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2 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jun 2006 10:22    Onderwerp: 2 juni Reageer met quote

June 2

1915 Austro-German forces attack Russians at Przemysl

On June 2, 1915, Austro-Hungarian and German troops continue their attacks on the Russian soldiers holding Przemysl (now in Poland), the citadel guarding the northeastern-most point of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Used as the Austrian army headquarters during the first months of World War I, Przemysl was ordered to hold out until the end in the face of the surprisingly effective Russian advance into Austria-Hungary in the fall of 1914. After six months under siege, facing severe food shortages and heavy casualties, the last Austro-Hungarian troops at Przemysl finally relinquished control of the citadel on March 22, 1915.

With their hard-fought victory, Russia’s troops had gained a certain measure of control in the much-contested Galician region of Austria and were poised to move into Hungary. This was not to be, however, as the powerful German army stepped in to offer more help to their faltering ally. Over the course of the next several months, Austro-German forces began moving swiftly and aggressively on the Eastern Front, recapturing the passes of the Carpathian Mountains and moving steadily forward into Galicia. On May 25, the Germans announced they had taken some 21,000 Russian prisoners east of the San River; the Russians were soon pushed back toward Przemysl, and battle began there once again.

On June 2, 1915, Austro-German forces were nearing victory against the exhausted Russians at Przemysl; the citadel fell back into the hands of the Central Powers the following day. The recapture of Przemysl effectively marked the end of Russian control in Galicia. As a British observer wrote dismissively of the Russian troops, “This army is now a harmless mob.”

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jun 2006 10:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Erstürmung des Cailettewaldes
Großes Hauptquartier, 2. Juni.1916
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nach heftiger Steigerung ihres Artilleriefeuers und nach einleitenden Sprengungen griffen starke englische Kräfte gestern abend westlich und südwestlich von Givenchy an. Sie wurden im Nahkampf zurückgeworfen, soweit sie nicht bereits im Sperrfeuer unter großen Verlusten umdrehen mußten.
Auf dem Westufer der Maas brachen die Franzosen erneut zum Angriff vor. Sie hatten keinerlei Erfolg. Östlich des Flusses stürmten unsere Truppen den Cailettewald und die beiderseits anschließenden Gräben. Ein heute morgen südwestlich des Vaux-Teiches mit starken Kräften geführter feindlicher Gegenstoß scheiterte. Es sind bisher 76 Offiziere und über 2000 Mann zu Gefangenen gemacht sowie 3 Geschütze und mindestens 23 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
Südwestlich von Lille fiel ein englisches Flugzeug mit Insassen unversehrt in unsere Hand. Im Luftkampf wurde ein französischer Kampfeinsitzer über dem Marrerücken zum Absturz gebracht, ferner in unserem Bereich je ein Doppeldecker über Vaux und westlich Mörchingen. Der gestern gemeldete westlich Cambrai abgeschossene englische Doppeldecker ist der vierte vom Leutnant Mulzer außer Gefecht gesetzte Gegner.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Ein gelungener deutscher Erkundungsvorstoß auf der Front südlich von Smorgon brachte einige Dutzend Gefangene ein.
Südöstlich des Dryswjatysees wurde ein russisches Flugzeug durch Abwehrfeuer vernichtet.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

2 June 1915
Major-General Alexander Godley, commander of the Australian and New Zealand Division, addressed the Australian 4th Brigade — 13th (New South Wales), 14th (Victoria), 15th (Queensland, Tasmania) and 16th (Western Australia, South Australia) Battalions — in Reserve Gully. The brigade had been in action since the landing of 25 April and Godley said to them:

I have come here today to tell you with what great pride and satisfaction I have watched your performances during the last five weeks … Yours is a fine record and one which you yourselves and Australia should be proud of.

Sergeant Cyril Lawrence, 2nd Field Company Engineers, arrived on Gallipoli as a reinforcement for his unit. For the remainder of his time on Gallipoli he kept a diary. This was his first impression of the Anzac Cove area:

But above all the thing that meets, or rather hits, the eye is the number of ‘dugouts’ … The whole landscape is covered with them. It looks for all the world like a mining camp.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/june-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 16:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Louis Lochner to Woodrow Wilson, 2 June 1915

Introduction - Louis Lochner, as Secretary of the Chicago Peace Party (CPP), attended the Women's Peace Congress at The Hague. He often wrote to government officials at the request of Jane Addams, the CPP’s President, attempting to persuade them to support the American women's peace efforts.The following letter, written from Amsterdam on behalf of Jane Addams, contested various assertions by the American government about Germany. As a German speaker, Lochner gathered information on the situation in that nation while he helped prepare for Addams's visit. Lochner observed that many Germans wanted the war to end. Throughout the letter, Lochner provided several concrete examples to question the official information received by government officials in the United States. This letter illustrated the positions of various German groups on the question of peace and prepared the President of the United States for a meeting with Jane Addams.

To His Excellency,
The President,
Washington, D. C.

Dear Mr. President:

At the suggestion and request of Miss Jane Addams, with whom it was my privilege to associate during her recent trip to The Hague, I take the liberty of submitting to you the following facts, believing that every bit of information concerning the European situation will be welcome to you.

In the first place, Miss Addams requests me to report an interview which she had with Sir Edmund Grey. Mr. Grey volunteered the significant statement that, while it was impossible for the belligerent nations to act in the direction of an early peace, it was in his estimation up to the neutrals to do so. Miss Addams told me that Mr. Grey seemed extremely harassed over the terrible situation, as his brother was even then in a hospital with a shattered arm, and another relative with several intestinal wounds. He also admitted that, if the freedom of Belgium were to be secured by force of arms on the part of the Allies, Belgium would practically be ruined.

Miss Addams upon her return will no doubt amplify upon the substance of her message as above given, but she desired me meanwhile to communicate this much to you.

While Miss Addams was in England, I went to Germany to arrange for her interview with the Germany government. It is my observations in Germany that I have been especially requested to communicate to you. I shall be glad to amplify upon the facts herewith submitted, in case you so desire.

The impression which seems to prevail in this country is that Germany is absolutely united in the present war. However true that may have been in the beginning, I certainly found many voices raised in favor of an early peace, and also found many evidences of a determined campaign to rid the country of militarism through the German people themselves.

In the first place, it is an open secret that there is a rift between the foreign office and the general staff. The Lusitania tragedy, for instance, was conceived by Admiral von Terpitz against the advice of the foreign office, as was also, I have every reason to believe, the reply to the American protest.[A]

Another faction that is out of sympathy with the military regime that now has the upper hand, is the Socialist Party. Eduard Bernstein, a member of the Reichstag and leader of the Socialists, told me that if Karl Liebknescht were to come up for re-election at this time, he would be returned by at least a three-fourths majority. Bernstein further added that, if further appropriations were to be voted by the Reichstag for the war, he for one would support Liebknescht, as would probably a number of other Socialists. Even those who would not have the courage to stand up and be counted as against additional appropriations, he said, were at heart against the military. I have an exceedingly interesting manuscript by Mr. Bernstein -- written in German -- which gives the position of the German Socialists at the present time. I shall be glad to send you a copy or translation if you think it worth while. Mr. Bernstein is now bending all his efforts towards an understanding with the French Socialists, and told me confidentially that the foreign office had approached Liebknescht and asked him to bring about a French-German understanding between the working people of both countries, so that the way might be paved for peace.

A third group is that associated in the "Bund Neues Vaterland," concerning which I enclose a statement.[B] You will see from the personnel that it includes such men even as Dr. Hans Dolbruck. This "Bund" is diligently at work to bring about an understanding with England, as it believes that the military party is trying to effect a coalition with Russia, with a view to perpetuating autocracy. This splendid group is working under tremendous difficulties, but with marked success.

It was my privilege to address this body on the topic, "Warum ist Deutschland in Amerika unbeliebt?"[C] and this body readily agreed that the violation of the neutrality of Belgium, the action of the German-Americans in arranging for so-called "neutrality meetings," the activities of men like Professor Kuhnemann, the procedure of Count Bernstorff in inserting an advertisement regarding the Lusitania in American newspapers, and the torpedoing of the Lusitania were open to criticism, to say the least. May I not in passing note that the introductory remarks precedent to my speaking were made by Professor Ernst Sieper of Munich University, a man who has long worked in the Anglo-German "Verständegungs-Bewegung."[D] Professor Sieper pointed out that while there is now a blatant and arrogant party in Germany which temporarily has the upper hand, yet a talk here and there with private citizens in their homes, yes, even confidential talks with newspaper editors would soon convince me that the real Germany was not speaking through the papers, and that the real Germany was most anxious for peace and for international understanding.

A fourth group are the rank and file whom you meet in the trains and on the cars. I always made it a point to travel in a third-class coupe, so that I might get close to the people. As I am of German extraction -- though neutral -- I speak German as readily as I do English, and was thus in a position to talk to many Germans without disclosing my American identity. However blatant the censored press, however "patriotic" German people when in large gatherings, speak to them alone and they wish nothing more than that the accursed war might soon stop. I find that people are entirely in the dark as to the American viewpoint or the contentions of the Allies. How the Americans can furnish arms to the Allies without also furnishing them to the Germans is a mystery to them, which, of course, the press has taken no trouble to explain. The rank and file are also absolutely convinced that the Russians broke into Germany before the Germans, "in self-defense," went into Belgium.

