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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2006 16:47    Onderwerp: 2 juli Reageer met quote

1917 Greece declares war on Central Powers

On this day in 1917, several weeks after King Constantine I abdicates his throne in Athens under pressure from the Allies, Greece declares war on the Central Powers, ending three years of neutrality by entering World War I alongside Britain, France, Russia and Italy.

Constantine, educated in Germany and married to a sister of Kaiser Wilhelm I, was naturally sympathetic to the Germans when World War I broke out in the summer of 1914, refusing to honor Greece’s obligation to support Serbia, its ally during the two Balkan Wars in 1912-13. Despite pressure from his own pro-Allied government, including Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos, and British and French promises of territorial gains in Turkey, Constantine maintained Greece’s neutrality for the first three years of the war, although he did allow British and French forces to disembark at Salonika in late 1914 in a plan to aid Serbia against Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces.

By the end of 1915, with Allied operations bogged down in Salonika and failing spectacularly in the Dardanelles, Constantine was even less inclined to support the Entente, believing Germany clearly had the upper hand in the war. He dismissed Venizelos in October 1915, substituting him with a series of premiers who basically served as royal puppets. Meanwhile, civil war threatened in Greece, as Constantine desperately sought promises of naval, military and financial assistance from Germany, which he did not receive. After losing their patience with Constantine, the Allies finally sent an ultimatum demanding his abdication on June 11, 1917; the same day, British forces blockaded Greece and the French landed their troops at Piraeus, on the Isthmus of Corinth, in blatant disregard of Greek neutrality. The following day, Constantine abdicated in favor of his second son, Alexander.

On June 26, Alexander reinstated Venizelos, who returned from exile in Crete, where he had established a provisional Greek government with Allied support. With a pro-Allied prime minister firmly in place, Greece moved to the brink of entering World War I. On July 1, Alexander Kerensky, the Russian commander in chief and leader of the provisional Russian government after the fall of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, ordered a major offensive on the Eastern Front, despite the turmoil within Russia and the exhausted state of Kerensky’s army. The offensive would end in disastrous losses for the Russians, but at the time it seemed like a fortuitous turn of events for the Allies, in that it would help to sap German resources. The following day, Greece declared war on the Central Powers.

The new king, Alexander, stated the case for war dramatically in his official coronation address on August 4: “Greece has to defend her territory against barbarous aggressors. But if in the trials of the past Greece has been able, thanks to the civilizing strength of the morale of the race, to have overcome the conquerors and to rise free amidst the ruins, today it is quite a different matter. The present cataclysm will decide the definite fate of Hellenism, which, if lost, will never be restored.” Over the next 18 months, some 5,000 Greek soldiers would die on the battlefields of World War I.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

July 2, 1914 – The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Autograph Letter of Franz Joseph to the Kaiser, Vienna, 2 July 1914

From Emperor Franz Joseph, Vienna, delivered to the Kaiser in Berlin on 5 July 1914 by the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, Count de Szogyeny-Marich. The annexe-memoire was drafted fully a month before Sarajevo.

I sincerely regret that You should have been obliged to give up Your intention of going to Vienna for the funeral ceremonies. I should have liked personally to express to You my sincerest thanks for Your sympathy in my keen sorrow -- a sympathy which has greatly touched me.

By Your warm and sympathetic condolence You have given me renewed proof that I have in You a sincere friend worthy of confidence and that I may count upon You in every hour of grave trial.

I should have liked very much to discuss with You the general situation, but as that has not been possible, I take the liberty of sending to You the subjoined mémoire prepared by my Minister of Foreign Affairs, which was drawn up before the terrible catastrophe of Sarajevo, and which now, following that tragic event, appears particularly worthy of attention.

The attack directed against my poor nephew is the direct consequence of the agitation carried on by the Russian and Serbian Pan-Slavists whose sole aim is the weakening of the Triple Alliance and the destruction of my Empire.

By the foregoing declaration, it is no longer an affair at Sarajevo of the single bloody deed of an individual but of a well-organized conspiracy, of which the threads reach to Belgrade and if, as is probable, it be impossible to prove the complicity of the Serbian Government, nevertheless it cannot be doubted that the policies leading to the reunion of all the Southern Slavs under the Serbian flag is favorable to crimes of this character and that the continuance of this state of things constitutes a constant danger to my house and to my realm.

This danger is rendered more grave from the fact that Roumania, despite the alliance with us, has entered into friendly relations with Serbia and, on her own territory, permits against us an agitation just as venomous as that allowed by Serbia.

It is painful to me to suspect the fidelity and the good intentions of so old a friend as Charles of Roumania, but he himself has twice declared during these last months to my Minister that by reason of the aroused and hostile sentiments of his people toward us he would not be in a position in case of need to carry out his obligations of alliance.

Furthermore, the Roumanian Government encourages openly the activities of the Kulturliga, favors a rapprochement with Serbia and carries on, with Russian aid, the creation of a new Balkan alliance which can only be directed against my Empire.

Once before, at the beginning of the reign of Charles, such political fancies as these propagated by the Kulturliga disturbed the good political sense of Roumanian men of state and the danger arose of seeing Your realm launched on a policy of adventure. But at that time Your venerated grandfather in an energetic and far-sighted fashion intervened and pointed out to Roumania the road which assured to her a privileged place in Europe, and she became the strong support of the existing order.

Now the same danger threatens this kingdom; I fear that counsel alone is insufficient and that Roumania cannot be retained in the Triple Alliance unless, on the one hand, we make impossible the creation of the Balkan League under the patronage of Russia, by the entrance of Bulgaria into the Triple Alliance, and unless on the other hand, we make it clearly understood at Bucharest that the friends of Serbia cannot be our friends, and that Roumania cannot consider us as allies unless she detaches herself from Serbia and represses with all her force the agitation directed in Roumania against the existence of my Empire.

The efforts of my government should in consequence be directed toward isolation and the diminishment of Serbia. The first step in that direction will be to strengthen the present situation of the Bulgarian Government in order that the Bulgars, whose real interests coincide with ours, shall be preserved from a return to friendship with Russia.

If they realize at Bucharest that the Triple Alliance has decided not to abandon the alliance with Bulgaria, but that it is disposed to invite Bulgaria to an understanding with Roumania and to guarantee its territorial integrity, we may perhaps succeed in bringing her back from the dangerous step to which she has been led by her friendship with Serbia and her understanding with Russia.

If this should succeed, a reconciliation of Greece with Bulgaria and Turkey could be attempted. There would then arise, under the patronage of the Triple Alliance, a new Balkan alliance, the aim of which would be to put an end to the invasion of the Pan Slavist tide and to assure peace to our states.

But this will not be possible unless Serbia which is at present the pivot of Pan-Slavist policy is eliminated as a political factor in the Balkans.

And You, also after this last terrible happening in Bosnia, will see and know that one cannot think of smoothing out the differences that separate us from Serbia, and that the maintenance of peaceful policy by all the European Monarchies will be threatened as long as this focus of criminal agitation in Belgrade remains unpunished.

THE ANNEXE MEMOIRE.

Following the great disturbances of the last two years, the situation in the Balkans has cleared up to such a point that it is now possible to review the results of the crisis, and to establish in what measure the interests of the Triple Alliance, and m ore particularly those of the two Central Imperial Powers, have been affected by these events and what consequences result from them for European politics and for the Balkan policy of these Powers.

If without prejudice we compare the present state of affairs with that existing before the crisis, we must decide that the result looked at from the point of view of Austria-Hungary as well as from that of the Triple Alliance, cannot be considered in any way as favorable.

The principal point is that following the development which led to the second Balkan war, Bulgaria aroused herself from the Russian spell, and today can no longer be considered as an auxiliary of the Russian policy. The Bulgarian Government strives, on the contrary, to enter into more intimate relations with the Triple Alliance.

To these favorable elements, however, are opposed the unfavorable factors that weigh more heavily in the balance. Serbia whose policy has for years been animated by hostility toward Austria Hungary, and which is completely under Russian influence, has achieved an increase of territory and of population that exceeded by much her own expectations. Turkey, whose community of interests with the Triple Alliance was progressing well, and who constituted an important counterpoise against Russia and the Balkan States, has been almost entirely pushed out of Europe, and has seen her situation as a great power gravely compromised. Territorial proximity with Montenegro and the general strengthening of the Pan-Serbian idea have brought closer the possibility of a new expansion of Serbia by means of a union with Montenegro. Lastly in the course of the crisis, the relations of Roumania with the Triple Alliance have essentially changed.... We see, on the other hand, that Russian and French diplomacy have carried on a unified action, in conformity with a preconcerted plan to exploit the advantages obtained and to change certain factors that were from their point of view unfavorable....

