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1 september

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Sep 2006 5:35    Onderwerp: 1 september Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 1. September 1914


Ein Begnadigungserlaß des Kaisers

Berlin, 1. Septbr. (Amtlich.)
Der Kaiser hat einen weiteren Begnadigungserlaß ergehen lassen, der folgenden Wortlaut hat:

Wir Wilhelm, von Gottes Gnaden König von Preußen usw., wollen allen Personen, die sich bis zum heutigen Tage der Verletzung der Wehrpflicht (§ 140 R. Str. G. B.) oder der unerlaubten Auswanderung (§ 360 Ziff 3 R. Str. G. B.) schuldig gemacht haben, soweit Uns das Begnadigungsrecht zusteht, den Erlaß der verwirkten Geldstrafen, Freiheitsstrafen und Kosten in Aussicht stellen, wenn sie während des gegenwärtigen Krieges unverzüglich, jedoch spätestens innerhalb dreier Monate vom heutigen Tage an gerechnet, im Deutschen Reich, in einem deutschen Schutzgebiet oder auf einem Schiffe der kaiserlichen Marine sich zum Dienste stellen und ihr Wohlverhalten während ihrer Abwesenheit glaubhaft nachweisen. Ausgeschlossen davon bleiben diejenigen, die erstens das 45. Lebensjahr vollendet, zweitens die deutsche Reichsangehörigkeit verloren haben und Staatsangehörige eines ausländischen Staates sind, drittens die als dienstunfähig befunden werden, sofern sie wegen ihres körperlichen Zustandes ihre derzeitige Dienstfähigkeit nicht annehmen konnten. Ich beauftrage Sie, für die schleunige Bekanntmachung und Ausführung dieses Erlasses Sorge zu tragen.

Großes Hauptquartier, 29. Aug. 1914.




Der gewaltige Sieg bei Tannenberg

Berlin 1. Septbr. (Priv.-Tel.)
Wie amtlich bekanntgegeben wird, ist die Zahl der Gefangenen bei der Schlacht von Ortelsburg, Gilgenburg und Tannenberg noch größer, als bisher angenommen worden ist. Die Zahl der Gefangenen beläuft sich, wie jetzt festgestellt werden konnte, auf insgesamt 70000, darunter 300 Offiziere. Ferner ist das gesamte Artilleriematerial der ganzen dort gegen unsere Truppen kämpfenden russischen Armee, bestehend aus fünf russischen Armeekorps, vernichtet worden.

Petersburg, 1. Septbr. (W. B. Nichtamtlich. Meldung der Petersb. Telegr.-Agent.)
Ein Communique aus dem Stabe des Generalissimus besagt:
Im südlichen Ostpreußen führten die Deutschen erhebliche Verstärkungen von der ganzen Front herbei und griffen mit erheblich überlegenen Kräften unsere beiden Armeekorps an. Diese erlitten schwere Verluste durch schwere Artillerie, welche die Deutschen aus den benachbarten, an der Weichsel gelegenen Festungen herangebracht hatten. In diesem Kampfe fiel der General Samsonow. Wir sind weiter in Fühlung mit dem Feinde der ungeheure Verstärkungen herangeführt. Auf der österreichischen Front werden die hartnäckigen Kämpfe fortgesetzt.


Die Schlacht im Südosten

Österr-Ungar. Kriegspressequartier, 1. Septbr.
Etwa drei Viertel aller verfügbaren russischen Kräfte ringen seit dem 21. August in über vierhundert Kilometer langer Schlachtfront gegen Österreich-Ungarns Heer; es ist ein beispielloser Kampf, dem die ganze Welt mit atemloser Spannung folgt, beispiellos sogar in diesen Wochen, deren unerhörte Kriegsereignisse sich an Riesenhaftigkeit überbieten und Geschehnisse unbeachtet lassen, die sonst lange und tiefe Erregung gezeitigt hätten. Wir haben die Aufnahmefähigkeit schon so sehr eingebüßt, daß nur allerstärkste Reize uns noch aufpeitschen können. Wir haben uns an tägliche Siege des deutschen Bruderreiches gewöhnt, selbst an den noch nie geahnten Stil ihrer Erkämpfung, wir haben große und kleine Armeen aller Feinde Deutschlands besiegt, geworfen, gefangen und verhaftet gesehen und finden es schon fast selbstverständlich, so sehr ist uns alles Maß der Beurteilung und ernsthafter Würdigung dieser gigantischen Leistungen verloren gegangen.
Nun kamen die ersten großen Kämpfe Rußlands gegen die Donaumonarchie; an die vorangegangenen Mißerfolge russischer Einbrüche hatte man sich auch schon gewöhnt; Husarenpatrouillen schlugen ganze Sotnien, Landsturmhäulein Detachements alle Waffen. Jetzt aber hält man den Atem an; man fühlt, jetzt fällt der ungeheuerste aller Riesenschläge, der Schlag gegen die Hauptmacht der russischen Gesamtarmee.
Es hat gut angefangen. Der geschlossene Riesenbogen der Umklammerung Galizens, wie sie sich nur Rußland in solcher Großartigkeit gestatten kann, ist im Westen zerbrochen; zehn Tage und viele Nächte dauerte das erbitterte, zähe Ringen, bis die russischen Korps - sieben bis acht dürften zwischen Weichsel und Bug eingesetzt worden sein - endlich in bedenkliche Nähe der Sumpf- und Seenzone des Wieprz-Gebietes geworfen wurden. Man muß russischerseits des Erfolges dieser Westarmee völlig sicher gewesen sein, denn die Gefahr des Geländes in ihrem Rücken ist bei unglücklichem Ausgang zu groß. Namentlich der Raum zwischen Wieprz und Bug ist nördlich der Linie Lublin - Cholm, zwei Eisenbahnknotenpunkten von hervorragender Bedeutung denkbarst ungünstig für jede, namentlich aber unter feindlicher Einwirkung stehende Rückzugsbewegung starker Kräfte. Zwei Tagemärsche tief und ebenso breit ist dieser schlimmste Teil eines Gebietes ohne bedeutende durchlaufende Kommunikationen, dessen Oberfläche an seinen trockenen Teilen mit großen unwegsamen Wäldern bestanden, sonst aber von großen Sümpfen und Seen erfüllt ist. Schon heute dürften zahlreiche Trainkolonnen hier zurückdisponiert worden sein, jede ernstere Verlegung durch Unfälle und Stockungen ist ebenso leicht möglich wie verhängnisvoll. Nun zeigt aber die österreichische Offensive eine ganz ausgesprochene Nordostrichtung; sie drängt dadurch die russischen Kräfte von dem günstigeren Gelände nächst der Weichsel ab und im Osten unmittelbar vor den Bug, der südlich Wlodawa beiderseits stark verkämpft ein schweres Hindernis bildet.
Es läßt sich natürlich heute noch nicht sagen, ob die schon nahe an die beschriebene Region gediehene Offensive der Armee Dankl schließlich diesen großen Schlußerfolg haben wird; die Russen haben sich vielleicht auch unter dem Eindrucke dieser ungeheuren Gefahr geradezu verzweifelt gewehrt und hierdurch die Stoßkraft der Unseren gewiß sehr herabgemindert. Haben aber die Österreicher noch so viel Atem, um den letzten Ruck zu tun, dann ist der Zusammenbruch der russischen Westarmee wohl möglich.
Es ist weiterhin eine gemeinsame Aktion der von Ostpreußen südöstlich vordringenden deutschen Korps mit den entgegenrückenden österreichischen Kräften östlich Warschau denkbar; die Art solcher Unternehmungen wird aber sehr davon abhängen, ob sich innerhalb des großen befestigten Raumes zwischen Warschau und Brest-Litowsk noch erhebliche mobile Kräfte befinden.
Die Hauptmacht der Russen befindet sich aber allem Anscheine nach in weitem Bogen von Norden nach Süden über Lemberg hinaus umfassend: die österreichisch-ungarischen Korps wurden zur Verkürzung der Operationsfront namentlich von der Zbruczlinie entsprechend westlicher versammelt, da der serbische Krieg immerhin bedeutende Heeresteile abzog. Die im Raume um Lemberg daher mit großer russischer Übermacht zu erwartenden Kämpfe, deren Gefechtsfront eine Länge von fast zweihundert Kilometern haben dürfte, sind seit sieben Tagen auf der ganzen Linie im Gange. Ein durchschlagender Erfolg ist bisher nirgends erzielt, die Kräfte scheinen sich die Waage zu halten.
Es kam anscheinend zu Methoden, die von den Russen im Kriege gegen Japan meisterhaft angewendet wurden: sofortige Befestigung jedes Teiles der Front unter dem Schutze der Nacht, partielle Vorstöße mit überlegenen Kräften gegen einen als empfindlich erkannten Teil des Gegners, kurz zum Versuche, ihn da und dort zu schwächen, überall zu beunruhigen und schließlich immer näher rückend zu überfallen. In Ostgalizien kommt den Russen ihre große Überlegenheit an Zahl bei diesem kräftesparenden System noch besonders zugute und es ist zu befürchten, daß die österreichischen Truppen, solchem langwierigen Positionskrieg gründlich abhold, öfters die Geduld verloren und ebenso kühne wie verlustreiche Vorstöße versuchten. Eine besonders schwere Aufgabe erwächst in diesem furchtbaren Kampfe der österreichischen Artillerie, die jeden Infanterieangriff erst durch gründliche Feuerwirkung gegen die russischen Schützengräben vorbereiten muß, da auch das andauerndste Infanteriefeuer gegen so gründlich gedeckte Infanterie nahezu wirkungslos bleibt.
Leider darf ein sehr schwerwiegender Nachteil für die österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen nicht unerwähnt bleiben: Sie kämpfen, obwohl mit ihrer Hauptfront in Galizien, in Feindesland. Ostgalizien ist fast ausschließlich von Ruthenen bewohnt und die jahrelange Agitation der Popen und Lehrer hat ihre Wirkung bei der tiefstehenden und urteillosen Bauernschaft nicht verfehlt. Die russische Armee ist mit Nachrichten nur zu gut bedient.

