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9 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jun 2006 5:52    Onderwerp: 9 juni Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 9. Juni 1916
Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Französische Gegenstöße bei Vaux abgewiesen

Großes Hauptquartier, 9. Juni.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unsere Artillerie brachte bei Lihons (südwestlich von Peronne) feindliche Munitionslager zur Entzündung; sie beschoß feindliche Lager und Truppentransporte am Bahnhof Suippes (in der Champagne) und hatte auf dem westlichen Maasufer sichtlich gute Erfolge gegen französische Batterien sowie gegen Infanterie und Lastkraftwagenkolonnen.
Rechts der Maas schreitet der Kampf für uns günstig fort. Feindliche, mit starken Kräften geführte Gegenangriffe am Gehölz von Thiaumont und zwischen Chapitrewald und der Feste Vaux brachen ausnahmslos unter schwerer feindlicher Einbuße zusammen.
In den Vogesen östlich von St. Die gelang es, durch Minensprengungen ausgedehnte Teile der feindlichen Gräben zu zerstören.
Östlicher und Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Bei den deutschen Truppen keine Veränderung.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)

Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Angriff auf ein Panzerwerk von Primolano

Wien, 9. Juni.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Kämpfe im Nordosten waren gestern weniger heftig. Bei Kolki, nördlich von Nowo Alexiniec, nordwestlich von Tarnopol und am Dnjestr wurden russische Angriffe unter schweren feindlichen Verlusten abgeschlagen. An der beßarabischen Grenze herrschte Ruhe.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Auf der Hochfläche von Asiago eroberten unsere Truppen den Monte Sisemol und nördlich des Monte Meletta den von Alpini stark besetzten Monte Castelgomberto. Unsere schweren Mörser haben das Feuer gegen den Monte Lisser, das westliche Panzerwerk des befestigten Raumes von Primolano, eröffnet. Die Zahl der gefangenen Italiener hat sich um 28 Offiziere und 550 Mann, unsere Beute um 5 Maschinengewehre erhöht. Unsere Marineflieger belegten die Bahnanlagen von Portogruaro. Latisana, Pallazuolo, den Innenhafen von Grado und eine feindliche Seeflugzeugstation ausgiebig mit Bomben. Unsere Landflieger warfen auf die Bahnhöfe von Schio und Piovene Bomben.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 9. Juni.
An der Irakfront keine wesentliche Veränderung.
An der Kaukasusfront fiel auf dem rechten Flügel nichts vor, im Zentrum Feuergefecht der Infanterie. Auf dem linken Flügel machte eine unserer Abteilungen einen heftigen Feuerüberfall auf schanzende feindliche Truppen, vertrieb sie aus ihrer Stellung und besetzte diese.
An der Kaukasusfront fanden gestern keine wichtigen Unternehmungen statt, abgesehen von unbedeutenden Patrouillen- und Vorpostengefechten auf einigen Abschnitten der Front. Am linken Flügel wurde ein überraschender Angriff, den der Feind mit schwachen Kräften unternommen hatte, mit Verlusten für den Feind abgeschlagen.
Wir verjagten aus dem Gebiet der Meerengen zwei feindliche Flugzeuge, die über Sed ül Bahr und Kum Kale flogen. Ein Patrouillenboot des Feindes, welches versuchte, sich Kuch Ada zu nähern, wurde von zwei unserer Artilleriegeschosse getroffen und mußte sich auf die hohe See zurückziehen, nachdem es einen Erwiderungsschuß abgefeuert hatte.
An der Front bei Aden wurden zwei feindliche Flugzeuge durch unser Feuer beschädigt und abgeschossen.


Die U-Boot-Beute im Mai 1916

Berlin, 9. Juni.
Im Monat Mai wurden durch deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Unterseeboote und durch Minen 56 Schiffe des Vierverbandes mit einem Bruttogehalt von 118500 Registertonnen versenkt.

Der Chef des Admiralstabs der Marine. 1)
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jun 2006 5:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 9

1915 William Jennings Bryan resigns as U.S. secretary of state

On June 9, 1915, United States Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan resigns due to his concerns over President Woodrow Wilson’s handling of the crisis generated by a German submarine’s sinking of the British cruiser Lusitania the previous month, in which 1,201 people—including 128 Americans—died.

Germany’s announcement in early 1915 that its navy was adopting a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare concerned many within the government and civilian population of the United States—which maintained a policy of strict neutrality during the first two years of World War I. The sinking of the Lusitania on May 7, 1915, caused an immediate uproar, as many believed Germany had sunk the British cruiser deliberately as a provocation to Wilson and the U.S.

Bryan, as secretary of state, sent a note to the German government from the Wilson administration, lauding the ties of friendship and diplomacy between the two nations and expressing the desire that they “come to a clear and full understanding as to the grave situation which has resulted” from the sinking of the Lusitania. When the German government responded by justifying their navy’s action on the basis that the Lusitania was carrying munitions (which it was, a small amount), Wilson himself penned a strongly worded note, insisting that the sinking had been an illegal action and demanding that Germany cease unrestricted submarine warfare against unarmed merchantmen.

“The Government of the United States is contending for something much greater than mere rights of property or privileges of commerce,” Wilson wrote. “It is contending for nothing less high and sacred than the rights of humanity, which every Government honours itself in respecting and which no Government is justified in resigning on behalf of those under its care and authority.”

Objecting to the strong position taken by Wilson in this second Lusitania note, and believing it could be taken as a precursor to a war declaration, Bryan tendered his resignation on June 9, 1915, rather than sign it. The note and two more similar ones were sent to Germany, which was persuaded to curb the submarine policy over the course of 1916 rather than risk further antagonizing the U.S.

Bryan’s resignation marked a significant turning point, as the Lusitania crisis had convinced his successor, Robert Lansing, that the U.S. could not remain neutral forever, and would indeed eventually have to enter the war against Germany. As it unfolded, Germany resumed its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917; two months later, Wilson went before Congress to ask for a declaration of war.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 15:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

9 June 1915 - 1st Australian Field Bakery, which had been working at Lemnos, moved to the island of Imbros, approximately 24 kilometres from Gallipoli. The bakery sent 14500 bread rations daily on a trawler to the troops on Anzac until the end of July when it was joined by British bakery units

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/june-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 15:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Battle of Artois

The Battle Continues - On the 7th June 1915 some 40 kilometres to the south, the French opened up a diversionary assault on the Somme in an attempt to secure the village of Serre - which would in fact never fall in combat and would become the tomb of the British Pals Battalions in 1916.
In Artois, Neuville St Vaast finally fell to the 5e Armée under Général Mangin on the 9th June but the Labyrinth was still only partially in French hands.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_artois.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 15:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary - Major Edward Percy Cox

Wednesday June 9th 15 QUINN'S POST - My company was relieved from Courtenay's at 2 pm yesterday and at 8 am this morning I took over left half section of this position & which contains 3 sub-posts. Hawkes Bay coy taking right section of 3 posts.

This is recognised to be the hottest position on our front (or anywhere else) and is a very unique one certainly.

It would take pages to describe and the skill of a professional man to draw an accurate plan of the maze of trenches bombproofs & tunnels which form the position though the actual post is only about 200 yds, and in one place at least the Turks trenches on ground sloping upwards in their favour are only 10 yards distant.

The situation is governed by many considerations principal among which are that circumstances prevent our artillery getting to work on the hostile position & neither party can harass each other by rifle fire but merely keep them in their trenches. This has not deterred us alltogether tho [gap — reason: illegible] for [gap — reason: illegible] four occasions now we have rushed them with the bayonet at night & captured their front line with many prisoners but their successive trenches in rear & enfilade fire made the place untenable. So the fight goes on mostly with hand grenades & bombs thrown from trench mortars (on our side). A climax will be reached though for we have a gang of miners driving three tunnels 12 feet from surface right forward under the Turks. These are now being connected up horizontally and we hope soon to give them a lift heavenwards with a few [gap — reason: illegible] of guncotton. This post being rather a trying one to the men we work it 24 hours on & 24 hours off now.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d9.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 15:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Act for the establishment of the Ministry of Munitions, 9 June 1915

Ministry of Munitions was established in June 1915 to address the growing problem of munitions shortages affecting British front line troops during the First World War. David Lloyd George was appointed the first Minister of Munitions in 1915. In 1916 he was appointed Secretary of State for War before being elected Prime Minister on 7 December 1916.

Bekijk het op http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/small/item/GTJ18487/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 15:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOLDIER AND DRAMATIST, BEING THE LETTERS OF HAROLD CHAPIN
AMERICAN CITIZEN WHO DIED FOR ENGLAND AT LOOS ON SEPTEMBER 26TH, 1915.


June 9th, 1915.

DEAREST

We are back in the fold having left our caretaker's job (with the usual military suddenness) yesterday afternoon. It wasn't bad fun for the first few days but deadly for the greater part of the time. Sorry to hear you have had flu. Curiously; I was verging on a touch a few days ago, usual headache backache etc. but no, temperature so I didn't report sick.

There are the usual crops of rumours here about our next move.

Tuesday. - And now here I am in ------- a few miles from the last place. We have all moved here abouts and after going to sleep in various comers I have reported sick. Sprung a temperature of 100.3 and am now learning to appreciate a Field Amb. from a new point of view. It's nothing serious just summer flu or something---about half a dozen of us are down with it. Please don't worry one bit.

