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8 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jun 2006 5:49    Onderwerp: 8 juni Reageer met quote

8. Juni 1916

Heftige Artillerietätigkeit vor Verdun

Großes Hauptquartier, 8. Juni.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Der Artilleriekampf beiderseits der Maas dauert mit unverminderter Heftigkeit an.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Südlich von Smorgon drangen deutsche Erkundungsabteilungen über mehrere feindliche Linien hinweg bis in das Dorf Kunawa vor, zerstörten die dortigen Kampfanlagen und kehrten mit 40 Gefangenen und einem erbeuteten Maschinengewehr zurück.
Auf der übrigen Front bei den deutschen Truppen keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Ortschaften am Doiransee wurden von feindlichen Fliegern ohne jedes Ergebnis mit Bomben beworfen.

Oberste Heeresleitung.

Monte Maletta bei Asiago erstürmt

Wien, 8. Juni.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
In Wolhynien haben unsere Truppen unter Nachhutkämpfen ihre neuen Stellungen am Styr erreicht.
An der Ikwa und nördlich von Wizniowczyk an der Strypa wurden mehrere russische Angriffe abgewiesen. An der unteren Strypa greift der Feind abermals mit starken Kräften an. Die Kämpfe sind dort noch nicht abgeschlossen.
Am Dnjestr und an der beßarabischen Front herrschte gestern verhältnismäßig Ruhe.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Auf der Hochfläche von Asiago gewann unser Angriff an der ganzen Front südöstlich Cesuna-Gallin weiter Raum. Unsere Truppen setzten sich auf dem Monte Lemerle (südöstlich von Cesuna) fest und drangen östlich von Gallio über Ronchi vor.
Abends ertürmten Abteilungen des bosnisch-herzegowinischen Infanterieregiments Nr. 2 und des Grazer Infanterieregiments Nr. 27 den Monte Meletta.
Die Zahl der seit Beginn dieses Monats gefangen genommenen Italiener hat sich auf 12400, darunter 215 Offiziere, erhöht.
An der Dolomitenfront wurde ein Angriff mehrerer feindlicher Bataillone auf die Croda del Ancona abgewiesen.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jun 2006 5:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 8

1917 British War Cabinet holds emergency meeting in London

On this day in 1917, early in the fourth summer of World War I, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George calls an emergency meeting of his War Cabinet in London to discuss plans for an upcoming British offensive against the Germans on the Western Front.

With Russia wracked by revolution and mutinies spreading within the French army after the disastrous Nivelle Offensive in the spring of 1917, the British planned their own offensive, led by General Douglas Haig, to begin that June 10. One prominent member of the cabinet, South African Defense Minister Jan Smuts, had been advocating the earliest possible launch of the offensive, arguing that to delay would mean the Germans would “have time to recover their spirits….If we could not break the enemy’s front we might break his heart.”

At the War Cabinet meeting on June 8, Lloyd George and his ministers heard Smuts’ argument; the prime minister, however, proposed that the offensive be postponed, and that Britain consider “the possibility of a separate peace with Austria”—the purpose of which would be to isolate Germany and put pressure on the kaiser to end the war. Why should Britain alone seek to bear the entire burden of the war, Lloyd George reasoned, when “the French were finding it difficult to go on, and their reserves physically and mentally exhausted?”

Smuts urged his colleagues to consult Haig, then in the field, on the viability of the offensive—when the general expressed a vague hopefulness, he was summoned to London to explain in detail his outlook. Arriving on June 19, Haig explained to Lloyd George and other skeptics his belief that Germany was on the verge of exhaustion and that with one more massive push, the Allies could win the war within the year. Lloyd George gave in, and the British offensive—later known as the Third Battle of Ypres—was scheduled for the final day of July.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tuesday, 8-Jun-1915 - The Boston American

It's the front page of The Boston American newspaper from Tuesday, 8-Jun-1915. This was not a date of special significance - just another day early in the war. It gives us a good feel for the mood of this period before America, as a nation, was directly involved in the great European conflict.

8 German Musicians Renounce Kaiser
NEW YORK, June 8.- After playing the "Star Spangled Banner" with vim and enthusiasm in front of the Federal building in Brooklyn, a German street band of eight pieces marched into the office of Chief Clerk Percy Gilkes of the United States District Court and in a body renounced allegiance to Kaiser Wilhelm. Each of the eight received his first papers, after the usual questioning.

Meer artikelen op http://www.worldwar1.com/tlba.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 15:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

8 June 1915 - Sergeant Lawrence's diary:
Each man has to cook his own rations, get his own firewood and everything … Our rations are as follows: breakfast — tea and sugar, no milk, six biscuits per day (hard as Hell too), a small piece of cheese, a quarter pound jam and one rasher of bacon. Lunch — tea only. Tea — stew or bully beef and tea, no milk.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/june-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 15:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I: First airship was shot down in Lussino

The War in the Air - Bombers: Italy

The frontier between Italy and Austria was different to any other frontier in the First World War. To the north the Alps protected the Austrian heartland. To the east the Austrian navy sat just across the Adriatic: its chief port was at Pola and it had major ship-building yards at Trieste.

The Italians controlled the air throughout almost the entire war, and waged an innovative and aggressive air campaign. It was the only county other than Germany to use lighter-than-air craft for bombing purposes. The Italian airships were "semi-rigid dirigibles," they were different to the "rigid" Zeppelins in that they had a keel only, as opposed to an entire frame as favoured by the Germans.

Their first bombing raid was on the 26th of May, 1915, three days after entering the war, when they crossed the Adriatic to attack Sebenico, which was attacked by a dirigible again the following day.

The airships were used throughout the war, attacking railway yards and enemy encampments and the naval base at Pola. By the end of the war they had 20 dirigibles. Their 'M' class airships could carry a 1,000 kg (2200lb) bomb load and reach an altitude of 15,000 feet.

They were not however immune to attack. On the 8th of June 1915 the Cittä di Ferrara was shot down by an Austrian seaplane, and on the 5th of August the Citta di Jesi was lost to anti-aircraft fire. Austrian seaplanes bombed the Italian airships at their bases in Jesi and Ferrara.

Some history books record that the first zeppelin (airship) ever shot down was the German Zeppelin LZ-37, brought down by Canadian Flight Sub-lieutenant Reg Warneford (Royal Naval Air Service) near Bruges on 9 June 1915. Warneford received a Victoria Cross for this achievement. But there is evidence this claim was a propaganda exercise for the Allies, designed to steal the thunder of an aerial victory by the Central Powers one day earlier. On 8 June 1915, one day prior to Warneford’s alleged victory, the Italian airship Città di Ferrara was shot down by Linienschiffsleutnant Gustav Klasing (born in Trieste, 1884) of the Austro-Hungarian Naval Air Service, flying a Lohner 2-seater flying boat number L-48. Klasing’s victory over the Città di Ferrara seems to have been completely forgotten by history, proving yet again that history is written by the victors.

Città de Ferrara (Designation: M-2) was an M-Class semi-rigid airship, one of eight built by Forianini for Italy at the start of the war. It was commanded by Tenente di vascello Castruccio Castracane, an old air wolf described by his friends as "a real gentleman with a look of affable cordiality concealing a heart of steel."

On 8 June 1915, he took off from an airfield in Pondenone (Italy) to bomb military plants at Fiume. Despite strong unfavourable winds, Città di Ferrara continued to its target and dropped its bombs, killing one woman in Timme and injured several other people, but only caused slight damage. It then turned for home, but the Austro-Hungarian Naval Air Service scrambled Lohner flying boat # L-48 (Klasing's seaplane) to intercept it and, over the Gulf of Carnaro near Lussino (the Austrians called it Lussin) L-48 caught the Italian dirigable and shot it down in flames into the sea.

The L-48 was flown by Linienschiffsleutnant (equivalent to navy lieutenant/army captain) Gustav Klasing and his gunner was named Fritsch. The Italian commander of the airship, one other officer and five crew were promptly rescued by Austro-Hungarian Torpedo Boat # 4 (launched on 31 Dec 1909, stationed at Pola and, after the war, given to Italy for war reparations.) The captured Italians spent the rest of the war as prisoners. Two other Italian crew members of Città di Ferrara, Tenente di vascello De Pisa and motorist Mantero, died ‘gloriously’ in the crash. The wreckage of the Città di Ferrara itself was recovered by the Austro-Hungarian navy and taken into Pola Harbour for display.

As for Klasing, he was killed on 6 November, 1916, while test-flying an Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik AG (Oeffag) G-5 four-seater flying boat. Fregattenleutnant Hely Nicora and Frglt Stanislaus Kaba died with him in that crash. His victory over the Città di Ferrara was widely acclaimed in the press, and in souvenirs of the time. Today, it has largely been forgotten.”

Nicolò Juranich has furnished an article by Giacomo Scotti entitled “Aerei da Guerra e Dirigibile su Pola e Lussinpicollo” recalling the period 1915-18 when Italy carried out regular raids over Trieste, Istria and Fiume (Rijeka). Nicolò also found someone who was told of the event by his father recalling that the airship came down in the sea near the bay of Crivissa (Krivica). These bombing raids by dirigibles were carried out by Italians over cities largely populated by Italians! Austrio-Hungarian planes were sent up to defend the cities and attempt to shoot the airships. The one over Lussino was the first airship to be shot down during World War I.