A further division with the Empire is that over the question of the future of Belgium. The war party maintains that Belgium must be permanently annexed. But the foreign office and sane people generally see the greatest possible danger to Germany in such contemplated action, should it be possible from a military point of view. I wish in this connection especially to report an interview with Dr. Hans Delbruck. He said to me --

"If you have any opportunity to communicate with the President directly, please tell him that, if he will stop the shipment of munitions of war to the Allies, I and those of like thought with me will pledge ourselves to see to it that Belgium is evacuated and the war stopped, with the understanding, however, that England will compensate us for the evacuation of Belgium (a thing I have reason to believe England will gladly do) through the offer, possibly, of a strip of land in Africa."
Acting on the assumption that this was more or less of a "feeler" on the part of Dr. Delbruck, I take it that this represents maximum terms rather than minimum, and that Germany will in any event be glad to leave Belgium, provided some means be found to call a halt to military operations on the part of the Allies.

In that connection may I not point out how terrible it will be for Belgium should Germany be beaten back by military force. The evidence that I have gathered leads me to believe that a conquering army often behaves reasonably well so long as it is in possession of the enemy's territory; the minute, however, that it is forced to abandon a place, the commanding officers lose control of their men and wholesale destruction and rapine takes place.

One further observation to which I permit myself to draw your attention is the fact that the German Chancellor has become so grieved over the loss of his son on the battlefield, and over the death of his wife, that he is not physically strong enough to dominate the military clique. He stands with the foreign office (with a possible exception of Von Jagow) for peace and for the strict observance of international conventions regarding warfare, but does not assert himself sufficiently.

In the course of my visit to Holland and Germany, I had many opportunities to see letters written by soldiers in the trenches. They would seem to indicate that everybody is thoroughly sick of the war, and would hail as the greatest benefactor to mankind him who will point the way out of the melee.

In conclusion, I desire to venture the criticism that our ambassador at Berlin does not keep in touch with the various currents in Germany, but rather listens to one party -- the military -- only. I make this criticism with considerable hesitancy, but in the belief that these serious times require the greatest frankness. I base my criticism upon the following facts:

(1) Mr. Gerard stated to me that "Miss Addams has not a ghost of a show to be received by the German government. The Germans do not care for peace." Yet Miss Addams has already been received.
(2) He ventured the assertion that "Nobody in Germany thinks of peace" -- in contradiction to which I submit the above evidence.
(3) He warned me that "Nobody is allowed to talk about peace, nor even discuss terms of peace. Anybody so doing is locked up in jail." As a matter of fact,I spoke at a public peace meeting of the "Bund ist Vaterland" and nothing happened to me.
(4) He said, "Germany is going to keep Belgium -- Von Dermburg simply lies when he says the thing she is reported to have said in America." As I have tried to point out, the Belgium question is already splitting Germany, and Mr. Von Dermburgis certainly reflecting the opinion of many Germans when he indicates Germany's willingness to leave Belgium.
(5) He pointed out that to the Germans the Congress of Women at The Hague was a farce, and that not a single German newspaper paid any attention to it. As a matter offact, to my personal knowledge, the "Berliner Tageblatt," the"Varwärts," the "Kölnische Zeitung," the "Wossische Zeitung," and the "Hamburger Fremdenblatt" contained daily accounts of the meetings.

I have the honor to remain

Very respectfully yours,

Secretary
Lochner

Notes
A. The Lusitania was a British passenger liner carrying a number of Americans which was sunk by a German submarine.
B. The "Bund Neues Vaterland" was a German newspaper which covered the war.
C. The English title of the topic was "Why is Germany Not Loved in America?"
D. An English translation of this organization is Movement for Anglo-German Mutual Understanding.


http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/hague/doc10.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 16:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frank Seger’s Diary on a Connecticut Farm, June, 1915

Wednesday, June 2, 1915. 38 above. Cool & cloudy. Bill & Heman went to John Richards after sawdust then he finished plowing the garden lot. Bill & I fixed fence in granny lot. Heman helped fix after noon then he took the milk. Bill & I worked until 15 minutes after five then done chores. Heman stayed after cows.

http://www.onsegermountain.org/seger/jun1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 16:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Mount Sorrel, 2-13 June 1916

The action described as the Battle of Mount Sorrel took place between Hill 60 at Zwarteleen and Hooge. Much of the ground was wooded, as it is again today. The eastern edges of Armagh Wood and Sanctuary Wood lay on a crest line, topped by the heights of Mount Sorrel and Tor Top. The latter was alternatively named Hill 62, as it rose to 62 metres above sea level, some 25-30 metres higher than the shallow ground at Zillebeke and on towards Ypres. Once on the crest line, an occupying force enjoyed excellent observation over the Ypres salient, the town itself, and the approach roads, railways and tracks. This important tactical location was the target for the next German attack.

The German XIII (Wurttemburg) Corps prepares to attack - Six weeks of planning and careful preparations for the capture and retention of the Tor Top ridge were made by the XIII (Wurttemburg) Corps, before they launched their attack on 2nd June 1916. Their objective was simply to grab the last dominating observation position in front of Ypres and keep as many British units as possible pinned down in the area, to avoid them assisting the obvious build up on the Somme or relieving more French units to go to the defence of Verdun. Although no fresh infantry Divisions were brought in, much heavy artillery was assembled, as was a mass of trench mortars. New advanced outpost positions were dug, along with many new dugouts for sheltering the assault troops. On 31st May and 1st June 1916, the three Canadian Divisions holding the line all reported much increased enemy artillery and airborne activity, but apart from that there was no obvious cause for alarm. News of the naval battle of Jutland (or Skagerrak) was filtering through, and while both sides claimed victory it did not seem that the Royal Navy had scored the expected knockout blow.

Canadian senior officers caught in front line as bombardment starts - At 6am on 2 June, Major-General Malcolm Mercer, GOC 3rd Canadian Division, went on a personal reconnaissance of the Mount Sorrel and Tor Top front, accompanied by Brigadier-General V.A.S. Williams, GOC 8th Canadian Brigade. They were under instruction by new Canadian Corps commander Lieutenant-General Hon. Sir Julian Byng to plan a local attack to improve their position. Just over two hours later, the German bombardment - on the front lines and half a mile behind them - intensified. The shellfire continued and intensified yet again at 12:30pm, as the British front line - trenches, wire defences, dugouts - were destroyed. Many wounded were taken to the only seemingly safe place, an underground work called "The Tunnel" on the reverse slope of Mount Sorrel which was also the HQ of the 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles, of 8th Brigade. The British artillery replied, but gradually it became less effective as telephone lines were cut by shellfire, and all of the forward observation officers in the front lines became casualties.

Death of Major-General Mercer - Brigadier-General V.A.S. Williams was wounded in the head soon after the German bombardment began; he was taken prisoner when the enemy infantry attacked. Major-General M. S. Mercer, stunned and deafened by the shell burst, found his way to an aid post but insisted on leaving to rejoin his HQ. He was hit and his leg broken. As he lay in the open, he was struck by shrapnel and killed. The loss of two key commanders in the very centre of the operations was a critical blow. Much later in the day, when it became clear the officers had been lost, Byng hurriedly appointed Brigadier-General E. S. Hoare Nairne, the commander of the 3rd Division's artillery, to command of the Division.

Lees verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/bat14.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 16:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1: Experiences of an English Soldier

This blog is made up of transcripts of Harry Lamin's letters from the first World War. The letters will be posted exactly 90 years after they were written. To find out Harry's fate, follow the blog!

At the front - Two letters written on the same day with a slightly different emphasis.
June 2/6/1917

Dear Jack
Very pleased to receive a letter from you and to hear you are going on all right. We have had a very rough time lately the Germans were only about 40yds away from us, we had a very trying time for the first, but I don’t care so long that I keep alright. It will be a good job when the war is over. Ethel tells me they are alright at home but Willie as got a cough. Hope will soon be better. I hear Connie has started school and that she likes it. I hope that she gets on alright. I have not received a letter from Kate yet but expect one any time. this is my address 32507 9th Batt York and Lancs, C Company, 11 platoon in B.E.F. France. I think I am going in for a Lewis Gunner. (Internet link) I don’t know yet I will let you know next time I write we are having a bit of a practice this last day or two we have been out of the trenches. We get plenty of tobacco but little bread out here. Write to me when you receive this letter and let me know all you can. I am glad to receive a letter.
With Best Love
from Harry

2nd June 1917

Dear Kate,
I received your letter. I am pleased to hear you are going on alright they all seem to be getting on all right at home which is something to be thankful for. The weather here is lovely and we have had to fine time this last fortnight. We are still out of the trenches but we might go back anytime. Jack has wrote me telling me he has had to leave his lodging and go to the vicarage – I hope he gets on all right. Write soon and let me know how you are getting on. Jack has sent me some sardines and chicken paste which is all right here and it works the bread and butter down. I am glad Connie is going on alright at school I don’t think it will do her any harm. They tell me Willie and Connie keep very good friends which I am glad to hear.
With best love from
Harry

http://wwar1.blogspot.com/2007/06/action-not-too-thrilled.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Thomas Fredrick Littler: January-June 1918

June 1st 1918 - I had charge of a working party digging a new front line on the right of Calvary Road.

June 2nd 1918 - (Sunday) We carried out a big raid on the Germans, it was a complete mess up and utter failure.

June 3rd 1918 - We were relieved from Ypres by the 36th Division and we had held it successfully for two months, it was the key to the Calais defences, and marched 14 kilos to Ball Camp between Poperinghe and Watou.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/littlerdiary6.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 16:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pour le Mérite

Oberlt. Hermann Göring awarded on -- 2 June 1918. (22 victories)

http://www.pourlemerite.org/wwi/air/air.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 17:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 June 1919, Written Answers (Commons)

DOGS (IMPORTATION).


