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7 Februari

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2006 6:49    Onderwerp: 7 Februari Reageer met quote

February 7

1915 Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes begins


On this day in 1915, in a blinding snowstorm, General Fritz von Below and Germany’s Eighth Army launch a surprise attack against the Russian lines just north of the Masurian Lakes on the Eastern Front, beginning the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes (also known as the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes).

A previous battle in the Masurian Lakes region, located near the villages of Frogenau and Tannenberg in East Prussia, had taken place in September 1914 and ended in the second major defeat of the Russians by Erich Ludendorff’s German forces (the first had come at Tannenberg the previous month). The second battle marked the beginning of an aggressive strategy against Russia conceived by the German commander Paul von Hindenburg, who reasoned that if the Central Powers could manage a string of decisive victories on the Eastern Front, it could knock Russia out of the war and concentrate on the real challenge: confronting Britain and France in the west.

Hindenburg’s strategy called for two armies—the Eighth and Tenth—to be deployed in East Prussia against Russia’s Tenth Army, commanded by General Thadeus von Sievers, which consisted of four corps positioned north of the Masurian Lakes. On February 7, 1915, Below’s Eighth Army attacked the Russian left flank in the driving snow and quickly overwhelmed the Russian lines, easily advancing against the enemy position from the south.

On the second day of the battle, General Hermann von Eichorn and Germany’s Tenth Army came at the Russians from the north, severely outnumbering and nearly surrounding Sievers’ army, which had retreated into the Augustow forest. Faced with tremendous opposition, the Russian XX Corps managed to hold off the German advance for more than two weeks—long enough for the three remaining Russian corps to escape—before finally surrendering to the Germans on February 21, 1915.

All told, the Russians suffered 56,000 casualties in the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes; an estimated 100,000 more had been taken prisoner. German losses were comparatively small, though many German troops suffered from exposure due to the extreme cold.

General Fritz von Below was awarded Germany’s highest military medal, the Pour le Merite, for his service as commander of the Eighth Army during the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes. The Germans had managed to advance a full 70 miles during the first week of the battle. Further German progress eastward was halted, however, when the Russian Twelfth Army attacked the German right flank on February 22, and the victory at the Masurian Lakes ended up having little strategic impact on the Eastern Front.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2006 6:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 7. Februar

1914


1915
Der Kaiser bei der schlesischen Landwehr in Polen
Rückzug der Russen in der Bukowina
Rückeroberung von Kimpolung
Protest der Deutschen Kolonial-Gesellschaft gegen die koloniale Kriegführung Englands und Frankreichs

1916
Heftige Artilleriekämpfe im Westen
Die Kameruner Schutztruppe auf spanischem Gebiet

1917
Erfolgreiche Unternehmung an der Beresina
Englischer Fliegerangriff auf Brügge
Genehmigung des Bruchs mit Deutschland durch den amerikanischen Senat
Ablehnende Antwort Hollands und der skandinavischen Staaten an Wilson
Die Haltung der südamerikanischen Staaten

1918
Französischer Vorstoß in der Champagne gescheitert
Versenkung des amerikanischen Truppentransportdampfers "Tuscania"

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2006 8:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Erfolgreiche Unternehmung an der Beresina

Großes Hauptquartier, 7. Februar.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nur in wenigen Abschnitten erhob sich, infolge ungünstiger Sicht, die Gefechtstätigkeit über das gewöhnliche Maß.
Südwestlich von Sennheim griff vormittags eine französische Kompagnie nach starkem Feuer an; sie wurde abgewiesen und ließ mehrere Gefangene in unserer Hand.
Bei erfolgreichen Erkundungsvorstößen nahe der Küste, beiderseits der Ancre, an der Nordostfront von Verdun und am Parroywalde (Lothringen) wurden 60 Gefangene gemacht, 3 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
An der Beresina drangen Stoßtrupps in die feindlichen Linien und kehrten nach Zerstörung von Unterständen mit 2 russischen Offizieren, 50 Mann und 9 Minenwerfern zurück. Auch an der Bahn Kowel-Luck hatte ein Vorstoß von Sturmtrupps vollen Erfolg. Dort wurden 18 Gefangene und 1 Minenwerfer aus den russischen Gräben geholt.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Joseph:
Nordöstlich von Kirlibaba scheiterte der Angriff von zwei feindlichen Kompagnien.
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Längs Putna und Sereth nahm zeitweilig das Artilleriefeuer zu. Mehrfach kam es zu Vorfeldgefechten.
Im Cerna-Bogen und auf beiden Wardarufern einzelne starke Feuerwellen bei sonst geringer Gefechtstätigkeit.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2006 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Englischer Fliegerangriff auf Brügge

Berlin, 7. Februar, abends. (Amtlich.)
An allen Fronten nur mäßige Gefechtstätigkeit.
Dem Angriff eines englischen Fliegergeschwaders auf Brügge fielen durch Treffer in eine Schule 1 Frau und 16 belgische Kinder zum Opfer. Militärischer Schaden wurde nicht verursacht. 1)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2006 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:

Wien, 7. Februar.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
An der rumänischen Front stellenweise regerer Geschützkampf. Nordöstlich von Kirlibaba wiesen wir einen Vorstoß zweier feindlicher Kompagnien ab. An der Beresina wurden bei einem erfolgreichen Vorfeldunternehmen 2 Offiziere, 50 Mann und 9 Minenwerfer eingebracht. An der Aktion nahmen österreichisch-ungarische Abteilungen teil.
Italienischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2006 10:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
7. California, Anchor liner, is sunk off Irish coast.
http://www.wwiaviation.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2008 12:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

7 februari 1918
Französischer Vorstoß in der Champagne gescheitert

Großes Hauptquartier, 7. Februar.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nahe an der Küste am Nachmittage Artilleriekampf. Von einem Vorstoß westlich von Zandvoorde und aus Vorfeldkämpfen im Artois brachten Infanterieabteilungen Gefangene ein. Die englische Artillerie war am Abend zu beiden Seiten der Scarpe und westlich von Cambrai wieder tätig. Ein französischer Vorstoß in der Champagne scheiterte.
Im Maasgebiet hielt Artillerietätigkeit im Anschluß an eine südwestlich von Ornes erfolgreich durchgeführte Erkundung tagsüber an.
Vizefeldwebel Eßwein schoß in den letzten drei Tagen 6 feindliche Flugzeuge ab.
Von den anderen Kriegsschauplätzen nichts Neues.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In oorlogsnood - Virginie Lovelings dagboek 1914-1918

Zondag 7 februari '15.
Heden is op bevel van Paus Benediktus XV een algemeene boete- en biddag voor heel de katholieke wereld ingesteld: bezoek aan de kerk, biecht, communie, een smeekkreet aan den Allerhoogste tot het verkrijgen van den vrede.
"Ik heb vernomen, dat de pastoor van Groot-St-Pieters buitengewoon driest is en in zijn sermoenen de waarheid zeggen durft in tegenwoordigheid van mannen der bezetting.
Ik ga er heen. De mis begint om elf uur.
Ik kom wat te vroeg; de voorgaande — de soldatenmis — is juist gedaan; door de middenbeuk nadert in dichte gelederen een traag voortschuiven de stroom van grauwe soldaten; men zou — meent men — op de hoofden kunnen gaan. Met vrome, trouwhartige aangezichten en zachtheid in den blik, kijken het meerendeel de geloovigen aan, die neergeknield of staande, ook vreedzaam gezind, die rampzalige vijanden zien voorbijtrekken.
De kerk komt onmiddellijk weder stampvol, van Gentenaren ditmaal. Op het koor boven de trapjes staat een lijkbaar, zwartbehangen met zilveren franjes en daarom heen een bosch van brandende waskaarsen: dŕt ter herinnering aan de gevelde krijgers van ons land en onze bondgenooten. Zoodra de predikant op de kansel verschijnt, worden al de stoelen naar hem toe omgekeerd en al de blikken op hem gericht.
Teleurstelling: dat gebed, door den Paus opgesteld, wordt niet gelezen maar wel een mandement. Het handelt in algemeene bewoordingen over de rampen, die ons volk teisteren: "Wij hebben allen veel geleden, veel geklaagd en klagen nog. In de gebeden ligt de redding. Laten wij den God der heerscharen ootmoedig en dringend aanroepen, dat hij die geesels van ons afwende. Nemen wij onze toevlucht tot Maria, opdat zij daartoe haar invloed gebruike bij den Heiland, haar hemelschen zoon. Volgen wij het voorbeeld van onzen moedigen koning, van onze moedige koningin, wier vertrouwen onwankelbaar is."
Neen, neen, het is niet, wat ik heb verwacht. Misschien draagt de wijze van voordragen er toe bij: de stem is te hard, te luid en mist overtuigende kracht. Ook de gehoorigheid der groote, hooge kerk laat te wenschen over. De klanken slaan ruw tegen de gewelven aan, botsen op het gehoor der vergadering neder en een hinderend echo herhaalt dof telkens het voorlaatst uitgesproken woord. De miserere, weerklinkt begeleid door orgeltoon. De priesters in volle rouwornaat gaan zingend rondom den catafalk en geurige wierookwalmen stijgen als grijze wolken op.
Voordat de preek aanving heeft de geestelijke van op de kansel verzocht een gebed te storten voor den genaamden Ernest Martier, gesneuveld op het veld van eer den 18 Augustus 1914 te Hauthem-St.Margareta.
Bij het uitgaan der kerk tusschen de talrijke aanwezigen, bemerk ik veel jonge mannen van allen maatschappelijken stand en het woord "martyre" blijft mij in 't geheugen hangen: martelaarschap, levensveilheid voor het vaderland.
Waarom staan ze niet allen op, de weerbaren om den vijand te verdelgen? Kunnen ze, zelf in veiligheid toezien, dat anderen van hun kracht en leeftijd dagelijks neergesabeld worden?
"Och, zwijg, zwijg," spreekt een andere stem in mijn binnenste: "heldenmoed laat zich niet dwingen, hij draagt zijn loon in zich..."
En dan komt het over mij als een geweldig tij van wereldwee: Arme, niet dapperen, geboren om een periode van oorlog te beleven, die u al de schrikkelijkheden voorspiegelt, welke u wachten aan het front, met het zelfberispend, vernederend bewustzijn van lafheid en gebrek aan burgerdeugd, wetend, dat de oneer u wacht; de blaam van hen, die optrokken voor de heilige zaak... gevoelen, dat ge geen recht meer bezit om in 't vervolg het geboorteland uw vaderland te noemen... Het is ijselijk in elk geval man, jong, laks of dapper te zijn in oorlogstijd.

http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1915-02-07.htm#d_1915-02-07entry1

Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=13814&start=50
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 22:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leinster Regiment
1st Battalion in action in St. Eloi, Belgium Flanders 1915


On this page are the names of the 16 other ranks and 2 officers who fell in action between 12 January 1915 and the 12 February 1915 whilst fighting in the trenches at St. Eloi, Belgium.