Wednesday. - Temperature dropped to 100.2 so you see I am doing well. Forgive short letter, not easy to write lying on a stretcher.

http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/memoir/chapin/Chapin05.htm#99
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 16:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Thomas Fredrick Littler

June 9th 1916 - We fell in at 8-30p.m and entered 'Wood Street communication trench' and passed the old fire trench and went up 'New Wood Street' which was only about 2 ft deep, then got on the top, passed our front line which was being held by 'The Rifle Rangers', through a gap in the barbed wire, we were paced out so many paces per man as a digging task, and told to dig ourselves in as quickly as possible.
We worked hard for about half an hour when the Germans opened heavy machine gun fire on us and swept us like a blanket, and being only 100 yds from the enemy lines it proved very trying, we carried on, off and on, for quarter of an hour when, when he got more machine guns sweeping that sector, by this time my part of the trench was about 18" deep so I could lie in it.

The machine guns keep on sweeping and the enemy opened out a 'miniweffer' (trench mortar) barrage, four of our rifles were laying on the ground about 4 ft away and these got a direct hit, that was the last I saw of my rifle, also blew the trench away and left us as it were on the open ground.

The man in front of me called for help and on going to him I found he had a piece of shrapnel in the left shoulder blade, this was Private Joe (Hurnival of Runcorn), also he was hit on the lower middle part of the back, many men at this time were calling for help, out of our Platoon we had three casualties L/Cpl Fineflow who was hit in the back and the pieces had pierced the lungs he was vomiting a lot of blood, and Pte Edward Coalthorpe (of Chester) who was hit in ribs and left arm, one man in No10 Platoon was also hit, Stretcher Bearer Mostan, he was serious as he was hit in the lower part of the stomach and between the legs, after we had got the wounded away we returned to billets, it was 6a.m.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/littlerdiary3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 16:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Flight Timeline

June 9, 1916 - Lieutenant R. C. Saufley sets an endu­rance record of 8 hours, 51 minutes, then crashes to his death.

Lullig... http://science.howstuffworks.com/world-war-i-flight-timeline1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 16:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Strange McNamara

Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense. McNamara served as Defense Secretary for Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson from 1961 to 1968. Following that he served as President of the World Bank from 1968 until 1981. McNamara was responsible for the institution of systems analysis in public policy, which developed into the discipline known today as policy analysis.

Ik weet het... Heeft maar dan ook níets met WO I te maken, maar ik heb iets met deze man... Sorry...
http://timelines.com/1916/6/9/robert-mcnamara-is-born
Zie ook http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fog_of_War & http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0317910/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 17:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Bert

June 1915

[First page missing - unknown date]

How are our letters reaching you. Throu our being sent to England, haven’t had a letter since about 20th of April & then they were delayed ones. Our mail is lying at Alexandria, & I suppose they are keeping it there till we get back. I heard tho that they’d cabled over for the mail, so I expect that just before it gets here we will leave & thus miss them again _ _ _.

I’ve been in a chronic state of bankruptcy ever since I arrived here 2 weeks ago. There is a wild rumor afloat that we will be paid today. Hope it is true as I need a few little necessaries pretty badly.

We often have a good meal of fish. Anyone that cares to go down to the bay & help the fishermen to pull in their nets can have as much fish as they can carry away. We often get a dish full, & the cooks do them up for us for nothing.

There are quite a lot of 3rd boys here at Weymouth, but most of them only lasted a day or so at Gallipoli so my four days seem quite a lot. It must seem like years to those who have escaped unhurt since the beginning.

The English have a new rifle – the long one that I always insisted was the best – fitted with the loading device of the short one & a new sight. It takes the new pointed bullet, & is point blank up to 500 yds – a great advantage. Hope to goodness I get one of them when I’m sent back. If I don’t & there’s any knocking about it wont take me long to get hold of one _ _ _.

How is the teaching getting on, Viola ##? Hope that you like it OK. And how’s the fair complexioned Ida progressing. Does she still get indignant when taking a trip round the world & back again _ _ _. And Rita I hope you are getting nice & fat & plump & leading the way at school. Eric & Gordon there’s no need to ask you two if you are leading the school is there? I’m taking it for granted that you are, so don’t disappoint me. Things are very quiet here so I’ll close now with the best of love to you all from your loving son & brother Bert.

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/15_19a.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 17:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Longshoreman's Strike of 1916

When the ILA District 38 Convention met in Seattle on May 1, 1916, delegates expressed unanimous dissatisfaction with the status of negotiations with employers on the closed shop, coastwide standard wages and practices, and the Vancouver lockout. Delegates pointed out that shipping and stevedore company profits were escalating because of the European war and the opening of the Panama Canal to commercial traffic during August 1915.

The men did not understand why they, too, should not participate in the good economic times. A majority of the delegates voted to strike on June 1, giving the employers only a 30-day notice, though most of the negotiated contracts called for a 60-day notice. Paddy Morris described the situation:

We pleaded with them (the delegates), but it was of no avail. Then, when we found that they were bound to call the strike for the first of June, violating the agreement, I said to them: 'If you are determined to do that, don't give the employers any notice; if you are going to break it, break it right and strike from the floor of this convention.

The convention did not heed Paddy Morris' advice. Delegates voted to strike on June 1, 1916, if the employers did not accept a coastwide closed shop and increase wages to 55 cents an hour and $1 an hour for overtime for general cargo, 60cents and $1 for lumber handlers, and 40cents and 60cents for warehousemen, all based on a nine hour working day An effort was made to enlist the support of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, but the sailors turned the longshoremen down flat.

Thus, after years of fruitless negotiations with employers, 43 West Coast ILA locals were determined to hang the hook and strike together. Unlike regional strikes in previous eras, this time 12,500 longshoremen prepared to strike from Bellingham to San Diego. Included were 1,100 in Tacoma, 2,000 in Seattle, 2,000 in Portland, 4,600 in San Francisco and 1,200 in San Pedro. Also joining with the large ILA locals were smaller unions such as Bellingham, Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, Astoria, Coos Bay, Eureka, and San Diego.

As expected, most employers refused the Pacific Coast longshoremen's demands. Therefore, the strike started at 6 a.m. on June 1, 1916, at West Coast ports. U.S. Secretary of Labor William B. Wilson appealed to the men to return to work and allow the Department of Labor to mediate. Wilson also urged employers to refrain from using strikebreakers pending the outcome of a mediation conference.

On June 7, meetings began at San Francisco between the ILA District Executive Board and the Executive Committee of the Waterfront Employers' Union, with Federal Mediator Henry White also participating. After intensive negotiations, a truce was agreed to at 2 a.m. June 9, whereby longshoremen agreed to resume work immediately at the scale of wages and improved working conditions submitted by the ILA to employers on May 1, 1916.

The strikers returned to work on June 9 at San Francisco and other ports on the West Coast. The strike seemed to be settled in favor of the ILA longshoremen. Then on June 16, 1916, an Oakland ILA longshoreman, Lewis A. Morey was shot and killed by a scab lumber handler, and two days later Thomas Olsen, another ILA man, was shot in the back and died immediately.

On June 20 the ILA Executive Board called upon the employers to live up to the terms of the agreement by discharging and dispersing all strikebreakers in their employ by June 21, 1916, at 5 p. m., or the strike would resume. The employers disputed that the June 9 agreement called for the discharge of so-called strike breakers and listed incidents they believed violated the truce.

True to their word, the San Francisco Riggers and Stevedores Union struck again on June 21, and the next morning the remaining ILA locals on the West Coast also walked out. Picket lines were posted by the unions, and the employers responded by hiring scabs to replace ILA men.

Sporadic violence erupted in San Francisco, Seattle, and Tacoma as imported scabs began to work vessels. Within a month, West Coast trade was in shambles.

Loaded ships, as many as fifty in the Puget Sound area, were still at anchor in the bays, and on the docks goods were piled helter-skelter. The Mediation and Conciliation Service of the Department of Labor tried to get the two sides together again, but without success.

By June 26, 1916, there were nine ships waiting to be unloaded in Commencement Bay and tons of cargo on the docks ready to be stowed aboard the ships. The Tacoma Employers' Association decided it was time to call on the community for support. Their spokesman announced to the Tacoma Daily Ledger:

We hereby call upon all of the business men and others interested in the enterprise of this community to join us in a solemn pledge that from this day on the open shop shall prevail in this community even if it be necessary to close all of our manufacturing industries, our lumber mills, flouring mills and shipping interests.

For more than a month past we have offered to accede to almost every demand made by the longshoremen who have tied up and are destroying the industry of this country in open violation of their agreement. They not only refuse to carry out their agreement, but they persist in blocking the industries of this country and are demanding wages and conditions that such industries cannot pay and live."

Violence on the Tacoma Waterfront

The following day June 27, about 250 Tacoma strikers stormed the Sperry dock where the Grace liner Santa Cruz was scheduled to be loaded by strikebreakers. The strikers, scabs, and armed guards exchanged about 50 gunshots with each other. Johnny Now, a twenty-four year old member of Tacoma Local 38-3, was seriously wounded in the melee.

He later recalled the incident, I was fighting with two strikebreakers when I saw this fellow with a gun aimed at me. He looked at me for several moments and then pulled the trigger I never saw him again.

The fight on the Santa Cruz was over before regular police arrived. Three armed guards were arrested for carrying concealed weapons, and police also disarmed both strikers and scabs. After conferring with the Tacoma ILA Strike Committee, Governor Ernest Lister refused to call out the state militia, declaring that the local police were adequate to maintain order.

Though the union disclaimed responsibility for the Santa Cruz incident, Sperry Mills and the Grace Line were granted injunctions prohibiting picketing around their piers.