HC Deb 02 June 1919 vol 116 cc1724-5W 1725W

Colonel WESTON asked the Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture whether any, and, if so, how many, cases of dogs imported illegally by troops and by aeroplanes have been brought to the notice of his Department during the last twelve months; and if he will state separately the number of dogs known to have been smuggled by ship and by aeroplane?

Sir A. BOSCAWEN There are thirty known cases of illegal landing by soldiers and sailors since the 1st June, 1918. The board have no proof of any case of illegal landing by means of an aeroplane.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/jun/02/dogs-importation
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 17:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from his mother to Paul B Hendrickson, dated 2 June 1919

[Received June 3, 1919]

1211 Dakota St. Danville Ill Jn. 2. 1919

My Dear precious Boy:- Well! just to know you are in Chicago this morning would be a joy to my longing heart. According to your letter you were to start Sat. sometime, and the papers states that you are to parade in Chicago today at 11 oc AM. How we would love to see the parade that our dear Soldier boy was in We could have gotten a pass but it seems there is so much uncertainty about the sections getting in on the day that is first planned so as I am good for nothing for such a trip daddy didn't make any preparations for the trip not even for himself he could have gone without me. but we wasn't sure enough of your getting there today. Arthur & Fleda were down yesterday and Fleda wanted to get everything in motion for us four - yes and Olan too - to hike out on the real early train this morning and go and see you and hear your band and see such a big lot of Soldiers at one time. The weather is awful hot too to stand in a big jam of people so perhaps we are better off at home. and I am sorter like you I would like our first meeting to be in the sacred place we call home my ears will be strained for the faintest sound of the foot steps of my darling boy over threshold of "Home Sweet Home" whose "Welcome" is in every sound of the balmy June breeze for you dear boy. When Fleda was reading your letter written on Mothers Day out loud. and where you said all you ask was to set your feet in the inside of front door of home once more she broke down and cried and after quite a little spell she finished it and Arthurs eyes were filled full too. So you may know all the loved ones at home are heart sick to see you and those too who are not right here but in Crawford, Okla. Cal. etc. besides many loving friends. Dear I just wonder what day - or night you will get home this week. I say this week for I hope it wont go into another one. I did think I wouldnt write any more. But got to thinking it would do you good to hear from home when you got to Camp Grant. So after getting the first clothes on to boil and the others are soaking I thought I would scratch you a few? lines. The sweat is standing on my face in beads. The roses are in bloom every thing looks so nice out doors but if it stays dry it wont be so nice long. Well buddy hurry and get home if it is in the midnight hours I wont get scared for I am looking & listening for you.

Well I wont take any more time as I must got to the wash tub "so long" till we meet face to face

Trusting your trip will be made in safety and soon.

I am your Loving Mother who waits for you with open arms and loving heart

http://www.jimgill.net/wwipages/to_pbh/m190602p.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2010 17:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Famous Cases: 1919 Bombings

Background - In seven U.S. cities in June 1919, all within approximately 90 minutes of one another, bombs of extraordinary capacity rocked some of the biggest urban areas in America, including New York; Boston; Pittsburgh; Cleveland; Patterson, New Jersey; Washington, D.C.; and Philadelphia. The bombings were a concerted effort among U.S. based anarchists who were most likely disciples of Luigi Galleani, a vehemently radical anarchist who advocated violence as a means to effect change, to rid the world of laws and capitalism.

The Philadelphia Bombings - Sometime between 11 p.m. and 12 a.m. on June 2, 1919, two bombs exploded within seconds of each other under the porch of the rectory of the Our Lady of Victory, a Catholic church located at 54th and Vine. The bombs caved in the porch and shattered every window in the rectory as well as those in the basement of the church. The church was still smoldering when another bomb exploded less than a mile away at 57th and Locust, home of Philadelphia jeweler Louis Jajieky. The interior of the Jajieky residence was completely demolished; only the four walls remained standing.

By far, the most notable target of the June 2 attacks was Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. The bomber, Carlo Valdinoci, did not live to tell his story, as he was killed in the blast. (There are two theories as to Valdinoci’s fate. One has him tripping on the Attorney General’s front step and prematurely detonating the bomb—Palmer did hear a thud just prior to the explosion. The other theory has a faulty fuse setting off the bomb prematurely.) Although Valdinoci was literally blown to pieces, the Bureau was able to locate a number of items, including a train ticket and a hat, both of which led investigators to Philadelphia.

Valdinoci (whose name was still unknown to investigators at that point) had left behind a train ticket that showed he had boarded a train at the Baltimore and Ohio Station at 24th and Chestnut in Philadelphia. Also found at the Palmer site was a hat that bore the name of “DeLucca Brothers, hatters, 919 South Eighth Street, Philadelphia.” The three brothers who made up the DeLucca firm informed federal investigators that they had “sold many hats [like that] worn by the dead anarchist” and that the hat must have been purchased at least one month prior to the bombings due to the fact that they had been “dealing almost exclusively in straw hats” since May.

Identifying the Bombers - The federal investigation in Philadelphia was headed by Special Agent Todd Daniel. and the Bureau of Investigation’s (BOI) Acting Director, William Flynn, made Philadelphia his headquarters for the terror investigation. Flynn, a former Secret Service agent, was known to be an “anarchist chaser,” and, according to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, “the greatest anarchist expert” in the U.S. The reason Flynn operated out of Philadelphia is not clear. It may have been because intelligence suggested the plot was developed in Philadelphia or because the city was conveniently located between New York and Washington.

Days after the bombings, Special Agent Daniel said that “the terrorist movement is national in scope, and it is not impossible that its headquarters is located in this city.” Daniel also noted the large number of “anarchists in this city and so many places used by them for meeting places.” Daniel’s first thought was that the perpetrators of the Philadelphia bombings were members of the Industrial Workers of the Word (a leftist union that embraced socialistic principles). By June 5, federal and local investigators were tracking down members of the “bomb-throwing squad” (which is said to have included women) and had 12 radicals suspected of having a hand in the city’s attacks under constant surveillance in Philadelphia.

While the investigation continued, an unidentified man discovered a bomb at the Frankfurt Arsenal on June 8, 1919. After bringing the bomb to the attention of local authorities, the man was told to bring the device to a police station. He declined, noting he didn’t want to “get mixed up in any bomb plots.” The Philadelphia bomb squad determined the mechanism was genuine and had the potential to rip a sizable hole in the arsenal. Federal and local authorities, however, were not able to determine if the device was connected to the Galleanists.

Another lead being tracked down by the authorities involved a car believed to have been used in the attacks. The automobile was found abandoned in Fairmont Park early on the morning of June 4 and was identified by police as the car in which four men were seen driving away from Our Lady of Victory around the time of the explosions. The car had been stolen by several young men in the early evening hours of the day of the attacks in the vicinity of 12th and Columbia. The car’s owner, Max Lang, had called to them to stop, “but they put on speed and made their getaway.”

The police’s search of the Our Lady of Victory crime scene uncovered copper wire and percussion caps, which suggested time bombs. Philadelphia police also found evidence at the Jajieky residence that led to them to believe the device left there was in a wooden container “filled with sawdust or sand, which was saturated with nitroglycerine.” It was likely detonated by “a powerful acid eating its way through a metal container until it reached the explosive.”

The authorities argued that those who carried out the attacks were members of “the inner circle of terrorists to whom [were] given the bomb throwing and fire spreading missions … who [roamed] from city to city,” and that the attacks across the country could have been assigned from Philadelphia. The perpetrators, according to Acting Police Superintendent William Mills, were the same individuals who bombed the homes of public officials in Philadelphia in December 1918, including his own house.

Intelligence Drives the Investigation - By August of 1919, the Department of Justice had created a Division of Intelligence, closely aligned with the Bureau of Investigation. It was led by future FBI Director John Edgar Hoover, then a quickly advancing attorney in the Justice Department. As one historian recently wrote:

“[Hoover] received a staggering number of regular reports from the field, between 600 and 900 in a typical week …. He set up information-sharing arrangements with key government offices like the War Department’s Military Intelligence unit, the State Department’s foreign desks, the British Embassy, … and even the Royal Canadian Northwest Mounted Police.”
The young Hoover had his division writing and disseminating Intelligence Information Reports (IIR’s) based on intelligence gathered by Bureau agents decades before such reports would be formally implemented.

To understand better those groups and individuals who threatened the nation:

“[Hoover] read books. He borrowed dozens of reference works from the Library of Congress on Bolshevism, socialists and Russia. He studied the Communist Manifesto, the Third International, platforms of the radical parties, hundreds of articles from radical magazines, and all the reports from his field agents.”
Much like today’s Joint Terrorism Task Forces, in June 1919 “[t]he plan … worked out by the federal authorities in its efforts to combat anarchy … combined activities of all federal, state, and local police authorities in every part of the country.” Then as now, the Bureau’s approach to defeating terrorism in 1919 relied heavily on intelligence.

Conclusion - The attacks in Philadelphia were never solved. Although the synchronized timing and power of the bombs had a psychological impact, the bombings were an enormous failure. None of the intended targets were killed. A number of their targets were not at home at the time of the attacks; some were still out on the town, while others were vacationing at summer homes. This suggests poor operational planning by the anarchists. Poor operational preparedness notwithstanding, the men who carried out these attacks were serious about killing their intended victims. They “boldly courted martyrdom” and, according to the Galleanists, the “use of violence … [was] a justifiable response to persecution.”