The thought of freeing the Christian Balkan people from Turkish rule, in order to use them as a weapon against central Europe, has been for a long time the secret thought of Russian policy, by the traditional interest of Russia for these people. In these latter days has been developed the idea, put forward by Russia and taken up by France, of uniting the Balkan States into a Balkan alliance, in order by this means to put an end to the military superiority of the Triple Alliance. The first condition before the realization of this plan was that Turkey should be pushed back from the territory inhabited by the Christian nations of the Balkans, in order to increase the strength of these States and to render them free to expand to the west. This preliminary condition has been, on the whole, realized by the last war. On the other hand, after the end of the crisis, a division separated the Balkan States into two opposing groups of nearly equal strength: Turkey and Bulgaria on the one hand, and the two Serbian States, Greece and Roumania, on the other.

To put an end to this division in order to be able to use all the Balkan States or at least a decisive majority, to upset the balance of European power, was the latest task to which, after the end of the crisis, Russia and France applied themselves....

There is no doubt of the basis upon which, according to the intentions of French arid Russian diplomacy, these differences and rivalries might be reconciled and a new Balkan alliance created. What could be the actual aim of such an alliance in the present circumstances for the Balkan States? There is no longer reason to consider a common action against Turkey. It can, therefore, only be directed against Austria-Hungary and can only be accomplished on the basis of a program that should promise to all it members extensions of territory by a graduated displacement of their frontiers from the east to the west, at the expense of the territorial integrity of the Monarchy. A union of Balkan States upon any other basis would be impossible to imagine, but on this basis not only is it not impossible, but is in a fair way to be realized. One cannot question that Serbia under Russian pressure would consent to pay a considerable price in Macedonia for the entry of Bulgaria into an alliance directed against the Monarchy and looking forward to the acquisition of Bosnia and the adjacent territory.....

The relations of Austria-Hungary with Roumania may be at this moment characterized by the fact that the Monarchy relies entirely upon its alliance and, before as since, is ready to uphold Roumania with all its force if the casus foedoris shall arise, but that Roumania detaches itself one-sidedly from its obligations of alliance and shows to the Monarchy only the prospect of neutrality. Even the neutrality of Roumania is only guaranteed to the Monarchy by the personal affirmation of King Charles [a guaranty] which naturally is of value only for the duration of his reign and the accomplishment of which depends upon the King's keeping always the guiding hand on the direction of the foreign policy....

Under these conditions it is impossible to consider the alliance with Roumania as of sufficient certainty and extent to serve Austria-Hungary as a pivot in her Balkan policy....

To destroy, with the assistance of the Balkans, the military superiority of the two Imperial powers is the objective of Russia.

But while France seeks the weakening of the Monarchy, because that is favorable to her ideas of révanche, the designs of the empire of the Tsar have a much greater extent....

For Russia has recognized that the relation of her plans in Europe and in Asia, plans which correspond with internal necessities gravely affect the important interests of Germany, and must inevitably arouse her to resistance.

The policy of Russia is determined by an unchanging situation, and is consequently constant and foresighted. Russia's policy of encirclement directed against the Monarchy, which does not pursue a world policy, has for its final aim to make it impossible for the German Empire to resist the aims of Russia or her political and economic supremacy.

For these reasons those in charge of the foreign policy of Austria-Hungary are convinced that it is in the common interest of the Monarchy, as in that of Germany, to oppose energetically and in time in this phase of the Balkan crisis, the development foreseen and encouraged by Russia by a pre-concerted plan.

The above mémoire had just been finished when there occurred the terrible events of Sarajevo. The complete extent of this abominable assassination can hardly be realized; at all events it appears undeniable proof, if indeed any were yet lacking, of the impossibility of extinguishing the hatred between the Monarchy and Serbia, as well as the danger and the violence of the Pan-Serbian propaganda, which hesitates at nothing.

Austria-Hungary has not been lacking in good will and in the spirit of conciliation, to bring about reasonably good relations with Serbia, but it has just been shown that these efforts have been completely impotent and that the Monarchy must expect in the future to deal with the bitter, irreconcilable and aggressive enmity of Serbia.

In these conditions the Monarchy must tear away with a strong hand the net in which its enemy seeks to entangle it.

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/frzwilly.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Airships 1910 - 1914

LZ-1

Usage: prototype
First Flight: 02 July 1900
Length: 416 feet / 124.8 meters
Diameter: 38.2 feet / 11.64 meters
Gas Volume: 399,000 cu. feet / 11,970 cu. meters
Engines: Two 14.7 hp Daimler engines
Maximum Speed: 17.3 mph / 27.7 km/h

The first Zeppelin flight occurred on 2 July 1900 over Lake Constance in Bavaria. It lasted for only 18 minutes before the LZ-1 was forced to land on the lake after the winding mechanism for the balancing weight broke.

Once repaired, zeppelin technology proved its potential: her second flight was in early October 1900, and her third and final flight was on 24 October 1900.

With his financial resources depleted, Graf von Zeppelin was forced to disassemble the prototype, sell it for scrap, and close the company.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Åland Islands

The Battle of Aland Islands, or the Battle of Gotland, which took place on July 2, 1915 was a naval battle of World War I between the German Empire and the Russian Empire, assisted by a submarine of the United Kingdom. The engagement took place in the Baltic Sea off the shores of Gotland, Sweden, a country neutral in World War I.

The German mine-laying cruiser Albatross, screened by the armored cruiser Roon, the light cruisers Augsburg and Lubeck, and 7 torpedoboats, under Commodore Karf were laying mines off the Åland Islands. On the morning of 2 July, they were intercepted by a Russian squadron consisting of the armored cruisers Admiral Makaroff and Bayan and the light cruisers Oleg and Bogatyr, under Rear Admiral Mikhail Bakhirev.

In the artillery duel that followed, Albatross was badly damaged and beached on the Swedish coast, and Roon received multiple hits. Reinforcements on both sides sailed to join the engagement. The Russian armored cruiser Rurik and the destroyer Novik joined the fight as the German force retreated. As the German armored cruisers Prinz Adalbert and Prinz Heinrich sailed to reinforce the German squadron, Prinz Adalbert was torpedoed by the British submarine E 9 and limped to shore.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_%C3%85land_Islands
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli to 11th July, 1915 - The Fifth Battalion, Highland Light Infantry

The main objects the Allies had in view in their operations at Gallipoli may be briefly stated:

- To relieve the pressure on the Russians in the Caucasus by forcing the Turks to withdraw troops to the new front.
- To open the Black Sea to allied shipping by forcing the passage of the Dardanelles.
- By striking a blow towards Constantinople to compel the Turks to abandon their attacks on Egypt.

In Southern Russia there were immense stocks of wheat of which Western Europe was in need. If the operations were successful this wheat could be shipped from Odessa, and in exchange the Russians would receive munitions for the heroic fight they were putting up against Germany and Austria between the Baltic and the Carpathians.

Those of us who served at Gallipoli had not always these great issues before us. We were content to know that we were fighting the Turk who had basely sold himself to the Central Powers, and were upholding the Cross, like Crusaders of old, in its long struggle with the Crescent.

The evening of 2nd July was fine, with a fresh easterly breeze, and though the troops on the deck of the Racoon were packed like sardines the passage was a pleasant one. As we neared our destination artillery were at work on Achi Baba, and the flashes of the explosion followed by the dull boom of the guns were—to most of us—our first glimpse of actual warfare.

Arriving off Cape Helles in semi-darkness about 8 p.m., the Racoon slowed down and felt her way cautiously to the landing place at Sedd-el-Bahr, better known as "V" Beach, where she brought up alongside the River Clyde. The pontoons connecting that historic hulk with the shore had been much damaged the previous day by the enemy's big shells from Asia.

In disembarking we had to clamber up an accommodation ladder to the River Clyde, follow a devious path through her battered interior, descend a gangway from the bow, and pick our way ashore over a miscellaneous assortment of half-sunken pontoons, boats and planks—no easy task in the dark for a man laden with rifle, pick or shovel, pack, blanket, ground-sheet, and 150 rounds of ammunition.

About 9.30 p.m. as the first men were quitting the Racoon, a message was passed back that the O.C. troops was urgently wanted on shore. When he had triumphed over the difficulties of the obstacle course and reached the roadway at the pier-head, the C.O. found an officer of the Divisional Staff awaiting him.

The S.O. was a little excited and the instructions he gave were not so clear as one could have desired. The patch on which we were forming up was a favorite target for the enemy's shells from Asia. They were in the habit of devoting special attention to it on nights when they thought troops were being landed. We were to proceed to No. 1 area—wherever that might be. A guide would accompany each party and an officer of the Divisional Staff would be with the first party. We must move in absolute silence; no lights or smoking. We would be exposed to shell-fire whenever we passed the crest of the rise from the beach, where we ought to adopt an extended formation. At our destination we would find some trenches, but not sufficient to accommodate the whole Battalion, and it was up to us to lose no time in digging ourselves in.

The C.O. was hustled off with two platoons of "A" Company before these were properly landed. Where we were bound for and exactly what we were to do when we got there, none of us knew, except presumably the Staff Officer who accompanied us and perhaps the N.C.O. who acted as guide. But subsequent happenings proved that they were almost as ignorant on these points as ourselves.