This is an extract from the account (in Italian) by Scotti:

1915-18: BOMBE ITALIANE SU TRIESTE, L’ISTRIA E FIUME


“Trieste, Fiume e varie cittadine istriane (insieme ad alte località dell’allora impero austro-angarico) vennero per la prima volta bombardate dal cielo nel corso della prima Guerra mondiale. A bombardarle furono le ali italiane che, prime al mondo, erano state impiegate quale mezzo bellico nel conflitto libico del 1912. Inizialmente, l’attività dell’arma aerea tricolore fu decisamente marginale, ma poi andò intensificandosi d’anno in anno e, con essa, s’intensificarono le operazioni offensive di velivoli da caccia, da ricognizione, da bombamento, di idrovolanti e dirigibili: dai 58 velivoli lenti, disarmati e di scarsa regolarità di volo di cui l’Italia disponeva nel maggio 1915, si passò ai 504 in piena efficienza bellica del 4 novembre 1918, senza contare le centinaia di velivoli andati distrutti nel 41 mesi di guerra.

La prima missione aerea bellica venne compiuta nella notte del 31 maggio 1915 dall’aeronave P-4 al commando del capitano Giuseppe Valle, che bombardò la stazione ferroviaria e l’arsenale di Pola. Un altro dirigibile, il “Citta di Ferrara” bombardò il silurifico Whitehead di Fiume nella notte dell’8 giugno ma, attaccato da idrovolanti austraici, precipitò in fiamme nelle acque del Quarnero nei pressi di Lussinpiccolo. Due componenti dell’equipaggio scoparvero, gli altri furono raccolti un’ora dopo da una torpediniera australica.

Sempre in giugno, dirigibili italiani compirono diverse azioni notturne contro Pola, il nodo ferroviaro di Divaccia, Muggia, Sagrado e Gradisca, arrecando però danni insignificanti. Per il resto dell’anno le missioni s’incentrarono sul fronte, in particolare durante le prime quattro “battaglie dell’Isonzo”mentre l’aviazione austraica fu di gran lunga piu attiva sulle città italiane.”

http://www.istrianet.org/istria/navigation/air/lussino-airship.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 16:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 June 1915, Commons Sitting

ANTI-GERMAN RIOTS (DAMAGE).


HC Deb 08 June 1915 vol 72 c165 165

Mr. KING asked the Secretary of State for the Home Department what was the amount of damage done to private property during the riots in the Metropolitan area in May; and whether any damages in respect of the riots have been assessed, or paid, to sufferers under the Riot Damages Act, 1886?

The SECRETARY of STATE for the HOME DEPARTMENT (Sir J. Simon) No estimate can at present be given, and no compensation has yet been awarded or paid.

Mr. KING asked how many special constables in the Metropolitan area were injured during the riots in May; and whether compensation or expenses of medical attendance has been, or will be, granted in such cases?

Sir J. SIMON Twelve special constables were injured. I am glad to say in no case seriously. Medical aid was in most cases declined. In the four cases where there was medical attendance the expenses have been, or will be, borne by police funds.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/jun/08/anti-german-riots-damage
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 16:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Tenth Battle of the Isonzo, 1917

(...) Initially success appeared likely. By the close of May the Italian army had advanced to within 15km of Trieste, although subsidiary attacks elsewhere failed. Nevertheless a major Austro-Hungarian counter-offensive launched on 3 June reclaimed virtually all lost ground and by the time the battle was called off by Cadorna on 8 June little territory had been gained.

Casualties continued to be high; 157,000 Italian losses were sustained, with a further 75,000 Austro-Hungarian casualties.(...)

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/isonzo10.htm

Thomas Nelson Page on the Tenth and Eleventh Battles of the Isonzo, 1917

Reproduced below is an account of the outcome of the tenth and eleventh battles of the Isonzo, launched by the Italian Commander-in-Chief Luigi Cadorna in May and August 1917.

Although these were both regarded as expensive failures by many, Page's summary - he served as U.S. Ambassador to Italy at the time - instead emphasised the greater attritional losses inflicted upon the already weakened Austro-Hungarian army.

Thomas Nelson Page, U.S. Ambassador to Italy, on the Tenth and Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo

The Allies had planned a great offensive for early spring on all their fronts.

The late opening of the spring in 1917, however, prevented until May the great offensive which Cadorna had planned on the Carso front to force the Austrians from their strong positions above the upper and middle Isonzo, where their right - to employ the words of the Italian report - "pivoted on a lofty mountain system, consisting of various lines of high peaks, each of which was a dominating base connected with its neighbour; so that, taken together, they formed a formidable defensive whole."

Such were the enemy's lines between the middle Isonzo and the Chiapovano and Idria valleys, extending to the system of the Ternovo plateau, and to the mountainous line on the right of the Vipacco River to the north and east of Gorizia.

Hence - to quote from the same authority - they extended "through the narrow valley of the Vipacco to the northern edge of the Carso, at Monte Faiti, and joining the Cornem-Brestovizza-Hermada-Duino bulwark, extended down to the sea."

As soon as the weather conditions permitted, Cadorna opened his offensive from the bridge head at Plava, and sent the Italians up the precipitous steeps of Monte Kuk, Mount Vodice, and "Hill 625."

The dash of the assault carried against desperate resistance the Austrian first line, while farther toward the sea the Italian right advanced on the Carso, sweeping the Austrian left out of their strongest positions "as far as the immediate approaches to Faiti, to Brestovizza, and to Monte Hermada."

By May 27 the Italians had reached the third line of Austrian defences and crossed the Ternovo. The offensive was costly, for the Italians were forced to carry by assault against Austria's best troops positions which, naturally of tremendous strength, had been fortified by Austria's highest experts till they were deemed the impregnable bulwarks of the Dual Kingdom.

But if the Italian losses were tremendous, they also exacted a heavy toll from the defenders. So successful was this May offensive that Austria felt compelled to draw important reinforcements from her eastern front to defend these gateways to Trieste.

Cadorna was now complete master of the initiative, and he prepared for his next step, which was to assemble a superior force with superior artillery, and attack once more along the whole Isonzo front.

Again he was successful. His left thrown against the Austrian right captured the advanced Bainsizza plateau and the positions on Monte Santo as far as the Chiapovano Valley, and then made a flank attack against the positions of Ternovo and an attack by both front and flank on the positions on Mount San Gabriele.

On the Carso the Third Army under the Duke d'Aosta carried the enemy's first line, and then, to quote the Italian report, "made a determined bid for Monte Hermada, the most important bulwark barring his advance on Trieste."

But there must be a limit to all effort, however epic its scope or exercise may be. Against these bulwarks Italy's offensive came for the time to a stand. She had poured out her blood like water on those rock mountain sides and plateaus, where every point and line were swept by a fire that cut away woods as a harvest-field is mown by the scythe, and blew away the living rock in its elemental fury.

This offensive in which Italy was forced to put forth her utmost efforts had cost her heavily - how heavily was not divulged. But she had to show for it substantial gains. She had smashed the enemy's powerful lines and, against the most stubborn resistance, had carried his most cherished defences, in a region where every position seized was the proof at once of her success and of her prowess.

She had captured over 30,000 prisoners, 135 guns, including several of the famous "305's," nearly 400 machine-guns and trench mortars, and a prodigious quantity of military supplies and other stores of all kinds.

With the proof of her ability to capture, against Austria's most powerful efforts at resistance, defences so formidable that military writers had long considered them impregnable, Italy might well feel satisfied.

But not only had she strengthened her own position; she had rendered, if it were known, a vast service to the Allied cause. First, in that while Russia was crumbling internally, her armies were as yet intact.

And that they had remained so was due in part to Italy's having compelled Austria to withdraw from the Russian front troops which, if left there, might have changed the situation months before the Russian armies gave way, and thus have permitted German reinforcements from the weakened Russian front to fling their weight on the already worn French and British armies at the crucial moment when they were straining every nerve on the Meuse, the Aisne, and the Somme.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/isonzo_page.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28th Battalion History - St. Eloi and Hooge - Spring 1916

June 6, 1916 - A very heavy artillery barrage on the front and support lines started at 7:00 AM, and continued until 2:00PM. At 3:05 PM, the Germans explode 4 enormous mines under 200 yards of the Battalion's frontline trenches (covering the eastern outskirts of Hooge) at Trenches 70, 71 & 72 which it is believed, with the serious bombardment, practically wiped out the garrison. Trenches 73-75 also suffered heavily. (See Map) The men in the frontline and bombing posts suffered heavy casualties, including the men from 'A' Company who were almost wiped out. 'A' Company's men came from the twin ports area at the head of the lakes in Ontario. As there were now no units in the battalion from Ontario, all future reinforcements for the Battalion were to come from Saskatchewan.