This attitude and the attacks it engendered angered Americans. Rather than fomenting revolution, the public demanded a strong response to the anarchist threat; following the June attacks, the Bureau of Investigation increased its efforts with the Immigration Bureau to round up and deport illegal immigrants who posed a threat to national security, including many Galleanists. The scope of the effort, poor preparation, and the abuse of the rights of those detained in the raids, though, led to a significant backlash against the Attorney General and the Bureau. The public’s support for the strong suppression of potentially dangerous aliens clearly had limits.

The events of June 1919, occurring almost a century ago, offer today’s FBI a window into an era and lessons that apply to current events.

http://philadelphia.fbi.gov/1919bombings.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 8:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Blackface As a Prism For Seeing the World

Blackface, as we’ve touched on before in this blog, was a pervasive part of American popular culture in the late 19th and early 20th century. I’d go so far as to argue that blackface was the dominant aesthetic prism through which whites saw African Americans (as well as black Africans and other members of the African diaspora). (...)

Intriguing is this Bringing Up Father strip from June 2, 1914 . The strip features a Rajah, that is to say an aristocratic East Indian. But he’s drawn by cartoonist George McManus as a blackface caricature, complete with big lips and jet-black skin.


Bringing Up Father, June 02, 1914

http://sanseverything.wordpress.com/2010/02/05/blackface-as-a-prism-for-seeing-the-world/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 8:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tsingtao and the German Far East Squadron
Maxwell Mulholland

[it was asked:] "What I would like to know is which ships (with related per-ship data) would have made these trips just prior to the opening of WWI; what their usual loading port in Germany was; and how often such exchanges, especially of dependents, were organized and made."

As so ably described, the thriving naval base and commercial city of Tsingtao was a marvel of rapid modernization. Between 1897 and 1914 the German government, in a truly amazing feat of civil engineering and urban development, turned a sleepy Chinese fishing village into a first-rate forward naval base and a bustling little European-style metropolis. Volker Plagemann, in his book "Uebersee: Seefahrt und Seemacht im deutschen Kaiserreich" ("Overseas: Seafaring and Naval Power in Imperial Germany", CH Beck, 1988), describes the advanced facilities and progressive amenities of this outpost of German navalism and imperialism. Photos of steamships tied up at the modern port and harbor installations can be found in Volumes 2 and 3 of Arnold Kludas' history of the German passenger ship industry. Diagrams of the port, city area, and landward fortifications (gun batteries, searchlights, command posts, and infantry positions), as well as several photos of the town and its defensive works, can be found in Volume II ("Krieg auf sieben Ozeanen" - "War on the Seven Seas") of Fritz Otto Busch's series "Unsere Marine im Weltkrieg" ("Our Navy in the World War", Brunnen-Verlag, 1935).

I have found it difficult to find much data on shipping to Tsingtao. Kludas' books include dozens of tables that detail shipping routes and passenger fare prices from Hamburg and Bremen to locations all over the world, but these show no direct connection from Germany's northern harbors to Tsingtao. The only relevant remark I saw was that a China-based but German-owned shipping company made regular round trips from Shanghai to Tsingtao. The Far East travel schedules for the two major German passenger lines Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) and Hamburg-Amerika (HAPAG) show routes from Hamburg/Bremen to Yokohama making stops in Shanghai. It is possible that Tsingtao-bound civilian passengers had to make a trans-shipment layover in Shanghai. However, Karlheinz Graudenz in his book "Die deutschen Kolonien: Geschichte der deutsche Schutzgebiete" ("The German Colonies: a History of the German Protectorates, Weltbild Verlag, 1989) claims on the other hand that both NDL and HAPAG did make direct trips to Tsingtao. Graudenz records that the annual shipping traffic to Tsingtao rose steadily from 182 steamer visits in 1900, to 509 steamer visits in 1909. Of the latter number, 266 visits were by German vessels, 113 British, 68 Japanese, 36 Chinese, 22 Norwegian, and 4 "other".

Regarding transport of naval and government personnel (and their dependents) to Tsingtao, from what I know it was the policy of the German government to specifically charter steamers to do this and not to depend on commercial ships sailing scheduled routes. The warships of Germany's overseas-based Cruiser Squadron regularly received "drafts" of new crewmembers at stipulated periods (a common practice in all navies of the age). I believe that this activity was conducted twice a year. Hans Pochhammer in his book "Graf Spees letzte Fahrt" ("Graf Spee's Last Voyage", Koehler Verlag, 1924) states that the relief ship PATRICIA had in fact arrived at Tsingtao on June 2, 1914, to carry out the rotation. I can not find any additional information on PATRICIA and do not know if this was a one-time event or a dedicated use of this particular ship. However, Pochhammer's use of the expression "this time the steamer PATRICIA" leads me to believe that many different vessels were chartered for this purpose.

As to the port of embarkation, the documentation I can find is silent on this matter. One anecdote of interest is that the German Expeditionary Force (Ostasiatisches Expeditionskorps) sent to China in the course of the Boxer Uprising boarded their transports in Bremerhaven harbor. A photograph in one of my books shows Kaiser Wilhelm II giving his infamous "Hun Speech" to these departing soldiers, who are drawn up in parade formation in their overseas uniforms in front of the Bremerhaven embarkation hall of NDL (just prior to their marching up the gangway). Indeed, Bremerhaven has long been used as a port for shipment of government goods and people - the United States made the city the gateway for its military forces in Europe from 1945 to the early 1990s.

For those who are interested:
A *SUPERB* comprehensive German-language website devoted to German colonial history (including, among other things, statistical information, historical data, color pictures, and maps of Kiautschou/Tsingtao) can be found: http://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/

A second excellent German-language site dealing with the topic (with color pictures and a detailed chronological timeline of Germany's occupation of Kiautschou) can be seen at Tradition League of Former Colonial Troops: http://www.traditionsverband.de/kiautschou.html

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/pwr03000.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 8:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The South African Aviation Corps (SAAC)

(...) Six of the original group of pilots were chosen to undergo further training in Britain, and were appointed as probationary lieutenants of the South African Defence Force. They were: Kenneth van der Spuy, Gordon Creed, Marthinus Williams, Basil Turner, Gerard Wallace and Edwin Emmet. All took part in preliminary courses at Tempe, Bloemfontein, before being sent for training at Upavon. When van der Spuy passed his final examination on 2 June 1914, and was granted the certificate of the Royal Aero Club, he was South Africa's first qualified military pilot. The others passed a few days later. (...)


The FAI licence issued to South Africa's first qualified military
pilot, Lt Kenneth Reid van der Spuy on 2 June 1914


http://samilitaryhistory.org/vol123jm.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 19:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht: Österreich-ungarische Flieger über Bari und Brindisi
Rom, 2. Juni.

Amtlich wird mitgeteilt, daß am Dienstagmorgen ein feindliches Flugzeug über Bari und ein anderes über Brindisi erschienen ist und beide Städte mit Bomben belegten. In Bari platzte eine Bombe auf dem Dache eines Privathauses, ein Dachziegel fiel herab und verwundete ein fünfzehnjähriges Kind schwer, es starb bald darauf. In Brindisi wurden zwei Bürger leicht verletzt und zwei Häuser unbedeutend beschädigt.
Ein österreichisch-ungarisches Flugzeug, das Bomben auf Bari schleuderte, wandte sich alsdann gegen Malfetta, wo es einige Bomben abwarf, die eine Anzahl Arbeiter töteten.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/15_06_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Einstein‘s first popular scientific speech in Berlin about the theory of relativity.

[T]he most famous scholar was doubtlessly the physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who held his first public speech concerning the theory of relativity on Wednesday, June 2, 1915 in the large lecture hall of the Treptow Observatory in Berlin.


Excerpt from the programme of the Treptow Observatory with the announcement of Albert Einstein’s speech, June 2, 1915

Einstein‘s speech had been announced with the title Relativität der Bewegung und Gravitation (Relativity of Motion and Gravitation) and was - according to a report of the Vossische Zeitung in its evening edition of June 3, 1915 – able to lure a "relatively large number of listeners". We do not have any text or picture documents of Einstein’s speech, so that we only know through the article in the Vossische Zeitung (in German) what Einstein had said.



Einsteins Relativitätsprinzip.
Vortrag in der Treptower Sternwarte.

Wie es in der Mathematik keinen besonderen Königsweg gibt, so lassen sich auch die Einsichten in gewisse Grundfragen der Physik nicht ohne Kenntnis bestimmter naturwissenschaftlicher Tatsachen, nicht ohne Zuhilfenahme der Mittel der höheren Mathematik klar gewinnen. Was für das leibliche Auge das Mikroskop und das Fernrohr sind, das bedeuten in gewisser Beziehung Differential- und Integralrechnung für das geistige Auge. Will oder muß man auf diese Stützen verzichten, so kann man nicht erschöpfend erklären, sondern nur andeutend hinweisen.

