accurately concerted. If they took place in numerical order (as in the map) it would be easiest - but there is little hope of things working out just as planned. If they come off the L[ines] of C[ommunication] of the Turkish force in the Jerusalem area would appear threatened - but I do not think the Arabs can be advised to take action unless the E[gyptian] E[xpeditionary] Force can retain the Turks in front of them by a holding attack, to prevent large drafts being sent up to the Hauran. Force 3 is capable of only one effort (lasting perhaps 2 months) and if it is crushed Arab hopes in Syria will depend on the yet untried possibility of action between Horns and Aleppo - on which it is too soon to speak.

Sherif Nasir asked me to discuss with E.E.Force the situation, his needs, and the possibility of joint action by E.E.Force and himself against the Turkish forces in Palestine, as outlined above.

T.E.L.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170710_clayton.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australians at War

2 July 1918 - Prime Minister William Morris Hughes, the 'Little Digger', addressed Australian troops on the Western Front before the Battle of Hamel, France.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-at-war-1901-2000/1918.html

Prime Minister Rt Hon. WM Hughes visits Western Front (1918)

Synopsis - On 2 July 1918, in the final stages of the First World War, the Australian Prime Minister, Mr WM (Billy) Hughes and his deputy, Sir Joseph Cook, visited various Australian headquarters in France. They are seen arriving on the steps of the 5th Divisional HQ at St Gratien, near Amiens, and leaving the 2nd Division HQ at Camon on 3 July. Sir Joseph Cook addresses men of the 2nd Division as the new Australian commander, Sir John Monash, looks on, with his predecessor, General Sir William Birdwood at right. Mr Hughes lies on the ground behind Sir Joseph as he speaks.

Curator’s notes, by Paul Byrnes - This looks like a run-of-the-mill film record of an official visit, but it’s rather more than that. Billy Hughes visited the front partly to settle a major controversy over who was to command the Australian forces for the rest of the war. Most of the major players are seen in these brief scenes: Monash, Hughes, Birdwood and a cast of staff officers whose opinions were to play a part. Two men we don’t see are the key orchestrators of the controversy – CEW Bean and Keith Murdoch, the most important newsmen of the war for Australians. On these two days, they were attempting to undo the appointment of Sir John Monash as commander of the Australian Corps.

Monash’s promotion had been approved by the Australian Cabinet in May, as Hughes was en route to Europe via the US. At Murdoch’s urging, Hughes decided to suspend Cabinet’s decision until he arrived in London. A furious round of lobbying then ensued. Part of the reason for Hughes’s visit to the Australian headquarters in France was to gauge the opinions of Monash’s fellow officers. As the camera recorded the handshakes and speeches, Monash’s position hung in the balance, just as he was trying to complete planning for the Battle of the Hamel. Monash had no doubt that the move against him was because he was a Jew. In a letter home to his wife, nine days before this battle, he wrote: ‘It is a great nuisance to have to fight a pogrom of this nature in the midst of all one’s other anxieties.’

Was this the simple essence of the matter, a virulent anti-Semitism? There is some evidence to support that view in Charles Bean’s diaries, in which there are a couple of uncomplimentary references to Monash’s personality. In December 1917, Bean wrote a stinging appraisal of Monash, who was then commanding the 3rd Division:

Monash has his capacities, great lucidity in grasping what has to be done and explaining it; but such a desire to make out the best case for himself after the event, that he accepts any pretty story which is put up to him. A truthful candid battalion commander therefore gets less favour in his eyes than one whose battalion has not done so well but who is ready to tell a pretty story about it. Monash for this reason has not the slightest grasp of what has happened in action – he never has had. His ambition makes him an underground engineer: he has the Jewish capacity of worming silently into favour without seeming to take any steps towards it, although many are beginning to suspect that he does take steps.

Bean felt that Monash almost never visited the actual front to see for himself. Bean preferred commanders who made sure they were seen by troops at the front, such as his friend John Gellibrand, who took over the 3rd Division from Monash, or General Charles Rosenthal, an architect now commanding the 2nd Division. There was only one Australian soldier whom Bean felt had all the right qualities to command the Anzac Corps and he had just left the Australian headquarters with General Birdwood. Cyril Brudenell Bingham White was Birdwood’s chief of staff from late 1916, an Australian-born officer of Irish parentage who had proved himself one of the best staff officers of the war. More importantly, in this context, he was Charles Bean’s friend, confidant and mentor, and one of his most important sources. Bean was under the impression that nearly everyone in the Australian hierarchy believed, as he did, that White was by far the most brilliant soldier Australia had produced. When Bean learned in mid-May 1918 that Monash was to succeed Birdwood as commander of the Australian Corps, he was deeply troubled.

In his book The Great War (2006), Les Carlyon devotes a chapter to this controversy, setting out with clarity the attitudes of the players in this intrigue. He describes Bean’s affection for White as ‘something approaching idolatry’. ‘Bean saw White as a genius – his word – and perhaps as the man he, Bean, would have liked to have been.’ By contrast, and like many men who were schooled in the English boarding schools, Bean had a thinly-veiled distrust of Jews in general. His observations at close quarters of John Monash, since Gallipoli, had not changed those views.

‘Monash is a man of very ordinary ideals,’ Bean wrote in his diary, ‘lower than ordinary I should say. He cannot inspire this force with a high chivalrous patriotic spirit – with his people in charge it would be full of the desire to look and show well – that is the highest. There is no question where the interest of the Australian nation lies. It lies in making White one of its great men and makers.’ The reference to ‘his people’ is interesting, because Bean felt that Monash tended to pack his own staff with Jewish officers. These are presumably ‘his people’.

By the time that Billy Hughes and his deputy Joe Cook arrived in France, the bad blood was at full boil. General Birdwood had wanted to retain contact with ‘his Australians’, by retaining administrative command of the AIF, while taking on his new job as commander of the (British) Fifth Army. He wanted Brudenell White with him as, in effect, his administrative link to Monash, who would be operational commander of the AIF. Bean and Murdoch opposed this at every turn. If Birdwood was to command the Fifth Army, he should relinquish his command of the AIF; White should be commander of the Australian Corps and Monash, as senior officer, should be promoted to General Officer Commanding, AIF. The GOC AIF was the senior position, but largely administrative. The real soldiering decisions, the planning of battle orders and strategy, were handled by the Corps commander. That was the position Monash now occupied, if only tenuously.

In these two days with the Australian troops, Hughes realised that Murdoch and Bean had misled him. There was no groundswell of opposition to Monash’s appointment. The divisional commanders supported his appointment, and many were enraged by the interference of two pressmen. Hughes decided to let Monash choose which position he wanted, knowing already that he would choose the Corps commander job. Brudenell White, who had neither sought nor encouraged Bean’s intervention, went with Birdwood as planned. Murdoch, a seasoned campaigner and peddler of influence, moved on to new fights. Bean and Monash continued to cooperate uneasily with each other in the last months of the war, because each needed the other. Bean was writing the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, and Monash was making it with a series of brilliant tactical battles that made his reputation as a soldier. As Bean rightly said, Monash was keenly interested in influencing his own legacy and legend, but this controversy soured relations between them for most of the rest of their lives. Bean admitted in public later that he had been wrong. He would describe it as a ‘high-intentioned but ill-judged intervention’. Monash’s biographer, Geoffrey Serle, saw it in harsher terms. Serle concluded: ‘It is perhaps the outstanding case of sheer irresponsibility by pressmen in Australian history.’

https://aso.gov.au/titles/historical/wm-hughes-visits-western-front/notes/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DIARIES OF SAMUEL MILLER KEPLINGER JR., AMBULANCE DRIVER

JULY 1918

7-1. Started on my career as an artist. After washing my car I collected a few paint brushes and paint and went to it.
A very hard tiresome job. The "American Field Service" and the American and French flags (crossed) are painted over. Darn.
The Lieutenant is giving up the morning setting up exercises. Booze holds him back. He is drunk half the time.