Private Fraser of the 31st Battalion recorded in his diary:

"It was raining continuously where my unit lay, contained only one dugout, which sheltered an officer. The trench by this time was filled up with water, there being over a foot, and behind was a swamp. Everything became saturated with wet, the bread in the ration bags became a pulp, all eatables, except canned goods, were completely destroyed. Clothes and equipment weighed as heavy as lead. Shells were exploding all aroundsending up showers of mud and water. The wounded lay where they fell on the poisonous ground of Flanders."

The attack came; the first rush was easily squashed by the'Imperials' (British) troops on the Canadian left; but the overran the 28th Battalion, "who in the front line were wallowing in death". The 31st Managed to fight them off, "notwithstanding the difficulties we were in, encumbered with the dead and wounded; the firing step smashed in places; in mud and wet; rifles half clogged; and though dazed and crazed we pull ourselves together, line the servicable part of the parapet and blaze into the advancing enemy, who recoils in confusion. All we accomplished was to penetrate down to our old communication trench into Zouave Wood".
(from Sanctuary Wood & Hooge by Nigel Cave)

The Germans quickly captured the front lines but were stopped by fire from the 28th's men in the support line and the 31st on the right flank in Zouave Wood. They held on to the support trenches along side the Menin Road and had repulsed the German assault with rifle & machinegun fire by 3:30 PM. This was accomplished, despite significant jamming problems with their Ross rifles. 'B' Company had few remaining men and 'C&D' Companies suffered many casualties. The effective strength of battalion was reduced to about 50%.

The German troops dug in where they were stopped and were in possession of Hooge. The holding of Hooge had been important to the British honour, having suffered many casualties in holding this hamlet. Its loss by the Canadians was viewed with disdain by British troops.

June 8, 1916 - The 29th Battalion commences the relief of the remainder of the 28th Battalion in the line.

http://www.nwbattalion.com/history3.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter of 8 June 1917 from W. Jefferson to William Sisler

B.E.F. France
8 June 1917
Dear Sisler,
Life being rather crowded in these fine days I have only time to acknowledge receipt of your letter and cheque, but will reply more fully when my duties are less insistent. Meanwhile my most hearty thanks for the kindly thought of the Club Life is very pleasant here on the whole during the summer, and even a winter campaign would not be too unpleasant where we are now. In fact the war as a whole has been an agreeable surprise. Nevertheless re-enlisting- don't. You do far more good where you are -
Yours sincerely
2d Lt 33 Siege Battery W. Jefferson

http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/correspondence/WJS/WJS_1917_0608
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Daily Princetonian, Volume 39, Number 174, 8 June 1917, Edition 01

http://theprince.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/princeton?a=d&d=Princetonian19170608-01&cl=CL2.1917.06&e=-------en-logical-20--1-----all---
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS FURIOUS - Fleet Aircraft Carrier

HMS Furious was built by Armstrong Whitworth, laid down on 8 June 1915 and launched 15 August 1916. She was commissioned on 26 June 1917 as a sea plane carrier. Between 1917-1918 she was reconstructed with landing-on deck, and recommissioned 15 March 1918. In the early 1920s she was rebuilt with full length flush flight deck, modified between 1931-1932 to increase the AA battery, and an island added in 1939. Sold for scrapping January 1948 scrapping complete 1954.

Lees verder op http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net/ships/FURIOUS.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1917

Our listing of known sets of brothers who died on the same date in 1917.

8 June 1917 - Thomas and William Hamblyn died whilst serving with the 1st Battalion, the Wellington Regiment, New Zealand Expeditionary Force. Sons of Mrs M.A. Hamblyn of Tariki, Taranaki, New Plymouth, New Zealand. The brothers are buried in the Wulverghem-Lindenhoek Road Military Cemetery.


Also 8 June 1917 - Albert, 21, and Ernest Raison, 22, died whilst serving with the 37th Battalion, the Australian Imperial Force. Sons of the late Samuel and Mary Ann Raison. Natives of Wangaratta, Victoria, Australia. The brothers have no known graves and are commemorated on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing, Ypres.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ludendorff
by H.L. Mencken, The Atlantic Monthly, June 1917

"In brief, one hears of Ludendorff, Ludendorff, whenever German officers utter more than twenty words about the war; his portrait hangs in every mess room; he is the god of every young lieutenant; his favorable notice is worth more to a division or corps commander than the ordre pour le mérite; he is, as it were, the esoteric Ulysses of the war"

I

eturning to Berlin from the German East front on the evening of January 31 last, I awoke the next morning to find the temperature six or eight degrees below zero, my ears, nose, and fingers kissed by frost, and the newspapers gaudy with announcements of the uneingeschränkten U-boat war. An historic, and, for all the cold, a somewhat feverish day. The afternoon conclave of American correspondents in the hotel Adlon bar was never better attended. For once the customary stealth of the craft was forgotten, and as each man came in with his fragment of news from the Wilhelmstrasse, from the Embassy, from the Military Bureau, from this or that officer, or politician, or door-keeper, or headwaiter it was fraternally pooled for the information of all. A newcomer myself, for I had got to Germany less than three weeks before, I chiefly listened, and the more I listened the more I heard a certain Awful Name. As witness my mental notes:—

'Jetzt geht's lost! The jig is up. They will never turn back now, Wilson or no Wilson. Bethmann-Hollweg is probably still against it, but who cares for Bethmann-Hollweg? When the jingoes won Ludendorff they won Hindenburg, and when they won Hindenburg the fight was over.... The whole thing was settled on the Kaiser's birthday at Great Headquarters. Did you notice that Helfferich and Solf, who are strongly against it, were not asked? Nay, it was a military party, and Ludendorff was the host. Of course, Bethmann-Hollweg was there, too, and so were the Kaiser and Kaiser Karl of Austria. All three of them hesitated. But what chance did they have in the face of Hindenburg—and Ludendorff? Ludendorff is worth six Bethmann-Hollweg, or ten Kaisers, or forty Kaiser Karls. Once his mind is made up, he gets to business at once. Hindenburg is the idol of the populace, but Ludendorff has the brains. Hindenburg is a man, and a professional soldier by nature, and a Junker to boot—he despises politics and diplomacy and all that sort of thing. All he asks for is an army and an enemy. But Ludendorff has what you may call a capacious mind. He has imagination. He grasps inner significances. He can see around corners. Moreover, he enjoys planning, plotting, figuring things out. Yet more, he is free of romance. Have you ever heard of him sobbing about the Fatherland? Or letting off pious platitudes, like Hindenburg? Of course you haven't. He plays the game for its own sake—and he plays it damnably well. Ludendorff is the neglected factor in this war—the forgotten great man. The world hears nothing about him, and yet he has the world by the ear. If he thinks Germany can get away with this U-boat War, and he undoubtedly does—well, don't put me down for any bets against it.

And so on and so on, while the German bartender mixed capital Martini cocktails, and all the fashionables of Berlin drank synthetic coffee in the great lounge outside the American bar. All that day and the next, the name of Ludendorff kept coming up. And the next, and the next, and the next. Zimmermann and Gerard were the leading actors in the week's comedy; apparently unaided, they fought the memorable battle of the Wilhelmstrasse; but behind the scenes there was always Ludendorff, and now and then his hand would steal out through a rent in the back-drop, and the traffic of the stage would be jerked into some new posture. It was curious, and even a bit startling, to note the perfection of his control, the meticulousness of his management. The main business before him was surely enough to occupy him: he was hurling a challenge, not only at the greatest and most dangerous of neutrals, but also at all the other neutrals, and meanwhile he had the Franco-British push on his hands, and a food situation that was growing critical, and a left-over fight with anti-U-boatistas who still murmured. And yet, in the midst of all this gigantic botheration, he found time to revise the rules governing American correspondents, and to hear and decide an appeal from those rules by the last and least of them.

I know this because I was the man. Up to the time of the break a correspondent had easy sailing in Germany, despite the occasional imbecilities of the censor. He was free to go to any part of the Empire that intrigued him, barring military areas. He was taken to the front as often as he desired, and towed to see practically everything, and entrained as the guest of the army from Berlin back to Berlin. He had ready access to all the chief officers of state and to most of the commanders in the field; the Foreign Office arranged credit for him with the wireless folks; his mail dispatches were sneaked to the United States by government couriers; he saw maps and heard plans; special officers were told off to explain things to him. The one definite limitation upon him was this: he could not leave Germany without the permission of the military authorities, and this permission was invariably refused during the two weeks following his return from any front.

The regulation was reasonable, and no one caviled at it. But on the day of the U-boat proclamation there arrived an order from Great Headquarters—that is, from Ludendorff—which jumped the time to eight weeks. A different case; a harsher tune! Every correspondent in Berlin thought that the United States would declare war in much less than eight weeks; some put it at four or five weeks. To most the matter was academic; they had orders to cover the current news until the last possible moment; and besides, but three of them had been to the front within eight weeks, and these had but a few weeks to serve. But I was in a different situation, for on the one hand my commission was such that. its execution had been made impossible by the break, and on the other hand I had just got back from the front. Accordingly, I asked the Military Bureau of the Foreign Office to waive the rule, that I might, leave at some earlier time. The gentlemen there, as always, were charming, but they held up their hands.