In dieser Zwangslage befand sich gestern Prof. Dr. Albert Einstein, das jüngste Mitglied unserer Akademie der Wissenschaften, als er vor einer verhältnismäßig großen Zahl von Zuhörern in der Treptower Sternwarte die „Relativität der Bewegung und Gravitation“ erläutern wollte. Der Schöpfer oder Mitschöpfer des Relativitätsprinzips versuchte – unter Verzicht auf alle mathematischen Ableitungen – klarzulegen, wie Ort und Zeit nicht voneinander zu trennen, wie Längen und Zeiten vom Bewegungszustand abhängig sind; daraus folgt die Abhängigkeit gleicher Natur für alle daraus abgeleiteten anderen Begriffe. Es ist einleuchtend, daß wir von einer Bewegung erst dann eine rechte Vorstellung haben, wenn wir sagen, worauf sie bezogen ist. Erst dann kann die Bezeichnung Ruhe oder Bewegung einen Sinn haben. Es kann dabei gleichgültig sein, ob ein System selbst oder seine Umgebung in entgegengesetzter Richtung bewegt ist. Blicke ich vom Karussell aus auf einen Baum, so scheint sich dieser zu bewegen. Sitzt man in einem gut gefederten, ruhig fahrenden D-Zug, so ist es für gewöhnlich nicht möglich, zu bestimmen, ob man sich bewegt. Sieht man zum Fenster hinaus und erblickt einen zweiten Zug, so scheint der andere zu fahren. Nur Aenderungen der Geschwindigkeit, rasches Anfahren oder Bremsen bemerkt man, ferner Krümmungen der Bahn, da man durch die Zentrifugalkraft nach außen gedrückt wird. Auch die Bewegung der Erde in ihrer Bahn um die Sonne ist nicht mit unbedingter Sicherheit zu erkennen. Alle Bewegungen sind relativ.

Einstein zeigt in einer auch dem Laien verständlichen Weise, wie man mit Hilfe eines sogenannten Koordinatensystems sich die Bewegung veranschaulichen kann. Mit genügender Annäherung kann man die Erde selber als ein solches Koordinatensystem wählen. Es bedarf keiner übermäßigen Ueberlegung, um zu begreifen, daß mit Bezug auf ein gegen das ursprüngliche Bezugsystem (Erdboden) gleichförmig bewegtes System (Wagen) die Gesetze des Geschehens die gleichen sind, wie mit Bezug auf das ursprüngliche System (Erde). Wir haben hier das Relativitätsprinzip der gleichförmigen Bewegung, das Relativitätsprinzip im engeren Sinne. Gilt es aber auch – so fragt Einstein weiter – für die ungleichförmige, für die beschleunigte Bewegung? Im ersten Augenblick wird man die Frage verneinen. Aber Einstein zeigt, indem er, von zwei verschiedenen Bezugssystemen aus, das Fallen von Körpern beobachtet, daß der Beschleunigung ebenso wenig eine unbedingte physikalische Bedeutung zukommt, wie der Geschwindigkeit (der gleichförmigen Bewegung). Dasselbe Bezugssystem ist mit gleichem Recht als beschleunigt oder als nicht beschleunigt anzusehen; je nach der gewählten Auffassung hat man dann aber ein Schwerefeld als vorhanden anzusetzen, das zusammen mit dem eventuellen Beschleunigungszustand des Systems die Relativbewegung freibeweglicher Körper gegen das Bezugssystem bestimmt. Fast unbewußt entschlüpfen dem Vortragenden, als er die Verhältnisse im beschleunigten System klarlegt und auf dessen Uebereinstimmung mit dem Schwerefeld (Gravitationsfeld) hinweist, Ausdrücke wie Potential. Wir fühlen, wie durch die Relativitätstheorie im weiteren Sinne auch die Newtonsche Gravitationstheorie erweitert wird.

Gibt es nun einen Prüfstein für die Richtigkeit dieser Anschauungen? Der Lichtstrahl oder vielmehr seine Geschwindigkeit muß das Kriterium abgeben. Nicht nur im beschleunigten System, auch im Gravitationsfeld muß er gekrümmt verlaufen. Seine Ablenkung (Aberration) wird zwar sehr gering, aber immerhin unsichtbar sein.1) Aufnahmen von Sternen, die neben der Sonne erschienen, zur Zeit der Sonnenfinsternis, können Aufschluß geben. Freilich kann die Ablenkung nur außerordentlich klein sein, bei der Sonne 0,85 Bogensekunden, bei Jupiter gar nur 1/100 Bogensekunde. Mit Hilfe empfindlicher Apparate läßt sich aber eine solche Messung durchführen. Im Auftrage der Akademie der Wissenschaften sollte der Astronom Dr. Freundlich während der letzten Sonnenfinsternis solche Messungen durchführen. Aber der Krieg verhinderte diese Forscherarbeit, die für unsere Erkenntnistheorie nicht minder wichtig ist, als für die Fortentwicklung der Physik. Dr. Freundlichs kostbaren astronomischen Apparate wurden in Odessa beschlagnahmt, ruhen wahrscheinlich dank den „Kulturträgern des Ostens“ auf dem Meeresgrund. Aus Beobachtungen bei Sonnenfinsternissen Schlüsse über die Gültigkeit des Relativitätsprinzips zu ziehen, müssen wir uns vorläufig versagen.2) Aber eine andere optische Erscheinung, das sogenannte Dopplersche Prinzip, kann die Entscheidung liefern.

Wenn es auch nur Andeutungen waren, die Einstein – in der knappen Spanne einer Stunde – geben konnte, so hatte es doch einen hohen Reiz, hineinzublicken in die Gedankenarbeit unserer modernen Physiker, zu sehen, wie sie unser Weltbild – wenn auch nicht einfacher – so doch einheitlicher gestallten wollen
. el.

Quelle: Vossische Zeitung, Donnerstag, 3. Juni 1915, Nr. 279, Abendausgabe

Lees verder: http://www.einstein-website.de/z_biography/einsteinarchenhold-e.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 juni 2011: Hooge


De ruines van het kasteel in 1915. In 1917 zal niets meer daarvan overblijven

De Duitsers slagen er ditmaal in het kasteelgebouw en een aantal oostelijk gelegen huizen van Hooge te veroveren . De stallingen en de westelijk gelegen huizen kunnen de Britten behouden. Wel hebben de Duitsers aldus hun dominante posities van op "Bellewaardefarmridge" kunnen uitbreiden naar "Hoogeridge". De weg Ieper-Menen (voor de Britten Menin road) vormt nu over zowat een halve kilometer de frontlijn, met de Britten in de zuidelijke, lager gelegen weiden. Maar in het kasteeldomein, dus aan de andere kant van de "Menin road" kunnen de Britten zich wel in en rond de stallingen handhaven: een kleine "salient" in de grotere "Ypres salient".

http://users.telenet.be/blindganger/hooge.htm
Zie ook http://users.telenet.be/blindganger/la_hooghe.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Grain Growers' Guide, 2 juni 1915



http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/GGG/1915/06/02/23/Ar02302.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

2 juni 1915 - Frans Jansens van de Strikkeweg in Zondereigen werd gekwetst in Diksmuide. Hij was soldaat milicien en verbleef in het leger sinds 16 september 1913 (eerste bataljon, derde compagnie, zesde linieregiment). Op 29 juni vertrok hij met verlof naar Rennes (Fr.), waar hij verbleef tot 23 september 1915. Frans ging ook een paar keer naar Engeland op vakantie, waar mensen bereid waren om hem op te vangen. Na de oorlog sprak hij weinig over zijn ervaringen. Frans maakte in Diksmuide het kerstbestand mee en hij had geluk toen hij bij het begin van een aanval een gewonde moest vervoeren met de brancard. Van de negentig soldaten die op dat moment ten aanval trokken, keerden er slechts een twintigtal terug.

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die englische Liste der verlorenen Schiffe
London, 2. Juni.

Die englische Admiralität gibt amtlich bekannt: In der Seeschlacht sind folgende Schiffe unserer Flotte gesunken: "Queen Mary", "Indefatigable", "Invincible", "Defence", "Black Prince", "Turbulent", "Tipperary", "Fortune", "Sparrowhawk", "Ardent". Andere Schiffe werden noch vermißt.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_06_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private Thomas Gill: Service Record of Thomas Gill

The service records for Private Thomas Gill were retrieved from Library and Archives Canada in September 2008, at the request of Grandson Jim Gill (Milton Canadian Legion, Branch 136). It is from these documents and a number of reference texts that this summary document has been prepared.

Private Gill trained with the 8th Regiment, Canadian Mounted Rifles in Canada from July 1915 to October 1915.

Upon arrival in Bramshot, England Private Gill was transferred for overseas service with the 8th Infantry Brigade, on January 28, 1916. The CMR units were initially proposed for service in the Middle East, however there was a more pressing need for dismounted troops to build the new 3rd Canadian Division that was being formed. The 8th Infantry Brigade of the 3rd Canadian Division became the home of all the CMR units that served in France and Flanders in the Great War. The 8th Infantry Brigade of the 3rd Canadian Division was composed of four (4) Canadian Mounted Rifle (C.M.R) units that were "dismounted" and used as regular Infantry Battalions. As such the 8th Infantry Brigade consisted of the Brigade Headquarters, the 8th Trench Mortar Battery and the 1st C.M.R., 2nd C.M.R., 4th C.M.R. and 5th C.M.R. The 3rd CMR was broken up to reinforce the 1st and 2nd CMR, the 6th CMR was broken up to reinforce the 4th and 5th CMR. The 7th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th CMR units were broken up to provide reinforcements to other units in the field.

On January 29, 1916 Private Gill landed in France and was taken-on-strength to the 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles at the Canadian Base Depot. He left for the 4th CMR in the field on February 7, 1916, joining the unit on February 10, 1916. Private Gill's records show that he was absent from the front line 4th CMR unit from April 14, 1916 until April 29, 1916 for service at the 8th Brigade Headquarters. On June 2, 1916 he was reported as "Missing After Action". Private Gill's medical records state that on June 2, 1916 he was "blown up", as were many of the 4th CMR men who suffered through that incredible artillery barrage.