7-2. Finished painting --- thank heaven. Was sure tired of it.
Lt. Takes account of all our tools in a drunken state. He leans against the fresh paint several times. Sgt Block, who says what he pleases to whom he pleases and when he pleases, says he'll give him an orderly to follow him around and hold him up.

http://www.ourstory.info/library/2-ww1/Keplinger/kep1.html#7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kenneth Lee Porter, Second Lieutenant, United States Air Service

A graduate of the University of Michigan with a degree in engineering, Porter joined the United States Air Service on 6 August 1917. Following training in Canada and Texas, he was commissioned and assigned to the 147th Pursuit Squadron in January 1918. Flying the Nieuport 28, Porter scored his first victory on 2 July 1918, sharing in the destruction of a Pfalz D.III. In August, the 147th Aero was re-equipped with the SPAD S.XIII and Porter scored four more victories to become an ace on 12 October 1918. Two days before his final victory, Porter replaced Wilbert White as commander of C Flight when the latter was killed in action.

Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) - "For extraordinary heroism in action near Chateau Thierry, France, 2 July 1918. Lt. Porter with four other pilots, attacked twelve enemy aircraft (Pfalz type) flying in two groups well within the enemy lines. As soon as the enemy planes were sighted, Lt. Porter maneuvered to get between them and the sun with great difficulty and gained the advantage. While three of the American officers dived on the lower formation, Lt. Porter and 2nd Lt. John H. Stevens engaged the upper formation in a bold and brilliant combat, two planes of which they crashed to earth." DSC citation

Croix de Guerre - "An excellent pilot. He has always been efficient and brave, firing on enemy convoys from low altitude, attacking balloons, forcing them down. On 2 July 1918, together with two other pilots, he attacked a formation of 12 enemy planes and brought down one of his adversaries." Croix de Guerre citation.

http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/kporter.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 July 1918, Commons Sitting

WOMEN DOCTORS.


HC Deb 02 July 1918 vol 107 cc1555-6 1555

Sir ROBERT NEWMAN asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether 1556 he is aware that women serving as whole-time doctors in, the Army and doing precisely the same work as their male colleagues receive neither military rank nor status, thereby being deprived of equal pay, ration, and travelling allowances, as well as a gratuity; that they have their letters censored and suffer under many disabilities owing to their not holding commissioned rank; and whether, under these circumstances, steps will be taken to grant women temporary commissioned rank, thus removing these grievances and at the same time showing a just appreciation of the services rendered by women doctors in connection with the War?

The FINANCIAL SECRETARY to the WAR OFFICE (Mr. Forster) My hon. Friend has been misinformed. Women serving as whole-time doctors in the Army for service at home and abroad receive the same pay, ration, travelling allowances, and gratuity, as temporary commissioned officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps. Those serving for home duty only on temporary engagements are treated in the same way as civilian medical men similarly employed. All officers have their letters censored. It is not proposed to grant commissions to women doctors.

Sir ARTHUR SHIRLEY BENN Does not the right hon. Gentleman consider it advisable to give the same rank or commission to the women who are rendering such excellent service and are doing men's work?

Mr. FORSTER I do not quite follow my hon. Friend. I have just said that in regard to pay, ration, travelling allowances, and gratuity they do get the same.

Sir A. S. BENN I said "commission"—the same rank?

Mr. FORSTER No; not commission.

Sir R. NEWMAN Has the hon. Gentleman received any communication from the Medical Women's Federation, who have unanimously decided to press the Government by all means in their power to grant temporary rank to medical women serving in the War?

Mr. FORSTER I do not think I have seen that.

Mr. CHANCELLOR Is it sex or incompetence that prevents them getting commissions?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jul/02/women-doctors
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Shirala

5.306 ton British liner, built 1901. 410ftx50ft. 387hp triple-expansion engines. 213 passengers, 5.000 tons general, 180 tons ammunition for Army, 1.700 tons mail, including diamonds, London for Bombay. Sunk: 2 July, 1918 by torpedo in port side from UB-57 (Oberleutnant Johann Lohs). Five crew killed.

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?589
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1st Pursuit Group History - May through July, 1918

Comprised of 17th, 27th, 94th, 95th, 103rd, 147th, and 183rd Aero Squadrons

2 Jul 1918

27th - A patrol of nine planes engaged a patrol of nine planes of the Richtofen Circus near Verdilly, France. Two Fokkers destroyed and officially confirmed by Lieutenants MacArthur, Hoover, Schmitt, Grant, Hudson and Norton. 1st Lieutenant Edward Elliott killed in combat over Chateau-Thierry. 1st Lieutenant Walter H. Wanamaker shot down and made prisoner in German territory.

147th - A patrol of five planes was attacked by a flight of twelve Pfalz of the Richtofen Circus near Chateau-Thierry. In the engagement Second Lieutenant Kenneth L. Porter, Maxwell O. Parry and Cleveland W. McDermott each destroyed one Pfalz each which was unconfirmed. Lieutenants John H. Stevens, Cleveland W. McDermott, Maxwell O. Parry and John O'Neill destroyed one Pfalz which was confirmed.

GROUP - Due to the large number of fatal accidents in other portions of the sector, it became necessary to issue instructions that no pistol or rifle practice would be engaged in other than on the limits of the rifle range. Message received from Aeronautic Headquarters VIth French, Army: "Yesterday's attack was a complete success. The protection given by the First Pursuit Group, U.S.A. was very good. We are informed that one American plane fell one kilometer west of Pavant. Pilot Wounded."

http://www.acepilots.com/wwi/us_1st_2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 July 1919 → Commons Sitting

LEAGUE OF NATIONS FLAG.


Lieut. - Commander KENWORTHY asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether British men-of-war have flown the flag of the League of Nations; and, if so, on what occasions?

Dr. MACNAMARA My hon. and gallant Friend is mistaken in thinking that there is such a flag. The last part of the question, therefore, does not arise.

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY Has the flag not been flown by transports as stated in the Press?

Dr. MACNAMARA Not to my knowledge. My advice is that there is no such flag.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/jul/02/league-of-nations-flag
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Lost Battalion (1919)

Director: Burton L. King
Writer: Charles Logue (writer)
Release Date: 2 July 1919 (USA)

A battalion of the U.S. Army's 77th Division penetrates deep into the Argonne Forest of France during the First World War. The battalion becomes surrounded and holds out for six long days, awaiting reinforcement and rescue.

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0010386/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2011 6:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Diary Entry - 2nd July, 1916
Nothing much done except more slaving on the mine in the afternoon, putting up sets to keep the roof from falling in. If could only describe the new Mess, which is recognised as the best in France. To begin with, a tremendous amount of earth was excavated from the side of the bank, this took some considerable time as the men used to get in behind the bank where they were not seen and sit down by the hour. After a lot of agitating the first three sections of cupola were put in and finally about a fortnight later, when the banks had several times slipped in, the eight sections were finally put in - the dimensions are 16 feet x 33, there is a partition in the middle of the compartment and we use one room for messing and the other as a general smoking room. The entrance is by a long passage which also connects up with the cookhouse and there is a mine shaft dug in off the passage. The cupola walls are painted black but each end, which is lined with corrugated iron, is painted white. The floor which consists of 9 x 1 1/2 has canvas over it while in the general room there are two carpets. A beautifully padded liver scorcher reclines in front of the fire, made of 9 x 3, there are four fan lights in the roof to let the light in. The whole Mess is to be covered with a concrete roof to be a foot or so above so as to burst anything that might happen this way. There are a most wonderful set of photos already adorning the walls, which add brightness to the place.