'Waive the rule!' exclaimed the first one I encountered. 'But, my dear Mr. Mencken, it's impossible!'

'Why impossible?'

'Don't you know who made it?'

The drama was contagious. I gasped. Was it Hindenburg, the Kaiser—Bismarck, Frederick the Great?

'The rule,' came the reply, 'was made by Excellenz Ludendorff Himself!' — 'The rule' (pianissimo) — 'was made by' (crescendo) — 'Excellenz Ludendorff' (forte) — 'Himself '— (fortissimo, subito, sforzando).

I retired abashed; but, later, the Military Bureau, ever eager to please, called me up and suggested that I apply formally, and offered to indorse my application with certain flattering words: to wit, that I was of a rugged honesty and would betray no secrets; secondly, that I knew nothing of military science, and had none to betray.

The document went to Great Headquarters by wire. Two days passed; no reply. Several fellow correspondents interested themselves, some testifying that I was honest, others that I harbored no secrets. On the third day a member of the Reichstag added his certificate. He was a man of great influence and his imprimatur penetrated the citadel. On the morning of the fourth day I was hauled out of bed by a telephone message from the Military Bureau. Come at once! I went—shivering, breakfastless, frost-bitten—and behind the door I heard the Awful Name again. Excellenz had stooped from his arctic Alp. I was free to go or to stay; more, I was a marked and favored man. All the way to Zurich I paid no fare.

II

I rob my forthcoming autobiography of this feeble chapter to show two things: first, the vast capacity of this Ludendorff for keeping his finger in a multitude of remote and microscopic pies, and secondly, the powerful effect of his personality upon the better-inforced and more sophisticated classes of Germans. To the populace, of course, Hindenburg remains the national hero and beau ideal; nay, almost the national Messiah. His rescue of East Prussia from the Cossacks and his prodigies in Poland and Lithuania have given him a half-fabulous character; a great body of legend grows up about him; he will go down into German history alongside Moltke, Blücher, and the great Frederick; monuments to him are already rising. His popularity, indeed, it would be impossible to exaggerate. Nothing of the sort has been seen in the United States since the days of Washington. He not only stands side by side with the Kaiser—he stands far above the Kaiser; ten of his portraits are sold to one of Wilhelm's; a hundred to that of any other general. His promotion from Oberbefehlshaber Ost—commander-in-chief in the East—to supreme command on all fronts was made, almost literally, by acclamation. 'If it had not been made,' a high officer told me, 'there would have been a revolution—and not the mythical revolution that the English press agencies are always talking of, but a very real one. The people unanimously demanded that he be given absolute command; there was not a dissenting voice. Go to any Biertisch and you will find a severe critic of almost any other general in the army, but I defy you to find a single critic of Hindenburg. You have just seen a proof of his influence. A great many Germans were opposed to the ''sharpened'' U-boat war. Some thought it would fail; others thought it unnecessary. But Hindenburg's simple assurance to the Chancellor that it was necessary, that it would succeed, that the army was ready to face its consequences, was enough. The people trust him absolutely. In sixty-four words he disposed of the opposition.

True. I had witnessed it myself. But the further one gets from the people and the nearer one approaches the inner circle of German opinion, the less one hears of Hindenburg and the more one hears of Ludendorff. Two years ago Hindenburg was given all the credit for the astounding feat of arms at Tannenberg—the most extraordinary victory, surely, of this war, and perhaps one of the greatest of all time. Legends began to spring up on the day following the news; they made the battle no more than the delayed performance of a play long rehearsed; Hindenburg was said to have planned it back in the nineties. But now one hears that Ludendorff, too, had a hand in it; that he knew the ground quite as well as his chief; that it was he who swung a whole corps by motor-car, á la Gallieni—around the Russian right to Bischofsburg, and so cut off Samsonoff's retreat. One hears, again, that it was Ludendorff who planned the Battle in the Snow—another gigantic affair, seldom heard of outside Germany, but even more costly to the Russians than Tannenberg. One hears, yet again, that it was Ludendorff who devised the advance upon Lodz which wiped out three whole Russian corps; and that it was Ludendorff who prepared the homeric blow at Gorlice, which freed Galicia and exposed Poland; and that it was Ludendorff who found a way to break the Polish quadrilateral, supposedly impregnable; and that it was Ludendorff who chose the moment for the devastating Vormarsch into Lithuania and Courland, which gave the Germans a territory in Russia almost half as large as the German Empire itself. Finally, one hears that it was Ludendorff, bent double over his maps, who planned the Romanian campaign, an operation so swift and so appallingly successful that the tale of it seems almost fantastic. In brief, one hears of Ludendorff, Ludendorff, whenever German officers utter more than twenty words about the war; his portrait hangs in every mess room; he is the god of every young lieutenant; his favorable notice is worth more to a division or corps commander than the ordre pour le mérite; he is, as it were, the esoteric Ulysses of the war.

But, this is not the whole story, by any means; for as he has thus gradually slipped into the shoes (or, at all events, into one of them) of Moltke, the Erste Generalquartiermeister has also tried on the coat of Bismarck, long hanging on its peg. That is to say, he has reached out for the wires of civil administration, and now he has a good many of them firmly in his hand and is delicately fingering a good many more. It was in Poland and Galicia, while still merely chief of staff in the East, that he first showed his talent in this department. The German plan, once an enemy territory is occupied, is to turn it over to a sort of mixed posse of retired officers and civilians. Hordes of frockcoated and bespatted Beamten pour in; an inextricable complex of bureaux is established; the blessings of Kultur are ladled out scientifically and by experts. Belgium has suffered from this plague of cocksure and warring officials, and also Northern France. But not so the East. Over there, despite the fact that the population is friendly and the further fact that the enemy does not menace, the Beamte has found no lodgment. The army is the source of all law, of all rights, of all privileges, even of all livelihood. And the army is Ludendorff.

Curious tales are told of his omnipresence, his omniscience. He devised and promulgated, it is said, the Polish customs tariff. He fixed railroad rates, routes, and even schedules. When it was proposed to set up branches of the great German banks in Warsaw, Lodz, and Wilna, he examined the plans and issued permissions. When Americans came in with relief schemes, he heard them, cross-examined them, and told them what they could and could not do. He made regulations for newspaper correspondents, prison-camp workers, refugees, Dirnen, Jews. He established a news-service for the army. He promulgated ordinances for the government of cities and towns, and appointed their officials. He proclaimed compulsory education, and ordered that under-officers be required to teach school. In brief, he reorganized the whole government, from top to bottom, of a territory of more than 100,000 square miles, with a population of at least 15,000,000, and kept a firm grip, either directly or through officers always under his eye, upon every detail of its administration. Hindenhurg has no taste for such things. He was, and is, an officer of the old school, impatient of laws and taxes. So the business fell to Ludendorff, and he discharged it with zest.

All this was nearly two years ago. Last summer came Hindenburg's promotion to the supreme command, and with it a vast increase in opportunity for Ludendorff. Hitherto his power, and even his influence, had stopped at the German border; now his hand began to be felt in Berlin. His first task was to speed up the supply of munitions; the Allies on the West front had begun to show superiority here. The plans evolved by General von Falkenhayn, Hindenburg's predecessor, were thrown out as inadequate; entirely new plans were put into operation. When I left Germany, in February, results were beginning to reveal themselves. New munitions factories were opening almost daily; the old ones were spouting smoke twenty-four hours a day. An American correspondent, taken to one of these plants, returned to Berlin almost breathless. He swore he had seen a store of shells so vast that the lanes through it were seventeen kilometres long. As for me, I stuck to Hackerbräu and beheld no such marvels; but this I do know; that all ordinary train-service to the West was suspended for days, while train after train of shells passed through Berlin. And the production of field-guns, it was whispered, had leaped to six hundred a month.

Gargantuan plans; but what of the labor-supply? Here was a difficulty, indeed, for the army could not spare men, and the number out of uniform was anything but large. Ludendorff, however, argued that enough could be found—that thousands were wasting their time in useless industries, that other thousands had leisure that could be utilized. Out of this theory came the Zibildienstpflicht, whereby every German, old or young, rich or poor, found himself conscripted for the service of the state. As yet the utilization of these new forces is but partially under way, but progress is being made, and by the end of the year it will be hard to find a German who is not doing his bit. The doctrine of Ludendorff is simple: the whole energy of the German people must be concentrated on the war. All other enterprises and ambitions must be put out of mind. All business that is not necessary to the one end must be abandoned.

Another difficulty: the food-supply. Two Food Dictators have wrestled with it. One was quickly and ignominiously unhorsed; the other, Doctor Max Johann Otto Adolf Torlilovitz von Batocki, shows signs of an uneasy seat. A complex and vexatious problem, too maddening to go into here. But this much, at least, may be said of it: that the prime obstacle to its solution is not an actual shortage of food, but a failure in discipline. The peasants, the cattle men, the commission merchants—all these yield to avarice, holding back their stocks for better prices, producing rather what is most profitable than what is most needed. While Berlin ate potato flour, good rye was being fed to hogs. While Berlin paid a dollar and a half a pound for geese, the country barnyards swarmed with them. While Berlin went without butter, there were yokels who greased wagons with it. For a year past Dr. von Batocki has been struggling against this failure of team-work, this very un-German rebellion, this treason of the peasants. In part he has succeeded,—for example, with the milk-problem, as witness the fall in the infant death-rate,—but in greater part he has so far failed.