Freiherr Kurt von Reden, Kriegsberichterstatter.

Österreichisches Kriegspressequartier, 1. September.
Das ungeheure, vor zehn Tagen begonnene Ringen der russischen Westarmeen mit den nacheinander einreisenden, stets vorrückenden Teilen des österreichischen linken Flügels scheint dem Ende nahe. Auf österreichischer Seite erstreckt sich jetzt die Kampffront 160 Kilometer lang von der Weichsel über den Wieprz zum Bug, die russischen Armeen langsam vor sich herschiebend in die Sumpfseenzone nördlich der Linie Lublin-Cholm; diese befindet sich nur noch einen oder zwei Tagemärsche im Rücken der Russen. Deren Trains dürften den Rückzug der Truppen auf den wenigen guten Straßen behindern, da die Wege vielfach Défilé-Charakter habe. Die russischen Westarmeen dürften auch bereits keine Möglichkeit eines Anschlusses an die Ostarmeen mehr haben.
Sicher ist bisher das volle Mißlingen der von der russischen Heeresleitung geplanten strategischen Umfassung der österreichischen Heere und ihr Umschlagen in das Gegenteil: Aufrollung und Abdrängung der russischen Westarmeen. Die Kämpfe dauern noch auf der ganzen 400 Kilometer langen Linie weiter. Die Lage der österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen ist gut.


Ein Befehl des Zaren

Petersburg, 1. Septbr. (Petersb. Telegr.-Ag.)
Nach einem kaiserlichen Befehl wird Petersburg künftig "Petrograd" genannt.


Die französische Regierung

1. September.
Der neue französische Kriegsminister Millerand hat dem General Joffre ein Handschreiben übersandt, worin er ihm sein unbedingtes persönliches Vertrauen ausspricht und ihn um die Fortführung seines Amtes ersucht. Damit wird bestätigt, daß der Deputierte Messimy allerdings wegen Meinungsverschiedenheiten mit Joffre zurückgetreten war. Messimy, der Offizier der Landwehr ist, hat sich sofort nach seiner Demission zum Felddienst gemeldet. Die sozialistische "Humanité" unterstützt das Ministerium Viviani und billigt den Eintritt der Genossen Guesde und Sembat ins Kabinett. Dem Ministerium gehört auch der Deputierte Albert Sarraut an, der als Mitbesitzer der "Depeche de Toulouse" einen hervorragenden Einfluß auf die radikale Provinzpresse auszuüben vermag. Es bleibt nunmehr abzuwarten, ob alle diese persönlichen Berechnungen standhalten werden vor der Bewegung der Arbeiterwelt und der Landbevölkerung, die unvermeidlich eintreten wird, sobald die jetzt noch von der Regierung verbreiteten Illusionen über die wahre Kriegslage geschwunden sein werden.


Verlegung der französischen Regierung

Mailand, 1. Septbr. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die Turiner "Gazzetta del Popolo" meldet aus Marseille, nach zuverlässigen Pariser Meldungen werde die französische Regierung nächster Tage ihren Sitz nach auswärts verlegen.


Die französische Auffassung der Lage

Genf, 1. Septbr. (Priv.-Tel.)
Von gestern abend wird aus Paris hierher gemeldet: Das heutige offizielle Communique enthält keine Nachricht von der französischen Front. Es beschränkt sich darauf, den Vorstoß der russischen Armee in Galizien anzuzeigen, sowie einen Besuch Millerands beim Militärgouverneur Gallieni bekanntzugeben. Seit gestern bildet die Verteidigung von Paris die größte Sorge der Bevölkerung. Der Polizeipräfekt erließ ein Verbot betreffend die bisherigen großen Überschriften der Zeitungsmeldungen; auch dürfen die Namen der Zeitungen von den Camelots nicht mehr auf den Straßen ausgeschrien wenden.

Paris, 1. Septbr. (Indirekt; Priv.-Tel.)
Die letzte offizielle Note des französischen Kriegsministeriums besagt:
Wir dringen langsam in Lothringen und den Vogesen vor und haben das Heer des Kronprinzen bei Spincourt und Longuyon geschlagen, aber bei Neufchateau und Paliseul teilweise Niederlagen erlitten, die uns zwangen, gegen die Mosel zurückzugehen. Bei Le Chateau, Cambresis und Cambrai wurden die englisch-französischen Truppen von überlegenen Kräften angegriffen und sind nach dem Süden zurück gegangen. Unsere Rechte drängte das preußische zehnte und das Gardekorps an die Oise zurück, mußte aber wegen Vorschreitens des deutschen rechten Flügels wieder zurückgehen.
Die Pariser Presse hofft auf einen günstigen Ausgang einer Schlacht in den Ardennen und meint, es komme nun darauf an, daß das französische Heer in Ordnung bleibe und seine rückwärtigen Verbindungen aufrecht erhalte. Der "Temps" schreibt: "Wir haben keine Ursache zur Bestürzung. Die gegenwärtigen Schlachten dienen nur dazu, den Feind zu erschöpfen. Die Russen werden unsere Toten rächen."

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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Sep 2006 5:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917: Soldier recounts brush with poison gas

On this day in 1917, American soldier Stull Holt writes a letter home recounting some of his battlefield experiences on the Western Front at Verdun, France.

Born in New York City in 1896, Holt served during World War I as a driver with the American Ambulance Field Service. He later joined the American Air Service, receiving his pilot commission as a first lieutenant.

"Dear Lois," Holt began his letter, written while he was in Paris on leave, "enjoying the luxuries of life including ice cream, sheets, cafes and things." The bulk of Holt’s letter discussed his experiences at the fortress city of Verdun, where French and German troops had battled for an excruciating 10 months in 1916 and where fighting continued throughout the following year. "The French have a saying to the effect that no one comes out of Verdun the same. As the fighting is stiff there always the statement is probably true for all times, it certainly is true of Verdun during an attack. It would take a book to tell about all that happened there and when I try to write, little incidents entirely unconnected come to my mind so I don't know where or how to begin."

Holt described the ruined countryside and villages around Verdun, as well as the sights—and stench—of constant battle. "Besides the desolation visible to the eye there was the desolation visible to the nose. You could often see old bones, boots, clothing and things besides lots of recent ones." The letter’s most vivid passage, however, recounted his own experiences under fire, including an incident in which he was struck by a shell containing poisonous gas.