JOSEPH BLAND - Private 10237 - 1st Bn., Leinster Regiment
Fell on Sunday, 7th February 1915, St Eloi, Belgium Flanders.
Born Maryborough and enlisted in Maryborough.

WILLIAM HALLIGAN - Private 9570 - 1st Bn., Leinster Regiment
Fell on Sunday, 7th February 1915 St Eloi, Belgium Flanders
Age 22. Born in Dublin and enlisted in Dublin. Son of John and Mary Halligan, of 70, St. Paul St., Dublin

MICHAEL HALLISSEY - Private 9269 - 1st Bn, Leinster Regiment
Fell on Sunday, 7th February 1915 St Eloi, Belgium Flanders.
Age 21. Born in Cork and enlisted in Cork. Son of the late John and Nora Hallissey; husband of the late Elizabeth Hallissey

DANIEL LEARY - Private 9377 - 1st Bn., Leinster Regiment
Fell on Sunday, 7th February 1915 St Eloi, Belgium Flanders.
Age 28. Born in Cork and enlisted in Cork. Son of Jeremiah and Mary 0. Leary, of 22, Lower John St., Cork. His brother Christopher also fell during the conflict.

http://www.the-dicksons.org/Leinster_Regiment/gw/1st_battalion_casualties_jan_feb_1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 22:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra

Telegram.

Polotzk. 7 February, 1916.

Thanks for news. I am delighted with the inspection of the Siberian Rifles. The road was very difficult (in very bad condition). Lots of snow. Am therefore two and a half hours late. I embrace you closely.

NICOLAI.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/february16.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 23:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 7 februari 1916

Een Russische lezing van de Armeensche gruwelen

ST. PETERSBURG, 6 Februari. (St. Pet. Tel. Ag.) De te St. Petersburg verschijnende Beurs-courant schrijft over de Armeensche gruwelen het volgende:

Zelf weten of je doorklikt of niet: http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-7-2-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 23:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tweede Elfstedentocht
Op 7 februari 1912 werd de Tweede Elfstedentocht verreden. De Tweede Elfstedentocht was de eerste Elfstedentocht die werd georganiseerd door de Vereniging De Friesche Elf Steden. De Eerste Elfstedentocht was georganiseerd door de Friese IJsbond. Nu er een speciale Elfstedenvereniging was opgericht beloofden zowel de Friesche IJsbond alswel de Bond voor Lichamelijke Opvoeding in Den Haag dat zij geen eigen Elfstedentocht zouden organiseren.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tweede_Elfstedentocht

7 februari 1917 - Nadat de Koning in 1912 al de Elfstedentocht won, lukte het hem dit jaar wederom om de tocht te winnen. De Koning schaatste de tocht in 9.53 uur. Het ijs was deze editie zeer oneffen en slecht. Wel was er lichte vorst. Sjoerd Swierstra, die het jaar ervoor nog als derde eindigde, werd nu tweede.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1917-02-07/Coen+de+Koning+pakte+tweede+zege+Elfstedentocht
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Feb 2010 23:18, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 23:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Bernard James Glynn

Wednesday, February 7, 1917 - Sick in bed with sore gum. Rose 3:30 pm went to Cricklewood & got medicine. Rc'd telegram from Raymond. Arrived safely. May God protect him.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/REMEMBERS/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/glynn/feb1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 23:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting of 7 february 1917

HIS MAJESTY'S MOST GRACIOUS SPEECH.


HC Deb 07 February 1917 vol 90 cc9-11 9

§ Mr. SPEAKER I have to acquaint the House that this House has this day attended His Majesty in the House of Peers, to hear His Majesty's most Gracious Speech to both Houses of Parliament in 10 pursuance of His Majesty's Commands, and of which I have, for greater accuracy, obtained a copy:

§ My Lords, and Gentlemen,

§ For the third time in succession I summon you to your deliberations in the midst of war.

§ Certain overtures, of which you are aware, have been made by the enemy with a view to the opening of peace negotiations. Their tenour, however, indicated no possible basis for peace.

§ My people throughout the Empire and My faithful and heroic Allies remain steadfastly and unanimously resolved to secure the just demands for reparation and restitution in respect of the past and the guarantees for the future which we regard as essential to the progress of civilisation. In response to an invitation from the President of the United States of America, we have outlined, so far as can be done at present, the general objects necessarily implied by these aims. The threats of further outrages upon public law and the common rights of humanity will but serve to steel our determination.

§ During the winter months My Navy has maintained unchallenged its ceaseless watch on the Seas and has enforced with rigour the blockade of the enemy. My Armies have conducted successful operations not only in Europe but in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and East Africa, and they are fully prepared to renew the great struggle, in close and cordial co-operation with my Allies, on every field. I trust that their united efforts will carry the successes already won to a victorious conclusion.

§ I have invited representatives of My Dominions and of My Indian Empire, which have borne so glorious a share in the struggle, to confer with My Ministers on important questions of common interest relating to the war. The step so taken will, I trust, conduce to the establishment of closer relations between all parts of My Empire.

§ Gentlemen of the House of Commons,

§ You will be asked to make the necessary provision for the effective prosecution of the war.

§ My Lords, and Gentlemen,

§ The accomplishment of the task to which I have set My hand will entail unsparing demands on the energies and resources of all My subjects. I am assured, however, that My people will respond to every call necessary for the success of our cause with the same indomitable ardour and devotion that have filled Me with pride and gratitude since the war began.

§ I therefore confidently commend to your patriotism the measures which will be laid before you, and I pray that Almighty God may give His blessing to your counsels.


http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/feb/07/his-majestys-most-gracious-speech

Hierna volgt een DEBATE ON THE ADDRESS: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/feb/07/debate-on-the-address
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2010 23:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hollands Glorie in Oorlogstijd, 1914-1918
uit Scheepsjournalen van L. Smit & Co’s Sleepdienst
door Drs. Kees de Haas

De afkondiging door Duitsland van de onbeperkte duikbootoorlog per 1 februari van het
jaar 1917 betekende voor L. Smit & Co’s Sleepdienst dat het zeesleepbedrijf, dat tot dan
toe nog zo goed en zo kwaad als het ging in stand werd gehouden, drastisch en volledig
werd stilgelegd. Tevens werd het verslepen van lichters praktisch gestaakt, er werden er
in 1917 slechts twintig overgebracht, zodat ook het handelsverkeer met buitenlandse
havens tot stilstand kwam. Ook de begeleiding van koopvaardijschepen over de Noordzee
kwam onder druk te staan.
Het jaar 1917 was overigens voor Smit nog met een bijzondere opdracht begonnen.
Woensdagavond 7 februari arriveerden de zeesleepboten "Zwarte Zee" en "Witte Zee"
voor de haven van Sornoway op de Hebriden, noord-west Schotland, voor het ophalen
van het s.s. "Westerdijk" van de Rotterdamse rederij N.V. Solleveld, Van der Meer en
T.H. van Hattum’s Stoomvaart Maatschappij.
Dit schip was eind november 1916 uit Buenos Aires naar Nederland vertrokken met een
lading van 2331 balen en 4700 ton gestorte tarwe, bestemd voor de Nederlandse regering.
De reisduur, van onder normale omstandigheden hooguit enkele weken, was door
verschillende oorzaken waaronder slecht weer, aanzienlijk uitgelopen ten koste van de
voorraad bunkerkolen, nodig voor de scheepsmachine. Uiteindelijk bleek het laatste deel
van de thuisreis, om veiligheidsredenen ten noorden van Schotland langs, niet meer
haalbaar en het schip moest zaterdag 15 december 1916 met lege bunkers de haven van
Stornoway aanlopen. Toen begonnen voor kapitein en bemanning de problemen pas echt.
Hoe konden ze - voor een schip onder neutrale vlag - aan de benodigde bunkerkolen
komen in een land dat volop in oorlog was, met schaarste op allerlei gebied en met de
hoogste prioriteit voor alles wat met de oorlogvoering te maken had? Telegrammen naar
instanties in Londen, naar de Nederlandse consul-generaal en naar de agent van de rederij
in de Britse hoofdstad haalden niets uit. Niet alleen werden de gevraagde kolen
geweigerd, ook werd niet toegestaan dat de bemanning van de "Westerdijk" aan land
ging. Alleen de kapitein kreeg daar voor toestemming, van 's morgens tien uur tot 's
middags één uur.
In feite was het schip op dat moment slachtoffer van chantage van Engelse kant. De
Britten bleken immers best bereid het Nederlandse schip van kolen te voorzien mits de
rederij zich zou verbinden 30 % van haar totale laadruimte op haar schepen af te staan
aan de Engelse regering dan wel genegen zou zijn elk van haar schepen een reis voor
Engelse rekening te laten maken.
Beide voorwaarden waren uiteraard voor de rederij onaanvaardbaar. Tot dusver was zij
met dit probleem van het krijgen van kolen in feite nog niet geconfronteerd, omdat haar
schepen altijd in andere - niet Britse - havens konden bunkeren. Door tussenkomst van de
Nederlandse regering kwam er na een week of zes toch weer wat schot in deze zaak en
kreeg L. Smit & Co’s Sleepdienst de opdracht de "Westerdijk" naar Rotterdam te
brengen.
Bij aankomst voor Stornoway mochten de "Zwarte Zee" en de "Witte Zee" niet de haven
binnenvaren, maar moesten buitengaats wachten op nadere berichten. Zondag 11 februari
liet Londen telegrafisch weten dat men met de "Westerdijk" mocht vertrekken. Ook
Berlijn had inmiddels - na tussenkomst van Den Haag - verzekerd dat de Duitse marine
maatregelen zou treffen om het transport ongemoeid te laten. Rotterdam werd veilig
bereikt. Zaterdag 17 februari werd begonnen met het lossen van het graan dat er - volgens
de bemanning - nog gezond uit zag, ook al had het al meer dan drie maanden in de
ruimen gelegen.

http://www.shipmotions.nl/RDM/RDM/034-Hollands%20Glorie%20in%20Oorlogstijd.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 14:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bioscoop Schinkel, Purmerend, NL



Bioscoop Schinkel, Purmerend, Nederland (architect J.J.P. Oud, 1912), c. 1914.
Foto afkomstig uit Bouwkundig Weekblad, 34e jaargang, nummer 6 (7 februari 1914), p. 65.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Bioscoop_Schinkel_Purmerend_NL.jpg
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February 7, 1914: First appearance of “Little Tramp”



On this day in 1914, the silent film Kid Auto Races at Venice premieres in theaters, featuring the actor Charlie Chaplin in his first screen appearance as the “Little Tramp,” the character that would become his best-known onscreen alter ego.