We know from the historical records that the 8th Brigade had the unfortunate honour of taking the brunt of the German artillery attack at Mount Sorrel during the infamous battle of June 2nd 1916. The placement of the 4th CMR on that date is shown in Nicholson Map 4a. The 8th Infantry Brigade was defending the threatened area of Observatory Ridge. The 4th CMR was in front of Armagh Wood, the area heaviest hit by the German artillery fire that day. The trenches and garrisons of the 4th C.M.R. were annihilated, with 89 percent casualties. Of 702 men and officers on the line only 76 came through unscathed. Brig.-Gen. Williams was captured and the commander of the 3rd Division (General Mercer) was killed. Private Gill was very lucky that he survived the action of June 2, 1916 - as many of his cohorts did not!

The details of the day-to day action of the 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles is detailed in the on-line 4th CMR War Diary. The report of the action on June 2, 1916 is quite detailed and it reports on the devastation of June 2, 1916.





"We were bombarded in the front line, supports and reserves, by thousands of shells of every description. The bombardment was most intense. The front line was also bombarded by trench mortars. The O.C. of the platoon in S.P. 12 held his position until about 11:30 am when he sent out his remaining men who were mostly wounded, and when the last man had left came out himself.

A mine exploded on the battalion front line about 1 pm and an order came down the line to withdraw. At this time the whole front line was flattened out and there were no trenches of any description, and very few of the battalion that were able to carry on".

(transcription by R. Laughton)

With the devastation of the 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles it was probably some time before all the men could be accounted for after the lines were overtaken by the 26th and 27th Wurttemberger Division. As early as July 5, 1917 Private Gill was unofficially reported as a Prisoner of War (POW) in Germany, however it was not until July 19, 1916 that official word was received that Private Gill was a POW at the Dulmen Prison Camp (Germany: Nordrhein Westfalen, Munster, Dulmen.

Er is meer! http://cefww1soldiertgill.blogspot.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fort Douaumont en Fort Vaux

Rondom Verdun lagen een groot aantal grote forten. Deze stamden uit de negentiende eeuw, waar ze dienst deden als onderdeel van de verdedigingswerken in het noordoosten van Frankrijk, bedoeld om invallende legers tegen te houden. Van deze forten zijn er twee erg bekend geworden: Fort Douaumont en Fort Vaux. De Duitsers dachten dat zij bij de verovering van de forten duizenden en wellicht tienduizenden soldaten zouden verliezen. Het zat de aanvallers echter mee. De Franse legerleiding had gezien dat grote forten in België, bijvoorbeeld in Namen, Luik en Antwerpen door zware Duitse artillerie kapotgeschoten waren. De Franse generaals vreesden een herhaling in hun land en besloten tijdens de oorlog de forten te ontmantelen. Fort Douaumont werd daarom tijdens de Duitse aanval op Verdun bezet door een zestigtal oude soldaten die bovendien lichtbewapend waren.

Fort Douaumont werd daarom binnen drie kwartier nadat de Duitsers het aanvielen veroverd. Fort Vaux was het toneel van een veel langere en hardere strijd, die met zware middelen werd uitgevochten. Op 2 juni 1916 werd de aanval op het fort geopend en Duitse pioniers lukte het om in de ondergronde gangen van het fort te komen. Daar werden felle gevechten geleverd. In de duisternis werd verbeten gevochten met messen, handgranaten en vlammenwerpers.Vijfa dagen hielden de Fransen onder leiding van majoor Raynal het vol tegen de aanvallers. De Duiters zetten onder meer chloorgas in om de hun tegenstanders uit het fort te dwingen. Ook de artilleriebeschietingen en het gebrek aan water zorgde voor een ondraaglijke situatie binnen in het fort. Op 7 juni viel het fort in Duitse handen.

http://www.geschiedenis.nl/index.php?go=home.showBericht&bericht_id=3341
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

H.M.S. Revenge at the Battle of Jutland

Report of Proceedings

From.—The Commanding Officer, H.M.S. Revenge.
To.—Vice Admiral Commanding, First Battle Squadron.
Date.—2nd June 1916. № B. 111/2.
Subject.—Action of 31st May and 1st June 1916.
Former.—

H.M.S. Revenge, 2nd June 1916.

SIR,

IN accordance with your signal 1603 of to-day, Friday, 2nd June 1916, I have the honour to forward the following general account of the action of 31st May and 1st June 1916 as observed from Revenge.

6. 5p.m. —Fleet in 2nd Organisation. Course, South. Speed 18 knots. Observed British Battle Cruiser Fleet of 4 ships in line ahead, engaged with enemy battle cruisers; latter could not be distinguished.
6. 8p.m. —Observed flashes of enemy's guns.
6. 9p.m. —Observed H.M.S. Lion hit on forecastle and on fire; soon extinguished.
6.10p.m. —Reports of enemy Battle Fleet S.S.E.
6.15p.m. —5th Battle Squadron observed firing on enemy Battle Fleet.
6.17p.m. —Shots falling round ship. Deployed to port, S.E. by E.
6.25p.m. —Cruisers who had deferred taking up battle stations till too late now found themselves under heavy fire from enemy Battle Fleet. Black prince (?) observed to be struck aft and then forward; magazine evidently exploded and she disappeared.

At the same time Warrior was very badly damaged, and Minotaur or Shannon had miraculous escape, being straddled frequently.

6.30p.m. —Reduced to 14 knots.
6.42p.m. —Increased to 17 knots.

During this time, fire was maintained by Director method against enemy's battleships, which were very indistinct. (No ranges being obtainable.) Also on a four funnelled cruiser between the lines, apparently damaged and stopped.

6.48 p.m. —Divisions separately altered course to S.E.

About this time H.M.S. Marlborough was struck by a torpedo.
With regard to this at—
6.50 p.m. —Officers in Transmitting Room, "A" and "Y" Shell Rooms, Director Tower and Spotting Top all felt as if the ship had struck something. The Officer of "Y" Turret, Captain Evan Jukes-Hughes, Royal Marine Light Infantry, and the Torpedo Officer, Lieutenant-Commander Walter K. Conlon, Royal Navy, looked over the side and observed a large patch of oil, with an upheaval in the middle, with portions of wreckage coming to the surface. A few minutes previous to this I had myself observed "Marlborough" struck by mine or torpedo. At the time I thought the
former, but since I think she was torpedoed by a submarine, who then dived and attempted to go under the battleship line. "Revenge" on seeing "Marlborough" struck, hauled out to port about a cable, and my behef is, struck and sunk the submarine.

About 6.55 p.m. —A light cruiser passed down between the lines, apparently making a torpedo attack. She was not fired at for some time, being possibly mistaken for British. Eventually "Marlborough" with 13.5-in. and '"Revenge" and ships astern with 6-in., opened fire on her, and she was soon apparently a wreck, stopped, with 2 funnels gone and on fire. She was not observed to sink.

http://www.dreadnoughtproject.org/tfs/index.php/H.M.S._Revenge_at_the_Battle_of_Jutland
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20th Battalion War Diary Entry - Fri., Jun 2, 1916 THE BLUFF, BELGIUM



Fine and warm. About 9 a.m. enemy opened a very heavy fire on front line about a mile to our left. Bombardment continued for several hours. There was considerable counter – battery work in our rear. Our area was fairly heavily shelled – communications were broken down, and trenches damaged. Late in afternoon, a number of lacrimatory shells were used. These caused some inconvenience at Bn. Hqrs. At 8.35 pm. what looked like a counter – attack developed on our left. This quieted down in about an hour, and usual night’s work was proceeded with. Rifle and M.G. fire less active. Casualties 1 OR killed 14 wounded.

http://www.sikhmuseum.com/buckam/flanders.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Herbert Cecil Buller

Buller, Herbert Cecil, enlisted in Canada, originally of England. D.S.O., Twice Mentioned in Despatches. Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO), twice Mentioned in Dispatches (MID). Occupation: Army Officer. Military Service: Major, temporary Lieutenant Colonel Commanding, PPCLI. Attestation Papers not found online. Diary Reference: “the Colonel [H. C. Buller] dead,” 2:4 Jun ’16. [Killed on 2 June 1916 at Sanctuary Wood].

Lees verder op http://ssns.frontiersd.mb.ca/SeniorYrs/Curricula9-12/Grade11/CanadianHistory/RemembranceDay/Soldiers/PPCLI/Buller.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (02-06-1917)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1917/0602
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Viola Dana, All Story Weekly, 02 June 1917



http://www.whosdatedwho.com/tpx_5067549/all-story-weekly-magazine-united-states-2-june-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sergeant Mouat 3rd Hampshire, Military Medal, War Heroes, June 2 1917. Decorated at Portsmouth by Maj Gen Heath-Caldwell CB



http://www.jjhc.info/heathcaldwell3portsmouth.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 2 Juni 1917.

Dommelen. De schoolcollecte alhier gehouden in de R. K. Kerk ten voordeele der geteisterde Lithauers bracht in onze kleine gemeente de groote som op van f 80 en die van verleden Zondag tot stichting van het Wilhelmusfonds ongeveer hetzelfde bedrag, behalve nog enkele giften, die den zeereerw. heer Pastoor persoonlijk zijn ter hand gesteld.