Despite the injunction, beatings of Tacoma longshoremen and strikebreakers continued as the two sides fought each other on the docks. On July 12 James Costello, a member of the strike committee, was knifed when he tried to persuade two men not to scab at the Northern Pacific and Milwaukee railroad docks.

The railroad companies immediately obtained court injunctions restraining the union from picketing or interfering with their employees. The Milwaukee then imported 100 blacks from the East and the South to work cargo on and off ships.

On July 15 strikers gathered at Eleventh and Pacific, where Alexander Laidlaw, a striker, was mortally wounded by a Milwaukee guard who fired into the crowd of longshoremen. Grand jurors later decided Laidlaw was killed by a stray bullet fired in self-defense. Thousands marched in Laidlaw's funeral procession, and several unions declared a half-day of mourning for the slain longshoreman.

Two days after the Milwaukee dock killing, another striker, Sam James, was severely wounded and a strikebreaker, Rangval Lienann, was killed when strikers attacked scabs going to the Milwaukee piers. Commissioner of Public Safety Francis Pettit and Sheriff Robert Longmire notified the union that no further picketing would be permitted and no crowds allowed to congregate on the docks.

Govnor Teats presided at a mass meeting of 1,500 strike sympathizers at Wright Park the next day. Teats described the situation as greed versus humanity .

At the same time violence erupted on the Tacoma waterfront, federal mediators brought together waterfront employers and representatives of the San Francisco Riggers and Stevedores Union. On July 13, 1916, the Bay City local accepted the owners' proposal. The ILA District Negotiating Committee agreed to submit the latest employer offer to all ILA locals for a membership vote.

The new management proposal did not include a coastwide closed shop nor standard wages and working conditions. Moreover, employers stipulated in their offer that wages and working conditions in effect on May 31, 1916, must prevail while a joint employer-longshoremen committee worked out a new agreement. Though San Francisco, Portland, Astoria, Eureka, and San Diego voted in favor of management's latest offer, there was not a single vote of acceptance cast in Seattle or Tacoma.

Altogether 1604 Seattleites and 759 Tacomans unanimously rejected the employers' proposal. On July 19, 1916, San Francisco longshoremen returned to work, while both Seattle and Tacoma reiterated their decision to reject the compromise and continue the strike. The decision of the San Franciscans angered the Puget Sound longshoremen, who claimed they had been sold out.

Tom Green, retired Rothschild foreman, recalled his father's account of the strike:

We got sold out by San Francisco in that 1916 strike. See, they were out on strike for about three or three-and-a-half months and then they put together some kind of agreement and they voted on it, but they voted it down for some reason I can't tell you so they went back out on strike again and they were out for another month-and-a-half or so. Then, lo and behold, what did their brothers down in San Francisco do but agree to go back to work. We were left holding the sack here.

At this point in the strike, wages and working conditions were not the crucial issue. It was the closed shop which Puget Sound employers were determined to avoid, and which the men were firmly intent upon achieving. With 600 scabs working on the Tacoma docks, 0. C. Nelson, manager of the Employers' Association announced on July 22, The employers are entirely satisfied with the results they are now obtaining and in no event will ever concede the closed shop. Nelson added, If the longshoremen who went out wish to return to work they will do so under the old scale. There will be no mediation, no settlement and no recognition of the union.

The strike resumed and feelings once again reached the boiling point. The lumber companies seized the initiative and declared their docks open shop. The lumber owners then formed Puget Sound Stevedoring, which began hiring non-union workers. The other stevedoring contractors, including International Stevedoring, the successor of McCabe and Hamilton, also agreed not to use union men. Only Rothschild chose not to join the open-shop companies.

Rothschild's refusal stiffed the wrath of other stevedoring companies and mill owners, but Rothschild held to its position of hiring union men throughout the remainder of the strike. Whatever Rothschild's reasons for continuing as a union shop, its action saved the lumber handlers of Old Town from total destruction as a union. Rothschild formally agreed to the union's demand of a closed shop during July 1916, and the lumber handlers returned to work Rothschild's ships.

In New Town, however, International Stevedoring was successful in busting the union. Strikebreakers and new men appeared on the docks to replace union workers, and the union could do nothing about the situation. For an practical purposes the strike was over and the employers had won a major victory.

Emergence of "Fink Halls"

The 1916 strike was a crushing defeat for longshoremen. Working together, stevedoring firms and sawmill owners busted the union from Seattle to San Diego. All ILA locals, except for Old Town, lost control of jobs on the docks. In every port the employers gloated over their victory and then mounted a well-organized campaign to drive what was left of the unions into total oblivion.

The bosses almost succeeded. West Coast steamship companies, general cargo stevedores, and sawmill owners adopted and rigorously maintained a non-union hiring policy The general cargo industry established employer-owned and managed hiring halls, which came to be known as fink halls.

Officially known as the Waterfront Employers' Hiring Hall, the Tacoma fink hall was housed in a building near the corner of Eleventh Street and "A." Except for Rothschild, WEU included AFL companies involved in the shipping industry and their strength was based not only on the number of members, but also on their ability to maintain a united front toward waterfront workers.

One of the first actions of WEU after the strike was to hire Harvey Wells, a man experienced in breaking strikes by lumber workers, to administer the fink hall. A derby hat and a sawed-off shotgun were Wells' badges of office.

Since Wells did not know who were ILA men and who were not, a dispatch card with a special code punched into the card was given each man seeking work. The card listed the man's name and address, and in numbered squares around the edges of the card punches indicated:, (l) Whether the longshoreman was a member of the union; (2) If he had participated in the 1916 strike; or (3) Whether he had been a strikebreaker. When a man came into the hiring hall looking for work or reported to a foreman on a dock, he was required to show this card.

The rustling card became a bitter reminder to longshoremen of their defeat.

The employers' policy forbade hiring more than 50% union men at one time. The WEU denied that this was discrimination. Tom Green remembered his father's story of the 1916 Tacoma fink hall well:

The strikebreakers lined up on one side of the hall ... union men lined up on the other side and they took two for one, two strikebreakers' gangs, one union gang. But these men, they were great union men and they very soon convinced the employer that the strikebreaker was the wrong kind of labor They just went out and busted their tails and outworked them. They kind of fiddled along and fiddled along and these strikebreakers kept leaving, going elsewhere.

There was an awful lot of pressure on a strikebreaker once a strike is over One that stays, nobody ever forgets him, he's not adopted into the clan. So ultimately they got to the point that it got to be a two for one advantage-two union for one scab going.

Many longshoremen simply left the docks after 1916. Some, like Johnny Now and Paddy Morris, were blacklisted by the employers. Now assumed a new name and went to work on the Seattle docks where he hoped to work without being recognized by the WEU Morris went to work in the shipyards. The majority of the union longshoremen who left the Tacoma docks followed Morris to the shipyards or joined the US Army.

http://www.ilwu19.com/history/1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 17:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extracts from THE JEPPE HIGH SCHOOL MAGAZINE June 1917

OLD BOYS’ NOTES
Douglas Philip, 2nd Lieut. 7th Batt. London Regiment, has been wounded in the advance near Ypres, on June 9th. The wounds are severe, but he is doing well. When he last wrote he had beaten the best man in his platoon at boxing. He is in Liverpool hospital. He was Captain of Cricket in 1906.

http://www.jeppeboys.co.za/page.php?p_id=289
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 17:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Butte, MT Speculator Mine Fire Disaster, June 1917

SPECULATOR COPPER MINE NEAR BUTTE ON FIRE MANY DEED AND MISSING.

MEN TRAPPED IN BUTTE MINE.

One Hundred and Fifty Men Dead and No Hope for 200 More.

FIRE STARTS FROM LAMP.

Miners in Upper Levels Escape and Form Rescue Parties -- Widespread Call.

Butte, Mont., June 9. -- With thirty-five known dead and 167 men missing as the result of a fire which broke out in the Speculator copper mine last night, Butte wrestled today with the worst mining disaster in its history. The fire broke out in the lower levels of the mine late last night, starting from a broken power cable that carried electricity to the underground pumps. Lower levels of the mine quickly filled with smoke and gas. There were 415 men on the night shift. Of these 213 escaped through levels connecting with other mines. The gas spread to the Diamond mine and took a further toll of life in that property. Helmet men, mine rescue crews and safety first squads from all the mines in Butte undertook to penetrate the gas-filled workings of the Speculator, the Diamond and High Ore mines, in the hope of finding the larger body of miners for whom hope of rescue was not given up today. Officials said that if the 167 missing miners are not found to have made their way to the High Ore mine workings, they are doomed.

Early Morning Reports.

Butte, Mont., June 9. -- One hundred and fifty men are reported dead and no hope is held out for the recovery of 200 others trapped underground by a fire in the Speculator mine, near here, early today. Out of 425 men in the mine at the time the fire broke out, more than two-thirds are unaccounted for. Twelve bodies have been recovered.
The fire, which started on the 2400-foot level, communicated quickly to other levels, cutting off all escape from men on lower levels. Dense smoke, which poured from the shaft in great clouds, retarded rescue work. Miners from adjoining properties, ordered up from underground as a precaution, went to work as rescuing gangs, aiding national guardsmen who had been called to the scene. Because of the smoke and the danger they were able to do little until the arrival of safety first cars from Red Lodge and Colorado Springs, which were ordered upon the outbreak of the fire.
Warning of their danger came in time to permit men on the upper levels to escape. They immediately formed rescue parties and attempted to go down the shaft to the men on lower levels, who are, it is thought entombed. Their efforts were fruitless and little could be done until the arrival of the bureau of mines safety first cars, which carry gas and smoke proof helmets.