Winding up a steepish rise through a region which seemed crowded with dug-outs and piles of stores, we gained the crest where we had been urged to extend. It was pitch dark, with a steadily increasing drizzle of rain and an occasional rumble of thunder. In front there were as yet no indications of shell-fire, only an intermittent crackle of distant musketry.

So far as we could judge we were moving on a fairly defined road or path, of uncertain surface, much cut up by traffic, and at many places pitted with shell craters. To estimate the distance traversed was impossible, but we must have been descending the gradual slope for over half an hour when our guides began to exhibit symptoms of indecision. The truth was soon out—they did not know where they were.

We ought before this to have struck the trenches allotted to us: possibly we had passed them in the dark. It transpired that neither Staff Officer nor N.C.O. had even been near the spot except in daylight, but both still professed confidence in their ability to locate the trenches. It was explained to us that these lay between the Pink Farm Road on which we had been moving, and the Krithia Road, which was some distance to our right. So we turned off the road towards the right and commenced our search.

After wandering in the rain for half an hour, we came upon what appeared to be a wide ditch sheltered by some straggling trees. Our guides decided that this must be a section of the elusive trenches, and at their suggestion Major Downie and his half-company were bestowed in it temporarily while the rest of us continued our quest for the remaining trenches.

Our progress was frequently interrupted by flares sent up from the trenches somewhere in front. To our inexperienced eyes it seemed that the lights were very near us, for they showed up vividly the whole ground over which we were moving, every little clump of scrub standing out sharp and distinct as in the glare of a powerful searchlight. From repeated study of Notes on Trench Warfare in France, we had become permeated with the theory that where one's presence is revealed by a flare, safety from rifle or machine gun fire is only to be attained by lying down and remaining perfectly motionless. So to the first few flares we made profound obeisance, groveling on the wet ground or behind the nearest patch of scrub as long as the stars illuminated the landscape. But familiarity breeds contempt, and as we gradually realized that the flares were much further to our front than we had thought, the necessity for this uncomfortable performance became less and less obvious until we discarded it altogether.

After ages of fruitless wandering we stumbled against a landmark which our guides recognized as within a hundred yards of the long sought trenches—a large tree marking the sight of an Artillery Ammunition Dump known, inappropriately enough, as Trafalgar Square. Here were one or two dug-outs in which the party in charge of the Dump slumbered peacefully. After we had circled the tree several times without result, the gunner N.C.O. in charge of the station was roused and questioned. Yes, he knew where the trenches were—quite close at hand.

With great good nature he rolled out of his blankets, and clambered out of his subterranean shelter to find them for us. The prospect brightened considerably, but only to become darker than ever when after a quarter of an hour's further walking he, too, proved at fault. Then suddenly it occurred to him that he had turned to the left on leaving his dug-out instead of to the right, and had been leading us away from our goal.

Wearily we retraced our steps, and then finally we found the trenches. The manner of the discovery was simplicity itself. As a matter of fact the C.O. fell into one of them, getting rather wet and clayey in the process.

In the meantime the second half of "A" Company had arrived on the scene, but we now found ourselves faced by another problem—the locating of the trench (or ditch) in which we had left Major Downie with his half-company. This threatened to prove as hard a task as that which we had just accomplished, and the C.O. remarked he would keep an eye on the trench he had found lest it should attempt to disappear again, and a party was sent off to find Major Downie.

And, after all, Major Downie found himself for us. His arrival was almost dramatic. He, too, fell into the trench. He had heard the search party calling for him and had come out to meet them. Missing them in the dark he had chanced upon the trench from the front and tripped over the parapet. With his assistance it did not take long to retrieve the missing half-company.

Installments of "B" Company began to arrive. Casting about to the front, rear and flanks of our original discovery, traces of other less finished trenches were found, and parties were set to work to complete and extend them with the object of having some apology for cover ready for the whole Battalion, before daylight could reveal our presence to the enemy.

As the night wore on additional parties joined up from the beach.

The Whitby Abbey had now arrived and was disembarking the left half-Battalion. The first party of "C" Company reached the trenches about 5 a.m. The enemy must have spotted us soon after daylight, for they saluted us with a few rounds of shrapnel at irregular intervals. These did little damage, but served to stimulate the flagging energies of the digging parties, encouraging them to special effort to get the trenches completed.

It was 8.30 a.m. before Major Jowitt appeared with the last party landed. By this time sufficient trenches of sorts to accommodate the Battalion had been completed.

While getting "D" Company into our most advanced trench, Capt. Findlay was slightly wounded by shrapnel. He was sent back to Mudros on the Whitby Abbey which had brought him across a few hours before. His first visit to Gallipoli had not been a prolonged one.

Throughout the day the enemy sprayed our trenches with occasional bursts of shrapnel. By this time we had discovered that they were officially described as "rest" trenches, and were some considerable distance behind the firing-line. So we "rested" as best we could, each man effecting such improvements to his own personal bit of cover as could be carried out unostentatiously behind the shelter of the parapet.

That afternoon Colonel Morrison and Major Jowitt, with other senior officers of the Brigade, were shown round some of the forward communication and support trenches, and had the general situation explained to them.

The night was devoted by all ranks to the improvement of our trenches and to sleep when we were satisfied with our handiwork. More rain fell, and we got very wet and smeared with that remarkably tenacious mud which only Gallipoli can produce.

http://www.bigenealogy.com/5thbattalion/gallipoli_11_july_1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary - Edward P. Cox

Friday 2nd July - About 5 am enemy shelled our trenches at QUINN'S and blew out a machine gun emplacement fortunately without injury to men or the gun. Our guns replied and Turk soon ceased fire. Only damage was parapets & bomb screens were knocked about.

9 am WWC & H Bay Coys relieved us as usual. Fine day but dull which is nice change from hot sun.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d10.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jul 2010 22:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of Gallipoli and The Dardanelles I

28 June / 2 July 1915
Gazetted 1 September 1915
2nd Lt H.James, Worcestershire Regiment

During the fighting for the village of Krithia the attack of the 29th Division, astride Gully Ravine, was initially successful. However, due to sparse artillery support (partially due to the shortage of high explosive shell) the attack of the 156th Brigade of the 52nd Lowland Division, thrown piecemeal into battle with little chance to familiarise with conditions in the line, had failed. The newly appointed 29th Division al commander, Major General Beauvoir de Lisle, ordered the resumption of the attack ‘at all costs’ H –hour was to be 0900 hrs on 2 July and the attack consisted of detachments of the Hampshire and Worcestershire Regiments. Conditions were appalling; the trenches over which the battle now raged were clogged with corpses and in the smoke and dust communication was near impossible. James was in charge of a bombing party armed with jam tin grenades; the Turks had proper bombs, far more effective than the jam tins. Soon, James’s party was reduced to a handful and soon he was alone, all his men having been killed or wounded. Until reinforcements arrived he held the trench with two rifles and a sack of home-made bombs. He remained in the Army after the war and retired as a major in 1930 dying as a virtual recluse in 1958

http://www.gallipoli-association.org/contentpage.asp?pageid=42

WORCESTERSHIRE AND SHERWOOD FORESTERS REGIMENT VICTORIA CROSS WINNERS

Lieutenant Herbert James VC 4th Battalion the Worcestershire Regiment At Krithia Gallipoli on 3 July 1915 when a flanking battalion had lost most of its officers he gathered a body of men and led them forward under heavy fire, then organised and led forward a second party. Later, when in command of a party of bombers he held a Turkish communication trench alone under murderous fire until a barrier had been built behind him.

London Gazette 1 September 1915

http://www.wfrmuseum.org.uk/vcwinners.htm
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VCs of Gallipoli and The Dardanelles II

18/19 June and 1 / 2 July 1915, Area of Gully Ravine, Helles
Gazetted 1 September 1915
Capt. G.O’Sullivan, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
Cpl J.Somers, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers

The fighting at this stage was centred around Gully Ravine, the nullah running up from Gully Beach towards Krithia and a key tactical feature of the battlefield throughout the Helles campaign. The Turks were keen to regain what was known as ‘Turkey Trench’ and succeeded in driving the South Wales Borderers out of it. A counter attack by the Inniskillings and Borderers led by Capt. O’Sullivan drove the Turks back. Throughout the fighting, O’Sullivan had been closely supported by Cpl Somers, who, as an enthusiastic cricketer, revelled in grenade throwing. He continued the fight after O’Sullivan had been carried off wounded and held his ground against all attacks. O’Sullivan spent some weeks in hospital but returned to the battalion in time to take part in the disastrous attack on Scimitar Hill on 21 August when he was killed, having led a last charge up the hills with the words ‘…one more charge for the honour of the old Regiment’. Somers died at home in Ireland in may 1918, almost certainly as the result of gas poisoning sustained on the western front.

http://www.gallipoli-association.org/contentpage.asp?pageid=42
Zie ook http://www.ww1photos.com/RoyalInniskillingFusiliers.html
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Edith Elizabeth Appleton Diaries - Volume 3 (8 May to 15 November 1916)

[July] 2. The last 8 days - guns have been firing the whole time - fine big ones they need to be
for us to hear them so distinctly - & how the china must be rattling at the Clearing Stations.
The Germans have been giving themselves up & coming across in dazed groups - which is fine
- How absolutely glorious if we knock them right out & level them flat - & our Infantry &
Cavalry - have a walk over - such as shall make good reading in history. We had a quiet day
yesterday - sent more patients to England - Took the 1/2 day - & went to Gonneville with
Matron & Toby. We walked there - along the Havre Rd. 9.Ks. had tea at the famous old inn - I
must have told you about - found a couple of Padres at tea before us - so we all came back in
their car, along the valley - by Criquetot. Parry Evans - & Mr. Girdlestone. There was a
wonderful sunset last night - the sea like a mill pond - & the reflection on it like molten gold -
too bright to look at - & as it changed - through every colour in the paint box - it became more
& more beautiful. I must dress for church now - it is past 6 - Wonder if the others will bathe.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Vol3/PDF/1916_07July.pdf
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George Coppard

George Coppard was born in Brighton on 26th January, 1898. After attending Fairlight Place School he left at thirteen to work at a taxidermists.