==> http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2011 6:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Letter Home - 2nd July, 1916


2nd July, 1916

Dear Father,

Many thanks for your letters and the paper re the boat race. It must have been a splendid race and it was a pity we could not quite get there. We are still having wretched weather, at least yesterday the sun came out but today it looks as if it might rain again at any time. This part of the line has been fairly quiet in spite of the papers' talk of the heavy British shelling. Of course, we are doing a certain amount of shelling and, when we do let them have it, all the batteries of the Division concentrate on the one target. The point fired on must be a perfect inferno as that means about eighteen batteries including several 4.5 howitzer batteries all firing at gun fire for some thirty minutes. These strafes come off once daily and usually at night. Of course, there is usually some other shoot as well during the day. Last night at twelve thirty am a regular tornado of shells hurtled over to Boschie for half an hour and we hit off with eight rounds per gun per minute for the first one hundred and sixty rounds. That gives you some idea of what it is like with the other batteries round doing the same. Down south a lot of heavy firing has been heard and we hear we have done well, the attack being launched yesterday morning at 11.30 am and we were advancing on a ten-mile front. I think I forgot to mention before that we lost our Colonel Kerwin about a fortnight ago as he has been promoted to General. We were all very sorry to lose him as he was a spelndid man. We have had another sick-looking individual for a few days but he went off in an ambulance about four days ago and I don't think he will be much loss. It's a pity you cant get the rain we have been having here. It simply pours. No more news.

Ever your loving son,

Walford

==> http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jun 2012 21:01    Onderwerp: War Diary of the Accrington Pals Reageer met quote

2nd July (1916) - 1 a.m.

The battalion remained in the front line until 1 a.m. on the 2nd July when relieved by the 13th Battn. York & Lancaster Regt. During the attack Battn. Hqrs. was situated at head of Sap C. (K 29 a 93 ref map - 1/10,000 HEBUTERNE Trench Map). Total casualties:- Officers killed 7, missing 1, wounded 13 including the Commanding Officer. Other ranks killed 86, wounded 338, missing 140.
On relief, the battalion withdrew to ROLLAND trench (4th line) when reinforcements of 4 officers & 60 other ranks came up.


http://www.pals.org.uk/pals_diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:30    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Beginn der englisch-französischen Offensive im Sommegebiet

Großes Hauptquartier, 2. Juli.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

In einer Breite von etwa vierzig Kilometer begann gestern der seit vielen Monaten mit unbeschränkten Mittel vorbereitete große englisch-französische Massenangriff nach siebentägiger stärkster Artillerie- und Gasvorwirkung. Auf beiden Ufern der Somme, sowie dem Ancre-Bach von Gommecourt bis in die Gegend von La Boiselle errang der Feind keine nennenswerten Vorteile, erlitt aber sehr schwere Verluste. Dagegen gelang es ihm, in die vordersten Linien der beiden an die Somme stoßenden Divisionsabschnitte an einzelnen Stellen einzudringen, so daß vorgezogen wurde, diese Divisionen aus den völlig zerschossenen vordersten Gräben in die zwischen erster und zweiter Stellung liegende Riegelstellung zurückzunehmen. Das in der vordersten Linie festeingebaute, übrigens unbrauchbar gewordene Material ging hierbei, wie stets in solchen Fällen, verloren. In Verbindung mit dieser großen Kampfhandlung standen vielfache Artilleriefeuerüberfälle, sowie mehrfache kleinere Angriffsunternehmungen an den Anschlußfronten und auch westlich und südöstlich von Tahure; sie scheiterten überall.
Links der Maas wurden an der Höhe 304 französische Grabenstücke genommen und ein französischer Handgranatenangriff abgeschlagen. Östlich der Maas hat der Gegner unter erneutem starken Kräfteeinsatz gestern mehrmals und auch heute in der Frühe die deutschen Linien auf der Höhe "Kalte Erde", besonders beim Panzerwerk Thiaumont, angegriffen und mußte im Sperrfeuer unter größten Verlusten wieder umkehren. Der gegnerische Flugdienst entwickelte große Tätigkeit. Unsere Geschwader stellten den Feind an vielen Stellen zum Kampf und haben ihm schwere Verluste beigebracht. Es sind, vorwiegend in Gegend der angegriffenen Front und im Maasgebiet, 15 feindliche Flugzeuge abgeschossen, davon 8 englische, 3 französische in unseren Linien. Oberleutnant Freiherr v. Althaus hat seinen siebenten Gegner außer Gefecht gesetzt Wir haben kein Flugzeug verloren, wenn auch einzelne Führer oder Beobachter verwundet worden sind.


Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generals v. Linsingen:
Der Angriff schritt vorwärts. Die Gefangenenzahl ist um 7 Offiziere, 1410 Mann gestiegen. An verschiedenen Stellen wurden feindliche Gegenangriffe glatt zurückgewiesen.
Armee des Generals Grafen v. Bothmer:
Deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Truppen haben die kürzlich von den Russen besetzte Höhe von Worobijowka (nordwestlich von Tarnopol) gestürmt und dem Gegner an Gefangenen 7 Offiziere, 892 Mann, an Beute 7 Maschinengewehre, 2 Minenwerfer abgenommen.


Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_07_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:39    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Die Durchbruchsschlacht im Westen

Großes Hauptquartier, 2. Juli.
Seit Samstag früh ist an demjenigen Teile unserer Front, der am weitesten nach Westen, etwa gegen Amiens zu vorgeschoben ist, ein großer Angriff der Engländer und Franzosen im Gange, der sich von Gommecourt bis gegen Lihons zu beiden Seiten der Somme erstreckt. Im bisherigen Verlauf des Stellungskrieges hatte dieser Frontabschnitt kaum ernstere Kämpfe zu verzeichnen, ausgenommen die Eroberung des Dorfes Frise an der Somme am 28. Januar 1916 durch die Schlesier, und die anknüpfenden Rückeroberungsversuche der Franzosen.
Inzwischen hatten die Engländer ihre Front bis in diese Gegend, zeitweilig sogar bis über die Somme hinüber ausgedehnt, und vor acht Tagen begannen sie, mit dem anschließenden linken Flügel der Franzosen vereint, ein systematisches Trommelfeuer, das sich allerdings bis weit nach Norden ausdehnte. Durch zahlreiche Gasangriffe, die bis in die Gegend von Werwicq festgestellt wurden, und durch außerordentlich zahlreiche und starke Patrouillen suchten sie bis zuletzt über das engere Gebiet des besonders von der französischen Presse erwartungsvoll angekündigten Angriffs Ungewißheit zu verbreiten.
Dieser Versuch, der nach siebentägiger heftigster Beschießung gestern mit starken Kräften einsetzte, hat bisher nicht den Erfolg gehabt, der dem ungewöhnlichen Aufwand an Vorbereitungen und eingesetzten Kräften entspräche. Auf dem Nordabschnitt der Angriffsfront, zu beiden Seiten des Ancre-Baches bis nach La Boiselle haben die Engländer, wie der Tagesbericht meldet, trotz schwerer Verluste keine wesentlichen Vorteile erreicht. Erfolgreicher war der Feind bei Fricourt, Mametz und Longueval, sowie auf einem unmittelbar an den Fluß angelehnten Abschnitt südlich der Somme, und zwar haben nicht die Engländer, sondern die Franzosen diese Fortschritte zu verzeichnen, durch die Räumung der gänzlich eingetrommelten Gräben unserer vordersten Linie auf zwei Divisionsabschnitten Wir haben unsere Front hier zurückgebogen, um unnötige Verluste zu verhüten und eine bessere Verteidigung aufnehmen zu können. Solche taktischen Veränderungen sind bei größeren Durchbruchsversuchen fast unvermeidlich. Es liegt keinerlei Grund zur Beunruhigung ihretwegen vor. Unsere Truppen stehen dort, wo die Front eingedrückt wurde, in den Zwischengräben noch vor der zweiten Stellung, in einer sogenannten "Riegelstellung" nicht schlechter, sondern besser geschützt zur Abwehr bereit. Die Engländer werden harte Arbeit haben, wenn sie ihren Verbündeten endlich die verheißene Hilfe bringen wollen.
Bei Verdun wird nach wie vor heftig um das Panzerwerk Thiaumont gekämpft. Gestern hatten die Franzosen drei Sturmangriffe und heute abermals einen angesetzt. Sie gingen über die kahlen Hänge von Westen gegen Osten vor und gerieten jedesmal in ein derart mörderisches Sperrfeuer unserer Batterien, daß es gar nicht zum Infanterieangriff kam. Um so unbegreiflicher wirkt die Behauptung des französischen Heeresberichts, daß der Gegner in Thiaumont eingedrungen sei. Das Panzerwerk wie das Dorf Fleury sind restlos in unserem Besitz


http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_07_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:41    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Seegefecht in der Ostsee