213 Men Accounted For.

One hour after the outbreak of the fire, L. D. FRINK, superintendent; M. B. CONNORS, foreman; N. D. BRAWLEY, general manager of the Granite shaft, owned by the North Butte company, declared they could account for 213 oout of 415 men who were in the shaft when the fire started.
JOHN COFFEMETTEN and JOHN BOYCE, who were the first two men to be taken from the shaft alive, told a thrilling tale of sustaining their lives by cutting the air hose and sucking the air by turns until the rescue party arrived. They were on the 700-foot level at the outbreak of the fire.
According to miners who escaped from the shaft the fire started from flames of a carbide lamp. The men were ordered to report to the time-keeper as they emerged from the mine; 211 men had so reported, soon after the rescue work started, out of the 415 who went down in the night shift.

Saw 48 Men Perish.

Two men who were working on the 700-foot level reported that forty-eight had perished on the level where they worked, they alone being saved.
All ambulances in Butte and all physicians in the city were summoned to the scene.
The Speculator is a tramway mine and runs through Granite mountain. Men equipped with safety first helmets to withstand the effects of smoke and fumes entered the Speculator shaft first, but were compelled to retire soon after.

Rescue Cars Called.

Pittsburg, June 9. -- Rescue car No. 5, which has been at Billings, Mont., has been called to the scene, as has car No. 7, which is in Colorado. The mining interests at Butte are credited with having one of the best rescue organizations in the country and it, with the assistance of the trained crews from the federal cars, are relied upon to hurry the work of rescue at the mine.
A statement by officials of the North Butte company issued just before noon today gives thirty-six known dead as a result of the Speculator mine fire, 167 missing and 212 known to have been saved. This list of missing now includes only such men as are believed yet to be in the mine.

The Ogden Standard Utah 1917-06-09, http://www3.gendisasters.com/montana/3470/butte,-mt-speculator-mine-fire-disaster,-june-1917
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The Official Trench Raid account from the 75th Battalion War Diary

Account of Raid Night June 8/9th.

1917 Appendix 1

8-9.30pm Enemy put down barrage on our front and support lines, causing us thirty-eight other ranks casualties, and greatly disorganizing operations made for the raid.

11.45pm Zero Hour Every man was in position and all got away in good shape being well clear of our own front line before enemy S.O.S. barrage came down.

Our right flank, under Captain GRAY, completely captured and mopped up the Black line in their sector. They pushed as far forward as Junction of the Railway Embankment and the Lens -ARRAS Road Here they met with very stiff opposition, and having suffered servere casualties were unable to push forward to the Red Line. Ten dugouts bombed and destroyed in COULETTE Support Trench; 1 O.R. prisoner brought back

The Centre company, under Capt. Falkner captured and mopped up the Black line in their sector, and the Railway Embankment, as far as Canada trench. This was strongly held by machine guns, and we suffered severe casualties. Dugouts in TORONTO trench, and the Railway embankment up to this point were bombed and destroyed; two O.R. prisoners were brought back.

The left company, under Captain Lindsay captured and mopped up the black line, and pushed forward reaching the RED line. They captured and brought back one enemy machine gun, and one O.R. Prisoner.

All prisoners captured belonged to the 2nd Bn, 10 Regiment, 11th Division, Silicians. After the operation, the Front Line trench and the Support Trenches, and the forward C.T.'s were badly damaged by shell fire. The battalion asked to be allowed to remain in to repair the trenches and turn them over in good order to the relieving battalion. The Brigadier granted this request and when the battalion was relieved by the 38th battalion, on the 12th/13th June the trenches were turned over in good order.

Casualties:

Officers- Wounded- 6

Other Ranks Killed- 28

Wounded-112

Missing -11 Total- 157

http://www.stothers.com/momex/NavCode/letters1917/WritingID/55.html
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The Maoris in the Great War

Chapter XII. — The Pioneers in the Battle of Messines. (June, 1917.)

(..) At 3.10 a.m., on June 7th, the battle opened with the firing of mines on the front and a tremendous burst of fire from artillery of all sorts and sizes, besides machine-guns. For an hour or so it was too dim to see much of what was going on, but after that our infantry could be seen well around Messines, and apparently suffering very few casualties so far. At 8 a.m. the Pioneers moved forward and all parties were started at their big tasks, with the exception of A Company, whose work ground was being very heavily barraged, especially round Petit Douve Farm. A Company continued the Wellington Avenue trench from the old front line to the enemy support line (500 yards) and repaired Stinking Farm-Messines Road as far as the old front line. B and C Companies operated and maintained Well Lane and another trench and extended the Well Lane line 400 yards to the east. D Company carried Calgary Avenue as far forward as the enemy support line. (...)

On the following day, June 8th, all companies carried on with the jobs. A Company dug a further 225 yards in Wellington Avenue and laid duck-walks throughout the new position. B and C Companies kept the Divisional trams running and completed lines on the 400 yards of formation done the previous day. They completed 190 yards of formation eastward and also maintained and operated Shrine and Hill 63 lines, which were blown in badly by the shell-fire. D Company dug and duck-walked a further 200 yards of Calgary Avenue trench, still in very bad ground. One man was killed and five were wounded this day.
On June 9th, A Company completed Wellington Avenue and laid duck-walks. B and C Companies worked on the tram lines, and also finished off the extension of Well Lane line, making 1,500 yards of new line open for traffic.

D Company carried on Calgary Avenue, making 1,200 yards new trench. A Company also worked one platoon on the Stinking Farm-Messines Road, and finished 1,400 yards of formation. The casualties for the day were two wounded.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CowMaor-t1-body-d12.html
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The War in the Mountains

Notes on Kipling's visit to the Italian battle-front in 1917, during the Great War and the articles he wrote (...)

Kipling had been invited to Italy by the British Ambassador, Sir Rennell Rodd, who was concerned about the lack of understanding in England of the scale and cost of the Italian war effort. Rodd's proposal was that distinguished writers from England and Italy should visit each others' front lines and then write about their experiences in the national and allied press. Some writers, Belloc, Conan Doyle, Chesterton and H.G.Wells, for example, responded quickly and visited Italy in 1916.

For almost a year, Kipling declined to accept the invitation, but at last he changed his mind (we do not know why) and on 1 May 1917 he headed for the Italian Front. (...)


"PODGORA

[June 9 1917]

'WE HAVE FINISHED with stones for a little,' said the officer. 'We are going to a mountain of mud. It is dry now, but this winter it never stayed quiet.'

An acre or so of the the climbing roadside was still uneasy, and had slid face-down in a splatter of earth and tree-roots which men were shovelling off.

'It's rather a fresh road. Altogether we have about four thousand miles of new roads - and old roads improved - on a front of about six hundred kilometres. But you see, our kilometres are not flat.'

The landscape, picked out in all the greens of spring, was that of early Italian holy pictures - the same isolated, scarred hummocks rising from enamelled meadows or drifts of bloom into the same elaborate entablatures of rock, crowned by a campanile or tufted with dark trees. On the white roads beneath us the lines of motors and mule transport strung out evenly to their various dumps. At one time we must have commanded twenty full miles, all working at once, but never could we spy a breakdown. The Italian transport system has been tried out by war long ago.

The more the road sunk to the plains, the more one realised the height of the mountains dominating us all round. Podgora (1), the mountain of mud, is a little Gibraltar about eight hundred feet high, almost sheer on one side, overlooking the town of Gorizia, which, in civil life, used to be a sort of stuffy Cheltenham for retired Austrian officers. Anywhere else, Podgora hill might be noticeable, but you could set down half-a-dozen Gibraltars among this upheaval of hills, and in a month the smooth Italian roads would overrun them as vine tendrils overrun rubbish-heaps. The lords of the military situation round Gorizia are the four- and five- thousand-foot mountains, crowded one behind the other, every angle, upland and valley of each offering or masking death.

The mountains are vile ground for aeroplane work, because there is nowhere to alight in comfort, but none the less the machines beat over them from both sides, and the anti-aircraft guns which are not impressive in the open plains fill the gorges with multiplied coughings more resembling a lion's roar than thunder. The enemy fly high, over the mountains, and show against the blue like bits of whirling ash off a bonfire. They drop their bombs generously, and the rest is with fate - either the blind crack on blank rock and the long harmless whirr of slivered stone, or that ripe crash which tells that timber, men and mules have caught it full this time. If all the setting were not so lovely, if the lights, the leafage, the blossom, and the butterflies mating on the grassy lips of old trenches were not allowed to insult the living workmen of death, their work would be easier to describe without digressions.

When we had climbed on foot up and up and into the bowels of the mountain of mud, through galleries and cross-galleries, to a discreetly veiled observation-point, Gorizia, pink, white, and bluish, lay, to all appearance, asleep beneath us amid her full flowering chestnut-trees by the talking Isonzo. She was in Italian hands - won after furious fights - but the enemy guns from the mountains could still shell her at pleasure, and the next move, said our officer, would be to clear certain heights -'Can you see our trenches creeping up to them?' - from their menace. There and there, he pointed (2), the Italian troops would climb and crawl, while thus and thus would the fire of our guns cover them, till they came to that bare down and must make their rush - which is really a climb - alone. If that rush failed, then they must dig in among the rocks. And lie out under the bitter skyline, for this was war among the mountains where the valleys were death-traps and only heights counted.