Born on April 16, 1889, in England, Chaplin became a professional performer by the age of 10. In 1908, he joined the Fred Karno pantomime troupe, earning special notice for his portrayal of a character known as “The Drunk.” The troupe was touring the United States in 1913 when Chaplin was signed by Mack Sennett, whose Keystone Studios was becoming known for its short slapstick comedy films. In his first Keystone comedy, Making a Living, Chaplin played a swindler, complete with a sinister mustache and a monocle. The performance wasn’t as funny as expected, but Sennett gave his newest comic another chance, casting him in Kid Auto Races at Venice.

In preparation for filming, Chaplin reportedly combed through the Keystone costume closets to create the now-famous look of the Little Tramp. “Pants baggy, coat tight…hat small, shoes large,” as he later described it in his autobiography. To disguise the character’s age, he added a brush-like mustache over his lip. “I had no idea of the character,” he wrote, “but the clothes and the makeup made me feel the person he was.” In Kid Auto Races at Venice, the Little Tramp goes to a children’s cart race held in Venice, California, where he interferes with the race and gets in the way of the cameraman trying to take pictures of the contestants. Chaplin later refined the character, which to many became inseparable from the actor and filmmaker himself. Kid Auto Races at Venice captures the Tramp’s essence as a part-comic, part-tragic figure with a shuffling walk, expressive face and exaggeratedly polite manners. Upon its release, the film was an immediate hit and the Tramp was a sensation, making Chaplin the most famous actor in Hollywood.

After 35 Keystone comedies, Chaplin moved on to ever-more lucrative contracts with Essanay Studios, Mutual and First National before founding the United Artists studio in 1919 with his fellow actors Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford and the director D.W. Griffith. Chaplin would not always technically play a tramp, but his characters invariably had a bit of the Tramp in them, whether working as a waiter (1916’s The Rink), a janitor (1918’s Triple Trouble) or a gold prospector (1925’s The Gold Rush, considered by many to be Chaplin’s masterpiece). The Tramp himself made memorable appearances in a number of acclaimed hits, including The Tramp (1915), The Kid (1921), The Circus (1928) and City Lights (1931).

After the movies converted to sound in the late 1920s, Chaplin held out for a while but finally gave his Tramp a voice in Modern Times (1936); he covered his British accent by singing nonsensical fake Italian lyrics. Though Chaplin would make other films, including The Great Dictator (1940), Monsieur Verdoux (1947) and Limelight (1952), Modern Times marked the last appearance of his immortal alter ego.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-appearance-of-little-tramp
Effe kijken... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwxO0IeYdY8&feature=fvst
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Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 7 Februari 1914.

Borkel en Schaft. Maandag avond vergaderden de leden van boterfabriek en boerenbond in het lokaal van den heer Janssens Jonkers.
Nadat door den EdelAchtb. Heer Burgemeester tevens voorzitter der beide vereenigingen de vergadering van de boterfabriek was geopend en den leden een jaar van voorspoed en zegen had toegewenscht, werd verslag van de boterfabriek kenbaar gemaakt hetwelk ons aantoonde hoe de nieuwe methode van bewerking, namelijk zuivere melk te leveren op eene wijze zooals bij de groote stoomzuivelfabrieken wordt voorgeschreven, ons een enorm voordeel opleverde.
Nadat de vergadering van den boerenbond met den gewonen Christelijken groet was geopend, werd eveneens het verslag kenbaar gemaakt waarbij de vele waggonladingen die door deze cooperatie werden aangekocht, ons aantoonden dat alhier groote behoefte bestaat voor een losplaats of halte aan ’t spoor. Ook werd behandeld oprichting van een pakhuis en stierenfokvereeniging zoodat zooals men ziet onze gemeente met haar tijd meegaat, hetwelk den boerenstand ten zeerste ten goede zal komen. Nadat door de leden de jaarlijksche contributie was betaald werd de vergadering door den voorzitter met den gebruikelijken Christelijken groet gesloten.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1914.htm
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Olympic



In 1908 the White Star Line officially placed an order with Harland and Wolf to construct two new liners, larger than any liners yet existence. These two ships were to be built side by side on massive newly built slipways, measuring 840ft by 270ft wide and up to 228ft high. These two ‘sister ships’ were to be called Olympic and Titanic, later to be joined by a third sister, Britannic. (...)

On 7th February 1914, while passengers were having luncheon in the dining room, a huge wave suddenly swamped the room causing some windows to break, and passengers to get drenched , 12 passengers also had to be treated by the ships surgeon as a result of flying glass.

Following the outbreak of the First World War, Olympic initially continued to be used for passenger service, although it was planned that Olympic would be laid up. But instead of sailing to and from Southampton, Liverpool was used instead.

While returning from New York on what was planned as Olympic’s last voyage before being laid up, on 27th October 1914 Olympic come to the rescue of HMS Audacious, a British battleship that had struck a mine. Olympic rescued the crew and unsuccessfully attempted to tow the ship to safety before she sank. Upon her return Olympic was sent to Belfast where she was laid up.

In September 1915, Olympic was requisitioned for use as a troopship, Olympic was quickly made ready war service and was painted in dazzle paint, to make it harder for the enemy to target her. Due to the fact that Olympic’s Captain, Captain Haddock was unable to be released from his war time duties, Captain Bertram Hayes was given command of the ship.


Olympic in dazzle paint.

Lees verder op http://www.wslhistory.webs.com/olympic.htm
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Ramón Mercader from Barcelona killed Trotsky with an ice axe in Mexico City.



On 20th August 1940, the exiled Leon Trotsky was fatally wounded at his home in a suburb of Mexico City when an ice axe was driven into his skull. He cried out to his guards as they burst into his study, ‘Don’t kill him! He must talk.’

Despite struggling fiercely, and even managing to bite the hand of his assassin, Trotsky died the next day, and the man who wielded the murder weapon was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

He insisted throughout his trial and his years in prison that he was Jacques Mornard, a Belgian journalist and a disillusioned Trotskyite, who was born in Tehran when his father served there as a diplomat. He said he had reached the United States and then Mexico on a Canadian passport in the name of Franc Jacson which he had bought on the black market in Paris. He always claimed that he acted alone and that the idea to kill Trotsky was his and no-one else’s.

He never changed his story, but in 1950 Alfonso Quiroz Cuarón, the criminologist who studied the assassin in prison, travelled to Barcelona to try and find proof of his suspicion that Mornard was not who he said he was, but was in reality a Catalan communist. He showed some photographs to Carlos Polo Borreguero, a former police commissioner who named him as Ramón Mercader, a man he had arrested in 1935. Police fingerprint records confirmed his identity as Jaime Ramón Mercader del Río.

Mercader was born in Barcelona on 7th February 1914. His mother was Caridad del Río Hernández, a woman born in Cuba whose family had returned to Spain when Spain lost her colony. She married Pau Mercader in Barcelona at the age of 19, but left Cataluńa for France when the marriage began to go wrong, taking her children with her. She was introduced to communism by her French lover and is believed to have been key in recruiting her son as an agent for the Soviet NKVD.

http://www.typicallyspanish.com/news/publish/article_19423.shtml
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DE AFSTAMMING VAN HET 4E REGIMENT DRAGONDERS/HUZAREN

In januari 1914 bleek de directeur van het KAGS, luitenant-generaal F. de Bas, een andere
mening toegedaan: het 4e Huzaren ging z.i. terug op het regiment Huzaren van Boreel. Dit
nieuws bereikte Van Overveldt via de hiërarchieke lijn: de commandant Veldleger vroeg om
bescheid. Van Overveldt antwoordde met een beroep op eerder onderzoek, dat het
regiment Lanciers nr. 10 als stamregiment had aangemerkt. Het 4e Huzaren had dan ook
in 1896 het 77-jarig en in 1899 het 80-jarig bestaan gevierd, terwijl de 100-jarige
herdenking voor 1919 gepland stond. De toevoeging in 1867 van een eskadron met een
stamlijn uit de Huzaren van Boreel was voor hem geen reden zijn visie te herzien:
evengoed kon men teruggrijpen op de toevoeging van 1849 of zelfs een van 1819 12.

Op 7 februari 1914 berichtte Van Overveldt aan de commandant Veldleger dat zijn 1e
luitenant Beelaerts van Blokland inmiddels onderzoek had ingesteld in Den Haag, met als
bevinding dat de toevoegingen van 1849 en 1867 in feite beide op de Huzaren van Boreel
waren te herleiden. Van Overveldt schaarde zich nu geheel aan de zijde van De Bas en
meende dat nu ook de opschriften Quatre-Bras en Waterloo op de standaard van zijn
regiment hoorden te prijken. Hij was van plan een daartoe strekkend rekest aan de
Koningin in te dienen. Wel was een dergelijk verzoek van het 8e regiment Infanterie
onlangs afgewezen, maar Van Overveldt vleide zich met de gedachte dat volgens De Bas
zijn regiment "veel meer rechten kan doen gelden" dan het 8e Infanterie. Bij het opstellen
van het rekest is De Bas behulpzaam geweest, en op 3 april 1914 ging het in zee 13.