Now, however, comes a new note in the roar of suggestions, objurgations, objections, recriminations. The voice is Hindenburg's, but every German recognizes the words as Ludendorff's. 'Speculation in food-stuffs must cease. Every citizen must sacrifice his private interest to the common good. If it is found impossible to obtain this cooperation by existing means, then—'

'Which is to say,' said an army officer to me in Berlin, 'that the peasant will become a sort of official, forced to produce not what he wants to produce, but what he is ordered to produce, and to bring it in when told to, and to take a fixed price for it. We are coming to that system. The gentler plan of Catocki is too cumbersome, too uncertain. It is based partly on tricking the peasant. Witness the way potato prices have been juggled to induce him to disgorge his potatoes. Well, tricking the peasant is a waste of energy. Besides, it is impossible. Ludendorff will put an end to all that. Soon you will see him show his teeth.'

And then? Find an army officer who is communicative, and a place where the human voice doesn't carry, and you will hear various and-thens. The army is rolling a sinister eye toward the Wilhelmstrasse. The imbecilities achieved in that narrow lane begin to exhaust its patience; I can well imagine how the news of the Mexican note was received at the far-flung mess-tables.

Moreover, there is Bethmann-Hollweg, indicted by military opinion on two counts. Imprimis, he parades Berlin in a lieutenant-general's uniform, and is thus a tin soldier and accursed. Zum zweiten, his banal confession of wrongdoing in the Belgian business gave the English their chance. Also there is the 'scrap-of-paper' phrase—perhaps only a slip of the tongue, but how costly! Yet more, there is Zimmermann, the Beamte gone to seed, the diplomat all thumbs, the skeleton at all feasts. Out! Out!

Has the Chancellorship been offered to Ludendorff? Many Germans believed it at the time I left. It was, in fact, common gossip in Berlin. But so far as I could find out, it was gossip only. Ludendorff is unquestionably the new Moltke; is he also the new Bismarck, so long awaited, so diligently sought in vain? Alas, the question is purely academic. After all, he is but one man—and the job in front of him is enough to fill every second of one man's day.

III

The 1914 edition of Wer Ist's, the German Who's Who, does not mention Ludendorff at all. At the time it was published, he was a simple colonel on the Great General Staff, detailed to work out routes of march for the army in case of war—a highly important commission, but one not bringing him to public notice. The younger Moltke, nephew of the field-marshal and then chief of the General Staff, had an eye on him, but he was by no means conspicuous, even in Berlin. On April 22, 1914, he was promoted to major-general and made commander of the 85th Infantry Brigade at Strasburg. On August 2 he was detached from his brigade and made Oberquartiermeister— that is, chief of staff—to General von Emmich, and two days later he crossed the Belgian border and got his baptism of fire in front of Visé. The next day, August 5, he returned to Emmich's headquarters before Liége, and before night fall found himself in command of a brigade again. The commander of this brigade had fallen in the first onslaught. Ludendorff resumed the attack at once, and after an all-day fight on the 6th, he led his whole force into the city on the morning of the 7th. This was no easy feat. The Liége forts still held out—it was not till the 9th that the 'Busy Berthas' were brought up and began to knock them to pieces, and Ludendorff, though in almost complete possession of the city, found himself cut off from Emmich's main army. On the night of the 7th he stole back through the Belgian lines to report upon his situation. He was greeted in Aix-la-Chapelle wie ein von den Toden Auferstandener—like one arisen from the dead. A week or so later he was summoned to Great Headquarters and the Kaiser personally engauded him with the ordre pour le mérite.

There followed the Vormarsch into Belgium, and Ludendorff went along as Emmich's chief of staff. On August 22, just as the artillery was beginning the attack on Namur, there came a telegram from Moltke which changed the whole course of Ludendorff's career, and perhaps the whole history of the war. It notified him that he had been gazetted chief of staff to Colonel General Paul von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg; it ordered him to proceed post-haste to Aix-la-Chapel, to board a special train waiting there, to pick up Hindenburg at Hannover, and to proceed to Marienburg, in East Prussia.

Ludendorff lost no time. Before sun-down he was at Aix-la-Chapelle, and at 3.30 o'clock in the morning his Extrazug was at Hannover and Hindenburg came aboard. All the rest of the night the two labored with their maps and plans, and all the next morning, while the train raced across Germany.

On Sunday, August 23, at half-past one in the afternoon, it reached Marienburg, the old capital of the Teutonic Knights, now sorely menaced, like all of East Prussia, by the great tidal wave of invading Russians. On the Saturday following, shortly before noon, the Great General Staff in Berlin issued the following bulletin:—

'Our troops in East Prussia, under command of Colonel-General von Hindenburg, have met the Russian Narew army, consisting of five army corps and three cavalry divisions, in the neighborhood of Gilgenburg and Ortelsburg. After a battle of three days' duration they have defeated it and are now pursuing it over the frontier.'

This was the memorable battle of Tannenberg, the one indubitable military classic of the war. The Russian Narew army, under Samsonoff, ran to nearly 300,000 men, and hard on its heels was another Russian army, under Rennenkampf, of the same strength. To meet these huge forces Hindenburg had the First and Twentieth Corps of the line, two reserve corps, and some miscellaneous reserve troops—in all, not more than 200,000 men, and at least sixty per cent were Landwehr and Landsturm. By August 29 he had completely destroyed the Narew army and hurled its remnants over the frontier; by September 14 he had beaten and dispersed the army of Rennenkampf; and by September 15 he had crossed into Russia himself. In less than three weeks, with a force not more than a third as large as the enemy's, he had fought two great battles, taken 40,000 prisoners, and killed and wounded as many more, had put the survivors to flight, cleared a territory of 10,000 square miles, and begun an invasion of Russia!

How? By what process? By what strategy? Ask these questions in Germany and you will ask in vain. The whole business already belongs to fable. Everybody has a different explanation, a different theory. The thing was so swift and so colossal that no one seems to have kept any coherent record of it. I searched in vain in Berlin for a clear account; I got very little more light from officers who were present. Four months after the battle James O'Donnel Bennett, the very able correspondent of the Chicago Tribune, went to East Prussia to go over the field and unearth the facts. He told me later that he had to give up the enterprise as impossible. The staff officers of Hindenburg actually differed as to the days on which the action had been fought! More, I find an error of the same sort in the official biography of Ludendorff, read and approved by him. The author, Dr. Otto Krack, says that the victory was reported on August 8. But a copy of the Berliner Tageblatt that lies before me shows that it was really reported on the following day.

In brief, a most mysterious affair. And even more mysterious is the part that Ludendorff played in it. Down to the end of 1914 he was unheard of; the whole credit was given to Hindenburg, and there were endless fantastic tales about his preparations, his minute knowledge of the Masurian Swamps, his struggles against the Kaiser. After Lodz the name of Ludendorff began to be whispered; after the conquest of Poland he began to rise in fame; to-day in Germany, among army men, it is chiefly Ludendorff that one hears of. Hindenburg is a nice old man, shrewd, talkative, gemüthlich—above all, lucky. Ludendorff is the astute one, the serpent, the genius. This is how they talk.

IV

A genius, perhaps, but not a Junker. Das Junkertum, indeed, is on its last legs in Germany—not by revolution, as our newspapers would have us believe, but by natural processes. The war, in its first months, well nigh exterminated the Junkers of to-morrow; to-day you will find thousands of architects, professors, lawyers, business men, in officers' boots. And in every other direction they yield to the pressure of the advancing commonalty—even in the Foreign Office. Hindenburg, true enough, belongs to the old clan,—the Beneckendorffs were officers in the fifteenth century,—but the two leaders next in rank to him, namely Mackensen and Ludendorff, are both commoners, Mackensen's grandfather, it is said, was a butcher; Ludendorff's was a merchant in Stettin. Mackensen did not get the right to put 'von' before his name until the Kaiser began to admire him, nine or ten years ago. As for Ludendorff, he has not got it yet. All the bulletins from Great Headquarters are signed simply,—

'Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
'LUDENDORFF.'

Of late, to be sure, the German genealogists—who are quite as imaginative as our own performers in the same line—have sought to trace his descent from Viginia Ericksdotter, a left-hand child of King Erich XIV of Sweden; but this is no more than Kaffeeklatsch chatter. The truth is that the first Ludendorff ever heard of was the general's grandfather, a Kaufherr in Stettin. He married a Swedish lady, whose mother was a Finn. This pair had a son whom they called August Wilhelm, and in 1860 he married Clara Jeannette Henriette von Tempelboff, the daughter of old Justizrat Friedrich August Napoleon von Tempelhoff, who had married a Polish woman. August Wilhelm and Clara were the parents of the general. He is thus a much hyphenated Prussian, for he has Swedish, Finnish, and Polish blood. No doubt, as de facto King of Poland, he has often thought of his grandmother Dziembowski.