Then we turned to the captured hills behind us that had lived so unconsidered since they were made , but now, because of the price paid for them, would stand forth memorable as long as Italy was remembered. The heathen mountains in front had yet to be baptized and entered on the roll of honour, and one could not say at that moment which one of them would be most honourable, or what cluster of herdsmen's huts would carry the name of a month's battle through the ages.

The studied repose that heralds a big push cloaked both lines. No one, except a few pieces who were finishing some private work, was saying anything. The Austrians had their own last touches to put in too. They were ranging on a convent up a hillside - one deliberate shell at a time. A big gun beneath us came lazily into the game on our side, shaking the whole mountain of mud, and then asking questions of its observing officer across the valley.

Suddenly a boy's voice, that had been taking corrections, spoke quite unofficially at the receiver in the gloom under our feet. 'Oh! Congratulations!' it cried. 'Then you dine with us to-night, and you'll pay for the wine.'

Every one laughed.

'Rather a long walk,' said our guide and friend. 'The observing officer - he is down near Gorizia - has just telephoned that he has been promoted to Aspirant - Sub-Lieutenant, don't you say? He will have to climb up here to the artillery Mess tonight and stand drinks on his promotion.'

'I bet he'll come,' some one said. There were no takers. So you see, youth is always immortally the same.

Gorizia

We dropped from Podgora into Gorizia by a road a little more miraculous than any we had yet found. It was in the nature of a toboggan-run, but so perfectly banked at the corners that the traffic could have slid down by itself if it had been allowed.

As we entered the town, men were mending the bridge across the river - for a reason. They do a great deal of mending in Gorizia. Austrians use heavy pieces on the place - twelve-inch stuff sometimes - dealt methodically and slowly from far back, out of the high hills. I tried to find a house that did not carry that monotonous stippling of shrapnel, but it was difficult. The guns reach everywhere.

There was no air in the still hollow where the place lay - hardly a whisper among the domed horse- chestnuts. Troops were marching through to their trenches far up the hillside beyond, and the sound of their feet echoed between the high garden-walls where the service wires were looped among pendants of wistaria in full flower.

There are several hundred civilians in the city who have not yet cared to move, for the Italian is as stubborn in these things as the Frenchman. In the main square where the house-fronts are most battered and the big electric-light standard bows itself to the earth, I saw a girl bargaining for some buttons on a card at a shop- door - hands, eyes, and gesture, all extravagantly employed, and the seller as intently absorbed as she. It must be less distracting than one thinks to live under the knowledge one is always being watched from above - breathed upon in the nape of the neck, so to speak, by invisible mouths.

A little later I was being told confidentially by some English woman (3) among a garden of irises, who owned a radiographic installation and a couple of shrapnel-dusted cars, that they had been promised, when the push came, that they and their apparatus might go into Gorizia itself, to a nice underground room, reasonably free from shells which disconcert the wounded and jar the radiograph, and 'wasn't it kind of the authorities?'

The Ridge of the Waiting Guns

The amazing motor-lorries were thicker on the more amazing road than they had been. Our companion apologised for them. 'You see, we have been taking a few things up to the Front in this way in the last few days,' he said.

'Are all Italians born driving motors?' I demanded, as a procession of high-hooded cars flopped down the curve we were breasting, pivoted on its outside edge, their bonnets pointing over a four-hundred-foot drop, and slid past us with a three-inch clearance between hub and hub.

'No,' he replied. 'But we, too, have been at the game a long time. I expect all the bad chauffeurs have been killed.'

'And bad mules?' One of them was having hysterics on what I thought - till I had climbed a few thousand higher - was the edge of a precipice. 'Oh, you can't kill a mule,' and sure enough, when the beast had registered its protest, it returned to the dignity of its sires. The muleteer said not a word.

We bored up and into the hills by roads not yet mapped, but solid as lavish labour can make them against the rolling load of the lorries, and the sharp hoofs of the mule, as well as the wear and tear of winter, who is the real enemy. Our route ran along the folded skirts of a range not more than three or four thousand feet high, more or less parallel with the Isonzo in its way from the north (4). Rivers that had roared level beside us dropped and shrunk to blue threads half visible through the forest. Mountains put forward hard shaly knees round which we climbed in a thousand loops that confused every sense of direction. Then, because the enemy seven miles off (5), could see, stretches of the crowded road (6) were blinded with reed mats while torn holes above or below us proved that he had searched closely.

After that, the colossal lap of a mountain alive with dripping waters would hide us in greenery and moisture, till the sight of a cautious ash-tree still in bud - her sister ten minutes ago had been clothed from head to foot - told us we had risen again to the heights of the naked ridge. And here were batteries upon batteries of the heaviest pieces, so variously disposed and hidden that finding one gave you no clue to the next. Elevens, eights, fours - sixes, and elevens again, on caterpillar wheels, on navy mountings adapted for land work, disconnected from their separate tractors, or balanced and buttressed on their own high speed motors, were repeated for mile after mile, with their ammunition caves, their shops, and the necessary barracks for their thousand servants studded or strung out on the steep drop behind them. Obscure pits and hollows hid them pointing to heaven, and how they had been brought up to be lowered there passed imagination as they peeped out of the merest slits in green sod. They stood back under ledges and eaves of the ground where no light could outline them, or became one with a dung-heap behind a stable. They stalled themselves in thick forest growth, like elephants at noon, or, as it were, crawled squat on their bellies to the very bows of crests overlooking seas of mountains, They, like the others down the line, were waiting for the hour and the order (7). Not half-a-dozen out of a multitude opened their lips.

When we had climbed to a place appointed, the shutter of an observation-post opened upon the world below. We saw the Isonzo almost vertically beneath us, and on the far side were the Italian trenches that painfully climbed to the crest of the bare ridges where the infantry live, who must be fed under cover of night until the Austrians are driven out of their heights above.

'It is just like fighting a burglar across housetops,' said the officer. You can spot him from a factory chimney, but he can spot you from the spire of the cathedral - and so on.'

'Who sees those men down yonder in the trenches?' I asked.
,br> 'Everybody on both sides, but our guns cover them . That is the way in our war. Height is everything.'

He said nothing of the terrific labour of it all, before a man or a gun can come into position - nothing of the battle that was fought in the gorge below when the Isonzo was crossed and the Italian trenches clawed and sawed their red way up the hillside, and very little of the blood-drenched snout of the height called the Sabotino (8) that was carried, lost and recarried most gloriously in the old days of the War, and now lay out below as innocent-seeming as a mountain pasture. (9)

They are a hard people, these Latins, who have had to fight the mountains and all that is in them, metre by metre, and are thankful when their battlefields do not slope at more than forty-five degrees.

©Rudyard Kipling 1917

Notes by Peter Lewis
1.On the west bank of the Isonzo, overlooking Goritzia. On Italian maps shown as Piedimonte di Calvary.
2.Probably indicating the trenches on Monte Santo (Sveta Gora) and Monte Gabriele.
3. The Countess Helena Gleichen, who commanded the 4th or Radiographic British Red Cross Unit housed in the Villa Zucco in Cormons. She was the daughter of Prince Hohenlohe-Langenberg and the grand-daughter of Queen Victoria’s half sister. She was a sculptor and a painter and painted some battle scenes on the Isonzo. Earlier she had provided some illustrations for Landon’s book on the Younghusband Expedition to Tibet in 1903-1904. In her memoirs Contacts and Contrasts (Murray, London 1940) she records that “Mr Rudyard Kipling and Perceval Landon came to see us”.
4. This was probably the road which runs along the western slopes of the Monte Sabotino ridge.
5. The Austrian lines were, east of, and parallel to, the Isonzo running along the slopes of Monte Santo, Monte Vodice and Monte Kuk. These features were to be captured in the 10th Battle of the Isonzo, which began two days after Kipling was in the area and lasted until 5 June. The Italian forces had been formed into the Goritzia Army Group, underr the command of general Capello for the attack. See Oesterreiches-Ungarns letzer Krieg, Vol 6,Page 134.
6. Probably the main road supplying the Italian bridgehead at Plava, the scene of the main action in the forthcoming battle.
7. See Note 6.


http://www.kipling.org.uk/rg_mountains_intro.htm & http://www.kipling.org.uk/rg_mountains_podgora.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 18:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Airships: LZ-89

Tactical*: L 50
Usage: military
First Flight: 9 June 1917

LZ-89 participated in five reconnaissance missions around the North Sea and two attacks on England, dropping 4,135 kg of bombs. She ran out of fuel on 20 October 1917 and was driven to the Mediterranean Sea after a forced landing near Dammartin, France.

* NOTE: Tactical refers to the airship's tactical designation(s). The Z designation indicates an airship operated by the German army, whereas the L designation indicates an airship operated by the German navy. During the war, the army changed their scheme twice: following Z XII, they switched to using the LZ numbers, later adding 30 to obscure the total number in production.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_2.html#note
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Battle of Noyon-Montdidier, 9-13 June 1918

The Battle of Noyon-Montdidier, 9-13 June 1918, was the fourth of General Erich von Ludendorff’s great offensives of the spring and summer of 1918 that came close to breaking the Allied lines on the western front, but instead critically damaged the fighting capacity of the German army.