12 Inv.nr. 162, nota nr. 8 Geh. dd. 5.1.1914 van commandant Veldleger aan kdt. 4e Huzaren "zeer veel
spoed", beantwoord kdt. 4e Huzaren Litt. F Geh. z.d.
13 Inv.nr. 162, brief van kdt. 4e Huzaren Litt. S1 dd. 7. 2.1914 aan kdt. Veldleger; KAGS nr. 74 dd.
11/13.3.1914 aan kdt. 4e Huzaren geagendeerd Sectie II no. 737, waarop minuut dd. 3.4.1914 aan kdt. IIe
divisie ten geleide bij het rekest aan de Koningin. De minuut van het rekest en de daarbij behorende
memorie bevinden zich daarbij. Van Overveldt beriep zich daarin op het onderzoek van Beelaerts en de
steun van De Bas voor de stelling, dat het stamregiment van het 4e Huzaren het 6e regiment Huzaren
[voorheen Huzaren van Boreel] was geweest, dat te Quatre-Bras en Waterloo had gestreden. Daaraan
verbond de kolonel het verzoek om alsnog de namen van deze slagvelden in de standaard van zijn
regiment te mogen voeren.


http://www.nationaalarchief.nl/toegangen/pdf/NL-HaNA_2.13.55.ead.pdf
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Second battle of the Masurian Lakes, 7-21 February 1915

The second battle of the Masurian Lakes, 7-21 February 1915 (also know as the Winter Battle in Masuria) was part of an over-ambitious German and Austrian plan designed to cut off the Russian armies in Poland. This involved an Austro-Hungarian attack in Galicia, towards Lemberg, and a German attack from East Prussia. It was hoped that the two pincers could meet east of Warsaw. Hindenburg and Ludendorff, the German commanders in the east, were not convinced by the grand plan, but did think they could destroy the Russian Tenth Army.

Despite the stunning German victories at Tannenburg and first Masurian Lakes in 1914, the Russian Tenth Army (General Sievers), was still on German soil, occupying a line just to the east of the Masurian Lakes. Four Russian corps held the line (from north to south they were III, XX, XXVI and III Siberian corps).

The Germans allocated two armies to the offensive. To the north was a new Tenth Army (General Hermann von Eichhorn), of three corps, while in the south and centre of the line was the experienced Eighth Army (General Otto von Below). The German plan was for the Tenth Army to swing around the Russian lines to the north, the Eighth to the south, and for the Russians to be trapped west of the Niemen River.

The right wing of the Eighth Army attacked first, on 7 February, towards Lyck. By February 10 the Russians had been forced back most of the way towards that town, but it would take the Germans another four days to capture the town.

The German Tenth Army attack began on 8 February. By 10 February it had advanced twenty five miles and by 12 February close to fifty. It had achieved most of its objectives. Having started off faced to the east, it was now facing south, with three of the four Russian corps to its south. The Russian III corps had managed to escape to the east, towards the fortresses of Kovno and Olita on the Niemen River.

That left three Russian corps in danger of being trapped. Their resistance at Lyck allowed the III Siberian corps to escape to the south east. By the night of 15 February, XXVI corps was also safe, having slipped away towards Grodno. All three Russian corps had suffered heavy casualties, and were in a state of disarray, but had escaped the trap.

XX corps was not so lucky. It had fought a determined rearguard action in the Forest of Augustow, but on 14 February the German XXI corps had been sent on a dangerous march to the east of the forest. By 18 February, despite attacks from both sides of its line of march, XXI corps had closed the last gap on the eastern side of the forest. The Russian XX corps was trapped. On 21 September the 30,000 survivors of XX corps surrendered to the Germans.

The Russians lost 200,000 men during the battle, 100,000 of them prisoners. German losses were comparatively light, but two weeks of fighting in the freezing cold and snow of East Prussia and Russia had exhausted them. The surrender of XX corps marked the end of the battle.

The battle had been a great tactical victory, but even Hindenburg admitted that it had been a strategic failure. Three of the four Russian corps had escaped, although only after suffering massive casualties, and the Russian line had been restored. The wider plan had also failed. The Austro-Hungarian attack in Galicia ended in failure, and with the loss of the great fortress of Przemysl.

Rickard, J (28 August 2007), Second battle of the Masurian Lakes, 7-21 February 1915 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_masurianII.html

Eastern Front - Operations in 1915: Winter Battle of Masuria (Feb. 7-21, 1915)

The plan of the Central Powers for 1915 was to drive Russia from the war. It envisioned an offensive from East Prussia by the Germans and a simultaneous advance by the Austrians in the Carpathians. The Germans secretly concentrated their Tenth Army on the Neman River, attacked, and overwhelmed the Russians. The 3d, 26th, and 3d Siberian corps escaped, but the 20th Corps was encircled in the Forest of Augustow, and more than 100,000 prisoners were taken. This was a great tactical victory for the Germans, but the Austrian attack in the south failed, so that the over-all strategic gains were nil.

In January 1915, Hindenburg and Ludendorff persuaded Emperor William II that an effort should be made to knock Russia out of the war. An Austrian offensive on the edge of the Carpathians in February failed, but the German Tenth Army, driving southward from the Neman River, forced a Russian corps to surrender in the Forest of Augustow. Although three other corps escaped, the Russian casualties totaled 200,000 (of these, half were prisoners). The winter Battle of Masuria thus resulted in a major victory for the Germans, but their over-all plan to eliminate Russia from the war did not succeed.

http://www.ww1-world-war-one.info/ww1-information-History-Eastern-Front-Masuria-Gorlice-Tarnow.htm
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Feb 2011 15:52, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Henry "Harry" Berry, 1883-1915, Queen's South Africa Medal.
By Chris Brind

Corporal Henry Berry of the Gloucestershire Regiment was entitled to the Queen’s South Africa Medal with two clasps for Cape Colony and Orange Free State. He is believed to have returned to England before the end of 1901 for he was not entitled to the King’s South Africa Medal, and the Boer War Medal Roll shows him as being with the Depot when the medals were issued in October 1902. Henry Berry was not posted overseas during the Great War until 2nd February 1915, to rejoin 1st Gloucesters. Fierce fighting continued during this First Battle of Ypres in France until 15th November and only one hundred or so men of 1st Battalion out of its starting strength of around a thousand were able to march back to Ypres. Once having rested and recuperated until 20th December 1914, 1st Battalion took part in the recapture of Festubert, again suffering heavy casualties.

On 7th February 1915, while the 1st Gloucesters were reorganizing and refitting at Marles les Mines near Bethune, the Battalion War Diary recorded the arrival of a new draft, over 200 strong and which almost certainly included Henry Berry, aged 32. In the Battle for Aubers Ridge on 9th May 1915 the Gloucesters, along with the South Wales Borderers, went over the top but were soon decimated by machine gun fire; between them the two regiments lost 495 men. It was in this battle that Henry Berry was killed. He was entitled to the 1914/15 Star, the British War Medal and the Allied Victory Medal.

http://www.gloucesterrugbyheritage.org.uk/page_id__512_path__0p3p60p.aspx
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The Emperor Nicholas II- As I Knew Him - Diary in Russia 1915

7th February 1915. G.H.Q.

Lunched with the Emperor, who had arrived at our Headquarters, and he was anxious to hear all about the arrival of our troops in France, very pleased about Admiral Beatty's success, he having been in Russia in the summer before the war, and made a great impression on the Emperor.

He also wanted to know all about my last trip to the front, and about Stanley Washburn, The Times correspondent, of whom I could, of course, give a good account as most friendly to the Russians.

He referred to Garibaldi's saying that if ever there was really a great war the first six months would decide the issue and the next finish the war. But he feared Garibaldi was a wrong prophet in this case.

He is inclined to believe the intelligence reports which say that the Germans have decided to send all their submarines (110 in number? - if they have got such a large number, which he doubts) into British territorial waters to sink all the ships they can. A big attack by zeppelins on our fleet is also projected.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1915.html
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TELLS OF GREAT PLAIN BLACK WITH REFUGEES - Agonies of Armenians Described by Dr. Richard Hill In Letter From Caucasus

FEBRUARY 7, 1916

A letter written by Dr. Richard Hill a member of the American commission that went into
the Caucasus to investigate conditions among the Armenian refugees who fled into
Russia to escape the Turks, has been received by Dr. Samuel T. Dutton of the Americans
Committee, under whose auspices the commission is working. Dr. Hill writes
:

"I dined with a gentleman who had come up out of Persia about the time the last great
exodus took place. He relates that he saw the great Erivan Plain black with a slow
moving mass of humanity that seemed to fill and overflow the horizon. They must have
numbered close to 230,000 and they were aimlessly, listlessly wandering in the torrid
heat.

"Children, were dying by the hundreds, sometimes the frenzied mothers would in their
helpless mad grief, fling their children from them over the roadside into the fields, so
their emaciated and starved babies. Old women and men were dropping out by the
roadside, too far gone to go another step. Epidemics had already appeared and were
claiming their victims by the hundreds. From that throng he said there went up such an
unutterable wall of woe and misery that he was compelled to close the window in his
railway compartment to try to shut out the sound of that concentration of agony and pain.

"They had been on the march constantly for weeks. Children had lost their parents,
parents their children. Out of hundreds of stories that are daily coming to band it is bard
to make a choice, for all alike are most touching. We hear, for instance, of Cossack
transports picking up scores of little children left by the roadside to die and of their
bringing these in on their wagons, sharing their frugal meals with them; of women found
dead by the roadside and a baby trying to waken the mother by pulling at her face and
demanding food. Of new-born babies left just as they were born, carelessly flung aside
the mother often dying shortly afterwards, or of a Russian officer out at the front sitting
crouched over a little fire that he had made out of a few sticks, and of a little girl stiff
with he cold and hungry, slipping into the circle of heat of the fire and without apology
snuggling up to him and going fast asleep in a moment in the kindly warmth of the fire
and of that officer sitting cramped for hours in order to let the little wolf sleep in the folds
of his big army coat.