"Something hit me on the head, making a big dent in my helmet and raising a bump on my head. If it hadn't been for my helmet my head would have been cracked. As it was I was dazed, knocked down and my gas mask knocked off. I got several breathes [sic] of the strong solution right from the shell before it got diluted with much air. If it hadn't been for the fellow with me I probably wouldn't be writing this letter because I couldn't see, my eyes were running water and burning, so was my nose and I could hardly breathe. I gasped, choked and felt the extreme terror of the man who goes under in the water and will clutch at a straw. The fellow with me grabbed me and led me the hundred yards or so to the post where the doctor gave me a little stuff and where I became alright again in a few hours except that I was a little intoxicated from the gas for a while. I had other close calls but that was the closest and shook me up most. I think the hardest thing I did was to go back again alone the next night. I had to call myself names before I got up nerve enough."

Holt’s letters were later published in The Great War at Home and Abroad: The World War I Diaries and Letters of W. Stull Holt (1999).
http://www.history.com/tdih.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&displayDate=9/1&categoryId=worldwari
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Affair at Néry, 1 September 1914

'L' Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, following in the wake of its Cavalry Brigade (1st Cavalry Brigade) to Néry, reached it after the other units had begun to shake down into their quarters.

The allotment of the village was as follows: at the northern end were the 5th Dragoon Guards with their horses in the open; the 11th Hussars were billeted on the eastern face and up the east side of the village street, the men and horses being under cover - in houses, yards, barns, sheds, or lean-to's.

On the west side of the village street, and in the fields behind the village on this side, were the Queen's Bays (2nd Dragoon Guards), one squadron being in a field further to the south; all their horses were in the open.

Lees verder op http://www.chakoten.dk/nery_010914_2.html
Zie ook http://www.chakoten.dk/cgi-bin/fm.cgi?n=797
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Aug 2010 23:12, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Forest of Retz

1 September 1914 - The Rear Guard action by the 4th (Guards) Brigade
At this moment in the war the British Army was still in the process of retiring in front of a numerically superior enemy, a retirement which had been taking place since the very first encounter at Mons.

Just north of Villers-Cotterêts within the Forest of Retz you will find the Guards' Grave Cemetery and a small monument dedicated to the men who fell here.

The 4th (Guards) Brigade was covering the retirement of the 2nd Division, with the Irish Guards and 2nd Coldstream, under Lt Colonel Hon George Morris of the Irish Guards in the front line and the 2nd Grenadiers and 3rd Coldstream in second line at Rond de la Reine. (This is actually the clearing just after the Cemetery and the site of the monument).

German advances forced the Guards back and they formed a line along the ridge which runs from left to right as you look up the hill with your back to the British Cemetery

Lees verder op http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_soissons_retz.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In oorlogsnood. Virginie Lovelings dagboek 1914-1918

Dinsdag 1 September '14 's morgens.
Het mooiste weder van de wereld, zooals het overigens sedert dagen en dagen was. De stad loopt vol werkeloozen en uitwijkelingen. Schrik heeft zich van de bevolking meester gemaakt.
De kranten kondigen aan, dat de koningskinderen met de Jan Breydel naar Engeland zijn vertrokken.

's Avonds 8 uur.
Een stilhoudend rijtuig, een belklank. Het zijn vluchtelingen, vrienden van Mechelen, een kunstschilder en zijn vrouw. Ze hebben niets bij zich dan een klein valiesje. Ze vragen om een nacht te slapen hier.
"Zeker, zeker, zoovele nachten als ge wilt."
Een tweede belklank: de dochter, de kleindochter, de zoon, en voordat deze neerzitten, de schoonzoon met twee vreemde dames, allen dakloos... maar er zijn hotels in Gent.
Het eerste paar blijft hier. Ze zijn doodmoede, eten kunnen ze niet, maar ze drinken thee. Laat blijven wij op en ze vertellen:
Vier dagen geleden zijn ze uit Mechelen ontvlucht:
"Gaat, gaat", kwam hun de schoonzoon, een geneesheer en Volksvertegenwoordiger, in allerijl verwittigen, "de gekwetsten worden naar Antwerpen vervoerd. Ik zal wel een plaats voor u kunnen vinden in den trein. Haast u, haast u, over een klein half uur vertrekt hij, anders geen redding meer."
Dat gebeurde tijdens het bombardement van de stad. Ze verzamelden, wat hun als 't hoognoodige onder de hand viel en ijlden de straat op; een vreeselijk schouwspel: verwonden in hun hemd, bleek, steenend of als wezenloos uit het hospitaal gedragen door ambulansiers; nieuwgekwetsten met verminkingen, bloedend, in gescheurde kleedij en verslagen aangezichten. "Laat mij achter, laat mij hier sterven," smeekte er een...
Toen ze te Antwerpen aankwamen was het zwarte nacht. Geen enkel licht in heel de groote stad. Het was akelig om het geslier der voeten te hooren van onzichtbare gedaanten, welke zich aan de muren en de vensterbanken vasthielden, zoekend-voortschrijdend, met een stok den bodem betastend om niet van het trottoir te sukkelen.
Hun doel was ver. Mijn bezoekers kenden den weg. Na wat dompelen in de duisternis en een paarmaal aan verkeerde bellen te hebben getrokken, kwamen ze terecht.
Het vriendenhuis werd ontsloten, met een reet, waar ze nauwelijks door konden; want elke lichtstraal te laten schijnen was streng verboden sedert het bommenwerpen uit zeppelins.
Gulheid, toewijding, de hoogste uiting van gastvrijheid, alles vonden ze er.
Helaas, na vier dagen kwam bevel, dat alle vreemdelingen Antwerpen verlaten moesten vóór 1 Sept. te middernacht.
Weder op de vlucht, weder in het onwetende, onbeschermde voortgezweept...
Aldus kwamen ze hier aan. Wat hadden ze niet doorgemaakt en gezien: het geharrewar aan 't station, het gedrang; de vechtpartijen voor eigen veiligheid; het worstelen om plaatsen in den trein te bemachtigen; het geschrei van kinderen, die hun ouders verloren hadden; het vloeken van wie een pak of een overjas kwijt was; de zwakken achteruitgestooten onmeedoogend door de krachtigen.
Wat er in Mechelen gebeurd is kan, zeiden ze, niet beschreven worden; in een stad van vijf en zeventig duizend inwoners zijn er nog een honderdtal gebleven. Alle huizen toe, vele in puin, de Lievevrouwekerk met de prachtige glasramen erg gehavend. Toch schijnen schilderijen gered; maar de miraculeuse vischvangst van Rubens is als een zeefoorsp.: seef doorschoten, bommen vlogen sissend door de lucht en ontploften, aan een bovenraam staande zagen zij er eene voorbijvliegen; een groote slag, een stofwolk hoog in de lucht opdwarrelend en nadat ze weg was, een groot gat in St. Rombautstoren, waardoor de klaarte scheen...

http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1914-09-01.htm#d_1914-09-01entry1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Laurence Jerrold, The Daily Telegraph (1st September, 1914)

I succeeded in smuggling myself onto one of the stations (in Paris) where trains of wounded were arriving. It is difficult now for a journalist to get anywhere. They are being watched and spied upon with energetic zeal by everyone. It is a wonder that we are even allowed to leave our homes or hotels, and to have our drinks at the cafe like any other inhabitants not under such grave disabilities.

In vain we ask for a permit to go to places fifty or a hundred miles from Paris. we are told at once 'Pas de journalists'. A journalist, therefore, is everywhere tabooed, an outlaw and an outcast in the eyes of the strict public official. We have, therefore, to make the best of it, and it is only through some exceeding act of condescension that we may venture into a railway station.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jtelegraph.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Duitse Marine-Luchtscheepvaart

De Duitse Marine was in 1914 het minst op een luchtoorlog voorbereid. Het bezat slechts één luchtschip, de L3, die op 23 mei 1914 aan de Marine was afgeleverd. Toch zou die Marine gedurende de eerste grote volkerenkrijg de belangrijkste rol spelen in de luchtscheepvaart. Van het type L3, dat als het zeppelintype ‘m’ te boek stond, had de Marine in totaal 6 eenheden in bestelling gegeven, waarvan het tweede exemplaar, de L4 op 1 september 1914 aan de Luftschiff Abteilung werd toegevoegd, (...)