Like many young men, Coppard volunteered to join the British Army in August, 1914. Although only sixteen, he was accepted after claimed he was three years older. He became a member of the Royal West Surrey Regiment and sent to Stoughton Barracks in Guildford for training.

Private Coppard was sent to France in June, 1915 as a member of a Vickers machine-gun unit. In September of that year he took part is the Artois-Loos offensive where the British Army suffered 50,000 casualties. The following he was involved in the Battle of the Somme.

On 17th October, 1916, Coppard was accidentally shot in the foot by one of his friends. For a while, Coppard was suspected of arranging the accident with his friend and he was sent to hospital with a label attached to his chest, SIW (Self-Inflicted Wound). Both men were eventually cleared of the charge but it was not until May, 1917, that Coppard was able to return to the Western Front. Soon afterwards, he took part in the Third Battle of Arras and in October, 1917, was promoted to the rank of corporal.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWcoppard.htm

George Coppard was a machine-gunner at the Battle of the Somme.

In his book With A Machine Gun to Cambrai, he described what he saw on the 2nd July, 1916.

The next morning we gunners surveyed the dreadful scene in front of our trench. There was a pair of binoculars in the kit, and, under the brazen light of a hot mid-summer's day, everything revealed itself stark and clear. The terrain was rather like the Sussex downland, with gentle swelling hills, folds and valleys, making it difficult at first to pinpoint all the enemy trenches as they curled and twisted on the slopes.

It eventually became clear that the German line followed points of eminence, always giving a commanding view of No Man's Land. Immediately in front, and spreading left and right until hidden from view, was clear evidence that the attack had been brutally repulsed. Hundreds of dead, many of the 37th Brigade, were strung out like wreckage washed up to a high-water mark. Quite as many died on the enemy wire as on the ground, like fish caught in the net. They hung there in grotesque postures. Some looked as though they were praying; they had died on their knees and the wire had prevented their fall. From the way the dead were equally spread out, whether on the wire or lying in front of it, it was clear that there were no gaps in the wire at the time of the attack.

Concentrated machine gun fire from sufficient guns to command every inch of the wire, had done its terrible work. The Germans must have been reinforcing the wire for months. It was so dense that daylight could barely be seen through it. Through the glasses it looked a black mass. The German faith in massed wire had paid off.

How did our planners imagine that Tommies, having survived all other hazards - and there were plenty in crossing No Man's Land - would get through the German wire? Had they studied the black density of it through their powerful binoculars? Who told them that artillery fire would pound such wire to pieces, making it possible to get through? Any Tommy could have told them that shell fire lifts wire up and drops it down, often in a worse tangle than before.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWsomme.htm
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George Mallory

George Mallory, was the commander of the 40th Siege Battery at the Somme. He wrote a letter to his wife, Ruth Mallory on 2nd July, 1916.

Our part was to keep up a barrage fire on certain lines, "lifting" after certain fixed times from one to another more remote and so on. Of course we couldn't know how matters were going for several hours. But then the wounded - walking cases - began to pass and bands of prisoners. We heard various accounts but it seemed to emerge pretty clearly that the attack was held up somewhere by machine-gun fire and this was confirmed by the nature of our own tasks after the "barrage" was over. To me, this result together with the sight of the wounded was poignantly grievous. I spent most of the morning in the map room by the roadside, standing by to help Lithgow (the Commanding Officer) to get onto fresh targets.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWsomme.htm
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The capture of Mametz, 1 - 5 July 1916

2-4 July 1916: Fricourt captured; 7th Division inches forward; time is wasted

On these days the 7th Division pushed forward in the enemy trench complex and materially assisted in the eventually successful attack of 17th (Northern) Division that captured Fricourt on 2 July. Two batteries of XIV Brigade RHA under command of 7th Division moved up into Queen's Nullah and began firing to cut the barbed wire defences in front of Mametz Wood. At 3pm on 3rd July, patrols were reporting that Mametz Wood was empty of German troops. This was not entirely true. 2nd Royal Irish Regiment and 1st Royal Welsh Fusiliers of 7th Division's 22nd Brigade were ordered up to occupy a line on the southern edge of the wood, but it was not until dawn on 4 July that they were fully in position. During the night, a detachment of 55th Landwehr was discovered in the wood by a patrol of the 2nd Royal Irish Regiment and driven off.

At 9.45pm on 3 July, Fourth Army issued orders to prepare for an attack on the second German position, Longueval to Bazentin le Petit. "Preparations" meant capturing enough ground to bring artillery up to be able to bombard the second position. And that meant, for XV Corps, the capture of Mametz Wood. The tired 7th Division was relieved by the 38th (Welsh) Division at night.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat15G_Mametz.html
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NEW-ZEALAND-L Archives

MOORE, Lieutenant Stanley - Advice has been received of the death from
wounds in France on 2 July of Lt Moore who was chief instructor in physical
training in the Auckland Province until his departure on active service. He
was born in Gisborne, being the third son of the late Mr Robert Moore and
was 29 years of age. Eleven years ago he joined the Royal NZ Artillery and
on the institution of the territorial training scheme was promoted to the
instructional staff as sergeant major. His appointment under the Education
Board was made several years ago. Lieut Moore was well known as an amateur
heavy-weight boxer. His wife and child reside on College Hill. A brother,
a brother in law and five cousins are on active service in France. [AWN
13.07.1916]

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/NEW-ZEALAND/2002-01/1011860383
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1914
Countdown to War

Announcement that the Kaiser will not attend the Archduke's funeral.
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1915
Western Front

German success near Four de Paris (Argonne); severe fighting; enemy repulsed near Blanleuil.

Eastern Front

Austrians (Archduke Josef Ferdinand ) occupy Krasnik; heavy Austro-Russian engagements between Vistula and Bug.

Southern Front

Great battle for Carso Plateau begins.

Italians nearing Tolmino (Jul.).

Naval and Overseas Operations

German cruiser "Pommern" sunk by British submarine in Danzig Bay.

Russian warships sink the "Albatross" off Gothland.

Political, etc.

Munitions Bill sent to House of Lords after third reading
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1916
Western Front

British capture Fricourt; relinquish captured trenches at Gommecourt. French take Curlu, Frise, Bois de Mereaucourt and Herbecourt.

Eastern Front

Russians take offensive at Smorgon and Baranovichi, and penetrate German lines.

Germans continue advance on Lutsk salient. South of Dniester they regain Tlumacz.

Southern Front

Skirmishes near Salonika; artillery duels on lower bank of Vardar.

Heavy artillery fire and sharp infantry attacks in Trentino and Carso.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks take Kermanshah; Russians driven east on road to Hamadan.
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1917
Western Front

British aeroplanes bomb Bruges.

British advanced posts driven back short distance from Lens.

German attacks repulsed north of the Aisne.

Eastern Front

Russian offensive progresses in the region of Zborow (east of Lemberg); 6,300 prisoners taken.

Political, etc.

King and Queen attend service at Westminster Abbey for jubilee of Canadian Federation.
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1918
Western Front

Germans re-capture ground north-west of Albert.

French advance north of River Aisne near Moulin sous Touvent (north-west of Soissons).

1,019,115 U.S. troops embarked for France up to date: 291 lost at sea.

Southern Front

Successful Italian attack on Austrians in Piave delta begins - 1,900 prisoners.

Political, etc.

Opening of International Commercial Conference at Westminster.

Establishment of (British) Central Council of Agriculture.

Statement of General Botha re: military and police measures.

Publication of Austrian Docialists' Declaration re: peace.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1918_07_02.htm
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East St. Louis Race Riot: July 2, 1917

The city of East St. Louis was the scene of one of the bloodiest race riots in the 20th century. Racial tensions began to increase in February, 1917 when 470 African American workers were hired to replace white workers who had gone on strike against the Aluminum Ore Company. (...)