"I have looked into the faces of hunted, haunted children prematurely old though the
children prematurely old through the months of horrors that they have gone though; into
the eyes of young women and girls, alas, too apparent the condition they are in. Hateful
outrage and nightmare being them more and worse facing them, after a month or two."

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14021521/191627-Tells-of-great-plain-black-with-refugees
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Airco D.H.2

The Airco D.H.2 was the first purpose built fighter aircraft to enter British service, and played a major part in the defeat of the Fokker monoplanes and the end of the Fokker scourge. The D.H.2 was the second production aircraft designed by Geoffrey de Havilland for the Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Airco), and was a cut down version of his two-seater D.H.1, itself designed as reconnaissance fighter. De Havilland had been working on a design for a single seat tractor biplane, but a lack of any synchronisation gear meant that the War Ministry insisted on pushers.

The D.H.2 was a two bay biplane with unstaggered wings. The upper and lower wings were interchangeable. The engine, fuel tanks and pilot were carried in a nacelle attached to the lower wing. This nacelle was constructed from the standard wooden frame with fabric covering. The two tail booms were constructed from tubular steel. The aircraft was powered by a single Gnome Monosoupape nine cylinder air cooled rotary engine.

To modern eyes the D.H.2 looks incredibly fragile, with a framework of metal tubes where one would expect the rear fuselage. Only when seen from above does this design make sense – the metal tubes formed two sides of a triangle, with enough space for the 8ft 2.5in diameter propeller at the aircraft end and the tail attached to the tip.

The development of the D.H.2 overlapped with the appearance of the Fokker E.I monoplane. Work began on the British aircraft in March 1915, and it made its maiden flight on 1 June 1915, exactly one month before the first reported victory for the E.I, over a Morane-Saulnier Type L on 1 July 1915.

That first flight, with Geoffrey de Havilland at the controls, revealed that the aircraft was tail heavy and needed a larger fin and rudder. To fix these problems lead weights were installed in the nose, the nacelle was moved forward and the rudder was modified. These changes significantly improved the aircraft's handling, so much so that less that two months after its maiden flight the prototype was sent to France for operation tests (see below).

Early production aircraft were very similar to the prototype. The most obvious change was the use of a central mounting for the Lewis gun, which gave the gun a wide range of movement, and which required a modified nose.

France

The D.H.2 made a brief debut in France in the summer of 1915 when the prototype was sent to No.5 Squadron for operational evaluation. The aircraft was dispatched on 26 July, was recorded on the squadron's strength on 31 July, and was lost over the German lines on 9 August. The Germans later dropped a message on the British side of the lines to announce that the pilot, Captain R. Maxwell-Pike, had died of his wounds after a crash landing.

Despite this short-lived debut the D.H.2 was put into full scale production, and a limited number of aircraft began to appear in France before the end of 1915. Eventually 401 D.H.2s were accepted by the R.F.C.

During this early period the D.H.2 began to gain a reputation as a dangerous aircraft. It had a limited speed range (between the stall speed and its maximum speed), and a tendency to spin in inexperienced hands. Some early aircraft were built with re-bored Monosoupape rotary engines, which were prone to shedding their cylinders. The engine's location between the tail struts meant that this was very likely to result in damage to the tail and lead to a number of fatalities in training.

The D.H.2 became fully operational when Major Lanoe G. Hawker led No.24 Squadron from Hounslow to St. Omer on 7 February 1916. The squadron would eventually claim 44 enemy aircraft destroyed in 774 combats.

The moveable gun proved to be ineffective in combat – its location made it difficult to fire upwards and it was difficult for a pilot to fly the aircraft with one hand and aim his gun with the other. Hawker attempted to fix his gun in place, turning it into a standard fixed forward firing gun, but this met with official disapproval. Eventually Hawker came up with a compromise that allowed him to pin the gun roughly in place but release it if required. Eventually the vast majority of D.H.2s were equipped with similar mechanisms, often despite official disapproval.

The arrival of the D.H.2 effectively ended the 'Fokker Scourge' – the period of German dominance that had followed the introduction of the Fokker E.I and its successor the E.III. The D.H.2 was slightly faster than the Fokkers, but its key advantage was its more modern controls.

No.24 Squadron was soon joined by Nos.29 and 32. Together these three squadrons helped to give the Allies a measure of control of the air during the battle of the Somme. It was during this period that Major L.W.B. Rees won a V.C. after singlehandedly attacking ten German two-seaters, destroying two despite being wounded himself.

The D.H.2 was indirectly responsible for the death of Oswald Boelcke, the leading German ace of the first half of the war. On 28 October Boelcke was killed after colliding with another German aircraft whilst diving to attack a pair of D.H.2s.

The accelerating pace of change in the skies over the Western Front meant that the D.H.2 had a short lifespan as a front line fighter. In September 1916 the Germans began to receive the much superior Albatros fighters. These aircraft could out-climb the D.H.2 and had a higher service ceiling, although the D.H.2 remained the more manoeuvrable aircraft.

The new German superiority was graphically illustrated on 23 November 1916 when Lanoe Hawker, flying his D.H.2, was killed by the then unknown Manfred von Richtofen in an Albatros D.II after one of the longest dog fights of the war.

The D.H.2 began to be replaced as a front line fighter by the Sopwith Pup, Nieuport 17 and Spad VII. No.29 Squadron received the Nieuport 17 in March 1917, while No.24 Squadron converted to the D.H.5 in April. No.32 Squadron retained its D.H.2s a little longer, using them as ground attack aircraft during the fighting around Arras in the spring of 1917, but in June 1917 it to converted to the D.H.5.

Home

The D.H.2 played a limited role in Home Defence. Small groups of one or two aircraft were allocated to various units from time to time, but the types only major contribution came on the night of 16/17 June 1917 when a D.H.2 flown by Captain R.H.M.S. Saundby, conducting tests at Orfordness, was one of three aircraft that took part in a successful attack on Zeppelin L48, shooting it down over the Suffolk coast. All three aircraft claimed to have fired on the Zeppelin and credit was eventually given to the pilot of a B.E.12 that was the only one of the three that was officially on Home Defence duty at the time.

Near and Middle East

A small number of D.H.2s were sent to Macedonia and the Near East during 1917, but they were only slightly less obsolete on those fronts than they have become in France. No. 47 Squadron R.F.C. received its first D.H.2s in February 1917, and operated them alongside a number of other outdated aircraft until the end of the year, but without much success.

No.14 Squadron, fighting over the Sinai, received its first four D.H.2s in April 1917, but once again they were unable to cope with the more modern aircraft they were facing, and spent most of their time on escort or patrol duties. The same was true for No.111 Squadron, which arrived in the area in August.

All surviving D.H.2s had been struck off RAF charge by the autumn of 1918.

Engine: Gnone Monosoupape
Power: 100 hp
Crew: 1
Wing span: 28ft 3in
Length: 25ft 2.5in
Height: 9ft 6.5in
Tare Weight: 943lb
All-up Weight: 1,441lb
Max Speed: 93mph
Service Ceiling: 14,000ft
Endurance: 2hr 45min
Armament: One forward firing Lewis gun on flexible mounting

Rickard, J (31 March 2009), Airco D.H.2 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_airco_DH2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Lieutenant George Brownlie Browne



Second Lieutenant George Brownlie Browne, Black Watch (Royal Highlanders), was the second son of Sir George Washington Browne and Jessie Brownlie Browne, his first wife. He was educated at Viewpark Preparatory School, and Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh, where he was a member of the Cadet Corps, and broke the school record in the cross-country race. After leaving school, he went to Ceylon for tea and rubber planting, and later to Southern India, returning to Scotland in 1915. Gazetted Second Lieutenant, 10th Black Watch, on 7 May, 1915, he went to France in December, 1915, attached to the 9th Battalion, and was killed in action on 7 February, 1916, age 23, in the trenches near Loos. His Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel John Stewart, wrote,

Your boy was absolutely devoid of fear. He took part in a most successful bombing attack on 25 January, and in my report on the matter I specially men­tioned your son's name, and I think that he would in all probability have been mentioned in Despatches for his gallant conduct on that occasion

http://www.edinburghs-war.ed.ac.uk/people/browne_george.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Memorial Silver Bugles of The Regiment



In the Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert's), which became allied with the Regiment in 1910, silver bugles, whose music means so much to a light infantry regiment, commemorate commanding officers, having been presented by them on their retirement.

The first Regimental silver bugle was presented to The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry by the Officers of the 1st Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry in 1929 in honour of the formation of the alliance of the two regiments.

Following the presentation of the first silver bugle The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry adapted the regimental custom of the Somersets by deciding to obtain silver bugles for the Regiment "in memory of former commanding officers and also in memory of officers of distinguished service, of those who died in the Great War, and of those of any rank who had made contributions toward the cause of country".

The silver bugles were presented on parade on the night of November 8, 1930, with two additional bugles being presented by the Somersets during the Second World War, one in 1941 and the other at the conclusion of the War.

The beautiful silver bugles treasured by the Regiment are kept in a special case in the Memorial Room of the Officers' Mess and are carried by the Bugle Band on inspections and special occasions only. When they are taken out by the Bugle Sergeants, or returned, the Mess stands to attention.

The bugles of a light infantry regiment are noted for the forcefulness of their sound and the particular timbre of the Memorial Silver Bugles is most noticeable. (...)

The inscriptions as found on the Memorial Silver Bugles:

Presented by The McLaren Family In Memory of their Father Lieut. Col. Henry McLaren Commanding Officer 1897-1902 And in Memory of their Brother Capt. Fredrick Gates McLaren 13th Royal Regt and 4th Battn C.E.F. Died on Active Service 7th February 1916

http://www.rhli.ca/historical/silver_bugles.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zeppelin Raids

Watch Committee resolution - Extract from Watch Committee minutes, 7th February 1916



“Resolved:-

That this Committee are astounded to hear that the Mayor of the Borough was not advised by the Chief Constable either on Monday or Wednesday last of the visit or anticipated visit of hostile aircraft and that the Chief Constable be instructed to explain why this was not done and to give to the Mayor an immediate intimation in future cases.”


http://www.wolverhamptonhistory.org.uk/people/at_war/ww1/home_front3/committee
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Flight Lieutenant CR Blagrove,Royal Naval Air Service,KIA 7th February 1917



Flight Lieutenant Cecil Richard Blagrove and his observer,Air Mechanic J Milne, were killed in air combat over German-occupied Beligium.