Berlin, 2. Juli. (W. B. Amtlich.)
Nach den inzwischen eingegangenen ausführlichen Meldungen der in der Nacht vom 29. zum 30. Juni mit russischen Seestreitkräften im Gefecht befindlich gewesenen deutschen Torpedoboote ergibt sich in Ergänzung der amtlichen Meldung vom 30. Juni nachstehendes Bild: Zunächst wurden in der genannten Nacht etwa 20 Seemeilen südlich Haefringe von unseren Torpedobooten drei feindliche Zerstörer, anscheinend vom "Nowik"-Typ, gesichtet und beschossen. Der Feind machte sofort kehrt und entkam in einem einsetzenden Regenschauer. Eine Stunde später kamen im Osten neue Rauchwolken in Sicht, auf welche unsere Torpedoboote zudrehten. Es wurden zwei feindliche Kreuzer (anscheinend einer von der Makroff-, einer von der Oleg-Klasse) und fünf feindliche Zerstörer ausgemacht. Unsere Torpedoboote gingen zum Angriff heran und bekämpften den Feind mit Torpedos und Artillerie. Mehrere Detonationen sind einwandsfrei beim Feinde beobachtet. Bei dem Beginne des Angriffs nahm der Feind unsere Torpedoboote mit allen Kalibern heftig unter Feuer, das nach den Detonationen erheblich nachließ. Bei aufkommendem Nebel kamen sich die Gegner aus Sicht.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_07_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:43    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Eroberung der Worobijowahöhe bei Tarnopol

Wien 2. Juli.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:

In der Bukowina bei unveränderter Lage keine besonderen Ereignisse. Westlich von Kolomea und südlich des Dnjestr entwickelten sich neue heftige Kämpfe. Nordwestlich von Tarnopol eroberten österreichisch-ungarische und deutsche Bataillone die vielumstrittene Höhe von Worobijowka zurück. Sieben russische Offiziere und 982 Mann, 7 Maschinengewehre und zwei Minenwerfer wurden erbeutet. Der Angriff der unter dem Befehl des Generals von Linsingen stehenden verbündeten Streitkräfte wurde auch gestern an zahlreichen Stellen beträchtlich nach vorwärts getragen. Zahl der Gefangenen und Beute erhöhen sich. Russische Gegenangriffe scheiterten.

Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Im südlichen Abschnitt der Hochfläche von Doberdo setzten die Italiener das heftige Artilleriefeuer und die Angriffe gegen den Raum östlich von Selz fort. Diese auch nachts andauernden Anstrengungen des Feindes blieben dank dem zähen Ausharren der Verteidiger ohne Erfolg.
Zwischen Brenta und Etsch wiederholten sich die fruchtlosen Vorstöße gegen zahlreiche Stellen unserer Front. Im Marmolatagebiet wiesen unsere Truppen mehrere Angriffe italienischer Abteilungen ab, im Ortlergebiet erkämpften sie einige der Kristallspitzen. Gestern wurden über 500 Italiener, darunter 10 Offiziere gefangen genommen


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:48    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 2. Juli. (W. B.)
Das Hauptquartier meldet: An der Irakfront keine Veränderung.
In Südpersien setzten unsere Truppen ihre Bewegung nach Osten fort, indem sie die russischen Nachhuten verjagen.
An der Kaukasusfront trug sich auf dem rechten Flügel und im Zentrum nichts zu. Unsere nördlich von Tschoruk stehenden Truppen drückten auf das feindliche Zentrum und drängten den Feind 8 Kilometer nach Norden in Richtung auf die Küste zurück; sie besetzten abermals beherrschende feindliche Stellungen in einer Länge von 12 Kilometern. Unsere Seestreitkräfte erzielten in den letzten Wochen mehrere Erfolge im Schwarzen Meere. Unsere Unterseeboote versenkten an der Küste des Kaukasus vier große russische Dampfer, darunter Transporte; einer davon war ganz mit Truppen beladen. Außerdem wurde ein russisches Segelschiff versenkt. Ferner gingen ein mit Munition beladener feindlicher Dampfer und ein anderer großer Dampfer durch Auflaufen auf eine Mine unter. Am 28. Juni wurde bei Katia nach einem Luftkampf, der 15 Minuten dauerte, ein feindliches Flugzeug zur Flucht gezwungen. Es landete zwischen dem Kanal und Katia, um der Verfolgung durch unser Flugzeug zu entgehen.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Deutsche Antwort an Sasonow

Berlin, 2. Juli. (W. B.)
Die "Norddeutsche Allgemein Zeitung" schreibt:

In einer Unterredung mit einem Redakteur des "Rußkoje Slowo" ist der russische Minister des Äußern von neuem auf die Entstehungsgeschichte des Krieges zu sprechen gekommen. Die Schuld Rußlands an der Entfesselung des Weltbrandes ist durch die vom Reichskanzler bei verschiedenen Gelegenheiten abgegebenen Erklärungen sowie durch die amtlichen deutschen Veröffentlichungen so klar und unwiderleglich nachgewiesen, daß es überflüssig erscheint, auf diese Unterredung näher einzugehen. Nur einige Punkte der Äußerungen des Herrn Sasonow, welche mit den Tatsachen in direktem Widerspruch stehen, seien hier richtig gestellt.
Herr Sasonow weist darauf hin, der Reichskanzler habe behauptet, daß England, Frankreich und Rußland sich durch ein Bündnis gegen Deutschland eng zusammengeschlossen hätten. Der Reichskanzler hat von einem solchen Bündnis niemals gesprochen. Wie aus den Veröffentlichungen der Kaiserlichen Regierung hervorgeht, sind ihr die Beziehungen, die die Ententemächte vor dem Kriege verknüpften, genau bekannt gewesen. Der Reichskanzler hat auf Grund dieser Kenntnis nur wiederholt die Tatsache festgestellt, daß diese Beziehungen die Einkreisung Deutschlands zum Ziele hatten Diese Feststellung wird durch die Ausführungen des Herrn Sasonow nicht nur nicht widerlegt, sondern direkt bestätigt. Der Minister erklärt selbst, "daß Frankreich und Rußland trotz ihrer von Grund aus friedlichen Gesinnung und ihres aufrichtigen Wunsches, ein Blutvergießen zu vermeiden, sich entschlossen hätten, die Anmaßung Deutschlands niederzuschlagen". Er bestätigt ferner, daß er bei diesem Plane bestimmt auf die Unterstützung Englands gerechnet hat, und liefert durch dieses Eingeständnis einen schlagenden Beweis für die von deutscher Seite stets betonte Mitschuld Englands am Ausbruch des Krieges. Herr Sasanow wirft dem Reichskanzler vor, er habe sorgsam vermieden, zu erwähnen, daß die russische Mobilmachung nach derjenigen der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee und eines beträchtlichen Teiles der deutschen Armee erfolgt sei. Demgegenüber sei daran erinnert, daß, als am 31. Juli 1914 die allgemeine Mobilmachung der russischen Armee bekannt gegeben wurde, Österreich-Ungarn nur acht nicht an der russischen Grenze garnisonierte Korps gegen Serbien mobil gemacht hatte. Daß Deutschland zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits einen beträchtlichen Teil seiner Armee mobil gemacht habe, ist eine gänzlich aus der Luft gegriffene Behauptung. Eine Teilmobilmachung hat in Deutschland überhaupt nicht stattgefunden. Der Mobilmachungsbefehl für die ganze deutsche Armee erging bekanntlich erst am 1. August nachmittags 5 Uhr als Antwort auf die allgemeine russische Mobilmachung. Mobilmachungsmaßnahmen irgendwelcher Art sind vorher nicht getroffen worden.
Herr Sasonow behauptet, diese "Mobilmachung" sei durch den "Lokalanzeiger" vorzeitig dem deutschen Volke bekannt gegeben worden. Herrn Sasonow muß aus der Berichterstattung der russischen Botschaft in Berlin bekannt sein, daß die am 30. Juli von dem genannten Blatte infolge eines Irrtums durch ein Extrablatt verbreitete falsche Nachricht von der deutschen Mobilmachung sofort von amtlicher Seite widerrufen wurde und daß überdies die Botschaft bereits eine Viertelstunde nach Ausgabe des Extrablattes von einem Mitglied der Redaktion des "Lokal-Anzeigers" telephonisch über den Sachverhalt aufgeklärt worden ist. Der russische Minister scheut sich nicht, dem Redakteur des "Rußkoje Slowo" das Märchen aufzubinden, es bestehe die feste Sicherheit, die jetzt ganz Europa habe, daß das Ultimatum Österreich-Ungarns an Serbien unter dem unmittelbaren Einfluß eines hervorragenden deutschen Diplomaten ausgearbeitet und mit Übergehung des Leiters der deutschen Politik dem Kaiser Wilhelm zur Billigung unterbreitet wurde. Wir stellen hiermit fest, daß diese Behauptung in allen Einzelteilen frei erfunden ist und jeder tatsächlichen Grundlage entbehrt


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vertrauensvotum für das Kabinett Boselli

Rom 2. Juli.
Die Kammer hat in namentlicher Abstimmung mit 391 gegen 45 Stimmen folgende Tagesordnung des Abgeordneten Teso angenommen, zu der der Ministerpräsident die Vertrauensfrage gestellt hatte: "Die Kammer billigt die Erklärungen der Regierung und geht zur Tagesordnung über."

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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2014 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ontstaan van het eerste regeerakkoord in 1918

Op 2 juli 1918 vonden de eerste Nederlandse Tweede Kamerverkiezingen op basis van algemeen stemrecht plaats. Bij deze verkiezingen werd ook het stelsel van evenredige vertegenwoordiging geïntroduceerd. Dit hield in dat een meerderheid van de stemmen in 1 district niet langer doorslaggevend was, maar dat alle stemmen voortaan meetelden voor de Kamerzetels.

Grote politieke verschuivingen waren het gevolg. Zo verloren de 2 liberale partijen in 1918 gezamenlijk 21 van hun 31 zetels, terwijl de Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij (SDAP) er juist 7 won. Verder kwamen er als gevolg van de lage kiesdrempel ook nog 8 eenmansfracties in de Tweede Kamer. Het grootste blok bestond echter uit de confessionele partijen: de Rooms-Katholieke Staatspartij (RKSP), de Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (ARP) en de Christelijk Historische Unie (CHU), die samen 50 van de 100 zetels kregen.

http://www.gahetna.nl/actueel/nieuws/2012/ontstaan-eerste-regeerakkoord-1918

Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad, 2 juli 1918 - Levensgevaarlijke verkiezingscampagne

Een agent van politie zag in den nacht van Zaterdag op Zondag 3 personen op geheimzinnige wijze te voorschijn schieten van achter een schoolgebouw aan de Rochussenstraat.

Op vermoeden met inbrekers te doen te hebben, loste hij 3 revolverschoten op de vluchtelingen die daardoor tot staan kwamen.

Het bleken geen inbrekers te zijn, maar reclame-makers, in dienst van een politieke partij, die er geen bezwaren tegen heeft ten bate harer actie het stadsschoon te bederven door het aanbrengen van geverfde letters op muren – zelfs van openbare gebouwen – en heiningen.

https://indebuurt.nl/rotterdam/toen-in-rotterdam/100-jaar-geleden-in-de-rotterdamse-krant-levensgevaarlijke-verkiezingscampagne~54752/
_________________

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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Jul 2018 12:36, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 7:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Northwestern Pritzker School of Law in the World War I Era: Soldiers’ Newsletter, 2 July 1918

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY LAW SCHOOL

Newsletter No. 13

July 2nd, 1918

Dear Patriots All:

Again there has been an unavoidably long lapse between newsletters. Commencement has come in between, when the Law School graduated a class of 35, 4 of them women. Six received their degree in absentia, on account of military service: Messrs. Aaron, Allen, Wm .Kelly, Lexitetz, Heindl and Rohn. The Coif men this year were four: Greenspahn, Jaques, Moody and Petacque. Several others (one a woman) crowded close behind. The first scholarship prize was awarded Mr. Greenspahn, and the second, Mr. Petacque.

But the most pleasant Commencement event was the return for a brief – all too brief- furlough of Colonel and Mrs. Wigmore. They were with us just two weeks, and it certainly did us all good to have the inspiration of Mr. Wigmore’s presence in his office once more; and we were mighty proud of the military bearing of our Col. As you all know, he is “every inch a soldier”. He takes a keen and lively interest in each one of you, and has great pride in the Military record of Northwestern University Law School.

The astronomers out in Oregon who have discovered a new star have nothing on us. Following is a partial list of new stars since our last issue: Army – Andreen, Cohen, Ell, Heindl, Hood, Kelly, Levitetz, Martyn, Matousek, Mielitz, Mroz, Segal, Mangan. Navy – Bielfeldt, Fullenkamp, McCoy, Moser, Rosenthal, Sewall, Simon, DeWitt, Schlesinger. The hard tugs and high flights our aviators have been making are beginning to show results. Those whose commissions have come to our notice are: Henderson, Wohl, Sherwood, Lorin Taylor, Keig, Wright, Wade, Ffrench, Jones and Grubb. If there are others, please let us know.

A PECULIAR CO-INCIDENCE: A few weeks ago we were much pleased and regaled by a visit from Lt. Avia. Keig. He spent some time extolling the wonders of one J. H. Wright, as to flying, and other things A week or so ago who should drop down upon us but said J.H.W. (Jr), who almost immediately began exploiting the merits (up and down) of one Joe Keig. Concerted action? Press work? Both of the aforesaid Lieuts. are looking fine and fit, and no wonder the maidens of Waco are suffering from enlarged hearts!

Our boys – like all the rest of Uncle Sam’s men- are now fast flocking overseas. Those we know to be there, exclusive of the vets, are H.F.Bell, Bomash, Chipman, Davis, Forgy, Gothberg, Hutchins, Newm[?] Norton, Perlman, Poliak, Shapiro, Smokiewcz (Italy), Thorsness, West, Traxler. Of the 1916 men there are Henry, Field, Scheffler, Messelheiser and Caldwell. Many of our fellows are the proud possessors of a gold service stripe, signifying six months overseas service. To the little band of hospital men, who for over a year have given such extacting, never-relaxing service, all the greater because it seems inglorious to them, belongs the distinctive right to wear two stripes. 8 men out of 600 is not a bad proportion for N.U.L.S.