The first and third of those offensives (Second Battle of the Somme and Third Battle of the Aisne) had created two giant salients in the Allied lines. The Noyon-Montdidier offensive was designed to link these two saliants. This would straighten out the line and potentially threaten Paris. Two German armies – the Eighteenth under General Oskar von Hutier and the Seventh under General Max von Boehn were allocated to the attack. They were opposed by two French armies – the Third under General Georges Humbert and the Tenth under General Charles Mangin. The French also had access to American troops, who would play a part in defeating the offensive.

The French had sufficient warning of the German attack. On 9 June the German Eighteenth Army attacked the French Third Army from the north. Its attack was disrupted by a French counter-bombardment, but was still able to make some progress, although not on the same scale as in the earlier offensives.

The German Seventh Army joined the offensive on 10 June, attacking the French Tenth Army from the east. This attack failed to make any significant progress. The two armies were meant to meet at Compiègne, but only Hutier made any progress towards the rendezvous.

On 11 June the French and Americans launched a counter attack which pushed the Germans back from their most advanced positions. On 13 June the battle came to an end. It was a clear German failure, and was a clear sign that the German army was wearing down. It would launch one more offensive, on the Marne in mid July, but that would soon be followed by the great Allied counterattacks that would push the German armies back towards the French border.

Rickard, J (19 August 2007), Battle of Noyon-Montdidier, 9-13 June 1918 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_noyon_montdidier.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Paul B Hendrickson to Miss Cecil Rife, 9 June 1918

[Letter on color stationery of the American Y.M.C.A. Received July 22, 1918. This letter was returned to PBH and then mailed again with the letter of June 29]

June 9 1918

My dear Cecil -

Well how are you - and all the rest of the folks. Seen mother lately and has she rec any word from me yet?

I wrote to her just a few days after we landed and have wondered if my letter got to her. It was not many days after I saw you until I was on French soil - We were kept very much on the move until we landed over here.

The trip across the water was rather tiresome with nothing in particular to see. Had the experience of some pretty rough sea after we were out a few days. But I kept going most all the time. First day of rough weather tho I did not feel any the best. I never saw even so much as a large fish on the way across. Our convoy did not make very fast time coming over - but we had a very fine trip -nothing exciting at all. And every body seemed to be in best of spirits.

What I've seen of France I like. The most beautiful piece of country you ever saw. Every thing green and seems to grow so good.

Where we have one town - France has three or four of them. While you often see things that are very modern - you see some other things that are more ancient than our country can ever produce. Some of the customs of the people would sure make you laugh if you ever happened to see them. So entirely different from anything we are used to or even thot of.

I have visited one of the old cathedreals. I saw one date something like 16 hundred and something. I dont know if it had any thing to do with how old that massive thing was or not - but it sure looked old enough to have been built then. They are not so beautiful on the out side and some parts of the inside but their alters - crucifixes, statuary & paintings and large banners - and all the other things they use there and the flowers too - are wonderfull. It is so large - so old and such a wonderful piece of work you just stand there in awe and look and keep on looking, for the more you are there the more there is to see. You could spend and hour simply studying one painting I saw. Not saying anything about the numerous other paintings and statuary that is just about as good as the one I noticed in particular. It was fully a life size painting of the Virgin Mary - The setting of the picture was beautiful, but the picture itself - I dont know if it was the blending of the colors or quality of the colors or just alone the ability of the painter to produce the effect - but the painting seemed magnetic. I never saw any thing that equelled it.

I've seen some other things that were just as new to me and interested me most as much as the Old Cathedreal.

The weather is another feature of note - always sun shine - Read one nite to 10:30 with out lamp.

But the people sure have one on me when it comes to talk. I take a lesson every day in it - yet it comes awfully slow. I have a few idioms I know - but I am studying the grammar with it. So that way I will be able to understand what I know about it.

It hardly seems real I saw you only a few weeks ago. Seems more like a dream. But I guess it is true just the same.

Well I've seen quite a number of French girls and unless I see something very much different from what I've already seen - I am absolutely in favor of the girls back home. Some fellows may want to stay over here - but not me. It would take this place here over 50 years to even catch up with Danville - going some is it not? Talk about things modern and an up to date business and industral country - you dont realize what a real country you are living in. If this country is worth fighting as much for as they have done and will do yet - then our country is worth all the effort they can possibly put forth.

Cecil - see if mother has heard from me - if not show her this letter & address.

Write when you can - I dont have an idea I will be able to answer all my letters - but you will have more time & opportunity to write than myself and they will be appreciated to the fullest. You know any thing interests me that comes from home. Hoping you feel as fit as I do I am as ever your best friend -

Cpl. Paul B Hendrickson
Hdq. co. 129 Inf.
A.E.F. via New York.

http://www.jimgill.net/wwipages/letter18/p180609c.html
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Americans Take Belleau Wood, 9-10 June, 1918

by Edwin L. James, war correspondent for The New York Times
From Current History, June 20, 1918.

I believe that when the history of the war is written the Americans' capture of the Bois de Belleau will be ranked among the neatest pieces of military work of the conflict.

Five days ago [June 9], after the capture of the town of Bouresches, the Americans started the task of taking away the Bois de Belleau from the Germans. In the rush at Bouresches they had been unable to secure the rocky strongholds in the woods, and passed on, leaving many nests of machine guns there, which afterward kept up a harassing fire. The Americans several times made big raids into the woods, clearing out part of the Germans, but the next day the Germans would reappear with a harassing fire. Despite strong artillery work, the Germans seemed able to stay there.

On Sunday, the 9th, a rain of extra heavy artillery fire began on the woods. This kept up all Sunday night and Monday. On Monday night the fire was redoubled and the woods literally raked with lines of shellfire.

At about 3 o'clock Monday morning [June 10] the marines started, as soon as the artillery fire was stopped, to go through those woods. At the nearer edge of the woods, devastated by our shellfire, they encountered little opposition. A little further on the Germans made a small stand, but were completely routed; that is, those who were not killed. By this time the marines were fairly started on their way. They swept forward, clearing out machine gun nests with rifle fire, bayonets, and hand grenades.

The Germans started in headlong flight when the Americans seized two machine guns and turned them on the Germans with terrific effect. The Germans soon tired of this, and those nearest the Americans began surrendering . In the meantime, the marines kept up the chase.

While this was going on, the Americans almost rounded the woods, and the Germans, fleeing from some of the Americans, ran into the machine gun and rifle fire of the others. Then those left rushed headlong the other way to surrender. In a short time the gallant marines had got to the other side of the woods, and immediately, with the aid of the engineers, started the construction of a strong position.

Prisoners counted that day numbered more than 300. It was found that they belonged to the crack 5th German Guard Division, which includes the Queen Elizabeth Regiment. There had been 1,200 Germans in the woods. With the exception of the prisoners nearly all the rest were slain.

The prisoners said they were glad of the chance to surrender and get out of the woods, because the American artillery fire for three days had cut off their food and other supplies and they had lived in a hell on earth. The Germans seemed deeply impressed by the fury of the American attack. One of the captured officers, when asked what he thought of the Americans as fighters, answered that the artillery was crazy and the infantry drunk. A little German private, taking up his master's thought, pointed to three tousled but smiling marines, and said: "Vin rouge, vin blanc, beaucoup vin." He meant he thought the Americans must be intoxicated, to fight as they did for that wood.

Our boys took especial delight in corralling the machine guns. These guns had been very well placed behind trees and in rocky caves and well supplied with ammunition. The Americans had practiced on a German machine gun previously captured, and knew just how to use them against the "Heinies." The captured guns were cleverly camouflaged and were almost overlooked by the Americans. The mortars had been used to throw gas shells from the heights into the woods upon the Americans.

There was the greatest surprise among the American officers at the evident low morale among members of the 5th Guard Division, thought to be one of the Kaiser's very best.

The Germans had tried their best to get the Americans out of the wood and to hold the valuable position. They had sent attack after attack there, always failing to gain complete free possession, but making things very unpleasant for our men. It was after four days of this that the marines got on their hind legs and went after the Germans.

An American General tonight characterized the capture of Belleau Wood as the most important thing the Americans at the front had yet accomplished. Its possession straightens our line, taking away from the German his protected wedge into our positions, and gives an excellent starting point for further operations....

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Americans_Take_Belleau_Wood
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 18:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verbatim Comparison of Mantoux notes and Hankey minutes: June 9, 1919, 11 a.m.

(For the Mantoux notes presented in the following “verbatim comparison”, the English translation given in the Papers of Woodrow Wilson was used.)

Mooi... http://www.schwab-writings.com/hi/wi/4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 June 1920, Commons Sitting

BLOCKSHIPS, OSTEND AND ZEEBRUGGE (GIFT TO BELGIAN GOVERNMENT).


HC Deb 09 June 1920 vol 130 cc377-8 377

Viscount CURZON asked the First Lord of the Admiralty what is the present position with regard to H.M.S. "Vindictive," "Intrepid," and "Iphigenia"; and what are the intentions of the Admiralty with regard to the future of these ships?

Mr. LONG The "Thetis," "Intrepid," "Iphigenia," and "Vindictive," which were sunk as blockships at Ostend and Zeebrugge, have been presented to the Belgian Government as a free gift.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/jun/09/blockships-ostend-and-zeebrugge-gift-to
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 23:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ajax landskampioen

De doorbraak naar de eerste divisie in 1911 bleek helaas niet van lange duur. In het seizoen 1913-1914 degradeerde de club naar de tweede divisie en enkele spelers stapten uit teleurstelling over naar andere clubs. Op de puinhopen bouwde de nieuwe trainer Jack Reynolds aan een nieuw elftal dat drie jaar achtereen afdelingskampioen werd.