He is buried in Ghent City Cemetery.

http://imtheboy.wordpress.com/2009/07/18/flight-lieutenant-cr-blagroveroyal-naval-air-servicekia-7th-february-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter to Anne Sullivan Macy from Miss Keller (February 7, 1917)

Montgomery, February 7, 1917.

Dearest Teacher:

We have just had the most terrible excitement; but, thank God, every one is safe and well. So don't be worried by the news in this letter.

A fire broke out in my room Monday night. Fortunately I wasn't asleep. At first I noticed a strange odor; but it was exactly like the odor of steam in the kitchen-pipe; so I paid no attention to it. Then came a light odor like smoke from out-of-doors. I had noticed it so frequently in our house and elsewhere, it didn't disturb me. But suddenly I smelt tar and burning wood. I sprang up, threw a window open and rushed to mother's room. She found a flame six feet high in my room and called Warren. Mildred telephoned to the fire-department, and in an incredibly short time they arrived. I felt the men hacking away at the floor, we had gone down into Mildred's bedroom. A moment later we were all ordered out of the house. They said they couldn't tell where the fire would spread. So out we went bundled up in blankets and quilts, and went down the street to grandma Tyson's. It was after one; we sat by the fire awhile and tried to calm down a little. Just as we were getting in bed, we got word that the fire was caused by a defective flue. It had started right under my bed! The firemen said that they had come just in time. Five or ten minutes more, and the house would have been demolished.

None of us got to sleep until four o'clock. We came home after breakfast. The firemen had made a great hole under my bed, and the chemicals which they used got on some of Mildred's furniture in the sitting-room. In the parlor the smoke had been so dense that the wallpaper was black. But otherwise the house isn't badly damaged. We've lost nothing, the house is insured. But I suppose we shall be living with carpenters, painters and plumbers for a week or so. We're having trouble with the pipes too. It has been, so cold--from nine to twenty above--that we've kept the water turned off; but two of the pipes burst last week.

I think Mildred had the only cool head in the family. She didn't try to put out the fire, she looked after the children and saw to it that we were all wrapped up. The fright affected mother more than any of us. She doesn't seem to be herself at all.

It distresses me to think that my lack of sight might have proved fatal to my loved ones. It seems as if I could never sleep quietly here again without putting my face down close to the floor and hunting all over for an odor or a hidden spark.

When are you coming back to America, Teacher? I hate to have you so far away while we're on the verge of war, and those dread submarines are scouring the ocean for whatever they can destroy.

The other night, when I returned from a call on Annie Keller, I found a telegram from the Enterprise Association asking for a short statement of my opinion of the plan to urge Congress to appropriate a hundred million dollars for the relief of non-combatants in all occupied territory. It was too late to reply, and I am not especially interested in that sort of philanthropy. So I didn't bother about it. I suppose that would be a good thing for our government to do. We have criminally made millions upon millions out of the War, and ought to give back all we can.

I'll write later when there is more cheerful news. I don't want to tax your dear eyes. I enclose a sort of journal letter from Mrs. Thaw. How dear, brave and patient she is!

With love to Polly, and with the hope that she is keeping watch over your welfare like a Sherlock Holmes, I am,

Your affectionate (sic)

Helen.

American Foundation for the Blind, http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=1&TopicID=193&SubTopicID=5&DocumentID=983
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, Vol. 152, February 7th, 1917.



Major-General (addressing the men before practising an attack behind the lines). "I WANT YOU TO UNDERSTAND THAT THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REHEARSAL, AND THE REAL THING. THERE ARE THREE ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCES: FIRST, THE ABSENCE OF THE ENEMY. NOW (turning to the Regimental Sergeant-Major) WHAT IS THE SECOND DIFFERENCE?"

Sergeant-Major. "THE ABSENCE OF THE GENERAL, SIR."

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14450/14450-h/14450-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS California (1907)



The twin screw steamer California was built by D & W Henderson Ltd, Glasgow for the Anchor Line Ltd in 1907 as a replacement for the aging ocean liner Astoria, which had been in continuous service since 1884. She worked the Glasgow to New York transatlantic route and was sunk by the German submarine U-85 on 7 February 1917.

(...) On the morning of 7 February 1917 when homeward-bound and approaching Ireland under full steam, she was attacked by U-85 in a surprise attack. The German submarine, under the command of Kapitanleutenant Willy Petz, fired two torpedoes at California; one struck the ship squarely on the port quarter near the Number 4 hatch. Five people were killed instantly in the explosion; thirty-six people drowned either as the ship went down or when one filled lifeboat was swamped in the wake of the burning vessel, which plowed ahead losing little headway as she went down. She sank in nine minutes, 38 miles W by S of Fastnet Rock, Ireland with a loss of 41 lives. Though Captain John L Henderson stayed on the bridge through the entire incident, and subsequently went down with the ship, incredibly he made his way to the surface and was rescued.

According to the Royal Navy, on 12 March 1917 the Q-ship HMS Privet avenged the sinking of California. Posing as an unarmed merchant vessel, the crew of Privet lured U-85 to the surface after sustaining heavy damage in an unprovoked attack by the submarine. As Privet’s highly trained crew feigned abandoning ship, they uncovered the ship’s hidden guns and opened fire on the submarine at close range. U-85 was sunk by gunfire, and Kapitanleutenant Petz and his crew of 37 men were killed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_California_(1907)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE INLAND VESSELS ACT, 1917

ACT NO. 1 OF 1917

[7th February, 1917.]

An Act to consolidate the enactments relating to Inland Vessels.

http://www.sherrylegal.com/articles/6/THE%20INLAND%20VESSELS%20ACT,%201917.pdf
Zie ook http://www.helplinelaw.com/docs/THE%20INLAND%20VESSELS%20ACT,%201917/CHAPTER%20I%20PRELIMINARY
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Feb 2011 16:50, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chile's Reaction to Germany's Policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 7 February 1917

Reproduced below is the text of the diplomatic note sent by the Chilean government to its German counterpart regarding Germany's newly reintroduced policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. This policy in effect set in place a blockade of Britain and her European allies, to be applied to belligerent and neutral shipping alike.

The German government argued that such a policy was implemented only as an aggressive form of defence. It was announced in a letter from the German Ambassador to the U.S., Count Johann von Bernstorff, to the U.S. Secretary of State, Robert Lansing.

In the note the Bernstorff announced a re-opened German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare (initially introduced and then rapidly abandoned in 1916 owing to U.S. protests), to take effect the day following the date of the note (i.e. 1 February 1917). The German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg spoke before the Reichstag on the same day to explain the reasons for the policy.

Reaction to the policy was rapid; the Allied powers inevitably decried its aggression, as did the U.S. government, which broke off diplomatic relations on 3 February 1917. On the same day President Woodrow Wilson appeared before Congress to announce his reasons, receiving virtually unanimous support in doing so.

Chile's Diplomatic Protest to Germany - 7 February 1917

The Chilean Government has taken cognizance of the note sent to it by his Majesty the German Emperor, in which Chile is informed that Germany has fixed the limits of a blockade area around the coasts of England, France and Italy, and in the Eastern Mediterranean.

It has been informed also that within said limits Germany will resort to hostile acts against whatever ship is encountered, even if it belongs to a neutral power.

Such a measure, in the opinion of the Chilean Government, amounts to a restriction of the rights of neutrals, to which restriction Chile cannot agree because it is contrary to the principles that have been long established in favour of neutral nations.

The acceptance by Chile of the measures adopted by Germany would, moreover, divert her from the line of strict neutrality which has been followed during the European conflict.

Chile consequently reserves liberty of action to protect all of her rights in the event of any hostile acts against her ships.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uboat_chile.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

STUMP ROAD CEMETERY, GRANDCOURT

Location Information: Grandcourt is a village about 12 kilometres north-east of Albert. The Cemetery (signposted in the centre of village) lies about one kilometre south of Grandcourt, some 500 metres along a single track lane (suitable for cars) off the road (D151) Grandcourt-Thiepval.

Historical Information: The village of Grandcourt was reached by men of the 36th (Ulster) Division on the 1st July 1916, but it could not be held. It was occupied by the 63rd (Royal Naval) Division on the 7th February 1917, after a series of local attacks begun in November 1916. Stump Road Cemetery was made by the 7th Buffs in the following month. There are now over 250, 1914-18 war casualties commemorated in this site. Of these, over one-fifth are unidentified (mostly 18th Division men). All fell in the period July 1916 to February 1917. The Cemetery covers an area of 399 square metres and is enclosed by a low wall.

http://www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=30901&mode=1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pancho Villa-expeditie

De Pancho Villa-expeditie (Engels: Pancho Villa Expedition), ook wel bekend als de strafexpeditie (Engels: Punitive Expedition, Spaans: La Punitiva) of de Derde Amerikaanse Interventie (Spaans: Tercera Intervención Norteamericana), was een militaire actie van de Verenigde Staten tegen de Mexicaanse revolutionair Pancho Villa in 1916 en 1917.

De expeditie was een reactie op Villa's aanval op Columbus in maart 1916, waarbij enkele tientallen Amerikanen om het leven kwamen. De Amerikaanse president Woodrow Wilson gebood generaal John J. Pershing met 10.000 man en enkele vliegtuigen op zoek te gaan naar Pancho Villa om deze te arresteren. De Amerikanen kregen hiervoor toestemming van de Mexicaanse president Venustiano Carranza. Een bijkomende reden voor het Amerikaanse leger was om ervaring op te doen met het oog op de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

De expeditie was geen succes, en bleek zelfs contraproductief. De voortdurende Amerikaanse bemoeienissen met Mexico (de Amerikaanse ambassadeur was in 1914 betrokken geweest bij de staatsgreep tegen Francisco I. Madero en het had de havenstad Veracruz een tijdlang bezet) wakkerde de anti-Amerikaanse sentimenten alleen maar verder aan. Villa bleek buitengewoon behendig te zijn als het aankwam op het zich verstoppen, ervaring die hij tijdens zijn eerdere carričre als bandiet had opgedaan. Naar verluidt wist Villa zich zelfs eens te verstoppen in een paardenhuid om aan de Amerikanen te ontkomen. Op 21 juni werd er zelfs een slag geleverd tussen Amerikaanse troepen en het reguliere Mexicaanse leger in de slag bij Carrizal, waarna een oorlog tussen de Verenigde Staten en Mexico maar nauwelijks kon worden voorkomen. De aanwezigheid van cantinas en bordelen die meereisden met de Amerikaanse troepen deden de oorlogsinspanningen ook weinig goed.