After months of silence we are now able to give some news of Serg. W.G.Lodwick. He is now at Quantico, Va. attending the Marine O.T.C. He writes “We arrived here on May 16th after being on the way for six weeks. During that time we visited all the West Indies and returned right where the “subs” have been busyblately. We landed in N.Y. and the Statue of Liberty certainly looked grand to that bunch of tropical tanned marines.” We expect to hear shortly again from Bro. Lodwick, on two points. One is his attaining the object of his present campaign.

N.B. Stop the presses! One count has already been struck. The mails just bring us word that its Serg. and Mrs. Lodwick. Church wedding, crossed swords, and all the fixin’s. We all send our heartiest congratulations and good wishes!

R.E.Button, one of the stalwart protectors of our Maine coast, informs us: “We compose a unit in the garrison of Ft. Williams, an actual fort. We are trained on the big coast defense rifles or cannon every day, for future service in the heavy artillery. I want to be on the Range section of a battery, which looks better to me than juggling those shot and shells which weigh in the neighborhood of half a ton apiece.”

2

J.L.Turnbull, of the Signal Corps, Ft. Leavenworth says, modest ly: “A signal corps man doesn’t have to know much. If he becomes expert in infantry drill, acquires the habit of reading wigwag at 20 words per minute, taking field buzzer messages at 30 per minute and wigwag at 15, and understands wireless, he has a fair start, If, in addition to this, he can score 48 out of a possible 50 with a colt 45, ride a motorcycle, take it apart and reassemble it, repair a telegraph instrument, build a gas engine, shoe a horse, make out a company report and draw maps, he may, if he is lucky, qualify as a first class private.” We shall be interested to know when “Goof” receives the commission above referred to. Shouldn’t be surprised if he jumped up to a Lance Corporal.

Below is an extract from a letter written by Mr. Bovard in April. He has since that time been up in a Casualty Clearing station: “The last two weeks I feel that I have been doing real war service. I never knew what work was before. Heretofore I have thot it a creditable performance to work 48 hours without any sleep, but at the beginning of this last push I worked at high tension 84 hours without a wink of sleep, and often only a few minutes in which to swallow cold meals. For the next ten days we continued to work at the same pressure with less than an average of three hours sleep at night. Needless to say we flopped down on our cots without removing shoes or leggings. Oh, how we longed for a hot bath. Toward the end I seemed to walk in a dream. My muscles were still OK but I couldn’t think. I could still lift some of those big Guardsmen alone from the table to the stretcher, but I couldn’t anticipate the surgeon’s needs in regard to instruments and dressings. I would start after something and forget what I was after or where I was going. One day last week we doubled the record number of operations ever done in his hospital in a single day either by the English or ourselves. They were no means small operations either[‘.?] This gives a slight idea of what the two stripes stand for.

n C.H.Blim, a chauffeur in the Aero Non-flying service, has moved to Arcadia, Fla. and writes: “We have crocodiles for pets, buzzards for song birds, snakes to make us more agile, and mosquitoes and other insects for playmates, but we never hear the cry ‘hear comes Texas’, meaning a sandstorm, nor does it get unbearably hot, according to those who claim to know. Our field is a prairie of about 5 sq.Miles,surrounded on all sides by a dense forest of palm and fir, with plenty of swamps

Lieut. Harry Jones, A.P.O. 701 writes: “I have one of those penmanship jobs bestowed on me for a month now. Have been Asst.Adj. on a colonel’s staff, and also doing Summary Court work, the latter being about the only part of the army when a lawyer feels at home. Personally I havn’t the slightest idea now of the difference between a tort and a contract, no reflections on CoL Wigmore or Prof. Costigan, either.”

Some philosophers are bred under strange conditions. Listen to this outbrust from Cook Rauhoff: “I am again declaring my continued presence in the land of the living, allowing you to at once rest assured that it is I who am wielding this most formidable weapon gorged and loaded with “ammunition’ such as some wiseacre once said was mightier than the sword. He may have been perfectly sober and pretty well educated when he said it, but from what the French civilians say, they believe in the old trusty sword, inasmuch as they are reaping more shekels from the soldier boys (Chinese included) than during the good old days when an occasional tourist wandered into town looking for the exact spot where Napoleon the Great had his poilus stack arms. I may as well tell you that I have seen several underground dungeons or cells where our friend and ally, Nap, spent a few nights. I have seen the green meads where his cavalry pranced, chaffing at the bits to ford the English channel, as well as one of his numerous chateaus, now occupied by Joe, the chimney-sweep and Julié, the laundress. Besides, I have seen a statue of the very same Bonesaparte, shoved way up high on a pedestal a la skyscraper, so that he might grit his teeth in anger, as [h]e fixed-featurely looked over toward the British Isles. But, whoever [bu]ilt that selfsame monument turned the old boy in the wrong direction. [?] it is he looks toward his own tomb in Paris. What a predicament it [mu]st be for one to gaze continually at his own pyre!

On my return from my measles trip (heretofore chronicled) I found the boys wearing the new Overseas cap. I donned one of the sky pieces in order to appear conventional; but, really, I’ll never look or feel the same until I get back under a Stetson or a Sam Rosenbaum. I will tell you why we have been issued these forementioned decorations. The New Jealanders, seeing that we were allowed to remain in French estaminets or cafes an hour after they were forced to leave, adopted a hat similar to our old ones, and succeeded in hoodwinking the barkeeps, thus remaining to interrupt our hour of enjoyment. In order to remedy the matter, our army designed the cap we now wear, which is somewhat similar to those worn by the French and Belgians. The French cannot impose upon us inasmuch as their caps are blue, while the Belgians, tho wearing khaki colored bonnet[s,?] have a beautiful tassel dangling from the forward gable. The [???].

3

When we first arrived in sometime sunny France we were anxious to talk French. After grunting away at it for several months, most of us gave it up as a bad job, for one or all of three reasons. One was that the French have no working vocabulary whereby one in a wrathful mood might express himself. Of course, I mean slang and colloquialisms only. Another reason was that with the pronunciation we gave the words, the people were not able to deduce what we were endeavoring to discuss. The last and most important was that nearly all the civilians hereabout have learned and are learning repidly the beautiful and euphonious American language. It is not English for it has earmarks all its own, thank the Lord. In England there are about as many different tongues as there are counties. Yorkshireman say “Dost thou know ought about Wigen?” The Lancashire lads say “Shut door lad. Wipe feet on th’mat, for I’m th’engineer.” On the other hand a Cockney from Lunnon speaks typically when he asks “Witer, ‘ave you a pile of ice?” He means to say, “Waiter, have you a pail of ice?”On the other hand, the Welsh have a lingo all their own. I have met Welshmen who, before they joined up, couldn’t speak a word of English. In the U.S. one always hears that English is our mother tongue. I say that there’s no su such thing. There are at least a score of different dialects, tongues, lingos, or whatnot in the British lsles, none of which resemble our beloved tongue. I am beginning to think we must speak Red Indian.”

Lloyd Allen writes from Camp Hancock, Ga., “I am not a Major Gen’l as yet and havn’t been consulted very frequently as to how the war should be run. In fact, K.P. is as high as I have risen and that lasted only one day. Now for fear you don’t quite understand what K.P. is I will tell you. It is Kitchen Police. That is a great misnomer however. What it should be is P.P. Potato Peeler and D.W., dishwasher.