On July 2, 1917, the violence resumed. Men, women, and children were beaten and shot to death. Around six o’ clock that evening, white mobs began to set fire to the homes of black residents. Residents had to choose between burning alive in their homes, or run out of the burning houses, only to be met by gunfire. In other parts of the city, white mobs began to lynch African Americans against the backdrop of burning buildings. As darkness came and the National Guard returned, the violence began to wane, but did not come to a complete stop.

In response to the rioting, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sent W.E.B. DuBois and Martha Gruening to investigate the incident. They compiled a report entitled “Massacre at East St. Louis,” which was published in the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis. The NAACP also staged a silent protest march in New York City in response to the violence. Thousands of well-dressed African Americans marched down Fifth Avenue, showing their concern about the events in East St. Louis.

http://www.blackpast.com/?q=aah/east-st-louis-race-riot-july-2-1917

July 2, 1917 - East St. Louis

Here is a contemporary account:

On the first of July, 1917, between 9 o'clock and midnight, two automobiles loaded with white men drove through the negro settlement of East St. Louis shooting toward negro homes. This naturally aroused the colored people so that by midnight great numbers of negroes were marching the streets in the colored settlement portion of East St. Louis armed with shotguns, rifles and revolvers. The police department having been informed of these conditions ordered a sergeant of police, two patrolmen and a chauffeur to proceed at once in an automobile to the south part of East St. Louis, the seat of the trouble. Upon reaching Fifteenth Street and Bond Avenue, this detail of police encountered about one hundred negroes marching in the street in battle array. After some conversation between the police and the negroes, the negro mob fired into the automobile, killing the sergeant of police and one patrolman. 'This occurred about 12.15 a. m. of the second of July, 1917.

From 8 o'clock a. m. to 10 o'clock a. m. on July 2, 1917, the automobile that had been occupied by the policemen and which was riddled with bullets was standing in front of the police station at East St. Louis, around which automobile crowds of people had gathered. Some of the leaders called on these people generally to go to a certain hall to discuss the situation. At this meeting incendiary speeches were made and when the crowd left the hall, it marched down Collinsville Avenue, the principal business street of East St. Louis. Assaults on colored people by this crowd began to be made about 10 o'clock a. m. and continued until 11 p. m. of July 2, developing into the most lawless and disgraceful race riot. About 8 o'clock in the evening of that day the white mob began applying the torch, burning large areas of houses occupied by colored people. In this riot, eleven white men and probably one hundred colored people lost their lives. Many of the bodies were completely burned, some were thrown in the Cahokia Creek, and the exact number of those killed will never be known.

During all of this time, there was not the slightest effort made on the part of the police force of East St. Louis nor the sheriffs force of St. Clair County to stop the riot.

http://transylvaniandutch.blogspot.com/2009/04/july-2-1917-east-st-louis.html
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T. E. Lawrence to General Clayton

Cairo, 10th July, 1917

SECRET

General Clayton,

I left Wejh on May 9th, 1917 with Sherif1 Nasir Ibn Ali Ibn Radhi Beni Hussein of Medina as O.C. Expedition, and Nessib Bey El Bekri as Political Officer to deal with villagers and townspeople. Sherif Feisal's instructions were to open Akaba for use as a base of supply for the Arab forces, and to sound the possibilities of Sherifian action in East and South Syria.

We marched to Abu Raga where we increased our force to 36 men, and thence to the Railway at km. 810.5 which we dynamited on May 19th. Our route then lay by Fejr to Maigua in Wadi Soilan, for Jarf to see Nuri and Nawwaf. We heard however that they were to the North of us, so marched to Nebk (near Kaf) on June 2nd, where we met Auda Abu Tayi, and the Huweitat. Sherif Nasir stayed in Kaf to enrol Rualla, Shererat and Huweitat for the Akaba expedition.

I rode on June 4th with 2 men into Wald Ali2 country, via Burga and Seba Biar to Am El Barida near Tudmor on June 8th. Here I met Sheikh Dhami of the Kawakiba Aneza and heard that Hachim was away N.E. and Ibn Murshid confined in Damascus. I therefore went West with Dhami and his 35 men (whom I enrolled) to Ras Baalbek on June 10th and dynamited a small plate girder bridge there.3 From Ras Baalbek we rode South to El Gabban, in the Ghuta 3 miles from Damascus where on June 13th I met Ali Riza Pasha Rehabi,4 G.O.C. Damascus. Thence I rode to El Rudeine where I met Sheikh Saad Ed Din Ibn Ali of the Leja5 and passed on to Salkhad to see Hussein Bey El Atrash.6 From Salkhad we went to Azrak and saw Nuri and Nawwaf,7 and returned to Nebk on June 18th.

I found the enrolment finished. Nessib Bey El Bekri went to Salkhad with Hussein El Atrash with the instructions attached,8 and with Nasir I marched on June 19th to Bair where we reopened the dynamited wells. From Bair I rode to Ziza and saw Fawaz Ibn Faiz,9 and thence West of Amman to Urn Keis on June 23rd where I looked at railway bridge Z in the Yarmuk valley and saw Shererat and Beni Hassan Sheikhs. From Um Keis I went to Ifdein (Mafrak on the map) the first station below Deraa, and destroyed a stretch of curved rails at km. 173.10 From Ifdein we rode to Zerga, and thence to Atwi, where we failed to take the station, but killed 3 out of the 5 of the garrison, captured a large flock of sheep and destroyed a telegraph party of 4 men repairing the wire. We also dynamited a stretch of line. From Atwi I rode back to Bair, and rejoined Sherif Nasir who had meantime prepared the Western Huweitat. On June 30th we moved to El Jefer, clearing one well, and thence to km. 479 which we destroyed on a large scale, while a column was attacking N. of Maan near Aneyza. We then marched towards Fuweileh, where the gendarmes post had been destroyed by an advance column. They met us with the news of the re-occupation of Fuweileh by the belated relief expedition of 4/174/59 from Maan. We wiped out the battalion on July 2nd (taking the O.C., a mountain gun and 160 prisoners) at Abu El Lissan, and sent a flying column North which defeated the Turkish post at Hisha (railhead 5 miles East of Shobek), occupied Wadi Musa, Shobek, Tafileh, and is now near Kerak to take action there.

From Fuweileh we captured the post of Mreigha and then moved to Guweira where we met Ibn Jad of the Akaba Huweitat, and took 100 men and 5 officers. From Guweira we marched on to El Kethira (wiping out a post of 3 officers and 140 men) and thence to El Khadra in the North of Wadi Ithm, where the Akaba garrison surrendered at discretion. We entered Akaba on July 6th, with 600 prisoners, about 20 officers, and a German unteroffizier well-borer. I rode the same day for Suez with 8 men and arrived at El Shatt on July 9th.

As a result of the journeys and interviews noted above, between June 5th and July 6th, I am of opinion that given the necessary material assistance Arab Forces can be arranged about the end of August as in the sketch map attached. These levies will not (any more than the Hedjaz Beduin) be capable of fighting a pitched battle, but forces 1, 2, 4 and 5 may be able to ensure a cessation of traffic on the railways in their areas, and forces 6 and 7 should suffice for the expulsion of all Turkish posts in their districts, and the occupation of all ways of communication. Force 3 is our striking force (of perhaps 6,ooo not bad men) and may be able to rush Deraat, or at least should cut off the garrison there and hold up the line in the neighbourhood. I would propose to cut the bridge at Hemmah from Um Keis by force 2, if possible, as a preliminary of action, and if Damascus could be taken over by a part of force 3 it would mean a great accession of strength to the Arab cause.

These various operations fortunately need not be accurately concerted. If they took place in numerical order (as in the map) it would be easiest - but there is little hope of things working out just as planned. If they come off the L[ines] of C[ommunication] of the Turkish force in the Jerusalem area would appear threatened - but I do not think the Arabs can be advised to take action unless the E[gyptian] E[xpeditionary] Force can retain the Turks in front of them by a holding attack, to prevent large drafts being sent up to the Hauran. Force 3 is capable of only one effort (lasting perhaps 2 months) and if it is crushed Arab hopes in Syria will depend on the yet untried possibility of action between Horns and Aleppo - on which it is too soon to speak.

Sherif Nasir asked me to discuss with E.E.Force the situation, his needs, and the possibility of joint action by E.E.Force and himself against the Turkish forces in Palestine, as outlined above.

T.E.L.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170710_clayton.htm
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Australians at War

2 July 1918 - Prime Minister William Morris Hughes, the 'Little Digger', addressed Australian troops on the Western Front before the Battle of Hamel, France.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-at-war-1901-2000/1918.html
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DIARIES OF SAMUEL MILLER KEPLINGER JR., AMBULANCE DRIVER

JULY 1918

7-1. Started on my career as an artist. After washing my car I collected a few paint brushes and paint and went to it.
A very hard tiresome job. The "American Field Service" and the American and French flags (crossed) are painted over. Darn.
The Lieutenant is giving up the morning setting up exercises. Booze holds him back. He is drunk half the time.