Hoewel enkele van Villa's officieren werden uitgeschakeld, was de interventie geen succes. Op 7 februari 1917 werd de zoektocht afgeblazen.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancho_Villa-expeditie
Zie ook http://www.patriotfiles.com/index.php?name=Sections&req=viewarticle&artid=553&page=1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Benoni De Munck - Opgeëiste en Werkweigeraar tijdens WO1



Op 21 september 1916 werden de lijsten van de ondersteunde werklozen van de stad opgeëist. Op 9 oktober werd bekend gemaakt dat alle personen die in staat waren te werken, zouden gedwongen worden tot werken, ook buiten hun woonplaats. Op 14 oktober werden reeds zeshonderd mannen (meestal gezinshoofden) die steun genoten, opgeroepen tot werken buiten de stad op een onbekende plaats. Honderden families werden in droefheid gedompeld, want iedereen dacht er het slechtste van. Alle opgeroepenen moesten om negen uur in het station zijn. Enkelen werden afgekeurd en rond 12u30 vertrokken vijfhonderdvijftig mannen richting Gent. Allen waren opgekomen, maar vastbesloten geen arbeid te zullen verrichten.Op 16 oktober moest een tweede ploeg van zeshonderd man, plus tweehonderd reservemannen, zich aanmelden aan het station. De trein vertrok op hetzelfde uur als de vorige en ook richting Gent. Bij deze groep bevond zich ook Benoni De Munck.

Van nu af volgen we het getuigenverslag van één van de opgeëisten, Gustaaf Buyle, opgetekend door Cyriel Vlaeminck en gepubliceerd in het boek:"Het Etappengebied van België":
Toen wij op den zoogezegden “Travaux” kwamen werd ons door den officier gevraagd om te werken. Ons antwoord klonk nogmaals: neen! Wij werden dan tusschen het voetvolk geplaatst, op 2 rangen. Zult ge arbeiden? en nu klonk de stem van den officier scherp. Neen! antwoordden wij als uit één mond. De officier richtte zich toen tot zijne soldaten en riep, op ons wijzend: Doe ermee wat ge wilt! Hierop volgde de marteling, iets gruwelijks hetgeen mij nog op sommige oogenblikken doet schrikken en weenen. De soldaten sloegen er op in met schuppen, met stokken, zij namen hunne geweren en brachten aan sommige onder ons vreeselijke kolfslagen en zelfs bajonetsteken toe. Ik zag Leon Van Selle een stomp krijgen vlak in het gezicht dat ik meende dat zijne tanden waren stuk geslagen. Benoni De Munck werd levend begraven in eenen put en werd er toen met de ooren uitgetrokken.
Ik werd in eenen gracht geworpen. En dan moesten wij nog drij uren lang in een koud en windig weer, in een storm daar roerloos blijven staan, nauwelijks gekleed, met de schup in onze hand. En toen de barbaren op ons aanvielen ging er uit onze groep een gehuil op, zoo klagend en luid dat onze kamaraden in het Uilenkot het duidelijk hoorden, en de afstand was 3 1/4 uurs


Men kan er dus van uitgaan dat Benoni De Munck bij de eerste of de tweede groep werklozen was die opgeëist werden. In de aanvraag tot oorlogsschade spreekt men van opeising op 16 oktober 1916 van Lokeren naar Frankrijk (Rieux). In datzelfde document kan men lezen dat Benoni ziek geworden is op 7 februari 1917, en overgebracht is naar een hospitaal te Cambrai, waar zijn verblijf duurde tot in april. Op 28 april is hij teruggekomen naar Lokeren.

Terug thuis was de lijdensweg van Benoni De Munck nog niet ten einde want Benoni was volledig werkonbekwaam ingevolge de opgedane ziektes en overlijdt op 24 november 1924.

Van de opgeëiste burgers in Lokeren zijn er 42 gestorven ten gevolge van de ontberingen en de martelingen. Daarbij komen nog degenen die later overleden zijn aan de gevolgen ervan.

http://users.fulladsl.be/spb6276/demunck/demunck_wo1.htm

Zie ook De Grote Oorlog te Lokeren (1914 - 1918). Het Lot van de Werkweigeraars waaronder Benoni De Munck (*1884 - †1924), http://users.fulladsl.be/spb6276/demunck/PDF%20files/1%20WO.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1: Experiences of an English Soldier

This blog is made up of transcripts of Harry Lamin's letters from the first World War

Scans of letter of 7th February 1918

http://wwar1.blogspot.com/2008/02/scans-of-letter-of-7th-february-1918.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 07 FEBRUARY 1918

NEW ZEALANDERS KILLED IN ACTION
COOKE, E Claude, Medical Corps, 18 January – son of H G COOKE, Whangarei
COOKE, Austin - son of H G COOKE, Whanarei
HUGHES, Cpl Robert F A, 8 May 1915 Gallipoli – son of James Hughes, Conrass, Canvastown
NEWDICK, Pte John H, Artillery, 5 November – son of Mrs P Newdick, Great North Rd, Grey Lynn
STAYTE, Sgt Ernest Oliver, 31 yrs, Rifle Brigade – son of Mrs E Stayte, Pukekohe

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn07feb1918.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Manchester Guardian (7th February, 1918)

The Representation of the People Bill, which doubles the electorate, giving the Parliamentary vote to about six million women and placing soldiers and sailors over 19 on the register (with a proxy vote for those on service abroad), simplifies the registration system, greatly reduces the cost of elections, and provides that they shall all take place on one day, and by a redistribution of seats tends to give a vote the same value everywhere, passed both Houses yesterday and received the Royal assent.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/W1918.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Reform Bill Passed: Women's Vote Won

Compromise on P.R.: Suggested Experiment in 100 Constituencies.
Alternative Vote Definitely Rejected


From our Parliamentary Correspondent, The Guardian, Thursday 7 February 1918

The Representation of the People Bill, which doubles the electorate, giving the Parliamentary vote to about six million women and placing soldiers and sailors over 19 on the register (with a proxy vote for those on service abroad), simplifies the registration system, greatly reduces the cost of elections, and provides that they shall all take place on one day, and by a redistribution of seats tends to give a vote the same value everywhere passed both Houses yesterday and received the Royal assent.

Westminster, Wednesday night.

Except as to the particular shape in which it was staged, and as to some of its accesseries, the final act tonight in the progress of the Franchise Bill came out pretty much as had been foreseen - namely, in the elimination from the bill of the immediate application alike of P.R. and the alternative vote.

In the case of the second of those reforms the excision took the form of a clean cut frank, unqualified, and avowed, there could be no mistake as to either the intention or the thoroughness of the deletion. P.R. on the other hand, was not completely lost. The sacrifice in this instance was mitigated by an arrangement proposed by the Lords and accepted by the Commons under which the Government are pledged to provide facilities in the coming session for the consideration of a new scheme of proportional voting, limited and experimental in its scope.

While some of the peers were doubtful of the value of the compromise on P.R. a considerable body of members in the Commons, led by Mr Austen Chamberlain, refused to be persuaded that the hated principle was not actually winning an out-and-out triumph. Possibly this section would have taken a less despairing view of the position had they been witnesses in the Lords a little earlier in the day of the suspicious demeanour of their opponents in that House towards the suggested compromise.

Speaking as one "profoundly and even passionately opposed" to P.R., Mr. Chamberlain fairly startled his old friends by the vehemence with which he denounced, not only such iniquitous electoral devices, but also their title champions - "legislators with no elections of their own to face and with no constituents to woo". Such white-hot emotion on so relatively innocuous a proposal was smilingly declared by Mr. Balfour to be altogether bewildering, except perhaps on the assumption that Mr. Chamberlain had become a leader of the Single Chamber party.

The Final Journey.

Apart from the ardour displayed by Mr. Chamberlain in this sacred cause, feeling on the whole seemed not unfavourable to the suggested compromise.

If danger of further conflict threatened it was rather on the question of the alternative vote, which the Lords had again struck out of the bill by an overwhelming majority. On this question, acting on a hint thrown out by Mr. Asquith, Sir Willoughby Dickinson now moved and Mr. Arthur Henderson seconded a proposal with the object of giving to the principle of the alternative vote a similar opportunity of acceptance by the House in the coming season as that proposed to be found for proportional representation.

Some difficulty was experienced by Ministers in devising a plausible argument against the proposed equality of treatment. According to Mr. Bonar Law, the chief object lay in the hostility of the other House and the rising passion that might be engendered if the bill were kept travelling backwards and forwards between the two Houses. "I don't believe the country cares twopence one way or the other about either proportional representation or the alternative vote", the Unionist leader declared amid general cries of protest, "but it does care about the passing of the bill".

On a division the deletion of the alternative vote was accepted by 181 to 166, and shortly afterwards, on a further division, the Lords' amendment on proportional representation was confirmed by 221 votes to 111. Thus approved in the form in which it had last left the Lords, the bill eventually went back on its final journey to the other House, there to receive the Royal assent.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1918/feb/07/gender
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Otto DIX: "Bei Langemark" (Februar 1918)



http://artsearch.nga.gov.au/Detail-LRG.cfm?View=LRG&IRN=128589&PICTAUS=TRUE
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 7, 1919: The Seattle General Strike, Day Two


Strikers stockpile groceries in preparation for the city shutdown.
Photo credit: Museum of History and Industry, Seattle


http://radsearem.wordpress.com/2010/02/07/february-7-1919-the-seattle-general-strike-day-two/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (07-02-1919)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1919/0207
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Feb 2011 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

President Friedrich Ebert's Address to the German Assembly, 7 February 1919

Following the German revolution in November 1918 - which saw the forced abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II - a fresh constitution was drawn up and a new assembly established; the latter first met on 6 February 1919.