August Wilhelm, having espoused Clara von Tempelhoff, abandoned business and set up as a gentleman farmer in Posen. His small estate was called Kruszewnia, and here, in 1865, his second son, Erich, was born. In 1871 he sold the estate and leased three larger places, Thunow, Geritz, and Streckenthin; but his management of them was not very successful, and in the eighties he retired from farming and settled down in Berlin. There he died in 1905. His wife Clara, the general's mother, lived until March, 1914.

Altogether, a modest family, with occasional dashes of distinction. One of the Tempelhoffs, back in the sixteenth century, was six times Bürger-meister of Berlin, and left the post to his son. Another, Georg Friedrich, was a famous mathematician and artillerist, and so carried himself in the Seven Years' War that he died a lieutenantgeneral, with the ordre pour le mérite and the Black Eagle, and was raised to the Adelstand by Friedrich Wilhelm II. Among the Lefflers, the Swedish relatives of the house, there have been more names of mark: for example, Gösta Mittag-Lefflcr, the mathematician; Professor Fritz Leffler, the Germanist, and Anna Charlotte Edgren-Leffler, the lady Ibsen. But none of the first rank. No Ludendorff, or Tempelhoff, or Leffler has ever made a genuine splash in the world.

Nor are the living Ludendorffs, forgetting the general, of much draft or beam. The older brother, Richard, is a business man in the Dutch East Indies. A younger brother, Eugene, is a minor official in Aix-la-Chapelle—and to-day a cog in the wheel of civil administration in Belgium. Another, Hans, is an observer in the Astrophysical Observatory in Berlin. When the war began he was in Russia observing an eclipse, and he is hero yet, a prisoner. Of the two sisters, one died unmarried and the other married one Jahn, an under-secretary in the Imperial Treasury. As for the general himself, he married, in 1909 a wealthy widow named Pernet. She brought him three sons and a daughter, all now grown. He has no children of his own.

His career? It really began in front of Liége. Before that he was merely a hard-working officer, perhaps marked only by Moltke. As a boy of twelve he entered the cadet school at Plön and two years later he was transferred to Gross-Lichterfelde. In 1882, being seventeen years and six days old, he was commissioned a junior lieutenant in Infantry Regiment No. 57 (the Eighth Westphalian). In 1887 he was transferred to the Marine Corps and served in the Niobe, Baden, Kaiser, and other old-time ships, visiting Scandinavia and the British Isles. In 1890 he entered the War College in Berlin for a three years' course, making Russian his chief subject. In 1894, having done well with the language, he was sent to Russia to make military observations. This commission was so competently executed that on his return he was promoted to a captaincy and given the much-coveted Karmesinroten Streifen (red stripes) of the General Staff. In 1896 he was transferred to the Fourth Corps in Magdeburg; in 1898 he became a company Commander in the Infantry Regiment No. 61 (Eighth Pomeranian); in 1901 he joined the staff of the Ninth Division, under General von Eichhorn, now one of his subordinates; in 1902 he was made a major and attached to the Fifth Corps; in 1904 he returned to the General Staff; in 1906 he became a lecturer on strategy and military history in the War College; in 1908 he got, his lieutenant-colonelcy; in 1911 he was promoted to colonel; in 1913 he was given command of the Thirteenth Fusilier Regiment in Düsseldorf, and in 1914, as I have said, he was made a major-general. Since then he has been promoted twice. After Tannenberg he was made a lieutenant general, and last August he was made a general of infantry. There are two steps beyond: colonel-general and field-marshal.

So much for the record. As for Ludendorff the man, it is impossible to say much about him. The simple truth is that no one knows him. He is chilly, reserved, remote, almost wholly without charm; he has been so, according to his old-maid aunt, who knows him probably better than any one else, since childhood. Hindenburg, at the mess-table, is disposed to be expansive, genial, even garrulous. One of his old officers told me long tales of his love for the Biertisch, his delight in song, his waggish humors. There are no such stories about Ludendorff. He seems devoid of any social instinct. The few visitors to Great Headquarters come back to Berlin with the news that they have seen him, but that is about all they have to report. He is credited with no apothegms, no theories, no remarks whatever. He remains, after nearly three years of war, a man of mystery.

Een té mooi artikel om slechts gedeeltelijk over te nemen... http://www.theatlantic.com/past/issues/17jun/mencken.htm
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Dedication of the Virginia Memorial at Gettysburg, Friday, June 8, 1917

Virginia's Memorial to Her Sons at Gettysburg

In the early days of the present century, the feeling frequently found expression in camps of Confederate veterans, in chapters of Daughters of the Confederacy, and in meetings of other patriotic organizations, as well as in the public press, that an appropriate memorial should be erected on the battlefield of Gettysburg, in Pennsylvania, in honor of the soldiers of Virginia who fought there in July, 1863.
This feeling found concrete expression in the biennial message of the Governor to the General Assembly on January 8, 1908, in which Governor Swanson said:

"A more glorious exhibition of disciplined valor has never been witnessed than that shown by the Virginia troops at the battle' of Gettysburg. The heroic achievements of our troops in that fierce battle have given to this Commonwealth a fame that is immortal, a lustre that is imperishable.
"I recommend that an appropriation be made to erect on this battlefield a suitable monument to commemorate the glory and heroism of the Virginia troops."


One week later companion bills were introduced in the two Houses of the General Assembly--in the Senate by Hon. Don P. Halsey, of Lynchburg, and in the House of Delegates by Hon. Moses M. Green, of Fauquier--providing for the first steps in the erection of such a monument. The House bill was passed in both bodies by unanimous vote, and was approved by the Governor on March 9, 1908. It read as follows:

1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia, That the sum of ten thousand dollars he, and is hereby, appropriated out of any funds in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be applied towards the erection of a suitable monument in the National Military Park at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to commemorate the deeds of Virginia soldiers on that field.
2. That the Governor of Virginia, and four others to be appointed by himself, shall constitute a committee of five to select a location, design and inscriptions for the said monument, subject to the approval of the Secretary of War and the Governor of the State of Virginia.
3. The said committee are hereby authorized to use the whole or any part of said ten thousand dollars in securing the design and preparing the location and foundation for said monument, but shall make no contract for any purpose involving any expense in excess of said ten thousand dollars.
4. The said committee shall report to the next General Assembly their action under this act, and shall present a design for said monument which, with the money hereby appropriated, shall not in the aggregate cost over fifty thousand dollars.
5. The said committee may be joined by any committee of citizens, camps or other organizations, in supplementing the amount of money appropriated for the purpose aforesaid.
6. The said committee shall receive no compensation for their services, but shall be allowed and paid the actual and necessary expenses incurred by them in the performance of their duties, to be audited by the Auditor of Virginia, and paid out of any money not otherwise appropriated.


Pursuant to the provisions of this measure, Governor Swanson appointed the following Confederate veterans as members of the committee: Colonel Thomas Smith, of Fauquier; Major John Warwick Daniel, of Lynchburg, a United States Senator from Virginia; Major Henry Archer Edmondson, of Halifax, and Captain Stephen Palmer Read, of Mecklenburg. Governors Claude Augustus Swanson, William Hodges Mann and Henry Carter Stuart were successively members and chairmen ex-officio of the body having the erection and dedication of the memorial in charge. Senator Daniel, who took a deep interest in the proposition, rendered faithful and efficient service until his death in 1910, when he was succeeded by Colonel William Gordon McCabe, of Richmond. Otherwise the members as named above served throughout the entire life of the commission. Captain Read died at the very hour the monument was being unveiled.

Following preliminary discussions, the commission in 1909 visited the National Military Park at Gettysburg with a representative of the War Department, and selected a spot just off Confederate Avenue, at the point where General Lee viewed the third day's battle, as the site for the memorial The commission thereupon invited proposals from sculptors and, after examination of the various designs offered, deter mined to accept that of Mr. F. William Sievers, at a price of forty-eight thousand dollars, conditioned upon the Genera Assembly carrying the project through.

That body was much pleased with the report made by the commission, and with the design, and by an act approved by Governor Mann on March 9, 1910, continued the unexpended balance of the appropriation of $10,000 in force, and appropriated $40,000 in addition, to cover the entire estimate of $50,000, allowing $2,000 for the expenses of the commission. Thereafter the unexpended balance of the sum of $50,000 was reappropriated for the same purpose in 1912, 1914 and 1916. In 1914 the General Assembly set aside $8,000 for the expenses of dedication, but, since this had not been used in 1916, it was then reappropriated.

Acting under the approval of the Legislature, the Gettysburg Monument Commission, on March 15, 1910, closed a contract with Mr. Sievers covering the entire cost of the memorial. The specifications provided that the total height should be forty-two feet; the total height of the equestrian statue from the bottom of the bronze plinth to the top of the rider's hat, fourteen feet; total height of pedestal, twenty-eight feet; total expanse of bottommost base, not less than twenty-eight by twenty-eight feet. It was further provided that the sculpture was to be of United States government standard bronze, the pedestal of Southern granite of the best quality, and the foundation of concrete of best material, with the inscriptions in polished raised letters. All this was faithfully observed.