Lieut. Hiebsch, in true Towle style orates thusly: “I enjoy immensely the work of instructing new men. The man who can see nothing to it but yelling “Squads right” has a mighty narrow vision. For any man in America who has not been in the service before the present war he has noted a marked change in himself. In fact he has changed twice as much as he has during any other equal period during his life. The average American coming out of civil life is not used to military discipline. When he gets into the army his whole view of life changes. His habits change. There can be nothing of greater interest than to watch this transformation from civilian to soldier. Just now I am putting in some real hard work trying to bring about this transformation, It is surprising what a great amount of interest the men take in theirnwork. With but few exceptions every man is most eager to become a soldier.”

Lieut. Sherwood says “Flying is play and work, thrilling and monotonous, dangerous and safe all depending on the particular case, the combination of circumstances at the instant, condition of airplane and of flyer, mental and physical, weather, stunts attempted, previous training and individuals likes and dislikes. In spite of the difficulty of generalizing, flying is fascinating and I am daily happier that I am in it.”

H.L.Norton wrote from Camp Merritt, N.J., We left the sunless south on a Monday and landed here the next Friday after a very interesting trip across the continent. We passed thru eight states and covered over 3000 miles, and there is an equal distance to go by water before our little trip is ended. My ambitions are at last about to be realized, and still they don’t seem to give a fellow any thrills. It seems as tho a year in the service dulls a fellows emotions. This camp is a wonderful place, and we live in barracks and sleep on real iron beds. This is a mighty busy place.”

Would be Flying Cadet Vincent Bell tells us from the S.M.A. at Champaign, “S.M.A. here is just the same as ever with perhaps a few added restrictions, the most drasitc of which was the cut in wages. That hurt. It ain’t right. Also we all wear large number now to save the officers the trouble of asking our names. Mine happens to be ‘494’. They are large enough to be seen nine miles thro a thick fog, and are guaranteed to bring the correct result. Further, no cadet is allowed to leave the post at all except on Saturday nights, but when we do get down to the hamlet (or omellete) fifty cents dont last an hour. However, I like it all very much.”

Mr. Andreen, 1919, writes from Camp Wheeler, Ga., “I have been assigned to the Eng . Corps and what a “legal mind” is going to do in that branch of the service is beyond my conprehension. Still I presume the proper authorities know best. I am well and doing my best and working hard to fit myself for my country’s service.”

Many of our men have been enlisting lately at the Ensign School et Municipal Pier, where Lieut M.R.McNeill, ’15, is one of the “big cheese”. Mr. Bielfeldt and S.W.Moser have become members of the band of that organization.

4

Since writing the list of commissioned cadets we learn that the name of Ralph Brown should be included among them, which it gives me great pleasure to note.

We have been told that Mr. Chipman was commissioned before the expiration of the 3rd camp and sent directly to the A.E.F.

Our Beg Your Pardon dept. desires to correct that statement made in the last issue to the effect that Louis G. Caldwell had returned to the Ambulance work. That gentleman is now aspiring to become an “Aspirant” and is studying in the French Artillerie School at Fonntainebleau. He says when he is all dressed up on Sunday in his light blue suit one can hardly tell Louis XVI and Louis ’16 apart.

John Crossley’s latest favorite pasttime is standing in the hot sun of Washington Barracks pointing a gun at a prisoner while said prisoner sits at ease and plays at work. When not doing that he is learning how to take pictures so he can take them for the U.S.Eng’s.

We have heard (but won’t vouch for the authenticity) that Orville Davies has gone to the Aviation School at the Boston Tech.

Serg. P.R.Davis’s fears that his being put into the Hospital service delayed his going across seem to have been groundless, as we hear he is among those “over there”.

Our lady, Miss Goldman, is now at Camp Dix, Wrightstown, N.J., and one might judge from her accounts that war means fudge abd dances and other pleasant things. But we are proud of having one lady star, and shall be anxious to hear how she progresses in the army.

Lieut. Groth has gone to the Artillery Replacement Camp at Camp Jackson, where Mrs. G. has been with him there on their second honey moon. “Dutch” Schroeder, the last of the old guard, has also gone to join that colony, where we shall expect to hear further from him and his progress.

Heindl, Anton, is already a corporal at Camp Grant tho he has been there a few weeks only. He writes os enjoying his work like the rest.

Two things have happened to Maurice James recently. He has been married, and moved to Camp Taylor, Ky. to finish his O.T.C. work. We expect he was happier in one than the other.

Pte. Levitetz writes that Uncle Sam was extremely generous in the amount of clothe he put into Mr. L’s uniform, so that there is plenty of room for two or three more. Such wonderful things happen in the army that perhaps if the suit doesn’t shrink Mr. Levitetz will grow[?] to fit the suit.

Mr. McCoy says of Great Lakes life, “We are feeling fit and strong and we outght for we handle a pick and shovel or push an Irish baby carriage ( commonly known as a wheel barrow) for four hours a day, so we are always glad to hear the bugle for meals. The only consolation is everybody is doing it.”

Lt. Frank Marshall has been appointed Court Martial Judge Advocate at camp Grant. Hope for the sake of his clients or defendants, or whatever, that he remembers more of his law than the rest of you claim you do.

Mr. Lawrence Mielitz is in the 4th O.T.C. at Camp MacArthur, Texas and writes that he learned more after two days in that camp than he had during all his previous army experience. He, too, is enthusiastic over his work.

Lieut. Lorin Taylor was a recent caller in our sanctum. He is stationed in Loanoak, Ark. And expects to be held there for some time

A recent le ter from Jules Field, 1916, is interesting in what he has to say in regard to present conditions at the front: “We have been on the front for the last two months and are now on a very busy fron[t] where things are moving fast. For a while we were engaged in trench warfare but now it is all in the open, no trenches or dugouts. We like the open warfare better because it is our style of war and in this particular sector are raising hell with Fritz; have been able to push them back some and take quite a few prisoners. I am sure they do not like the reception they are getting in this part of the country Our Infantry are doing splendid work and reserve a great deal of praise.” Mr. Field is with the 12th F.A.

WRITE TO US, AND WE WILL ANSWER SOON. AU REVIOR.

https://sites.northwestern.edu/plrcwwi/student-newsletter-2-july-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 7:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Naval History on 2 July 1918

The first dentist appointed to the RAN, LEUT M. L. Atwill, joined HMAS AUDSTRALIA, (battle-cruiser), in England. Surgeon LCDR(D) D. Austin, was later appointed Senior Dental Officer, RAN, at HMAS PENGUIN, Garden Island.

https://www.navyhistory.org.au/2-july-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 7:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1918 Wartime Diary of Private Charles Robert Bottomley

July 1, 1918 -- Reveille 6 a.m. Working around stables. After breakfast, Roy Foley and me took a walk to Lincques and watched the Canadian Corps Sports. Premier Borden Duke of Connaught and Mr. Rowell were present. Also, the Canadian Generals. There must have been 30,000 Canadians present. It was a great day all around. The First Division came out on the top with 101 points.

July 2, 1918 -- Working around gun and stables all day. Things very quiet all day.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/those-who-served/diaries-letters-stories/first-world-war/Bottomley/july1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2018 7:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Zborov

The Battle of Zborov was a part of the Kerensky Offensive, (the last Russian offensive in World War I, taking place in July 1917). The battle was the first significant action of the Czechoslovak Legions (volunteers fighting against the Central Powers) on the Eastern Front and the only successful engagement of the failed Russian offensive.

(...) At 5:15 on 2 July, the second day of the offensive, after an initial artillery bombardment, small groups of Legionnaires equipped with grenades attacked the enemy. At 8:00 colonel Mamontov called lieutenant Stanislav Čeček by phone to start the attack. After shock troops breached the barbed wire defenses, follow-up units took over to continue the attack. By 15:00 the Legion had advanced deep into enemy territory, breaking through the entire Austrian trench line; 3,300 enemy soldiers (62 officers) were captured, while 20 guns and large amounts of war material were seized.[citation needed] The Legion's losses were 167 killed, 17 mortally wounded, 11 missing and around 700 injured. (...)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Zborov_(1917)
Zie ook http://www.bellum.cz/en/battle-of-zborov.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Jul 2018 7:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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War Diary, 2/18th London Regiment – July 1917

1st/2nd July – Moascar.