Reproduced below is new President Friedrich Ebert's opening address to the assembly on 7 February 1919.

President Ebert's Address to the Opening Session of the German Assembly, 7 February 1919

The Imperial Government welcomes through me the Constituent Assembly of the German nation.

With a special warmth I greet the women who for the first time appear in the Imperial Parliament with equal rights.

The Provisional Government owes its mandate to the revolution. It will return it into the hands of the National Assembly. In the revolution, the German people rose against an obsolete collapsing tyranny. (Hisses from the Right.)

As soon as the right of the Germans to self-determination is assured, it returns to the road of legality. Only on the broad highway of Parliamentary discussion and decision can the urgent changes in the economic and social spheres be progressively achieved without destroying the Empire and its economic position. ("Hear, hear.")

Therefore the Government welcomes in this National Assembly the supreme and single sovereign in Germany. (Applause.)

We have done forever with the old kings and princes by the grace of God. (Loud applause on the Left; hisses on the Right: renewed loud applause on the Left; cries from the Right, "Wait!")

We deny no one his sentimental memories, but as surely as this National Assembly has a great Republican majority, so surely is the old God-given dependence abolished forever. The German people is free, remains free, and governs itself for all the future. (Cries from the Independent Socialists, "With Noske.")

This freedom is the one hope which remains to the German people - the one way by which it can work itself out of the bloody morass of war and defeat. We have lost the war; this is not the consequence of the revolution. (Cries from the Right, "Oh, oh!" Cries from the Left, "No, never!")

Ladies and gentlemen, it was the Imperial Government of Prince Max of Baden which began the armistice which made us defenceless. After the collapse of our allies, and in view of the military and economic situation, there was nothing else for it to do. ("Hear, hear.)

The revolution declines the responsibility for the misery into which the evils of the old autocracy, and the arrogance of the military threw the German people. ("Hear, hear." Loud applause from the Socialists; protests from the Right.)

It is also not responsible for our serious shortage of food. ("Hear, hear." Protests, and a cry of "Soldiers' Councils.")

The fact that by the hunger blockade we have lost many hundreds of thousands of human lives - that hundreds of thousands of men, women, children, and aged people have fallen victims to it - disposes of the story that we could have managed with our food supplies if the revolution had not come.

Defeat and food shortage have handed us over to the enemy Powers. But not only we, but also our enemies, have been terribly exhausted by the war, and the feeling of exhaustion among our enemies springs from their effort to indemnify themselves at the cost of the German people, and the idea of exploitation is brought into the work of peace. These plans of revenge and oppression called for the sharpest protest. (Loud applause from all sides.)

The German people cannot be made the wage slaves of other nations for twenty, forty, or sixty years. (Loud applause.)

The fearful disaster of the war for all Europe can only be repaired if the peoples go hand in hand. (Applause.)

In view of the misery of the masses of the peoples; in view of the mass misery on every side, the question of guilt seems almost small. Still, the German people is resolved itself to call to judgment all against whom deliberate guilt or deliberate baseness can be proved. But those ought not to be punished who themselves were victims - victims of the war, victims of our former lack of freedom. ("Hear, hear," from the Socialists.)

To what end, on their own witness, did our enemies fight? To annihilate Kaiserism. Kaiserism exists no more. It is abolished forever. The very fact of this National Assembly proves it.

They fought "to destroy militarism." It lies in ruins, and will never rise again. (Cries from the Independent Socialists, "you are setting it up again.")

According to their solemn proclamation, our enemies fought "for justice, freedom, and a permanent peace," but so far the armistice conditions have been of unprecedented severity and have been pitilessly carried through. Without more ado, Alsace is treated as French territory. The elections to the National Assembly prescribed by us have been illegally prevented. ("Shame!")

The Germans have been driven out of the country - ("Shame!") - and their properties sequestrated. The occupied territory on the left of the Rhine has been cut off from the rest of Germany. The attempt is being made monstrously to extend the provision of the armistice agreement that no public property is to be made away with, and to turn it into a general financial enslavement of the German people.

Though we have long been in no condition to renew the war, our eight hundred thousand prisoners of war are still kept back and most seriously threatened by psychological collapse and the hardship of forced labour. ("Shame!")

In this act of Might policy, there is no trace of the spirit of reconciliation. The armistice conditions are explained on the ground that they were imposed on the old Hohenzollern regime. What justification is there for continually intensifying them against the young Socialist Republic, in spite of the fact that we do our very utmost to satisfy the very heavy obligations laid upon us?

We warn the enemy not to drive us to extremities. Any German Government may one day be compelled, like General Winterfeldt, to renounce all further participation in the peace negotiations and thrust upon the enemy the whole burden of the responsibility until the new order of the world!

Let them not place before us the dangerous choice between starvation and disgrace. Even a Socialist People's Government, and this one above all others, must hold fast to its principle that it would rather suffer the extremity of want than be dishonoured. (Loud applause.)

If to the millions who have lost everything in the war and fear to lose nothing more were added also those who believe that Germany has nothing to lose, then tactics of desperation would irresistibly prevail. Germany laid down her arms in confidence, trusting in the principles of President Wilson. Now let them give us a Wilson peace, to which we have a claim. (Applause.)

Our free People's Republic - the whole German people - aims at nothing other than to enter with equal rights into the League of Nations, and there win for itself a position of respect by industry and probity. (General applause.)

Germany can still do the world many services. It was a German who gave the workers of the world scientific Socialism. We are on the way to leading the world once again in Socialism, since we serve that Socialism which alone can be permanent, which increases the prosperity and the Kultur of the people - Socialism in process of realization.

Once more we turn to all the peoples in the world with the urgent appeal to see that justice is done to the German people - not to permit the annihilation of our hopeful beginnings by the oppression of our people and our economic life. The German people has won its right to self-determination at home. It cannot sacrifice that right abroad. We cannot renounce uniting the whole German nation in the framework of a single Empire. (Applause.)

Our German-Austrian brothers as far back as November 12th last in their National Assembly declared themselves to be part of the great German Republic. (Applause.)

Now the German-Austrian National Assembly has again, amid storms of enthusiasm, sent us its greeting and given expression to the hope that our National Assembly and theirs will succeed in again uniting the bonds which violence tore asunder in 1866. (Applause.)

German-Austria must be united with the Motherland for all time. (Applause.)

I am sure that I am speaking for the whole National Assembly when I welcome this historic manifestation sincerely and joyfully, and reply to it with heartfelt fraternity. (Loud applause.)

The brothers of our blood and destiny can be assured that we will welcome them with open arms and hearts in the new Empire of the German nation. (Applause.)

They belong to us and we belong to them. (Applause.)

I may also express the hope that the National Assembly will empower the future Imperial Government to negotiate as soon as possible with the German-Austrian free State concerning the final union. (Applause.)

Then there will be no more frontier post between us. Then we shall really be a single people of brothers. (Loud applause.)

Germany must not again fall into the old misery of disintegration and confinement. It is true that history and the past stand in the way of the creation of a strongly centralized unitary State, but the different tribes and tongues must be harmonized into a single nation with a single speech. (Applause.)

Only a great united possibility of developing our economic life - a politically capable, strong, single Germany - can secure the future of our people. (Applause.)

The Provisional Government has entered into a very evil heritage. We were the liquidators of the old regime. ("Hear, hear," from the Left; protests from the Right; applause on the Left.)

We, with the support and at the request of the Central Council of the German Workmen's and Soldiers' Councils have applied all our strength to overcoming the danger and misery of the transition period. We have done everything to set economic life in motion again. (Protests from the Right.)

These continued interruptions (turning to the Right) prove truly that in the hard days which Germany has passed through in the last few weeks and months you have learned little indeed. (Storms of applause from the Left.)

If the success of our work has not corresponded with our desires, the reasons must be rightly appreciated. Many employers, accustomed to the high secured profits which the war economy in the old monarchical and protectionist State created for them, have neglected to display the necessary initiative. Therefore, we address to the employers the urgent appeal to help with all their strength the restoration of production. (Applause.)

On the other side we call to the workers to employ all their strength in work, which alone can save us. ("Hear, hear.")

We understand the psychology of those who, after an undue expenditure of strength in time of war, now seek relaxation. We know how difficult it must be for those who have lived for years on the battlefield to settle down to peaceful work; but it must be. We must work and create values, otherwise we collapse. ("Hear, hear.")

Socialism means organization, order, and solidarity, not high-handedness, perversity, and destruction. There must no longer be room for private monopolies and capitalist profit without effort in time of national emergency. Therefore, profit is to be methodically obviated where economic development has made a trade ripe for socialization.

The future looms before us full of anxiety. In spite of all that, we trust in the indestructible creative power of the German nation. ("Hear, hear.")

The old foundations of the German position based on force are forever destroyed. The Prussian hegemony, the Hohenzollern army, the policy of the shining armour have been made impossible among us for all future. As November 9, 1918, follows on March 18, 1848, so must we here in Weimar complete the change from Imperialism to Idealism, from world power to spiritual greatness. ("Hear, hear.")

Now must the spirit of Weimar, the spirit of the great philosophers and poets, again fill our life, fill it with the spirit described in Faust and in Wilhelm Meister's Wanderjahre. Not roaming in the interminable and losing one's self in the theoretical, not hesitating and wavering, but with clear vision and firm hand taking a firm hold on practical life.

So will we set to work with our great goal clear before our eyes. To maintain the right of the German people, to anchor firmly in Germany a strong democracy and to fill it with true social spirit and Socialist character. ("Hear, hear.")

So shall we create an Empire of right and of righteousness, founded on the equality of everything that wears the form of mankind.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VII, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/germanassembly_ebert1.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2014 12:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI. - Vol. 152 - February 7th, 1917.

"'The best people are still wearing their own clothes,' said Mr. Williams."—Star.

With all respect, Mr. WILLIAMS, the best people are wearing the KING'S

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14450/14450-h/14450-h.htm
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