Lees verder op http://home.scarlet.be/johnny.bonte18/teksten/luchtschepen/duitsland_1914_1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian Army, Southwest Front, 1 September 1915

http://carl.army.mil/nafziger/915RIAA.pdf

Austrian Army, Bulgarian Theater, 1 September 1916

http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/916AIAB.pdf
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Aug 2010 23:42, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

1 september 1915 - Ook in Zondereigen viel een slachtoffer te betreuren aan de draad. Op het gehucht Heikant werd landbouwer Jaak Verstraelen in de rug geschoten door een Duitse grenswacht. Het gezin Verstraelen had toestemming gekregen om hun gronden aan de Nederlandse kant te bewerken. Het verhaal gaat dat men Jaak verwittigd had van het feit dat er in Baarle-Hertog een brief was aangekomen van zijn zoon Jan, die als carabinier aan het front was. Een andere zoon, Karel, moest aan de overkant van de grens gaan hooien en er werd afgesproken dat Karel de brief zou oppikken en over de draad gooien. Een ‘bereidwillige’ Duitser zou op het gepaste ogenblik een oogje toeknijpen. Jaak had zich echter van uur vergist en de Duitser was intussen afgelost. Onwetend van dit feit negeerde hij dan ook de soldaat toen die hem sommeerde om te stoppen. Hierop werd hij getroffen. Hij overleed drie dagen later aan zijn verwonding. De soldaat was erg aangeslagen, want hij kende de boer goed omdat hij al maanden in het bakhuis van diens hoeve sliep. (Jan Huijbrechts in “Castelré 1914-1918, Begrensd Overleven”)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Titanic had two sister ships, what was the name of them?

Launched on 20th October 1910 Olympic was the first of the trio of White Star Liners. Under the command of Captain E.J. Smith (who was later to command the Titanic) she sailed on June 14th 1911 on her Maiden voyage to New York.

The Olympic was received well, but on 20th September 1911 she was involved in a collision with cruiser HMS Hawke. After limping back to Belfast she was repaired using components from her sister (Titanic) then under construction.

After the Titanic disaster, Olympic underwent various safety improvements including lifeboats for all aboard, and in October 1912 she returned to Belfast again for installation of an inner watertight skin.

On 1st September 1915 the Olympic was requisitioned by the British Government for war service as a troopship. Later she received a coat of dazzle paint designed to confuse enemy observers. Perhaps her most famous exploit of the war years was when she struck and sank a German submarine, U103.

Lees verder op http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100724051828AAESSdd
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Biography of August Stramm

August Stramm was born July 29, 1874. He is considered one of the first expressionist poets. Stramm was also a dramatist and served with the German Army during the First World War.

Born in Cathedrals the son of a civil servant Stramm's early career was working for the German Post Office Ministry. He married in 1902 and served his mandatory year's service with the German Army in 1896-97.

Based in Bremen, Stramm travelled to the U.S. several times during the period 1897-1900 before eventually settling in Berlin in 1905 where he studied political economy. During 1912-13 Stramm wrote two plays, Sancta Susanna and Die Haidebraut, the first of many to appear before the outbreak of war in 1914.

In 1914 he struck up a friendship with Herwarth Walden, with whom he established the Expressionist journal Der Sturm in which his first poems were published.

A reservist with the pre-war German Army Strumm attained the highest rank open to a civilian, that of Captain. When war broke out in August 1914 he was promptly called up for active service, initially being posted to France (serving in Alsace and on the Somme in 1915) before being sent to the Eastern Front in April 1915 for the Galician campaign. Earlier in January 1915 Stramm was awarded the Iron Cross (Second Class).

Acting as both Company Leader and, latterly, Battalion Commander and taking part in some 70 actions in all, Stramm was killed during hand-to-hand fighting - shot through the head - on 1 September 1915 at Horodec.

His colleague Herwarth Walden edited a posthumous collection of Stramm's poems which he published in 1919 entitled Dripping Blood.

Stromm was killed in action while serving on the Eastern Front on September 1st 1915.

http://www.poemhunter.com/august-stramm/biography/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Ball - British flying ACE of World War 1

(...) Albert was allocated a brand-new Nieuport A201, and during the last two weeks of August he gained ten victories, all but one being Roland CII's. On 22 August he scored a hat-trick - the first in the Royal Flying Corps - when he downed three Roland CII's within threequarters of an hour. His total now stood at seventeen.

The next day - 23 August - Albert was moved to 'A Flight' of Number 60 Squadron with a 'roving seek and destroy the enemy' role. This pleased him, as he preferred to fight alone.

On 1 September 1916 Albert went on leave for two weeks, and honours began to be heaped on him. He received the Distinguished Service Order, promotion to Flight Commander and the Russian award of the Order of St George, 4th Class.

Returning from leave, Albert was immediately in combat. Between 15-30 September he scored fourteen victories, including three hat-tricks! The first of these was on 21 September when three Roland CII aircraft went down in the space of two hours. The next trio - three Albatros C-types - went down within the space of an hour and threequarters on 28 September. The final three - An Albatros C-type and two Roland CII's - went down at 10.55 hours, 18.30 hours and 18.45 hours on 30 September 1916: Albert's score was now 31. (...)

Lees verder op http://albertball.homestead.com/Biography.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The story of the Household Battalion in the First World War
by Gerald William Harvey.

Formation of the Battalion (1st September 1916)
More than 600,000 British infantrymen were killed or wounded during the ten weeks of the battles of the Somme Valley which began on 1st July 1916. The battlefields of Flanders and France had become a maze of trench systems so complex as to require air observation to comprehend.
Trench warfare bore hardest on the infantry and in August 1916 it was decided by The King, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff and the Colonel of The 1st Life Guards, that the flood of recruits for the Household Cavalry would be diverted into badly needed infantry - a battalion, in fact, raised and trained within The Household Cavalry. On Friday, 1st September 1916, The Household Battalion formed at Hyde Park Barracks, under the wing of the Reserve Regiment of The 1st Life Guards. The battalion strength was 28 Officers and 900 men. Of the 84 Officers who eventually served in the new unit, 15 were 1st Life Guards, 11 were 2nd Life Guards, 8 were from The Blues, 22 were commissioned directly into The Household Battalion, 17 were Foot Guards and 11 came from cavalry and infantry of the Line.
Captain Wyndham Portal of The 1st Life Guards was appointed to the Lieutenant Colonelcy of the Battalion. He had served in The 1st Life Guards from 1908 to 1911 and rejoined from the Reserve in 1914. He was to command The Household Battalion throughout its existence.
The new infantry battalion trained in Hyde Park and later in September, moved to camp in Richmond Park. Shortly after The Household Battalion entrained for France, on 8th and 9th November 1916, the Reserve of the Battalion moved from London to Combermere Barracks. Windsor, with the Reserve Regiment of The 2nd Life Guards. From here, drafts of over 2,000 men were sent out to the Western Front to replace casualties suffered by the Household Battalion during its 14 months of combatant service. The men were paid the cavalry rate of pay, a few pence more than the infantry, and they wore cavalry service dress on furlough with a distinctive cap badge, the design of which is perpetuated in the present day Household Cavalry Forage Cap Badge.

http://www.maxwall.co.uk/army/history.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 1 September 1917.

Borkel en Schaft. Naar men verneemt werden dezer dagen een zevental Eerw. Paters Trappisten van de Abdij Achel en van Duitsche nationaliteit door de Duitsche overheid opgeroepen voor den krijgsdienst. Hoewel deze Paters thans op Hollandsch grondgebied vertoefden, hebben zij aan dezen oproep gehoor gegeven en hebben zij zich naar het front begeven, waar zij als verplegers dienst zullen moeten doen.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WORLD WAR ONE: PREPARATION-CAMP GREEN and BAR-sur-AUBE

The 5th Division was officially activated for the first time on 1 September 1917. Among the active duty units designated to form the division was the 61st Infantry Regiment. While the 61st REGT had been constituted 15 May 1917 in the Regular Army at Gettysburg PA, it was in training at Camp Green, NC at the time of assignment to the 5th Division. Training continued for the 61st at Camp Green where replacements, inducted into service by the newly established draft, were brought to Regular Army standards. Due to the lack of equipment and the cold winter, training was limited. Machine-guns were not available nor were artillery pieces. With plenty of time and a large issue of rifle ammunition, training emphasized individual combat and the development of snipers. Artillery training would wait until the units reached France where they would be equipped with French cannons. Morale was high. This was a "Just War", "The War to End All Wars" and was supported by the public and the soldiers.