Er werd onder Reynolds niet slecht gespeeld maar een terugkeer naar de hoogste klasse werd telkens niet gerealiseerd. De terugkeer naar de eerste divisie kwam min of meer als een verrassing. In 1917 werden door een besluit van de NVB acht tweedeklassers gepromoveerd naar de klasse B van de eerste divisie. Ajax mocht, als algeheel tweede-klasse kampioen, tot opluchting van velen, dit keer direct in de eerste divisie klasse A uitkomen. (...)

De herkansing in de hoogste klasse verliep ijzersterk. Op 9 juni 1918 werd Ajax met sterren als Henk Hordijk, Jan van Dort, Theo Brokmann, Wim Guppfert en Jan de Natris landskampioen zonder maar een wedstrijd te verliezen. In de kampioenswedstrijd tegen Willem II ontbrak Jan De Natris, het "enfant terrible" van het Nederlands voetbal; hij was in de trein in slaap gevallen.

Het zou tot het seizoen 1994-1995 duren, het jaar waarin Ajax zowel het landskampioenschap, de Champions League en de Wereld Beker won, dat een Nederlandse ploeg geen enkele wedstrijd verloor.

http://www.ajax.nl/De-Club/Historie/History-Tour/19101917-Het-hoogste-niveau-Nieuw.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 23:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brieven van Georg Hahn

Opa Georg Hahn overhoorde altijd de lessen van zijn kinderen, die een groot respect voor hem hadden. Hieronder een brief aan zijn zoon Louis, geschreven vanuit het krijgsgevangenen kamp.

Enfin, 9 Juni 1918,

Lieber Louis,

lch habe längere Zeit nichts mehr von Dir gehört, und sollte mich es freuen, recht bald einmal wieder einige Zeilen von Dir zu enthalten. Wie geht es in der Schule und mit den Violin-Unterricht? Machtst Du gute Fortschritte oder bleibtst Du in dem einen oder anderen Fach auch zurück? Hier in Entin lerne ich auch ein wenig von der Landwirtschaft verstehen. Auszer Wachedienst tut die Mannschaft hier Arbeitsdienst zu leisten, bei letzeren habe auch ich schon geholfen beim Graben, Hacken, Kartoffel Anhaufen, und so weiter. Es ist dies meistens ziemlich schwere Arbeit, die gut und sorgfältig ausgeführt werden musz, doch arbeite ich ganz gern im Garten und auf den Felde, und glaube ich, dasz auch Du Vergnügen an den Arbeit finden wirst. Schade, dasz man diese Arbeiten nicht für sich selbst thun, und etwas Vieh sowie Hühner dabei halten kann, nur für Butter, Milch, Eier und Fleisch nicht van andern abhängig zu sein, die jetzt alles festhalten und nichts herausreichen wollen. Für Eier bezahlte man hier jetzt 50 Pfg per Stück, selbst mehr, und es sind trotzdem keine aufzutreiben. Mit Theo verträgst Du Dich hoffendlich gut, so dasz Du während der Sommerferien auf einige Zeit mit zu Tante Jet nach Elspeet kommen kannst. Solltet lhr beiden nicht gut und freundschaftlich mit einander umgehen, so müszte von der Reise abgesehen werden. Bestelle Theo meine besten Grüsze. Schreibe mir bitte bald und empfange viele herzliche Grüsze und Kisse von
Deinem Papa.

Entin, 9 juni 1918,

Lieve Pa,

Ontvang mijnen hartelijken dank voor Uw lieve brief van 2 Juni, die ik eergisteren ontving; ook feliciteer ik U met Uwe benoeming tot eere-lid van de huisschildersvereeniging. Ik begrijp, dat de zaken en het leven daar zoowel als hier door den oorlog met den dag moeilijker worden; wiu behooren ten minste niet tot de O.W.ers, er zullen in den laatsten tijd ook wel niet veel menschen meer bij deze categorie bijgekomen zijn, zoomede is te hopen, dat het verlangen tot vrede spoedig algemeen worde en tot een einde van den oorlog voeren zal. Ik zal blij zijn, wanneer ik weder tot de familie naar huis terugkomen kan en zoo als mij gaat het de meeste van mijne kameraden. Het zal mij verlangen, spoedig te hooren, of het mogelijk zal zijn, dat Jo tot den 23e Juni naar Lübeck komt. Indien Jo eenen pas kan krijgen, zal het wel alleen voor dat geval te arrangeren zijn, als het Jet mogelijk is, de tijd over naar den Haag te komen en zoolang Jo's werkzaamheden te overnemen. Zonder meid zal het voor Jet ook een moeilijk werk zijn, maar indien zij in Elspeet afkomen kan, zal zij het wet willen doen. Bestel s.v.p. mijne hartelijke groeten aan Louis en Lé, Charles en Cor, Guus en Jet in Indië, als U aan hen schrijft. Met vele hartelijke groeten aan U verblijf ik,

Uw zoon Georg.

http://www.nierstrasz.org/HahnAarsse/LettersFromGeorg.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 11:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Cranbrook Herald, June 9, 1914

COAL DAMP EXPLOSION AT HILLCREST MINE

Terrible disaster last Friday claimed lives of nearly two hundred miners — scenes of tragedy and sorrow as blackened bodies are rescued — 150 buried on Sunday

Hillcrest, Alta, June 19 - One hundred and ninety-five miners out of 236 who went to work at the No. 1 mine of the Hillcrest collieries are dead as the result of an explosion of black damp which occurred in the mine shaft 1,600 feet underground at 9:30 this morning.

Forty-one men were rescued. Foreman J.S. Quigley is among the missing. The bodies are being brought from the mine as rapidly as trucks can carry them to the surface. The rescuers are working desperately to get the entombed miners to the fresh air as soon as possible in the hope that some of them may be revived. But each truck contains the charred remains of a victim of the worst mining catastrophe in the history of Canada, and even the friends and relatives of the men who are still missing have given up hope of ever seeing them alive. The forty-one men who were delivered from awful death in the depths of the wrecked mine were rescued early in the day. Every carrier that comes up now contains a lifeless form.

DID NOT KNOW CAUSE OF EXPLOSION

General Manager Brown, of the Hillcrest collieries, in a conversation and guarded statement to a newspaper representative, said that he did not know the cause of the explosion was, and would not conjecture an opinion. "There is so much confusion now that I am not in a position to give a detailed statement," said Mr. Brown. "I have not been able to make any investigation of the circumstances surrounding the disaster, all my time having been occupied since the explosion occurred in superintending the work of recovering the bodies. The explosion took place at 9:30 this morning, and 10 minutes later the rescue work was commenced, willing assistance coming from all quarters."

RESCUE CREW NOT VERY HOPEFUL

"Two hundred and thirty-six men went into the mine. I am not in a position to say how many of these are saved. I trust this may be the case, although the rescue crew are not very hopeful. However, I want you to make it clear that at this stage I am unable to give exact figures of the number of men who are dead. The bodies will be checked when they come out of the mine, and placed in the wash house to be made as presentable as possible to their grief-stricken relatives. I will not know the extent of the casualties till tomorrow. I will remain at the mouth of the mine all night, if necessary. I will stay till every man is accounted for by his living presence or his dead body."

EXPLOSION WRECKED THE ENGINE HOUSE

"Shortly after the explosion took place I sent a wire telling C.B. Gordon, Montreal, president of the company, of the awful happening. I received a reply from him as quickly as it could be rushed from Montreal, but it contained nothing of public interest. Most of the other officers and directors of the mine live in Montreal, although capitalists in Victoria, Nelson and other cities are also heavily interested. As far as I know, there are no Calgary officers. The explosion wrecked the engine house at the mouth of No. 1 mine, and black smoke shot up in the air for several feet. The smoke was what first attracted attention to it. At the present time I am not in a position to make a more extended statement. I will make a fuller explanation later when the rescue crew has completed its work and when I am certain as to details."

NO LIVING MEN NOW IN THE MINE

A pall of gloom hangs over the little mountain town of Hillcrest. The town has about 1,500 habitants, and fully a quarter of these have been directly affected by the horrible tragedy. Many women have lost their breadwinners, and dozens are bereft of sons, brothers and sweethearts. The town is numb with grief and sorrow. Everywhere one sees girls and women seeking for their dead. Lumber trucks running two in a shift are being sent down into the black bit of death every few minutes, manned by willing crews of grim rescue workers. In readiness to render assistance of resuscitating in case any living men are brought out of the depths, doctors and nurses, trained and volunteer, await the call of duty. But it seems quite certain that there are no living men in the mine.

It is practically assured that the 41 miners who were delivered from a terrible death are the only survivors. Each time the trucks come up to the mouth of mine No. 2, through which the rescue crews are entering the caverns of death on account of the wrecking of the mouth of mine No. 1, which is clogged with a mass of debris, a silent form, black from the storm of coal dust which filled the air when the explosion took place, and cold in death, is brought to the surface.

The former companions of the dead miners place their smothered mates in a stretcher on trucks, over which are thrown blankets to hide the ghastly sight of the blackened bodies from the eyes of the crews that have gathered in awe-stricken silence along the tracks on which the trucks are being run. A few hundred yards from the mouth of the mine the bodies are being carried into the wash house, and after being made presentable are being taken to the miners hall in the town and laid out to be claimed by their bereaved families and friends.