Mr. Sievers discovered the difficulties of an artist as he proceeded in his work. With full realization of the meaning of the work in which he was engaged, intended to immortalize in bronze the valor of Virginia's soldiers, and to stand forever as visible evidence that the Old Dominion had not forgotten to honor her heroes, he toiled day after day for six years, building up and tearing down. In 1914 the group of figures about the base was complete in plaster, put on public exhibition for a day, and sent to the foundry, whence the bronze east was soon forthcoming and was placed in position on the base prepared to receive it. The equestrian statue of General Robert Edward Lee mounted on Traveler, which surmounts the memorial, was completed in the spring of 1916. Delays in transportation of the plaster cast made its completion so late in the year, that the commission deemed it best for the comfort and safety of the veterans in attendance to postpone the dedication until 1917, and on June 8th of that year the unveiling took place in the presence of a large audience of veterans from Virginia and other States.

Lees verder op http://www.civilwarhome.com/gettysburgvamemorial.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 - Edward Packe's diary of World War I

June 8th. Rose at 4.30am. Left the aerodrome and landed at Oak Farm, found Bob and took her up. Left about 6.30am. and landed near Tring for my mechanic to clear the jet. Went on again and landed at Fleckney. James and Ruth come over, slept at Fleckney. By request I gave the school children a talk on flying. To make this cross country from Joyce Green, on the Thames near Dartford, in a Henry Farman, the only map I had was one torn from the back of a Bradshaw railway guide.

http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/diaries/diary1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BRITISH FISHING VESSELS LOST AT SEA DUE TO ENEMY ACTION

CARIAD, smack, 38grt, 8 June 1917, 6 miles E by S from Start Point, captured by submarine, sunk by bombs

TORBAY LASS, smack, 38grt, 8 June 1917, 9 miles E by S from Start Point, captured by submarine, sunk by bombs

ONWARD, smack, 39grt, 8 June 1917, 9 miles E by S from Start Point, captured by submarine, sunk by bombs

OCEAN’S PRIDE, smack, 42grt, 8 June 1917, 9 miles E by S from Start Point, captured by submarine, sunk by bombs

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1LossesBrFV1917-18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Last Fight of Captain Ball, VC, DSO and 2 Bars, MC, 7th May 1917.

Citation text: 'For most conspicuous and consistent bravery from the 25th of April to the 6th of May, 1917, during which period Captain Ball took part in twenty-six combats in the air and destroyed eleven hostile aeroplanes, drove down two out of control, and forced several others to land. In these combats Captain Ball, flying alone, on one occasion fought six hostile machines, twice he fought five and once four. When leading two other British aeroplanes he attacked an enemy formation of eight. On each of these occasions he brought down at least one enemy. Several times his aeroplane was badly damaged, once so seriously that but for the most delicate handling his machine would have collapsed, as nearly all the control wires had been shot away. On returning with a damaged machine he had always to be restrained from immediately going out on another. In all, Captain Ball has destroyed forty-three German aeroplanes and one balloon, and has always displayed most exceptional courage, determination and skill.'

London Gazette, 8 June 1917.

He was also awarded the Legion d'Honneur (France) and Order of St George, 4th Class (Russia). He is buried in Annoeullin Communal Cemetery (Departement du Nord) France, Grave 643. Capt. Ball was formerly of Notts & Derby Regt 7 Bn (Robin Hood Bn, Sherwood Foresters). Son of Sir Albert Ball, JP, Nottingham.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2106-21LastFlightof_CaptainBall.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The great nova of June 1918

On the night of 8th of June 1918, many astronomers and indeed the general public looked on in puzzlement and then amazement at a strange new star that suddenly had appeared in the constellation of Aquila. An obscure star in that constellation went nova and became the brightest nova to be seen from the Earth for centuries. At its brightest, it was a remarkable -1.4 in magnitude (Sirius: mag -1.5)

Here's an account by Basil Rowswell.

"From my youth, up astronomy and astronomical phenomena have had a fascination for me and on that eventful Saturday night, June 8th, as is almost invariably my nightly custom, I went out of doors about 10.40 (GMT) to look round the sky and at the weather.
It was a fine starlight night and on gazing eastward among a number of bright, familiar orbs, I was attracted by a specifically bright one that I could not name. I knew it was not a planet and I could not think of no such bright star (just a trifle fainter than Altair, nearby) at that particular spot. I was convinced then and there that I was looking at a nova and on going indoors, settled the matter by reference to books. It was a rather startling discovery and equally a piece of rare good luck.
The next night the increased brightness was further confirmation of the fact that a brillinat new star apparently suddenly blazed out. The question was: When had it be first seen? for no outside news of the discovery had so far come. I had to wait for the answer until the Tuesday morning when Monday's English papers came to hand, then I knew that I had been among the earliest to see the intruder.
Ms Grace Cook of Stowmarket was credited being the first to see the stranger light. This she did at 9.30pm GMT and rather more than an hour later I was fortunate enough to detect it myself. Had I telegraphed my discovery to Greenwich Observatory on the Sunday morning I should perhaps have figured with other observers in the Astronomer Royal's letters to the Times. But I did not do so and consequently lost the chance of honourable mention in connection with an astronomical event so exceedingly interesting and so rare."

http://ukweatherworld.co.uk/forum/forums/thread-view.asp?tid=24995&DisplayType=nested&setCookie=1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Château-Thierry in June 1918

In the meantime, this detachment had established liaison with the remainder of the Company and orders were received to join it at dark. That evening the detachment started out following the ravine that lead from Bouresches to Belleau Woods. It was a very dark night and the ravine was obstructed with boulders and tangled underbrush, and a Sergeant and several men arriving at a fork in the ravine turned in the wrong direction and came unexpectedly upon three Germans on guard at a culvert. The men left the ravine and took cover in the nearest woods. For three days the party, its retreat cut off, wandered behind the German lines, frequently engaging enemy patrols, and having desperate experiences. The remainder of the detachment reached the Company's position without incident about 11:00 P.M., June 7th. While in this position the men got a short rest and received rations of French bread, syrup, raisins, and monkey meat. Company "B", under Captain A.A. Dederer, occupied a position in support of the Marines, and about 12:30 A.M., June 8th, simultaneously with his attack on Bouresches, the enemy opened up on our positions in Belleau Woods with an intense trench-mortar and machine-gun barrage. His attack was not seriously pushed here, so just before daylight the Company was withdrawn to the ravine at the foot of the hill.

At dawn the next morning, the Marines again attacked, the First Platoon of Company "B" under First Lieutenant Lester C. Smith following in support, and the Second Platoon under Second Lieutenant James M. Gregory, being used for flank patrols. Later, the Fourth joined the First, while the Third remained in reserve in the ravine. On the night of June 9th the Company was withdrawn from Belleau Woods, and marching all night, bivouacked in La Croisette Woods near Company "A".

Shortly after entering Bouresches, Company "A" separated into platoons-each one seeking the best cover available in caves, buildings, and so forth. The bombardment of the village by the enemy continued all through the day and became so intense at times that the shifting of platoons to better positions became necessary. The men rested all day the 7th, but that night working parties were sent out, the First Platoon under First Lieutenant Tucker S. Wyche, being used to barricade the street in the center of the line. The Second Platoon under First Lieutenant Allan Burton commenced improving strong points, digging machine gun emplacements and making splinter proof shelters on the left flank. Twenty men of the Third Platoon under Second Lieutenant George B. Woodle went to improve the position in the extreme right flank, while the remainder of the platoon stayed in billets in reserve. The Fourth Platoon, under Second Lieutenant Walter B. Booth was engaged in constructing machine gun emplacements and strong points in the center of the line.

About 12:30 A.M., June 8th, while the platoons were engaged in this work, the enemy attacked the town under a heavy machine gun barrage. All work was immediately stopped and the positions were occupied and held by both Marines and Engineers against all enemy efforts to take them. The attack continued until about 2.00 A.M., when the enemy, completely beaten, was repelled and forced to his old positions. The town was heavily shelled the next two days, although no further attempts were made to take it.

http://2nd-engineers.us/2nd-history/29-47.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

JOSEPH KAEBLE VC

KAEBLE, JOSEPH, mechanic and soldier; b. 5 May 1892 in Saint-Moïse, Que., son of Joseph Kaeble, a farmer, and Marie Ducas; d. 9 June 1918 in Neuville-Vitasse, France.

The first Canadian ancestor of Joseph Kaeble’s family, Thodor Göbel, came from Mainz (Germany). Göbel is believed to have arrived in the province of Quebec in 1776 with the troops from the duchy of Brunswick, which were under the command of Friedrich Adolph von Riedesel.

Born in Saint-Moïse, east of Mont-Joli, Joseph Kaeble lived in the Gaspé until the age of 22. He had a brother, a sister, and a half-brother. His father died when he was still a child, and the family then settled in Sayabec, a village at the head of Lac Matapédia. There Kaeble attended the school run by the Frères de la Croix de Jésus, where he was remembered as a serious and energetic student. Later he worked as a mechanic at a local sawmill.