Lees verder op http://one-six-one.fifthinfantrydivision.com/161pg2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

92 Squadron

92 Squadron was formed on 1 September 1917 and was sent to France where it operated on the Western Front, including the Somme offensive of 1918. Following the end of the First World War the Squadron was disbanded in 1919.

http://battleofbritainblog.com/the-squadrons/92-squadron/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 23:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First World War, 1914-1918

1917 - The most important military development of the year was the Riga Offensive of 1 September 1917. This was commanded by General Oscar von Hutier, and saw the first appearance of what became known at Hutier Tactics. These involved abandoning the massive bombardment, replacing it with a short sharp burst of fire followed quickly by infantry attacks, masked by smoke and gas, which stopped enemy strong points being effective. The infantry bypassed any strong points, leaving them for follow up troops, and kept moving, preventing the enemy from reforming. These tactics were used during the 1918 offensives.

Rickard, J. (18 February 2001), First World War, 1914-1918, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_wwI.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Sep 2010 0:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mont St Quentin – Péronne, 31 August – 2 September 1918

(...) On Mont St Quentin, however, the Australians, few in number, were unable to hold their gains and German reserves drove back the scattered troops from the crest. To one German writer this was proof ‘that even good Australian troops were by no means invincible if strongly attacked’. But the Australians held on just below the summit and next day it was recaptured and firmly held. On that day also, 1 September 1918, Australian forces broke into Péronne and took most of the town. The next day it completely fell into Australian hands. (...)

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/battlefields/mont-st-quentin-peronne-1918.html

Robert MacTier

Robert Mactier VC (17 May 1890- 1 September 1918) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 28 years old, and a Private in the 23rd Battalion, (Victoria), Australian Imperial Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 1 September 1918 during the attack on Mont St. Quentin, near Péronne, France, the bombing patrols had failed to clear up several enemy strong-points and the battalion could not advance. Private Mactier thereupon rushed out of the trench, closed with and killed the machine-gun crew of eight men and threw the gun over the parapet. He then moved to another strong-point and captured six men. He disposed of a third machine-gun, but in tackling a fourth was killed. This action enabled the battalion to capture Mont St. Quentin a few hours later.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, Australia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_MacTier

Albert David Lowerson

Albert David (Alby) Lowerson VC (2 August 1896- 15 December 1945) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 22 years old, and a sergeant in the 21st Battalion, (Victoria), Australian Imperial Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 1 September 1918 at Mont St. Quentin, France, an attacking party was held up by a strong-point manned by 12 machine guns. Sergeant Lowerson took seven men and, attacking the flanks of the post, rushed the strongpoint and captured it, together with the 12 guns and 50 prisoners. He was severely wounded in the right thigh, but refused to leave the front line until the position had been consolidated.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Australian War Memorial (Canberra, Australia).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_David_Lowerson

Edgar T. Towner

Edgar Thomas Towner VC, MC (19 April 1890 – 18 August 1972) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces. A lieutenant in the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, Towner was awarded the Victoria Cross in 1918 for his actions during an attack on Mont St. Quentin on the Western Front.

Born in Queensland to a farming family, Towner enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force in 1915. Posted to the transport section of the 25th Battalion, he served in Egypt until his unit was sent to the Western Front. He then transferred to the 2nd Machine Gun Battalion where he was commissioned as a lieutenant and twice Mentioned in Despatches for his leadership. During June 1918, Towner led a machine gun section in attack near Morlancourt and assisted the infantry in reaching its objectives under heavy fire, for which he was awarded the Military Cross. In September, again commanding a machine gun section, he was involved in the Allied counteroffensive that broke the German lines at Mont St. Quentin and Péronne. Fighting for thirty hours after being wounded, his "conspicuous bravery, initiative and devotion to duty" earned him the Victoria Cross, which was presented by King George V in April 1919.

Discharged in August, Towner returned to Australia. He was appointed a director of the Russleigh Pastoral Company, and briefly re-enlisted during the Second World War, when he was promoted to major. A keen geographer, he was awarded the Dr Thomson Foundation Gold Medal in 1956 for his geographical work. Unmarried, he died in 1972 at the age of 82. (...)

On 1 September 1918, Towner was in command of No. 3 Section of the 7th Machine Gun Company during an attack on Mont St. Quentin, near Péronne. Armed with four Vickers machine guns, the section was attached to the right flank of the 24th Australian Infantry Battalion, whose principal objective was to seize the summit of Mont St. Quentin. To accomplish this, the battalion would have to advance through the village of Feuillaucourt before moving down to the Péronne road. The Australians began their advance at 06:00 behind an artillery screen, with Towner's section covering a front of 1,400 metres (1,500 yd). Visibility was limited by rain, and Australian casualties soon began to mount. Locating a German machine gun that was causing heavy losses among the advancing troops, Towner rushed the position and single-handedly killed the crew with his revolver. Having captured the gun, he then turned it on the Germans.

Once Feuillaucourt had fallen, the 24th Battalion continued to the Péronne road. However, the Germans had occupied a copse of trees and put up strong resistance, halting the advance. German troops were observed massing for a counter-attack, so Towner moved forward with several of his men, two Vickers guns, and the captured German gun, and brought the assembling Germans under concentrated fire, inflicting many casualties. Attempting to retire, a party of twenty-five German soldiers were cut off by Towner's guns and taken prisoner. Under heavy incoming fire, Towner then scouted over open terrain to locate advantageous positions from which his guns could offer further support. When he moved his section forward, the machine gunners were able to engage more groups of German soldiers; their aggressive action enabled the advance to be renewed, and the battalion attained the cover of a sunken section of the Péronne road. However, on rejoining them Towner found that his section was growing short of ammunition, so he made his way back across the fire-swept ground and located a German machine gun, which he brought forward along with several boxes of ammunition. This he brought into action "in full view of the enemy"; his effective fire forced the Germans to retire further, and allowed one of the stalled Australian flanks to push ahead.

German machine gunners had occupied a commanding vantage overlooking the sunken road, and began to rain down heavy fire around Towner's position. One of the bullets struck his helmet, inflicting a gaping wound to his scalp. Refusing to be evacuated for medical treatment, Towner continued firing his gun as the German pressure increased and the situation grew critical. Eventually the Australian infantry were forced to retire a short distance, but with all its crew having become casualties, one gun was left behind. Alone, Towner dashed out over no man's land and retrieved the weapon. With this gun he "continued to engage the enemy whenever they appeared", putting a German machine gun out of action with his accurate fire.[

Throughout the night, Towner frequented the front lines and "continued to fight and ... inspire his men". He provided supporting fire for the 21st Australian Infantry Battalion as they assaulted a heavily fortified crater on Mont St. Quentin's summit, and repeatedly reconnoitred the German position to reported on troop movements. The next morning his section assisted in repulsing a large German counterattack before Towner was finally evacuated with exhaustion—thirty hours after being wounded. Initially admitted to the 41st Casualty Clearing Station, he was transported by train to the 2nd Red Cross Hospital at Rouen. For his actions during the battle, Towner was awarded the Victoria Cross—the third of six Australians to receive the medal during the fighting around Mont St. Quentin and Péronne.