7-2. Finished painting --- thank heaven. Was sure tired of it.
Lt. Takes account of all our tools in a drunken state. He leans against the fresh paint several times. Sgt Block, who says what he pleases to whom he pleases and when he pleases, says he'll give him an orderly to follow him around and hold him up.

http://www.ourstory.info/library/2-ww1/Keplinger/kep1.html#7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kenneth Lee Porter, Second Lieutenant, United States Air Service

A graduate of the University of Michigan with a degree in engineering, Porter joined the United States Air Service on 6 August 1917. Following training in Canada and Texas, he was commissioned and assigned to the 147th Pursuit Squadron in January 1918. Flying the Nieuport 28, Porter scored his first victory on 2 July 1918, sharing in the destruction of a Pfalz D.III. In August, the 147th Aero was re-equipped with the SPAD S.XIII and Porter scored four more victories to become an ace on 12 October 1918. Two days before his final victory, Porter replaced Wilbert White as commander of C Flight when the latter was killed in action.

Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) - "For extraordinary heroism in action near Chateau Thierry, France, 2 July 1918. Lt. Porter with four other pilots, attacked twelve enemy aircraft (Pfalz type) flying in two groups well within the enemy lines. As soon as the enemy planes were sighted, Lt. Porter maneuvered to get between them and the sun with great difficulty and gained the advantage. While three of the American officers dived on the lower formation, Lt. Porter and 2nd Lt. John H. Stevens engaged the upper formation in a bold and brilliant combat, two planes of which they crashed to earth." DSC citation

Croix de Guerre - "An excellent pilot. He has always been efficient and brave, firing on enemy convoys from low altitude, attacking balloons, forcing them down. On 2 July 1918, together with two other pilots, he attacked a formation of 12 enemy planes and brought down one of his adversaries." Croix de Guerre citation.

http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/kporter.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 July 1918, Commons Sitting

WOMEN DOCTORS.


HC Deb 02 July 1918 vol 107 cc1555-6 1555

Sir ROBERT NEWMAN asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether 1556 he is aware that women serving as whole-time doctors in, the Army and doing precisely the same work as their male colleagues receive neither military rank nor status, thereby being deprived of equal pay, ration, and travelling allowances, as well as a gratuity; that they have their letters censored and suffer under many disabilities owing to their not holding commissioned rank; and whether, under these circumstances, steps will be taken to grant women temporary commissioned rank, thus removing these grievances and at the same time showing a just appreciation of the services rendered by women doctors in connection with the War?

The FINANCIAL SECRETARY to the WAR OFFICE (Mr. Forster) My hon. Friend has been misinformed. Women serving as whole-time doctors in the Army for service at home and abroad receive the same pay, ration, travelling allowances, and gratuity, as temporary commissioned officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps. Those serving for home duty only on temporary engagements are treated in the same way as civilian medical men similarly employed. All officers have their letters censored. It is not proposed to grant commissions to women doctors.

Sir ARTHUR SHIRLEY BENN Does not the right hon. Gentleman consider it advisable to give the same rank or commission to the women who are rendering such excellent service and are doing men's work?

Mr. FORSTER I do not quite follow my hon. Friend. I have just said that in regard to pay, ration, travelling allowances, and gratuity they do get the same.

Sir A. S. BENN I said "commission"—the same rank?

Mr. FORSTER No; not commission.

Sir R. NEWMAN Has the hon. Gentleman received any communication from the Medical Women's Federation, who have unanimously decided to press the Government by all means in their power to grant temporary rank to medical women serving in the War?

Mr. FORSTER I do not think I have seen that.

Mr. CHANCELLOR Is it sex or incompetence that prevents them getting commissions?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jul/02/women-doctors
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Shirala

5.306 ton British liner, built 1901. 410ftx50ft. 387hp triple-expansion engines. 213 passengers, 5.000 tons general, 180 tons ammunition for Army, 1.700 tons mail, including diamonds, London for Bombay. Sunk: 2 July, 1918 by torpedo in port side from UB-57 (Oberleutnant Johann Lohs). Five crew killed.

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?589
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1st Pursuit Group History - May through July, 1918

Comprised of 17th, 27th, 94th, 95th, 103rd, 147th, and 183rd Aero Squadrons

2 Jul 1918

27th - A patrol of nine planes engaged a patrol of nine planes of the Richtofen Circus near Verdilly, France. Two Fokkers destroyed and officially confirmed by Lieutenants MacArthur, Hoover, Schmitt, Grant, Hudson and Norton. 1st Lieutenant Edward Elliott killed in combat over Chateau-Thierry. 1st Lieutenant Walter H. Wanamaker shot down and made prisoner in German territory.

147th - A patrol of five planes was attacked by a flight of twelve Pfalz of the Richtofen Circus near Chateau-Thierry. In the engagement Second Lieutenant Kenneth L. Porter, Maxwell O. Parry and Cleveland W. McDermott each destroyed one Pfalz each which was unconfirmed. Lieutenants John H. Stevens, Cleveland W. McDermott, Maxwell O. Parry and John O'Neill destroyed one Pfalz which was confirmed.

GROUP - Due to the large number of fatal accidents in other portions of the sector, it became necessary to issue instructions that no pistol or rifle practice would be engaged in other than on the limits of the rifle range. Message received from Aeronautic Headquarters VIth French, Army: "Yesterday's attack was a complete success. The protection given by the First Pursuit Group, U.S.A. was very good. We are informed that one American plane fell one kilometer west of Pavant. Pilot Wounded."

http://www.acepilots.com/wwi/us_1st_2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 July 1919 → Commons Sitting

LEAGUE OF NATIONS FLAG.


HC Deb 02 July 1919 vol 117 c936 936

Lieut. - Commander KENWORTHY asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether British men-of-war have flown the flag of the League of Nations; and, if so, on what occasions?

Dr. MACNAMARA My hon. and gallant Friend is mistaken in thinking that there is such a flag. The last part of the question, therefore, does not arise.

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY Has the flag not been flown by transports as stated in the Press?

Dr. MACNAMARA Not to my knowledge. My advice is that there is no such flag.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/jul/02/league-of-nations-flag
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2010 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Lost Battalion (1919)

Director: Burton L. King
Writer: Charles Logue (writer)
Release Date: 2 July 1919 (USA)

A battalion of the U.S. Army's 77th Division penetrates deep into the Argonne Forest of France during the First World War. The battalion becomes surrounded and holds out for six long days, awaiting reinforcement and rescue.

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0010386/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2011 6:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Diary Entry - 2nd July, 1916
Nothing much done except more slaving on the mine in the afternoon, putting up sets to keep the roof from falling in. If could only describe the new Mess, which is recognised as the best in France. To begin with, a tremendous amount of earth was excavated from the side of the bank, this took some considerable time as the men used to get in behind the bank where they were not seen and sit down by the hour. After a lot of agitating the first three sections of cupola were put in and finally about a fortnight later, when the banks had several times slipped in, the eight sections were finally put in - the dimensions are 16 feet x 33, there is a partition in the middle of the compartment and we use one room for messing and the other as a general smoking room. The entrance is by a long passage which also connects up with the cookhouse and there is a mine shaft dug in off the passage. The cupola walls are painted black but each end, which is lined with corrugated iron, is painted white. The floor which consists of 9 x 1 1/2 has canvas over it while in the general room there are two carpets. A beautifully padded liver scorcher reclines in front of the fire, made of 9 x 3, there are four fan lights in the roof to let the light in. The whole Mess is to be covered with a concrete roof to be a foot or so above so as to burst anything that might happen this way. There are a most wonderful set of photos already adorning the walls, which add brightness to the place.

==> http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2011 6:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Letter Home - 2nd July, 1916


2nd July, 1916

Dear Father,

Many thanks for your letters and the paper re the boat race. It must have been a splendid race and it was a pity we could not quite get there. We are still having wretched weather, at least yesterday the sun came out but today it looks as if it might rain again at any time. This part of the line has been fairly quiet in spite of the papers' talk of the heavy British shelling. Of course, we are doing a certain amount of shelling and, when we do let them have it, all the batteries of the Division concentrate on the one target. The point fired on must be a perfect inferno as that means about eighteen batteries including several 4.5 howitzer batteries all firing at gun fire for some thirty minutes. These strafes come off once daily and usually at night. Of course, there is usually some other shoot as well during the day. Last night at twelve thirty am a regular tornado of shells hurtled over to Boschie for half an hour and we hit off with eight rounds per gun per minute for the first one hundred and sixty rounds. That gives you some idea of what it is like with the other batteries round doing the same. Down south a lot of heavy firing has been heard and we hear we have done well, the attack being launched yesterday morning at 11.30 am and we were advancing on a ten-mile front. I think I forgot to mention before that we lost our Colonel Kerwin about a fortnight ago as he has been promoted to General. We were all very sorry to lose him as he was a spelndid man. We have had another sick-looking individual for a few days but he went off in an ambulance about four days ago and I don't think he will be much loss. It's a pity you cant get the rain we have been having here. It simply pours. No more news.