World War I completely changed Kaeble’s life. According to family tradition, he had developed an interest in military life even before the outbreak of hostilities. As a schoolboy, it was said, he liked to carve wooden soldiers and stage mock battles. Whatever one makes of these recollections, when in 1916 Lieutenant-Colonel Philippe-Auguste Piuze, a highly regarded businessman and militia officer in Fraserville (Rivière-du-Loup) and Saint-Germain-de-Rimouski (Rimouski), raised the 189th Infantry Battalion, Joseph Kaeble was among the many residents of the lower St Lawrence region and the Gaspé to sign up as volunteers.

Kaeble was one of about ten recruits who enlisted on 20 March 1916 in Sayabec. The initial organization and training of infantry units took place at Valcartier during the war; Kaeble spent six months there before leaving for England on 27 September. Events in Europe developed as he had hoped. The 22nd Infantry Battalion, the only French Canadian battalion to fight on the continent, had lost many men in the previous months, first at Saint-Eloi (Sint-Elooi) and Mount Sorrel in Belgium, and then at Courcelette and Regina Trench in France. So reinforcements were badly needed. Kaeble was immediately assigned to the 69th Infantry Battalion. That unit, which had been in England since April, was transferred on 13 November to the 22nd, then in the throes of reorganization at Bully-Grenay, a small community northwest of Lens, France.

Called to help defend a large sector between Arras and Lens, the 22nd spent the winter of 1916–17 in this region. In April Kaeble took part in the famous offensive against Vimy Ridge which resulted in a stunning victory for the Canadian Expeditionary Force on the 12th of that month. Even If Kaeble’s name, like those of thousands of fellow infantrymen, was not mentioned in dispatches and other documents of the sort, we know he was there and participated in the action. Some 12 days after this memorable victory, while the Canadian troops were still under enemy fire, he was wounded in the right shoulder and was transported back behind the lines. He stayed there 25 days, first at No.13 General Hospital and then at No.1 Convalescent Depot, both in Boulogne. Despite this set-back, Kaeble remained in good spirits. In a letter to his sister, he said he had only very good news, that he himself was doing well, that he was plumper than he had ever been, in short, that he was not too worried and that he sent his regards to his female friends. Judging from other letters, one of these young women, to whom he wrote regularly, was in all likelihood a special friend, possibly a fiancée.

Kaeble left Boulogne for the front on 25 May 1917. Back with his unit, he resumed his post as a machine-gunner, a job he said he really enjoyed. For the 22nd battalion, Vimy was followed by Hill 70 in August, Passchendaele (Passendale), Belgium, in October, and then the Neuville-Vitasse sector and Mercatel from the end of March 1918. Good news awaited Kaeble in the last sector. On 23 April he was made corporal, replacing a comrade who had been promoted. Tragic events, however, also lay ahead.

Kaeble had made a will before leaving Sayabec, standard procedure for soldiers upon enlistment. Did he really think, however, that he could die in combat? His extant letters express undeniable optimism, but also firm realism. Although he often wrote about his return home and the pleasure he would have in seeing his loved ones again, he did not exclude the possibility that one day he would be cut down by the enemy. “I pray to God every day that I may see you again,” reads a letter dated 29 Sept. 1917, “but that does not prevent me from doing my duty at the front. We must fear only the Good Lord. Here we fear nothing, except God.”

The events of 8 June 1918 showed that Kaeble indeed had no fear. That night, at 9:45, the enemy attempted a strong raid in the sector defended by the 22nd battalion. After an intense artillery bombardment, a three-pronged German attack was launched. At the post defended by Kaeble’s machine-gun section the resistance was truly heroic. “As soon as the barrage lifted from the front line,” according to official documents, “about fifty of the enemy advanced towards his post. By this time the whole of his section except one had become casualties. Corporal Kaeble jumped over the parapet, and, holding his Lewis gun at the hip, emptied one magazine after another into the advancing enemy, and, although wounded several times by fragments of shells and bombs, he continued to fire, and entirely blocked the enemy by his determined stand. Finally, firing all the time, he fell backwards into the trench[,] mortally wounded. While lying on his back in the trench he fired his last cartridges over the parapet at the retreating Germans, and before losing consciousness shouted to the wounded about him: ‘Keep it up boys, do not let them get through. We must stop them.’”

Transported to hospital, Corporal Joseph Kaeble died of his wounds the next night. He was buried in the local cemetery in Wantequin, some seven miles west of Arras. Decorated with the Military Medal, he also was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest British distinction. He was the first French Canadian soldier to be given this honour. Streets, buildings, and even a mountain still bear his name and keep his memory alive.

http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?BioId=41606

Joseph Kaeble

Citation - For most conspicuous bravery and extraordinary devotion to duty when in charge of a Lewis gun section in the front line trenches, in which a strong enemy raid was attempted. During an intense bombardment Corporal Kaeble remained at the parapet with his Lewis gun shouldered ready for action, the field of fire being very short. As soon as the barrage lifted from the front line, about fifty of the enemy advanced towards his post. By this time the whole of his section except one had become casualties. Corporal Kaeble jumped over the parapet, and holding his Lewis gun at the hip, emptied one magazine after another into the advancing enemy, and although wounded several times by fragments of shells and bombs, he continued to fire and entirely blocked the enemy by his determined stand. Finally, firing all the time, he fell backwards into the trench mortally wounded. While lying on his back in the trench he fired his last cartridges over the parapet at the retreating Germans, and before losing consciousness shouted to the wounded about him: "Keep it up, boys; do not let them get through! We must stop them !" The complete repulse of the enemy attack at this point was due to the remarkable personal bravery and self-sacrifice of this gallant non-commissioned officer, who died of his wounds shortly afterwards.
—London Gazette, Supplement No. 30903, dated 16 September 1918

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Kaeble

Zie ook http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/virtualmem/Detail&casualty=80208
Zie ook http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=8498014
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 June 1920, Commons Sitting

SOLDIERS' GRAVES.


HC Deb 08 June 1920 vol 130 cc202-3 203

Mr. GILBERT asked the Secretary of State for War what action has been taken for the preservation and upkeep of British soldiers' graves in Austria and Italy?

Mr. CHURCHILL The work of the Imperial War Graves Commission in Italy is well advanced, all the cemeteries having been taken over for permanent construction. There are in Italy and the Austrian borderland 94 cemeteries containing British graves, of which 17 are sufficiently large to require architectural treatment. Of these 17, contracts have been placed for the construction of 10, and work has already commenced in 5; while the erection of memorials over single graves in other cemeteries has also been started. Seventy-five out of the 94 cemeteries have received horticultural treatment. There are a few graves of prisoners of war in Austria. An officer of the Directorate of Graves Registration and Inquiries visited Vienna some time ago and arranged to be supplied with lists. These lists have now been received and are believed to be fairly accurate. Owing to conditions in Austria, no other steps have been taken up to the moment, but I hope that it will be possible to send an officer to make further inquiries shortly. As far as our information goes, the graves are well cared for.

Mr. GILBERT asked the Secretary of State for War what action has been taken for the preservation and upkeep of British soldiers' graves in Greece and Turkey?

Mr. CHURCHILL The Imperial War Graves Commission expect shortly to take over all cemeteries in Macedonia for permanent construction. The architects' designs have been approved, and the Greek Government are being consulted on the form of contract locally applicable. A scheme is under consideration for the concentration and treatment of graves scattered throughout the islands of the Ægean, and meanwhile the graves are being well cared for by the islanders. A unit of the Directorate of the Graves Registration and Inquiries is in Turkey (Asia Minor), registering and identifying graves and selecting sites for cemeteries.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/jun/08/soldiers-graves
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jun 2010 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Flight Timeline

June 8, 1920 - Lieutenant John E. Wilson makes a record parachute jump of 19,801 feet.

http://science.howstuffworks.com/world-war-i-flight-timeline5.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2010 7:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tuesday 8th June 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

‘Feeling a bit off colour and did not turn out till midday. Things very quiet again today. A new monitor type of battleship made its appearance here today and created a deal of interest through her peculiar appearance. At a distance she looks like a half submerged battleship as her bow and stern are not visible above the water.’

De foto is te zien op http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/06/08/tuesday-8th-june-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 11:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great War - 08.06.1915



http://www.flickr.com/photos/4kleuren/5497044592/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 11:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6. Kriegsanleihe! 10. Mai bis 8. Juni 1917 / Wm. Dachauer.



http://www.encore-editions.com/6-kriegsanleihe-10-mai-bis-8-juni-1917-wm-dachauer--2/print
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jun 2011 11:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 8, 1917 Walter Elias Disney graduates from Benton Grammar School (8th grade)

Elias Disney, Walt's father, moved the family to Kansas City in 1911. It was here that Walt attended the Benton School which was less than 2 blocks from his house on East 31st St.

Although Walt was already drawing by this time, he was introduced to vaudeville and motion pictures through a friend Walter Pfeiffer, who had family in the trades. During this same time period Walt was also taking classes at the Kansas City Art Institute on saturday mornings.

On June 8th 1917 Walt graduated the 8th grade from the Benton School.

And that's the disneyrewind for today!

Joepie! http://mouseframes.blogspot.com/2011/06/disneyrewind-june-8-1917-walter-elias.html
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