The full citation for Towner's Victoria Cross appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette on 14 December 1918, reading:

War Officer, 14th December, 1918.
His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Officers, Warrant Officer, Non-commissioned Officers and Men: —

Lt. Edgar Thomas Towner, M.C., 2nd Bn., Aus. M.G. Corps.
For most conspicuous bravery, initiative and devotion to duty on 1st September, 1918, in the attack on Mont St. Quentin, near Peronne, when in charge of four Vickers guns. During the early stages of the advance he located and captured, single-handed, an enemy machine-gun which was causing casualties, and by turning it on the enemy inflicted severe losses.
Subsequently, by the skilful, tactical handling of his guns, he cut off and captured twenty-five of the enemy.
Later, by fearless reconnaissance under heavy fire, and by the energy, foresight and promptitude with which he brought fire to bear on various enemy groups, he gave valuable support to the infantry advance.
Again, when short of ammunition, he secured an enemy machine-gun, which he mounted and fired in full view of the enemy, causing the enemy to retire further, and enabling our infantry to advance. Under intense fire, although wounded, he maintained the fire of this gun at a very critical period.
During the following night he steadied and gave valuable support to a small detached post, and by his coolness and cheerfulness inspirited the men in a great degree.
Throughout the night he kept close watch by personal reconnaissance on the enemy movements, and was evacuated exhausted thirty hours after being wounded.
The valour and resourcefulness of Lt. Towner undoubtedly saved a very critical situation, and contributed largely to the success of the attack.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Thomas_Towner
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Sep 2010 0:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bolshevik newspaper, Krasnaya Gazeta, announcing the start of the Red Terror on 1st September, 1918.

We will turn our hearts into steel, which we will temper in the fire of suffering and the blood of fighters for freedom. We will make our hearts cruel, hard, and immovable, so that no mercy will enter them, and so that they will not quiver at the sight of a sea of enemy blood. We will let loose the floodgates of that sea. Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies in scores of hundreds. Let them be thousands; let them drown themselves in their own blood. For the blood of Lenin and Uritsky, Zinovief and Volodarski, let there be floods of the blood of the bourgeois - more blood, as much as possible.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSterror.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Sep 2010 0:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Buckley, Alexander Henry (1891 - 1918)

BUCKLEY, ALEXANDER HENRY (1891-1918), soldier and farmer, was born on 22 July 1891 at Warren, New South Wales, fourth child of James Buckley, selector, and his wife Julia, née Falkanhagan, both of whom were Victorian-born. He was educated at home by his parents and later farmed with his father on Homebush, a property near Gulargambone.

On 3 February 1916 Buckley enlisted as a private in the Australian Imperial Force and embarked for England in June with reinforcements for the 54th Battalion. He joined the battalion at Flers, France, on 17 November, served on the Somme in the winter of 1916-17 and in 1917 fought in the battles of Bullecourt, Polygon Wood and Broodseinde; he was made temporary corporal in November. Next April his unit moved into the Villers-Bretonneux sector and in August took part in the Battle of Amiens.

On 1 September 1918 Buckley's battalion was involved in an operation aimed at clearing the area between Mont St Quentin and Péronne, a medieval walled town surrounded by a moat. The 54th's task was to take the ground between Péronne and the River Somme, then move in on Péronne 'if not too strongly opposed'. Advancing in drizzling rain and under heavy fire, it took the first line of enemy trenches but was held up by a nest of machine-gunners. Accompanied by Corporal A. C. Hall, Buckley stalked these gunners and rushed the post, shooting four men and taking twenty-two prisoners. The Germans retreated to Péronne, entering the city by a large bridge which they destroyed. The only remaining bridge on the battalion's front was a foot-bridge defended by machine-guns. With three other members of his company, Buckley tried to force his way across under heavy fire but was killed in the attempt. He was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross, the citation for which praised his 'initiative, resource and courage'. He was buried in the Péronne communal cemetery extension.

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070476b.htm

Hall, Arthur Charles (1896 - 1978)

HALL, ARTHUR CHARLES (1896-1978), soldier and grazier, was born on 11 August 1896 at Granville, Sydney, eldest son of Charles Hall, grazier, of Glenelg station near Nyngan, and his wife Emma Jane, née King. He attended All Saints' College, Bathurst, in 1909-12 and became an overseer on his father's properties.

Hall enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force at Dubbo on 3 April 1916 and was posted to the 6th Reinforcements for the 54th Battalion, embarking in October. After further training in Britain, he joined his battalion on 8 February 1917 at Montauban, France. He received a severe leg wound on 30 March but returned to his unit on 21 April, and fought in the 2nd battle of Bullecourt in May and at Polygon Wood in September; he was promoted lance corporal in June and corporal in October. In 1918 his battalion returned to the Somme to fight at Villers-Bretonneux in April, Morlancourt in July, and in the general offensive from August.

On 1 September, while the 54th Battalion was engaged in an attack on Péronne, a machine-gun post was checking the advance. Single-handed, Hall 'rushed the position, shot four of the occupants and captured nine others and two machine-guns. Then crossing the objective with a small party, he afforded excellent covering support for the remainder of the company'. He was continually in advance of the main party, located many points of resistance and personally led parties to attack them. Next day, while his unit mopped up at Péronne, Hall rescued a wounded mate under shell-fire. For his actions on 1 and 2 September he was awarded the Victoria Cross. On 11 October he was transferred to the 56th Battalion and on 6 March 1919 was promoted temporary sergeant a rank he retained until his discharge from the A.I.F. on 3 August in Sydney.

After demobilization Hall returned to the Nyngan district where he bought a pastoral property, Gundooee station, near Coolabah. On 26 April 1927 he married Catherine Jessie Hemington Harris at the Union Church, Lahey's Creek, with Anglican rites. In 1942 he served as a lieutenant in the 7th Garrison Battalion and on returning to Gundooee carried on his pastoral activities, running sheep and building up a fine herd of Poll Devon cattle. He was president of the Nyngan Picnic Race Club for twenty years and was a foundation member and keen competitor in the Coolabah District Rifle Club; he was also active in the Nyngan District Historical Society.

Survived by his wife, a daughter and three sons, Hall died in Nyngan District Hospital on 25 February 1978. He was buried at the tiny Anglican Church of St Matthew's, West Bogan, which had been built from timber cut and milled on his property. His estate was sworn for probate at $160,191. He left his Victoria Cross to the Australian War Memorial.

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A090152b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Sep 2010 0:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters home: 'Pray for me'
3 November, 1998

Lance-Corporal Frank Earley was a young journalist from Derby who regularly wrote to his family from the front.
His letters were normally full of enthusiasm and excitement. In July 1918 he wrote, "As you see, I am still alive and well, and as usual enjoying life to the full."

It is only in his very last letter, on 1 September 1918, that he revealed his more reflective side.

The next day Frank Earley suffered a serious wound to his chest and died some hours later. He was 19.

Sunday afternoon, 1 Sep, 1918.

My dear Father,
It is a strange feeling to me but a very real one, that every letter now that I write home to you or to the little sisters may be the last that I shall write or you read. I do not want you to think that I am depressed; indeed on the contrary, I am very cheerful. But out here, in odd moments the realisation comes to me of how close death is to us. A week ago I was talking with a man, a catholic, from Preston, who had been out here for nearly four years, untouched. He was looking forward with certainty to going on leave soon. And now he is dead - killed in a moment during our last advance. Well it was God's will.

I say this to you because I hope that you will realise, as I do, the possibility of the like happening to myself. I feel very glad myself that I can look the fact in the face without fear or misgiving. Much as I hope to live thro' it all for your sakes and my little sisters! I am quite prepared to give my life as so many have done before me. All I can do is put myself in God's hands for him to decide, and you and the little ones pray for me to the Sacred Heart and Our Lady.

I hope that you will not move out of the old house yet. Write and let me know when anything happens. I see that you went to Preston a few days ago. It seems years and years since I tried to get drowned in the canal.

Well I have not much time left and I must end.
With my dear love. Pray for me.
Your son
Frank.


Frank Earley is buried at Bac-de-Sud Military Cemetery, Bailleulval, nr Arras.

His letters are held by the documents library at the Imperial War Museum. Extracts appear in 1918 Year of Victory by Malcolm Brown.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/194954.stm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Sep 2010 0:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Pershing's Despatch of 1 September 1919

Reproduced below is an extract from AEF Commander-in-Chief General John Pershing's official despatch dated 1 September 1919. The extract summarised events from the AEF's inception through to the end of 1917.

In his report Pershing stressed the criticality of the Allied position on the Western Front following Russia's defeat (and the real possibility of Italian defeat shortly afterwards). He noted that unless one million U.S. servicemen were despatched promptly to the Western Front there was a credible possibility that the Germans would hasten the transfer of their forces from the Eastern Front and breakthrough French and British forces in the West.