Bttn encamped.
3 1/2 hours of training carried out per day.

https://www.londonirishrifles.com/index.php/first-world-war/war-diaries/war-diary-2-18th-london-regiment-july-1917/
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Haig's diary entry — 2 July 1916

Douglas Haig's diary entry for 2 July 1916, referring to casualties at the Somme the day before, estimated at more than 40,000.
[National Library of Scotland reference: Acc.3155/97]

http://digital.nls.uk/great-war/general/the-somme/diary-11.html

Telegram from General Sir Douglas Haig to General Sir Henry Rawlinson, 2 July 1916

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/greatwar/g4/cs3/g4cs3s4.htm
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2 July 1916; Sunday | The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot

Were lost in trench all night. Passed through front line trenches where Cheshires and Welsh [1] regiments were waiting to go over the top. After being under fire by a machine gun (and seeing many retreats†) we found our way to the dugout aid post. Germans shelling [2], so we had to wait. Finally got a case. Took us until 5 o’clock to get it down through mud and crowded trenches. Had to wait for so long until Germans stopped shelling communication trench. Were nearly down when a regimental stretcher bearer followed us and asked us to go back. 3 went back and took over the stretcher. Lay about most of afternoon very much done up. No regular meals, only snatches of biscuits and cheese. Ordered to fall in at night. Frightened us a bit and Leaky suggested staying back. Orders about 3 o’clock to stand up with gas helmets. Lay down again. Met stretcher squads. Lay on side of trench part of the morning. Very heavy bombardment and fighting in front. Distances confusing.

[This (2 July) and the adjoining pages are very difficult to read. Along the bottom edge of the 2 July page there has been a further line of shorthand, even fainter and more smudged than the rest of these pages. The words “time”, “distance” and “making” may be there, but nothing else can even be guessed.]

[1] ALL’s own records say that the 58th Field Ambulance was in the 57th Brigade. The 9th Cheshires, the 9th Welch and the 9th Royal Welch Fusiliers were also in the 19th Division, but in the 58th Brigade.
[2]“Germans shelling”: whereas the British artillery barrage had as pre-arranged extended its range as soon as the first infantry attack began, so as to leave the first lines of German trenches clear for the British infantry (whose progress, if any, was however much slower than foreseen, thus giving the Germans time to emerge with their machine guns before the British infantry got there), the German artillery fire was concentrated on No Man’s Land as soon as the British infantry entered it. In readiness for this, the German field batteries had delayed firing during the British preliminary barrage, thus escaping observation (and avoiding getting shelled themselves), and reassuring the British Staff that they had been silenced by the British barrage.


https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2016/07/02/2-July-1916-Sunday/
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Bernafay Wood during WW1

Bernafay Wood was the site of the 30th Division assault on July 1st and 2nd 1916.

(...) Sunday July 2nd 1916. Temperature 75°, clear sky.

XIII CORPS 30th DIVISION.

The Germans attacked twice between 3 a.m. and 4 a.m. at Bernafay Wood. They were repulsed by a shrapnel barrage laid by 30th Divisional artillery, which later made an unsuccessful attempt to set the wood on fire
Monday July 3rd 1916. Temperature 68°; fine, with some cloud and thunderstorms to the south-east

XIII CORPS. CAPTURE OF BERNAFAY WOOD.9th Division.

After a 20-minute bombardment of the near edge, 27th Brigade attacked Bernafay Wood at 9 p.m., occupying it almost unopposed and sustaining only six casualties. The 6th KOSB and 12th Royal Scots covered 500 yards of open ground and took 17 prisoners, three field guns and three machine-guns. The east of Montauban Alley was consolidated. Patrols sent out towards Trônes Wood found it held by some machine-gun detachments.

The only thing left intact in the village of Montauban and this large German shell lying at her feet which did not explose

https://www.bandb-somme-bernafaywood.com/the-great-war/bernafay-wood-during-ww1/
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Aerial photographs of the trenches showing artillery bombardment at the Somme

Date: 30 June 1916 – 2 July 1916

Catalogue number: Parliamentary Archives, LG/D/10/7/2 and LG/D/10/8/9

Description: These aerial photographs, from the Lloyd George papers, show the damage caused to German trenches by British artillery at the start of the Battle of the Somme. For a week from 24 June 1916, the British forces bombarded German lines in an attempt to destroy barbed wire, trenches and artillery. During this time, over 1.5 million shells were fired.
The goal was to damage the German lines so that British troops could cross no man’s land and enter their trenches. However, the bombardment was largely unsuccessful, which had a devastating effect on the number of British casualties on the first day of the battle.
These photographs were taken by the 3rd, 4th, 9th and 60th Squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps, the air arm of the British Army at the time, between 30 June and 2 July 1916. During the battle, Royal Flying Corps squadrons took more than 19,000 aerial photographs of the German trenches.

Foto's op https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/private-lives/yourcountry/collections/the-battle-of-the-somme/aerial-photos/
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July 2016 - Battle of the Somme letters

To mark the 100th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, PRONI selected as its Document of the Month for July, two letters from soldiers who served in the 36th Ulster Division.

The first letter written by Joseph Maxwell Cochrane is a final message he managed to send home before the offensive began on 1 July 1916. The second recounts the death of Capt. James Samuel Davidson, who before the war was manager of the Sirocco Works and was killed in action on the terrible first day of the Somme.

Decade of Centenaries Project Officer Iain Fleming said: letter written by Joseph Maxwell Cochrane, a final message he managed to send home before the offensive began on July 1 1916, Page 2

“I found these two letters particularly striking and affecting as they show how the First World War impacted on all levels of society ‘back home’. Joseph Maxwell Cochrane was a rifleman in 14th Battalion, Royal Irish rifles while James Samuel Davidson was a captain in 13th Battalion, Royal Irish Rifles. One was an ordinary ‘man of the street’ while the other was the son of one of the great letter written by Joseph Maxwell Cochrane, a final message he managed to send home before the offensive began on July 1 1916, Page 3mercantile families from this part of Ireland. Both saw it as their duty to serve and both made the ultimate sacrifice.”

In rifleman Cochrane’s letter to his father, he writes: 'If anything should happen me try & bear up... You will know what to do with all I have left.... But don’t forget Cissie it would take more than we could give her to repay her for what she has done for us, Money couldn’t & Jack give him some little for all his goodness & kindness, and I would like if you & Cissie would be friendly to the young lady I go with, N.Burnett she is really good & its a great pity of her...’

He finishes the letter by telling his father not to be worrying about him as he will be alright. Rifleman Cochrane survived the terrible first day of the Somme only to be killed in action on the 2 July 1916.

In the second letter describing the death of Captain Davidson the author describes in some detail the efforts he made on the first day of the Somme and the circumstances of his death as he tried, while wounded, to return to the British lines.

The letter finishes, ‘Was not it a glorious ending to a glorious life. I am sorry I am unable to write you a good letter but even yet I am not myself after what I have come through this last 10 days, and the tears are rolling down the face of your friend and his friend’.

To accompany this month’s Document of the Month PRONI released a composite panoramic photograph of the Somme battlefield. Stitched together from more than a dozen individual photographs this image shows a 180 degree angle shot of German positions opposite the British Lines. The photographs were taken by an Irish officer serving in the Royal Artillery and they show villages, trenches, woods and other points of interest that the British army would be attacking. [Find it here: https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/somme-panoramic-video ]

https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/july-2016-battle-somme-letters
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