Borkel en Schaft. Mochten voor eenige weken een twaalftal Belgen vergezeld van een Duitsch deserteur het genoegen smaken alhier de grens over te steken, dezer dagen hebben wederom zeven Belgische personen een kansje gewaagd naar het neutrale Holland over te steken. De vrees van gedeporteerd te worden had hen tot dit besluit gebracht.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Suffragist, 2 June 1917



http://www.zazzle.nl/suffragist_2_juni_1917_poster-228273897910901277
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1 transport ship, soldiers dressed as Pierrots for an entertainment, 2 June 1917



http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-vn3362328 via http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/3362328
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A CONTARY opinion on Billy Bishop
By Alex Revell

Although I made only a cursory reading of the comments by the champions of Billy Bishop on the site dedicated to him, I was appalled by their ignorance of their – presumably – chosen subject: WW1 aviation. I was even more appalled to find that from this position of ignorance the champions of Bishop have been so crass as to denigrate dedicated researchers who have been actively engaged in WW1 aviation research for over forty years. Has it ever occurred to them to question what possible motive the so-called detractors could have in putting forward the results of their research. They have no personal axe to grind and they certainly have no personal animosity towards Bishop himself. To those of us who have been researching since the early 1960s the doubts about the validity of Bishop’s claims have been an open secret for many years, especially those of us who were fortunate enough to meet and become friends with ex RFC/RAF pilots from the period. Their views on Bishop – which in those I met varied from amused tolerance to outright contempt - were backed up by researchers in the field. If two of these researchers had not been so disgracefully attacked in the Canadian Senate, after their confidential views had been abused by the makers of the film - an attack which meant that they had to defend themselves by presenting the evidence - the secret would still be kept. No one, throughout the years, had any wish to give offence to the members of Bishop’s family still alive.

The other person so disgracefully attacked by a member of the senate was a distinguished pilot, who had served in France with the infantry in1914, had survived the retreat from Mons, transferred to the RFC and had flown throughout the war, mainly at the Front, with very little time in Home Establishment.

A particularly odious senator had the audacity, with no knowledge of this pilot’s service record, to accuse him of cowardice because he had declined to accompany Bishop on the morning of June 2 1917. When informed of the pilot’s service record he did not even have the decency to apologise.

However, leaving aside all the minutiae of the argument, the basic points in dispute are these.

1. The raid on the German aerodrome on the morning of June 2 1917 for which Bishop was awarded the Victoria Cross.

2. Bishop’s victory claims.

Starting in 1978 the late Philip Markham began an investigation into the aerodrome raid. Markham was a retired RAF Engineering Officer, a scholarly Canadian researcher with a world-wide reputation for thoroughness and fairness. In a subsequent article published in Over The Front (Fall 1995 issue) he stated ‘ This research was started out of personal curiosity, and in the hope that I might find confirmation of the claims made by Capt. William Avery Bishop concerning an action on 2 June 1917 for which he was subsequently awarded the Victoria Cross. I understood that this was the only occasion on which a VC was awarded solely on the testimony of the recipient The evidence which came to light over a period of 15 years was not what I had expected. History seldom contains detailed accounts of policy or incidents unpalatable in terms of national pride. Legend is preferred to truth, which seldom affects entrenched ideas.’ Later in the article Markham recounts that in one of his early letters to an ex RFC pilot he stated. ‘ My research is primarily out of personal curiosity, but I would dearly love to remove any doubts about Bishop’s integrity’

The article is very scholarly, technical, and concerned only with facts, and is too long to detail here, but I would urge people to obtain a copy and read it for themselves. Markham summed up: ‘My attempt to confirm Bishop’s claim to have attacked an enemy aerodrome and to have destroyed three enemy aircraft on 2 June 1917 has been altogether unsuccessful. I have been unable to discover any supporting evidence; in fact it has been quite the reverse. The point has come when the facts have to be faced, when the opinion of his comrades and contemporaries that Bishop was a fake and when the comment in the Nachrichtenblatt der Lusftstreitkrafte, which describes the aerodrome attack as fictitious, must be taken seriously, and weighed against the character of the man . I have spent a number of years in a thorough investigation of this award and believe I have covered all available aspects. The evidence, from both British and German sources, shows that there were no aircraft losses in the Jastas of 2 or 6 Armee on 2 June 1917, and indicates very clearly that the aerodrome attack never took place. There is not a shred of evidence to support Bishop’s claims.’

Markham then addresses the question of the VC having been awarded on the basis of ‘personal evidence alone’. ‘The answer lies in Rule 12 of the Royal Warrant, which defines the action required if “a claim, though thoroughly well founded, may not have been immediately established on the spot”. This paragraph was evidently included to protect the Monarch should the claim fail to be established, and implies that “the joint submission of Our Secretary of State for War and Our Commander in Chief of Our Army,” could only have been an endorsement in the expectation that “conclusive proof of the performance of the act of bravery “ would be forthcoming.

In Bishop’s case, apparently the only one of its kind, the joint submission was evidently the point of no return for the recommendation, because at this juncture unofficial knowledge of the recommendation must have been fairly widespread. Withdrawal would have been an unacceptable political embarrassment to the British and Canadian governments.’

I would strongly urge that all people interested in getting to the truth of this question read this extremely fair, unbiased and scholarly article by the greatly missed Markham..

Bishop’s victory claims.

The late Ed Ferko was an American who had studied the records of the Luftstreitkrafte for nearly fifty years. His knowledge of the of the arm was unparalleled, equalled only by the British researcher in the same field, Alex Imrie. Ferko carried out an evaluation of Bishop’s victory claims using the Verlustliste der Deutschen Luftstreitkrafte., the records of Kofl 2, Kofl 4 and Kofl 6 and the unit histories of the German Jasta operating in the same area of the Front as 60 and 85 Squadrons at the time in question. At the conclusion of his researches Ferko commented. ‘ It is not a pretty picture. I have checked every possible German book, letter or record in my hands, looking for information either pro or con – nothing has been withheld which might confirm or deny any of Bishop’s victories. I have failed to match a single victory claim made by Bishop against a known German loss for the day, time and place in question’.

I hope this will be of interest to the visitors to the site and will clear up a few misunderstandings. No one wants to destroy a legend, or denigrate a national hero – Bishop was a boyhood hero of us all. Research is undertaken purely in the pursuit of truth. Otherwise the study of history becomes a farce.

My comments on Mr. Revell's statements

First, I would like to say that I don't agree 100% with what the Canadian Senate did in their investigation into the NFB movie "The Kid Who Couldn't Miss". But I do for the most part agree with their findings on the movie.
As for the historians who were "attacked" by the Senate members, they did come forward, I presume at the request of Paul Cowan, to help him defend the movie. And we all know how politicians are.

And I have read Mr. Markham's article, which I have to admit, casts doubt on Bishop's claim. But given that, still, it is not conclusive. By the way, this is MY opinion.

Regarding Bishop's claims not matching German losses, why don't even 1 of Bishop's witnessed claims match up to German losses? In the Grub Street book, "Above The Trenches", they can only match two to German losses. Yet, Bishop had 20+ witnessed claims. And of his 72 "confirmed" victories, 2 were shared. Yet, NONE of his witnessed claims nor either of his shared claims can be matched to German records!

The conclusion to this is that either Bishop and his witnesses lied, the Germans lied in their records, OR, there are still missing records. I prefer to believe the later.

With regards to the Luftstreitkrafte report that referred to his aerodrome raid as fictitious, I guess no one ever denied anything for propaganda purposes before. I'm not saying that's what happened, but I think it's a possibility that we can not overlook.

However, for each "respected" historian that has come out against Billy Bishop, I've seen books and reports from just as many that support him. So, which do we believe?

I don't know, but as long as there is doubt, why shouldn't I believe Bishop??

http://www.billybishop.net/bishopP.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 21:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

East St. Louis Race Riot: July 2, 1917


Mob Stopping Street Car, East St. Louis Riot, July 2, 1917

The city of East St. Louis was the scene of one of the bloodiest race riots in the 20th century. Racial tensions began to increase in February, 1917 when 470 African American workers were hired to replace white workers who had gone on strike against the Aluminum Ore Company.

The violence started on May 28th, 1917, shortly after a city council meeting was called. Angry white workers lodged formal complaints against black migrations to the Mayor of East St. Louis. After the meeting had ended, news of an attempted robbery of a white man by an armed black man began to circulate through the city. As a result of this news, white mobs formed and rampaged through downtown, beating all African Americans who were found. The mobs also stopped trolleys and streetcars, pulling black passengers out and beating them on the streets and sidewalks. Illinois Governor Frank O. Lowden eventually called in the National Guard to quell the violence, and the mobs slowly dispersed. The May 28th disturbances were only a prelude to the violence that erupted on July 2, 1917.

After the May 28th riots, little was done to prevent any further problems. No precautions were taken to ensure white job security or to grant union recognition. This further increased the already-high level of hostilities towards African Americans. No reforms were made in police force which did little to quell the violence in May. Governor Lowden ordered the National Guard out of the city on June 10th, leaving residents of East St. Louis in an uneasy state of high racial tension.

On July 2, 1917, the violence resumed. Men, women, and children were beaten and shot to death. Around six o’ clock that evening, white mobs began to set fire to the homes of black residents. Residents had to choose between burning alive in their homes, or run out of the burning houses, only to be met by gunfire. In other parts of the city, white mobs began to lynch African Americans against the backdrop of burning buildings. As darkness came and the National Guard returned, the violence began to wane, but did not come to a complete stop.