Pershing also reiterated his determination to preserve the independence of U.S. forces - not least, he recorded, because of what he regarded as the essentially defensive trench tactics employed by the French and British. Pershing believed that only open warfare would win the war and consequently wished to ensure that U.S. troops were trained and deployed accordingly.

Official Report of U.S. AEF Commander-in-Chief General John Pershing, 1 September 1919

Period of Organization

I assumed the duties of this office on May 26, 1917, and, accompanied by a small staff, departed for Europe on board the S.S. Baltic, May 28th. We arrived at London on June 9th and, after spending some days in consultation with the British authorities, reached Paris on June 13th.

Following the rather earnest appeals of the Allies for American troops, it was decided to send to France, at once, one complete division and nine newly organized regiments of Engineers. The division was formed of regular regiments, necessary transfers of officers and men were made, and recruits were assigned to increase these units to the required strength.

The offer by the Navy Department of one regiment of Marines to be reorganized as Infantry was accepted by the Secretary of War, and it became temporarily a part of the First Division.

Prior to our entrance into the war, the regiments of our small army were very much scattered, and we had no organized units, even approximating a division, that could be sent overseas prepared to take the field.

To meet the new conditions of warfare an entirely new organization was adopted in which our Infantry divisions were to consist of 4 regiments of Infantry of about treble their original size, 3 regiments of Artillery, 14 machine-gun companies, 1 Engineer regiment, 1 Signal battalion, 1 troop of Cavalry, and other auxiliary units, making a total strength of about 28,000 men.

The relatively low strength of the German forces on the Western front led the Allies with much confidence to attempt a decision on this front; but the losses were very heavy and the effort signally failed. The failure caused a serious reaction especially on French morale, both in the army and throughout the country, and attempts to carry out extensive or combined operations were indefinitely suspended.

In the five months ending June 30th, German submarines had accomplished the destruction of more than three and one-quarter million tons of Allied shipping. During three years Germany had seen practically all her offensives except Verdun crowned with success.

Her battle lines were held on foreign soil and she had withstood every Allied attack since the Marne. The German general staff could now foresee the complete elimination of Russia, the possibility of defeating Italy before the end of the year and, finally, the campaign of 1918 against the French and British on the Western front which might terminate the war.

It cannot be said that German hopes of final victory were extravagant, either as viewed at that time or as viewed in the light of history. Financial problems of the Allies were difficult, supplies were becoming exhausted and their armies had suffered tremendous losses.

Discouragement existed not only among the civil population but throughout the armies as well. Such was the Allied morale that, although their superiority on the Western front during the last half of 1916 and during 1917 amounted to 20 per cent, only local attacks could be undertaken and their effect proved wholly insufficient against the German defence.

Allied resources in manpower at home were low and there was little prospect of materially increasing their armed strength, even in the face of the probability of having practically the whole military strength of the Central Powers against them in the spring of 1918.

This was the state of affairs that existed when we entered the war. While our action gave the Allies much encouragement, yet this was temporary, and a review of conditions made it apparent that America must make a supreme material effort as soon as possible.

After duly considering the tonnage possibilities I cabled the following to Washington on July 6, 1917: "Plans should contemplate sending over at least 1,000,000 men by next May."

Organisation Projects

A general organization project, covering as far as possible the personnel of all combat, staff, and administrative units, was forwarded to Washington on July 11th.

This was prepared by the Operations Section of my staff and adopted in joint conference with the War Department Committee then in France. It embodied my conclusions on the military organization and effort required of America after a careful study of French and British experience.

In forwarding this project I stated: "It is evident that a force of about 1,000,000 is the smallest unit which in modern war will be a complete, well-balanced, and independent fighting organization. However, it must be equally clear that the adoption of this size force as a basis of study should not be construed as representing the maximum force which should be sent to or which will be needed in France. It is taken as the force which may be expected to reach France in time for an offensive in 1918, and as a unit and basis of organization. Plans for the future should be based, especially in reference to the manufacture of artillery, aviation, and other material, on three times this force, i.e., at least 3,000,000 men."

The original project for organized combat units remained our guide until the end.

While this general organization project provided certain Services of Supply troops, which were an integral part of the larger combat units, it did not include the great body of troops and services required to maintain an army overseas.

To disembark 2,000,000 men, move them to their training areas, shelter them, handle and store the quantities of supplies and equipment they required called for an extraordinary and immediate effort in construction. To provide the organization for this purpose, a project for engineer services of the rear, including railways, was cabled to Washington August 5, 1917, followed on September 18, 1917, by a complete service of the rear project, which listed item by item the troops considered necessary for the Services of Supply.

American Front and Line of Communications

Before developing plans for a line of communications it was necessary to decide upon the probable sector of the front for the eventual employment of a distinctive American force.

Our mission was offensive and it was essential to make plans for striking the enemy where a definite military decision could be gained. While the Allied armies had endeavoured to maintain the offensive, the British, in order to guard the Channel ports, were committed to operations in Flanders and the French to the portion of the front protecting Paris. Both lacked troops to operate elsewhere on a large scale.

To the east the great fortified district east of Verdun and around Metz menaced central France, protected the most exposed portion of the German line of communications, that between Metz and Sedan, and covered the Briey iron region, from which the enemy obtained the greater part of the iron required for munitions and material.

The coal fields east of Metz were also covered by these same defences. A deep advance east of Metz, or the capture of the Briey region, by threatening the invasion of rich German territory in the Moselle Valley and the Saar Basin, thus curtailing her supply of coal or iron, would have a decisive effect in forcing a withdrawal of German troops from northern France.

The military and economic situation of the enemy, therefore, indicated Lorraine as the field promising the most fruitful results for the employment of our armies.

The complexity of trench life had enormously increased the tonnage of supplies required by troops. Not only was it a question of providing food but enormous quantities of munitions and material were needed. Upon the railroads of France fell the burden of meeting the heavy demands of the three and one-half million Allied combatants then engaged.

The British were crowding the Channel ports and the French were exploiting the manufacturing centre of Paris, so that the railroads of northern France were already much overtaxed. Even though the Channel ports might be used to a limited extent for shipments through England, the rail-roads leading eastward would have to cross British and French zones of operation, thus making the introduction of a line of communications based on ports and railways in that region quite impracticable.

If the American Army was to have an independent and flexible system it could not use the lines behind the British-Belgium front nor those in rear of the French front covering Paris.

The problem confronting the American Expeditionary Forces was then to superimpose its rail communications on those of France where there would be the least possible disturbance to the arteries of supply of the two great Allied armies already in the field.

This would require the utmost use of those lines of the existing French railroad system that could bear an added burden. Double-track railroad lines from the ports of the Loire and the Gironde Rivers unite at Bourges, running thence via Nevers, Dijon, and Neufchateau, with lines radiating therefrom toward the right wing of the Allied front.

It was estimated that these with the collateral lines available, after considerable improvement, could handle an additional 50,000 tons per day, required for an army of 2,000,000 men. The lines selected, therefore, were those leading from the comparatively unused south-Atlantic ports of France to the northeast where it was believed the American Armies could be employed to the best advantage.

In the location of our main depots of supply, while it was important that they should be easily accessible, yet they must also be at a safe distance, as we were to meet an aggressive enemy capable of taking the offensive in any one of several directions.

The area embracing Tours, Orleans, Montargis, Nevers, and Chateauroux was chosen, as it was centrally located with regard to all points on the arc of the Western front.

The ports of St. Nazaire, La Pallice, and Bassens were designated for permanent use, while Nantes, Bordeaux, and Pauillac were for emergency use. Several smaller ports, such as St. Malo, Sables-d'Olonne, and Bayonne, were available chiefly for the importation of coal from England. From time to time, certain trans-Atlantic ships were sent to Le Havre and Cherbourg.

In anticipation of a large increase in the amount of tonnage that might be required later, arrangements were made during the German offensive of 1918 to utilize the ports of Marseilles and Toulon as well as other smaller ports on the Mediterranean.

For all practical purposes the American Expeditionary Forces were based on the American Continent. Three thousand miles of ocean to cross with the growing submarine menace confronting us, the quantity of ship tonnage that would be available then unknown and a line of communications by land 400 miles long from French ports to our probable front presented difficulties that seemed almost insurmountable as compared with those of our Allies.