At 10 o'clock that night there were sixteen bodies in the hall. As the bodies are brought out of the mine anxious, tearful women cast a horrified glance at the trucks eager to see if the remains are those of their loved ones, half afraid for fear they may be. Although the bodies are covered, these sorrowing women are sometimes able to tell by a glimpse at a shoe, an exposed hand or patch of clothing if the death trucks bear the objects of their grief, and frequently harrowing scenes result. Many of the bereaved are loathe to leave their homes. Overcome with shock and grief, they sit on the verandah of their humble cottages swaying to and fro in silent pain or moaning and sobbing hysterical grief. For the most part the mourners are subdued in their expressions of sorrow, their agony too deep for superficial manifestation.

INTERVIEW WITH SURVIVORS

A peculiar fact of the explosion is the fact that very few of the survivors seem to have any idea whatever of what really occurred. They know there was a noise such as would be made by the bursting of a mammoth shell, a falling of rocks and chunks of coal, cries of terror that made the walls of the mines ring with mocking echoes, then the most of them lapsed into stupor of unconsciousness. The newspaper representative interviewed no fewer than fifteen survivors, but not a single one of them had a comprehensive idea of what had taken place.

In the horror of the terrible calamity they temporarily lost their powers of observation and reasoning and remember nothing but the loud report and the hail of pelting rocks, coal fragments, storm of coal dust.

MADE NOISE LIKE A CANNON

Herbert Yeadon, one of the survivors, told in a fragmentary way what he remembered of the occurrence.

"I was in the mine with six others about the end of drift No. 2 when the explosion took place. It made a noise like a cannon going off and we made a rush for the mouth of the pit. The gas was so strong however that we were driven back and the explosion in No. 1 mine blocked our way in the other direction. We lay down in a pool of water, remembering our instructions that this was the best course to take in case of gases escaping in a mine. Then all became black. I remembered no more. I knew nothing until I awoke in the open air underneath the blue sky restored to consciousness by operators who resuscitated me with a pulmotor. My companions were also saved by the same means."

150 VICTIMS LAID TO REST

Hillcrest, Alta., June 21 — almost directly under Turtle mountain, natural graveyard of victims of the Frank slide of a few years ago, was enacted this afternoon the last great tragic scene of the Hillcrest disaster. Over 150 bodies of miners were laid away with funeral rites, while around stood widows weeping and not a few sympathizers.

The funeral was an impressive one, all the more on account of its silent participants, and the little town of Hillcrest will for many a day date its time from this tragic Sunday. Even the elements showed sympathy with the mourners, for during the tragic proceedings fell fitful spurts of sleet, snow and rain, and the wind wantonly played with the wreaths and flowers which marked the narrow confines that held all that was mortal of father and brother.

In the quiet little valley, where yesterday the graves counted perhaps less than two score, today the number is augmented by 150. Other bodies are being prepared for the last rites and it is feared that several found a natural and permanent resting place beneath tons of rock and debris.

Outside Union hall, from which place the victims were taken to the grave, was today a scene of grief. Wives and children wept together and even strong men broke down. Widows were led away from the last fond gaze on the bodies of their husbands and moist eyes of onlookers were not a few. It was not infrequent that the lids of caskets were opened and kisses imprinted on the cold lips of the loved ones.

http://www.crowsnest.bc.ca/hillcrest.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 11:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 9 Juni 1914.

Borkel en Schaft. Naar wij uit goede bron vernemen heeft de Hoogwelgeb. heer Baron Gilles de Pellichi, eigenaar en senator woonachtig te Brugge, alhier in de onmiddellijke nabijheid der abdij der eerw. paters Trappisten eene uitgestrektheid grond van circa 4000 hectaren aangekocht welke voor het meerendeel bestaat uit heide en bosschen alsmede ongeveer 60 hect. wetering en moerassen.
Volgens goede inlichtingen zal de nieuwe eigenaar aldaar groote werken laten uitvoeren door een groot gedeelte dezer dorre en uitgestrekte heide te ontginnen en herscheppen in weelderige weilanden en vruchtbare akkers. Zelfs groote vischvijvers zullen er worden aangelegd. Dan te midden dezer landouwen zal er een prachtig kasteel oprijzen dat tot verblijf zal dienen der edele familie.
Benevens eenige boerderijen zullen er ook fraaie en gerieflijke woningen worden gebouwd ten dienste zijner arbeiders. Zoo zullen wij na eenige jaren deze eenzame heide veranderd zien in schoone winstgevende akkers en weiden. En mochten wij dan meteen eene fraaie verbinding krijgen door het aanleggen van een kunstweg van Schaft langs de kluis naar Leende, Soerendonk of Budel dan was deze streek geheel uit haar isolement opgeheven.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 11:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chautauqua Booster Parade, Brookville, Pa., June 9th, 1914



http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007661801/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rev. R.J. Campbell, Ealing, June 9th, 1914.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Reginald_John_Campbell.jpg
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Louis Raemaekers, De Telegraaf, 9 juni 1915



De "Tukomst" droom
´Holland bleibt dan Holland graad soals Sachsen Sachsen geblieben is; in huis darf sogar Hollandsj gesproken worden, und die Pruisische uniform komt eerst na ´n jaar, und Uwe Majesteit hoeft maar twee maal pro jaar nach Berlijn om den Kaiser toe hoeldigen.´

http://www.persmuseum.nl/duitslandbeeld/05.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Monitor News, 9 juni 1916



http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/MTN/1916/06/09/4/Ad00402_8.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Excelsior, French newspaper, 9 june 1916



http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&_trksid=p4340.l2557&item=270683302282&nma=true&rt=nc&si=Arl3su%252Bs8u5GrLRQ1jv%252FhswmS4U%253D
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pt. Thomas Lawless (April 11, 1888-June 9, 1917)

This is a fascinating story about the identification of the remains of Pt. Lawless found near Vimy Ridge in 2003.



http://swveterans.blogspot.com/2011/02/pt-thomas-lawless-april-11-1888-june-9.html
Ook hier: http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=25157
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Hydra: 9th June 1917



Helemaal te lezen op http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/document/3138/2006
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brieven van Georg Hahn

Opa Georg Hahn overhoorde altijd de lessen van zijn kinderen, die een groot respect voor hem hadden. Hieronder een brief aan zijn zoon Louis, geschreven vanuit het krijgsgevangenen kamp.

Enfin, 9 Juni 1918,

Lieber Louis,

lch habe längere Zeit nichts mehr von Dir gehört, und sollte mich es freuen, recht bald einmal wieder einige Zeilen von Dir zu enthalten. Wie geht es in der Schule und mit den Violin-Unterricht? Machtst Du gute Fortschritte oder bleibtst Du in dem einen oder anderen Fach auch zurück? Hier in Entin lerne ich auch ein wenig von der Landwirtschaft verstehen. Auszer Wachedienst tut die Mannschaft hier Arbeitsdienst zu leisten, bei letzeren habe auch ich schon geholfen beim Graben, Hacken, Kartoffel Anhaufen, und so weiter. Es ist dies meistens ziemlich schwere Arbeit, die gut und sorgfältig ausgeführt werden musz, doch arbeite ich ganz gern im Garten und auf den Felde, und glaube ich, dasz auch Du Vergnügen an den Arbeit finden wirst. Schade, dasz man diese Arbeiten nicht für sich selbst thun, und etwas Vieh sowie Hühner dabei halten kann, nur für Butter, Milch, Eier und Fleisch nicht van andern abhängig zu sein, die jetzt alles festhalten und nichts herausreichen wollen. Für Eier bezahlte man hier jetzt 50 Pfg per Stück, selbst mehr, und es sind trotzdem keine aufzutreiben. Mit Theo verträgst Du Dich hoffendlich gut, so dasz Du während der Sommerferien auf einige Zeit mit zu Tante Jet nach Elspeet kommen kannst. Solltet lhr beiden nicht gut und freundschaftlich mit einander umgehen, so müszte von der Reise abgesehen werden. Bestelle Theo meine besten Grüsze. Schreibe mir bitte bald und empfange viele herzliche Grüsze und Kisse von

Deinem Papa
.

http://www.nierstrasz.org/HahnAarsse/LettersFromGeorg.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AWM caption : "Romain?, France. 9 June 1918...



... A French large calibre railway gun on its carriage, part of a train which has been captured, on the railway. Note the camouflage paintwork and the name Staifia painted on the bogie. On the right hand side of the bogie is the number 1 surrounded by a painted horseshoe, and P.5011 is painted above that."

This appears to be a 370 mm Howitzer, based on rebored 305 mm gun.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:370mmRailwayHowitzerJune1918.jpeg



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/370mmRailwayHowitzerRearView1918.jpeg
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 08 Jun 2011 12:35, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 12:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Series of photographs from Fußartillerie-Bataillon Nr. 138. Leutnant und Batterie Fuhrer König



Note on reverse stating words to the effect of "the body of Batterie-Führer, Lt König in the camp near Berlancourt, near Noyon 10 June 1918".



Ludendorff followed up his stalled Aisne offensive with a small-scale drive in the Montdidier-Noyon sector on 9 June 1918. Twenty-one German divisions attacked the French on a twenty-three mile front extending from Montdidier to the Oise River. The French anticipated the assault and contained it after a nine-mile (14 km) penetration by the Germans, counterattacking strongly. The fighting was over by 12 June, and the enemy had little to show for the heavy losses incurred. No large American units were in the immediate vicinity of this action, although the 1st Division at Cantigny was subjected to artillery fire and diversionary raids.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/drakegoodman/5181291936/sizes/z/in/photostream/ & http://www.flickr.com/photos/drakegoodman/5180685969/in/photostream/
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