Ever your loving son,

Walford

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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jun 2012 21:01    Onderwerp: War Diary of the Accrington Pals Reageer met quote

2nd July (1916) - 1 a.m.

The battalion remained in the front line until 1 a.m. on the 2nd July when relieved by the 13th Battn. York & Lancaster Regt. During the attack Battn. Hqrs. was situated at head of Sap C. (K 29 a 93 ref map - 1/10,000 HEBUTERNE Trench Map). Total casualties:- Officers killed 7, missing 1, wounded 13 including the Commanding Officer. Other ranks killed 86, wounded 338, missing 140.
On relief, the battalion withdrew to ROLLAND trench (4th line) when reinforcements of 4 officers & 60 other ranks came up.


http://www.pals.org.uk/pals_diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:30    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Beginn der englisch-französischen Offensive im Sommegebiet

Großes Hauptquartier, 2. Juli.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

In einer Breite von etwa vierzig Kilometer begann gestern der seit vielen Monaten mit unbeschränkten Mittel vorbereitete große englisch-französische Massenangriff nach siebentägiger stärkster Artillerie- und Gasvorwirkung. Auf beiden Ufern der Somme, sowie dem Ancre-Bach von Gommecourt bis in die Gegend von La Boiselle errang der Feind keine nennenswerten Vorteile, erlitt aber sehr schwere Verluste. Dagegen gelang es ihm, in die vordersten Linien der beiden an die Somme stoßenden Divisionsabschnitte an einzelnen Stellen einzudringen, so daß vorgezogen wurde, diese Divisionen aus den völlig zerschossenen vordersten Gräben in die zwischen erster und zweiter Stellung liegende Riegelstellung zurückzunehmen. Das in der vordersten Linie festeingebaute, übrigens unbrauchbar gewordene Material ging hierbei, wie stets in solchen Fällen, verloren. In Verbindung mit dieser großen Kampfhandlung standen vielfache Artilleriefeuerüberfälle, sowie mehrfache kleinere Angriffsunternehmungen an den Anschlußfronten und auch westlich und südöstlich von Tahure; sie scheiterten überall.
Links der Maas wurden an der Höhe 304 französische Grabenstücke genommen und ein französischer Handgranatenangriff abgeschlagen. Östlich der Maas hat der Gegner unter erneutem starken Kräfteeinsatz gestern mehrmals und auch heute in der Frühe die deutschen Linien auf der Höhe "Kalte Erde", besonders beim Panzerwerk Thiaumont, angegriffen und mußte im Sperrfeuer unter größten Verlusten wieder umkehren. Der gegnerische Flugdienst entwickelte große Tätigkeit. Unsere Geschwader stellten den Feind an vielen Stellen zum Kampf und haben ihm schwere Verluste beigebracht. Es sind, vorwiegend in Gegend der angegriffenen Front und im Maasgebiet, 15 feindliche Flugzeuge abgeschossen, davon 8 englische, 3 französische in unseren Linien. Oberleutnant Freiherr v. Althaus hat seinen siebenten Gegner außer Gefecht gesetzt Wir haben kein Flugzeug verloren, wenn auch einzelne Führer oder Beobachter verwundet worden sind.


Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generals v. Linsingen:
Der Angriff schritt vorwärts. Die Gefangenenzahl ist um 7 Offiziere, 1410 Mann gestiegen. An verschiedenen Stellen wurden feindliche Gegenangriffe glatt zurückgewiesen.
Armee des Generals Grafen v. Bothmer:
Deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Truppen haben die kürzlich von den Russen besetzte Höhe von Worobijowka (nordwestlich von Tarnopol) gestürmt und dem Gegner an Gefangenen 7 Offiziere, 892 Mann, an Beute 7 Maschinengewehre, 2 Minenwerfer abgenommen.


Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_07_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:39    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Die Durchbruchsschlacht im Westen

Großes Hauptquartier, 2. Juli.
Seit Samstag früh ist an demjenigen Teile unserer Front, der am weitesten nach Westen, etwa gegen Amiens zu vorgeschoben ist, ein großer Angriff der Engländer und Franzosen im Gange, der sich von Gommecourt bis gegen Lihons zu beiden Seiten der Somme erstreckt. Im bisherigen Verlauf des Stellungskrieges hatte dieser Frontabschnitt kaum ernstere Kämpfe zu verzeichnen, ausgenommen die Eroberung des Dorfes Frise an der Somme am 28. Januar 1916 durch die Schlesier, und die anknüpfenden Rückeroberungsversuche der Franzosen.
Inzwischen hatten die Engländer ihre Front bis in diese Gegend, zeitweilig sogar bis über die Somme hinüber ausgedehnt, und vor acht Tagen begannen sie, mit dem anschließenden linken Flügel der Franzosen vereint, ein systematisches Trommelfeuer, das sich allerdings bis weit nach Norden ausdehnte. Durch zahlreiche Gasangriffe, die bis in die Gegend von Werwicq festgestellt wurden, und durch außerordentlich zahlreiche und starke Patrouillen suchten sie bis zuletzt über das engere Gebiet des besonders von der französischen Presse erwartungsvoll angekündigten Angriffs Ungewißheit zu verbreiten.
Dieser Versuch, der nach siebentägiger heftigster Beschießung gestern mit starken Kräften einsetzte, hat bisher nicht den Erfolg gehabt, der dem ungewöhnlichen Aufwand an Vorbereitungen und eingesetzten Kräften entspräche. Auf dem Nordabschnitt der Angriffsfront, zu beiden Seiten des Ancre-Baches bis nach La Boiselle haben die Engländer, wie der Tagesbericht meldet, trotz schwerer Verluste keine wesentlichen Vorteile erreicht. Erfolgreicher war der Feind bei Fricourt, Mametz und Longueval, sowie auf einem unmittelbar an den Fluß angelehnten Abschnitt südlich der Somme, und zwar haben nicht die Engländer, sondern die Franzosen diese Fortschritte zu verzeichnen, durch die Räumung der gänzlich eingetrommelten Gräben unserer vordersten Linie auf zwei Divisionsabschnitten Wir haben unsere Front hier zurückgebogen, um unnötige Verluste zu verhüten und eine bessere Verteidigung aufnehmen zu können. Solche taktischen Veränderungen sind bei größeren Durchbruchsversuchen fast unvermeidlich. Es liegt keinerlei Grund zur Beunruhigung ihretwegen vor. Unsere Truppen stehen dort, wo die Front eingedrückt wurde, in den Zwischengräben noch vor der zweiten Stellung, in einer sogenannten "Riegelstellung" nicht schlechter, sondern besser geschützt zur Abwehr bereit. Die Engländer werden harte Arbeit haben, wenn sie ihren Verbündeten endlich die verheißene Hilfe bringen wollen.
Bei Verdun wird nach wie vor heftig um das Panzerwerk Thiaumont gekämpft. Gestern hatten die Franzosen drei Sturmangriffe und heute abermals einen angesetzt. Sie gingen über die kahlen Hänge von Westen gegen Osten vor und gerieten jedesmal in ein derart mörderisches Sperrfeuer unserer Batterien, daß es gar nicht zum Infanterieangriff kam. Um so unbegreiflicher wirkt die Behauptung des französischen Heeresberichts, daß der Gegner in Thiaumont eingedrungen sei. Das Panzerwerk wie das Dorf Fleury sind restlos in unserem Besitz


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:41    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Seegefecht in der Ostsee

Berlin, 2. Juli. (W. B. Amtlich.)
Nach den inzwischen eingegangenen ausführlichen Meldungen der in der Nacht vom 29. zum 30. Juni mit russischen Seestreitkräften im Gefecht befindlich gewesenen deutschen Torpedoboote ergibt sich in Ergänzung der amtlichen Meldung vom 30. Juni nachstehendes Bild: Zunächst wurden in der genannten Nacht etwa 20 Seemeilen südlich Haefringe von unseren Torpedobooten drei feindliche Zerstörer, anscheinend vom "Nowik"-Typ, gesichtet und beschossen. Der Feind machte sofort kehrt und entkam in einem einsetzenden Regenschauer. Eine Stunde später kamen im Osten neue Rauchwolken in Sicht, auf welche unsere Torpedoboote zudrehten. Es wurden zwei feindliche Kreuzer (anscheinend einer von der Makroff-, einer von der Oleg-Klasse) und fünf feindliche Zerstörer ausgemacht. Unsere Torpedoboote gingen zum Angriff heran und bekämpften den Feind mit Torpedos und Artillerie. Mehrere Detonationen sind einwandsfrei beim Feinde beobachtet. Bei dem Beginne des Angriffs nahm der Feind unsere Torpedoboote mit allen Kalibern heftig unter Feuer, das nach den Detonationen erheblich nachließ. Bei aufkommendem Nebel kamen sich die Gegner aus Sicht.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:43    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Eroberung der Worobijowahöhe bei Tarnopol

Wien 2. Juli.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:

In der Bukowina bei unveränderter Lage keine besonderen Ereignisse. Westlich von Kolomea und südlich des Dnjestr entwickelten sich neue heftige Kämpfe. Nordwestlich von Tarnopol eroberten österreichisch-ungarische und deutsche Bataillone die vielumstrittene Höhe von Worobijowka zurück. Sieben russische Offiziere und 982 Mann, 7 Maschinengewehre und zwei Minenwerfer wurden erbeutet. Der Angriff der unter dem Befehl des Generals von Linsingen stehenden verbündeten Streitkräfte wurde auch gestern an zahlreichen Stellen beträchtlich nach vorwärts getragen. Zahl der Gefangenen und Beute erhöhen sich. Russische Gegenangriffe scheiterten.

Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Im südlichen Abschnitt der Hochfläche von Doberdo setzten die Italiener das heftige Artilleriefeuer und die Angriffe gegen den Raum östlich von Selz fort. Diese auch nachts andauernden Anstrengungen des Feindes blieben dank dem zähen Ausharren der Verteidiger ohne Erfolg.
Zwischen Brenta und Etsch wiederholten sich die fruchtlosen Vorstöße gegen zahlreiche Stellen unserer Front. Im Marmolatagebiet wiesen unsere Truppen mehrere Angriffe italienischer Abteilungen ab, im Ortlergebiet erkämpften sie einige der Kristallspitzen. Gestern wurden über 500 Italiener, darunter 10 Offiziere gefangen genommen


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:48    Onderwerp: Der Weltkrieg am 2. Juli 1916 Reageer met quote

Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 2. Juli. (W. B.)
Das Hauptquartier meldet: An der Irakfront keine Veränderung.
In Südpersien setzten unsere Truppen ihre Bewegung nach Osten fort, indem sie die russischen Nachhuten verjagen.
An der Kaukasusfront trug sich auf dem rechten Flügel und im Zentrum nichts zu. Unsere nördlich von Tschoruk stehenden Truppen drückten auf das feindliche Zentrum und drängten den Feind 8 Kilometer nach Norden in Richtung auf die Küste zurück; sie besetzten abermals beherrschende feindliche Stellungen in einer Länge von 12 Kilometern. Unsere Seestreitkräfte erzielten in den letzten Wochen mehrere Erfolge im Schwarzen Meere. Unsere Unterseeboote versenkten an der Küste des Kaukasus vier große russische Dampfer, darunter Transporte; einer davon war ganz mit Truppen beladen. Außerdem wurde ein russisches Segelschiff versenkt. Ferner gingen ein mit Munition beladener feindlicher Dampfer und ein anderer großer Dampfer durch Auflaufen auf eine Mine unter. Am 28. Juni wurde bei Katia nach einem Luftkampf, der 15 Minuten dauerte, ein feindliches Flugzeug zur Flucht gezwungen. Es landete zwischen dem Kanal und Katia, um der Verfolgung durch unser Flugzeug zu entgehen.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Deutsche Antwort an Sasonow

Berlin, 2. Juli. (W. B.)
Die "Norddeutsche Allgemein Zeitung" schreibt:

In einer Unterredung mit einem Redakteur des "Rußkoje Slowo" ist der russische Minister des Äußern von neuem auf die Entstehungsgeschichte des Krieges zu sprechen gekommen. Die Schuld Rußlands an der Entfesselung des Weltbrandes ist durch die vom Reichskanzler bei verschiedenen Gelegenheiten abgegebenen Erklärungen sowie durch die amtlichen deutschen Veröffentlichungen so klar und unwiderleglich nachgewiesen, daß es überflüssig erscheint, auf diese Unterredung näher einzugehen. Nur einige Punkte der Äußerungen des Herrn Sasonow, welche mit den Tatsachen in direktem Widerspruch stehen, seien hier richtig gestellt.
Herr Sasonow weist darauf hin, der Reichskanzler habe behauptet, daß England, Frankreich und Rußland sich durch ein Bündnis gegen Deutschland eng zusammengeschlossen hätten. Der Reichskanzler hat von einem solchen Bündnis niemals gesprochen. Wie aus den Veröffentlichungen der Kaiserlichen Regierung hervorgeht, sind ihr die Beziehungen, die die Ententemächte vor dem Kriege verknüpften, genau bekannt gewesen. Der Reichskanzler hat auf Grund dieser Kenntnis nur wiederholt die Tatsache festgestellt, daß diese Beziehungen die Einkreisung Deutschlands zum Ziele hatten Diese Feststellung wird durch die Ausführungen des Herrn Sasonow nicht nur nicht widerlegt, sondern direkt bestätigt. Der Minister erklärt selbst, "daß Frankreich und Rußland trotz ihrer von Grund aus friedlichen Gesinnung und ihres aufrichtigen Wunsches, ein Blutvergießen zu vermeiden, sich entschlossen hätten, die Anmaßung Deutschlands niederzuschlagen". Er bestätigt ferner, daß er bei diesem Plane bestimmt auf die Unterstützung Englands gerechnet hat, und liefert durch dieses Eingeständnis einen schlagenden Beweis für die von deutscher Seite stets betonte Mitschuld Englands am Ausbruch des Krieges. Herr Sasanow wirft dem Reichskanzler vor, er habe sorgsam vermieden, zu erwähnen, daß die russische Mobilmachung nach derjenigen der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee und eines beträchtlichen Teiles der deutschen Armee erfolgt sei. Demgegenüber sei daran erinnert, daß, als am 31. Juli 1914 die allgemeine Mobilmachung der russischen Armee bekannt gegeben wurde, Österreich-Ungarn nur acht nicht an der russischen Grenze garnisonierte Korps gegen Serbien mobil gemacht hatte. Daß Deutschland zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits einen beträchtlichen Teil seiner Armee mobil gemacht habe, ist eine gänzlich aus der Luft gegriffene Behauptung. Eine Teilmobilmachung hat in Deutschland überhaupt nicht stattgefunden. Der Mobilmachungsbefehl für die ganze deutsche Armee erging bekanntlich erst am 1. August nachmittags 5 Uhr als Antwort auf die allgemeine russische Mobilmachung. Mobilmachungsmaßnahmen irgendwelcher Art sind vorher nicht getroffen worden.
Herr Sasonow behauptet, diese "Mobilmachung" sei durch den "Lokalanzeiger" vorzeitig dem deutschen Volke bekannt gegeben worden. Herrn Sasonow muß aus der Berichterstattung der russischen Botschaft in Berlin bekannt sein, daß die am 30. Juli von dem genannten Blatte infolge eines Irrtums durch ein Extrablatt verbreitete falsche Nachricht von der deutschen Mobilmachung sofort von amtlicher Seite widerrufen wurde und daß überdies die Botschaft bereits eine Viertelstunde nach Ausgabe des Extrablattes von einem Mitglied der Redaktion des "Lokal-Anzeigers" telephonisch über den Sachverhalt aufgeklärt worden ist. Der russische Minister scheut sich nicht, dem Redakteur des "Rußkoje Slowo" das Märchen aufzubinden, es bestehe die feste Sicherheit, die jetzt ganz Europa habe, daß das Ultimatum Österreich-Ungarns an Serbien unter dem unmittelbaren Einfluß eines hervorragenden deutschen Diplomaten ausgearbeitet und mit Übergehung des Leiters der deutschen Politik dem Kaiser Wilhelm zur Billigung unterbreitet wurde. Wir stellen hiermit fest, daß diese Behauptung in allen Einzelteilen frei erfunden ist und jeder tatsächlichen Grundlage entbehrt


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2012 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vertrauensvotum für das Kabinett Boselli

Rom 2. Juli.
Die Kammer hat in namentlicher Abstimmung mit 391 gegen 45 Stimmen folgende Tagesordnung des Abgeordneten Teso angenommen, zu der der Ministerpräsident die Vertrauensfrage gestellt hatte: "Die Kammer billigt die Erklärungen der Regierung und geht zur Tagesordnung über."

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_07_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jul 2014 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ontstaan van het eerste regeerakkoord in 1918

Op 2 juli 1918 vonden de eerste Nederlandse Tweede Kamerverkiezingen op basis van algemeen stemrecht plaats. Bij deze verkiezingen werd ook het stelsel van evenredige vertegenwoordiging geïntroduceerd. Dit hield in dat een meerderheid van de stemmen in 1 district niet langer doorslaggevend was, maar dat alle stemmen voortaan meetelden voor de Kamerzetels.

Grote politieke verschuivingen waren het gevolg. Zo verloren de 2 liberale partijen in 1918 gezamenlijk 21 van hun 31 zetels, terwijl de Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij (SDAP) er juist 7 won. Verder kwamen er als gevolg van de lage kiesdrempel ook nog 8 eenmansfracties in de Tweede Kamer. Het grootste blok bestond echter uit de confessionele partijen: de Rooms-Katholieke Staatspartij (RKSP), de Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (ARP) en de Christelijk Historische Unie (CHU), die samen 50 van de 100 zetels kregen.

http://www.gahetna.nl/actueel/nieuws/2012/ontstaan-eerste-regeerakkoord-1918
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