Training

Soon after our arrival in Europe careful study was made of the methods followed by our Allies in training combat troops. Both the French and British maintained continuously a great system of schools and training centres, which provided for both theoretical and practical instruction of inexperienced officers and non-commissioned officers.

These centres were required not only to train new troops, but to prepare officers and soldiers for advancement by giving them a short course in the duties of their new grades. These school systems made it possible to spread rapidly a knowledge of the latest methods developed by experience and at the same time counteract false notions.

A similar scheme was adopted in August, 1917, for our Armies in which the importance of teaching throughout our forces a sound fighting doctrine of our own was emphasized. It provided for troop training in all units up to include divisions.

Corps centres of instruction for non-commissioned officers and unit commanders of all arms were established. These centres also provided special training for the instructors needed at corps schools. Base training centres for replacement troops and special classes of soldiers, such as cooks and mechanics, were designated.

The army and corps schools were retained under the direct supervision of the Training Section, General Staff. The schools mentioned graduated 21,330 non-commissioned officers and 13,916 officers.

Particular care was taken to search the ranks for the most promising soldiers, in order to develop leaders for the command of platoons and companies. There were graduated from these candidate schools in France 10,976 soldiers.

Every advantage was taken of the experience of our Allies in training officers. It was early recommended to the War Department that French and British officers be asked for to assist in the instruction of troops in the United States.

Pending the organization and development of our own schools, a large number of our officers were sent to centres of instruction of the Allied armies.

The long period of trench warfare had so impressed itself upon the French and British that they had almost entirely dispensed with training for open warfare. It was to avoid this result in our Army and to encourage the offensive spirit that the following was published in October, 1917:

(a) The above methods to be employed must remain or become distinctly our own.

(b) All instruction must contemplate the assumption of a vigorous offensive. This purpose will be emphasized in every phase of training until it becomes a settled habit of thought.

(c) The general principles governing combat remain unchanged in their essence. This war has developed special features which involve special phases of training, but the fundamental ideas enunciated in our Drill Regulations, Small Arms Firing Manual, Field Service Regulations, and other service manuals remain the guide for both officers and soldiers and constitute the standard by which their efficiency is to be measured, except as modified in detail by instructions from these headquarters.

(d) The rifle and the bayonet are the principal weapons of the infantry soldier. He will be trained to a high degree of skill as a marksman, both on the target range and in field firing. An aggressive spirit must be developed until the soldier feels himself, as a bayonet fighter, invincible in battle.

(e) All officers and soldiers should realize that at no time in our history has discipline been so important; therefore, discipline of the highest order must be exacted at all times. The standards for the American Army will be those of West Point. The rigid attention, upright bearing, attention to detail, uncomplaining obedience to instructions required of the cadet will be required of every officer and soldier of our armies in France.


The system of training profoundly influenced the combat efficiency of our troops by its determined insistence upon an offensive doctrine and upon training in warfare of movement.

Summer of 1917 to Spring of 1918

In order to hinder the enemy's conquest of Russia and, if possible, prevent a German attack on Italy, or in the near east, the Allies sought to maintain the offensive on the Western front as far as their diminished strength and morale would permit.

On June 7, 1917, the British took Messines, while a succession of operations known as the Third Battle of Ypres began on July 31st and terminated with the capture of the Passchendaele Ridge, November 6th-10th. The British attack at Cambrai is of special interest, since it was here that American troops (Eleventh Engineers) first participated in active fighting.

The French successfully attacked on a limited front near Verdun, capturing Mort Homme on August 20th and advancing their lines to La Forge Brook. In another offensive, begun on October 23rd, they gained considerable ground on Chemin des Dames Ridge.

These French attacks were characterized by most careful preparation to insure success in order to improve the morale of their troops.

Notwithstanding these Allied attacks on the Western front, the immense gains by the German armies in the east, culminating at Riga on September 3rd, precipitated the collapse of Russia. The following month, the Austrians with German assistance surprised the Italians and broke through the lines at Caporetto, driving the Italian armies back to the Piave River, inflicting a loss of 300,000 men, 600,000 rifles, 3,000 guns, and enormous stores.

This serious crisis compelled the withdrawal of 10 French and British divisions from the Western front to Italy. The German situation on all other theatres was so favourable that as early as November they began the movement of divisions toward the Western front.

A review of the situation showed that with Russia out of the war the Central Powers would be able to release a large number of divisions for service elsewhere, and that during the spring and summer of 1918, without interfering with the status quo at Salonika, they could concentrate on the Western front a force much stronger than that of the Allies.

In view of this, it was represented to the War Department in December as of the utmost importance that the Allied preparations be expedited.

On December 31, 1917, there were 176,665 American troops in France and but one division had appeared on the front. Disappointment at the delay of the American effort soon began to develop.

French and British authorities suggested the more rapid entry of our troops into the line and urged the amalgamation of our troops with their own, even insisting upon the curtailment of training to conform to the strict minimum of trench requirements they considered necessary.

My conclusion was that, although the morale of the German people and of the armies was better than it had been for two years, only an untoward combination of circumstances could give the enemy a decisive victory before American support as recommended could be made effective, provided the Allies secured unity of action.

However, a situation might arise which would necessitate the temporary use of all American troops in the units of our Allies for the defensive, but nothing in the situation justified the relinquishment of our firm purpose to form our own Army under our own flag.

While the Germans were practicing for open warfare and concentrating their most aggressive personnel in shock divisions, the training of the Allies was still limited to trench warfare. As our troops were being trained for open warfare, there was every reason why we could not allow them to be scattered among our Allies, even by divisions, much less as replacements, except by pressure of sheer necessity.

Any sort of permanent amalgamation would irrevocably commit America's fortunes to the hands of the Allies. Moreover, it was obvious that the lack of homogeneity would render these mixed divisions difficult to manoeuvre and almost certain to break up under stress of defeat, with the consequent mutual recrimination.

Again, there was no doubt that the realization by the German people that independent American divisions, corps, or armies were in the field with determined purpose would be a severe blow to German morale and prestige. It was also certain that an early appearance of the larger American units on the front would be most beneficial to the morale of the Allies themselves.

Accordingly, the First Division, on January 19, 1918, took over a sector north of Toul; the Twenty-sixth Division went to the Soissons front early in February; the Forty-second Division entered the line near Luneville, February 21st, and the Second Division near Verdun, March 18th.

Meanwhile, the First Army Corps Headquarters, Maj. Gen. Hunter Liggett, commanding, was organized at Neufchateau on January 10th, and the plan to create an independent American sector on the Lorraine front was taking shape.

This was the situation when the great German offensive was launched in 1918.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/pershingreport1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2011 6:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SEPTEMBER 1, 1914

Paris.
==Kluck’s German 1st Army is within thirty miles of Paris
==Joffre places the 6th Army under Gallieni’s command
==Paris is again bombed by a German aircraft
==The French government decides to leave for Bordeaux by the next day
==The frightened Paris Prefect of Police resigns “for reasons of health”

The BEF Front.
==The German 1st Army clashes with the French 6th Army and with the retreating BEF south of Compiègne at Néry [dawn] (where British Battery L fights to its last shell and its last two men), at Crépy-en-Valois, and at Villers-Cottérêts [midday]: large-scale cavalry losses cripple the Germans’ ability to scout on their right flank
==In a tense conference in Paris, Kitchener confronts the sullen Sir John French and orders him to cooperate with the French Army [day]
==The gap between the corps of the BEF is finally closed after a week [day’s end]
==The panicky British headquarters retreats rapidly from Dammartin: a shaken Henry Wilson orders his staff to “Drive like hell for Paris.” [night]

==Joffre receives more reports that the German 1st Army is shifting southeastwards [late night], including evidence from a bloodstained map that was retrieved from a dead German staff officer, but it is not until Sep.03 that this crucial change in direction is clearly confirmed by Allied intelligence

The Northwestern Front.
==French 5th Army crosses the Aisne despite the extreme fatigue of its troops [by evening]
==Pétain takes command of the 6th Division in the 5th Army
==The Germans take Soissons and Craonne

French Headquarters (GQG).
==GQG issues General Order No. 4, calling for a continued Allied retreat followed by a counterattack on the German center using troops from Paris [200.PM]

==> http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne04.htm
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