In response to the rioting, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sent W.E.B. DuBois and Martha Gruening to investigate the incident. They compiled a report entitled “Massacre at East St. Louis,” which was published in the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis. The NAACP also staged a silent protest march in New York City in response to the violence. Thousands of well-dressed African Americans marched down Fifth Avenue, showing their concern about the events in East St. Louis.

The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) also responded to the violence. On July 8th, 1917, the UNIA’s President, Marcus Garvey said “This is a crime against the laws of humanity; it is a crime against the laws of the nation, it is a crime against Nature, and a crime against the God of all mankind.” He also believed that the entire riot was part of a larger conspiracy against African Americans who migrated North in search of a better life: “The whole thing, my friends, is a bloody farce, and that the police and soldiers did nothing to stem the murder thirst of the mob is a conspiracy on the part of the civil authorities to condone the acts of the white mob against Negroes.”

A year after the riot, a Special Committee formed by the United States House of Representatives launched an investigation into police actions during the East St. Louis Riot. Investigators found that the National Guard and also the East St. Louis police force had not acted adequately during the riots, revealing that the police often fled from the scenes of murder and arson. Some even fled from stationhouses and refused to answer calls for help. The investigation resulted in the indictment of several members of the East St. Louis police force.

http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/east-st-louis-race-riot-july-2-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Dank des Kaisers an die Westfront
Berlin, 2. Juni.

Seine Majestät der Kaiser hat an den Kronprinzen des Deutschen Reiches und an den Kronprinzen von Bayern folgende Depeschen gesandt:

Seiner Kaiserlichen Hoheit dem Kronprinzen des Deutschen Reiches.

Auf Meiner Frontreise konnte Ich nur Abordnungen der Armeen sprechen, die unter Deiner Führung in den letzten beiden Monaten den großen Durchbruchsversuch der Franzosen an der Aisne und in der Champagne zum Scheitern brachten.
Ich beauftrage Dich, allen Führern und Truppen, die in den schweren Wochen ihr ganzes Wollen und Können, ihr Blut und Leben einsetzten und an deren stahlhartem Willen des Gegners Ansturm zerschellte, Meinen und des Vaterlandes Dank zu übermitteln.
Die deutsche Heimat ist stolz auf ihre tapferen Sohne und voll Vertrauen, daß neue Kämpfe auch neue Siege bringen werden.
Das walte Gott!

Wilhelm.

Seiner Königlichen Hoheit dem Kronprinzen von Bayern.

Auf den Schlachtfeldern von Arras haben die unter Deiner Führung fechtenden Truppen aus allen deutschen Gauen in den schweren Kämpfen der letzten beiden Monate Englands kriegerische Absichten an dieser Stelle zum Scheitern gebracht.
Stahlharter Wille und feste Siegeszuversicht sprachen aus den Augen derer, die Ich während Meiner Reise sah. Das gleiche Gefühl beseelt die ganze Armee.
Mit Mir dankt das deutsche Vaterland seinen tapferen Söhnen für ihre opferfreudige Hingabe an unsere große deutsche Sache. Überbringe allen Führern und Truppen diesen Dank, der gepaart ist mit dem Vertrauen, daß wir mit Gottes Hilfe auch die weiteren Kämpfe siegreich bestehen werden.

Wilhelm.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_06_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New York Tribune Russian Poland, 2 June 1918



http://www.scribd.com/doc/20085922/New-York-Tribune-Russian-Poland-2june-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Black Sunday" - Victims of U-151



The U-151 was the first German U-boat to operate in U.S. territory in World War I. The U-151 is not actually sunk in these waters ( it was sunk deep off Virginia after the war, ) but it did "contribute" the following six shipwrecks, all on the same day, Sunday June 2, 1918:

1.schooner Isabel B. Wiley, 776 tons - bombed, 7:50 AM
2.freighter Winneconne, 1869 tons - bombed, 9:12 AM
3.schooner Jacob M. Haskell, 1798 tons - bombed, 12:00 AM
4.schooner Edward H. Cole, 1791 tons - bombed, 4:00 PM
5.freighter Texel, 3220 tons - bombed, 5:20 PM
6.passenger liner Carolina, 5017 tons - shelled, 7:20 PM

The following day, the tanker Herbert L. Pratt ( 7125 tons) struck a mine laid in the area by the U-151, but was salvaged. The total casualties for all seven vessels was only 13, amazing considering that 448 persons were imperiled and over 21500 tons of shipping was damaged or destroyed. The 13 casualties that did occur were the result of a capsized lifeboat, not hostile action by the U-boat.

The captain of the U-151 could afford to act in such a chivalrous manner for several reasons. U-151 was the first U-boat ever to operate in US waters during WW I. Wireless radio technology was still at a primitive state, and anti-submarine patrol aircraft were unheard-of. This gave the submarine the advantage of surprise, and the luxury of being able to operate on the surface, and allow time for each victim's crew to escape before finishing the attack.

The U-151 sank a number of other vessels off the coast of Virginia before returning safely to Germany. After WWI it was brought to America and finally sunk in bomb tests.

http://njscuba.net/sites/site_black_sunday.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gegen Fliegersicht gedecktes französisches 34 cm Eisenbahngeschütz an der Sommefront. Aufnahme vom 2. Juni 1918



http://www.stahlgewitter.com/18_06_02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jun 2011 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mijn liefste lief. Brieven van Jean-Louis Pisuisse aan Fie Carelsen

Gedurende de gehele oorlog is er mobilisatie. Pisuisse wordt weer opgeroepen. Dit keer in zijn geboorteplaats Vlissingen.

Vlissingen, 2 Juni 1918.
Mijn allerliefste Fiepsje,

De rust van mijn Zondagschen ‘dienst’ wil ik gebruiken om je even getrouw verslag te doen van mijn eersten dag in Hare Majesteits actieven dienst. Dat die ‘dienst’ niet altijd ‘dienst’ is, bemerk je al dadelijk aan de uitdrukking ‘Zondagsche’ dienst, die synoniem is met ‘algemeene lediggang’....! Maar laat ik niet op de feiten vooruitloopen, zooals ze dat in ouwerwetsche romans noemden. -

Ik reisde dan gistermorgen allereerst ongestoord naar Vlissingen en haalde flink mijn tekort aan slaap in. - Halfeen arriveerde ik en vond Ada en haar zoon Jos aan den trein met hun wagentje. Terwille van den jongen, houdt Lo er namelijk een bescheiden equipagetje op na. Ik behoefde echter van 't vehikel geen gebruik te maken, omdat ik op de fiets stadswaarts en naar de kazerne reed. Daar vond ik echter vanwege het lunch-uur niemand aanwezig bij wien ik me melden kon en verschoof dus mijn officieele bezoeken tot in den middag. Natuurlijk waren ingevolge den Zaterdagschen ‘dienst’ bijna alle hooge en hoogste ‘oomes’ bij wie ik officialiter op bezoek ging ‘met verlof’ en zoo kwam ik eindelijk bij den Kapitein Brenkuik terecht, die ter voorranging van den Majoor Mulder het reserve-bataljon B. van het 25e Regiment Infanterie commandeert, bij welk legeronderdeel op 't oogenblik je man zijn geweldige diensten presteert. -

Deze diensten zouden, zoo hoorde ik, allereerst worden gebezigd door mij het commando toe te vertrouwen over de 4e Compagnie van het evengenoemde Bataljon. Die compagnie was juist gisterochtend naar de Bomvrije Kazerne verhuisd en ik viel dus midden in de drukte, maakte kennis met mijn onmiddellijken plaatsvervanger den 2en luitenant Van Stigt (in burgerbedrijf directeur van 't Hotel Terminus in Den Haag) en mijn tweede officier, den onderluitenant Bercken van 't Indische leger, 'n verhollandschte Duitscher die aan 'n leverziekte lijdt. In samenwerking met hem en mijn sergeant-majoor Kremer installeerde ik de Compagnie en mijn eigen bureau in verschillende lokalen van de Bomvrije Kazerne, je weet wel, dat oude gebouw op de Boulevard met dien ronden toren, eraan vastgebouwd, waarvan ze nu een stadsmuseum hebben gemaakt en dat ik je op onze wandeling door Vlissingen heb aangewezen. - Reserve-bataljons, waren tot voor korten tijd (dit is nu - ‘op papier’ tenminste! - veranderd) bataljons, waarin elk regiment die individuën loosde waarvan het graag verlost wou zijn. 't Gevolg daarvan is, dat de lastigste, beroerdste en - o noodlot van Piezewies! - de slechst-gedisciplineerde soldaten erin zijn terechgekomen. Toen ik dan ook ‘mijn’ compagnie voor het middagmaal zag aantreden kon ik tot mezelf zeggen, dat ik nog nooit zoo'n minzaam stel trosbroeven bij elkaar had gezien. Enfin, met 's Heeren hulp hopen we de tucht eronder te handhaven, die voor de doeltreffendheid der vaderlandsche weermacht noodzakelijk is. - Morgen hoop ik ermee te beginnen: doe maar eens 'n schietgebedje voor me. -

's Middags gebruikte ik in den huize ‘Ophir’ het middagmaal met Ada en Jos de zoon en den huisvriend, den heer Stevens. Lo is namelijk nog in het modderbad Rockanje, waar hij met baat genezing zoekt voor zijn rheumatiek. Einde dezer week komt hij terug. Na tafel zaten we heerlijk rustig voor 't huis in den zomeravond en wandelden later nog over de Boulevard in den maneschijn nadat ik eerst met den heer Stevens 'n partijtje biljart had gespeeld. Lo heeft hier namelijk een biljart aan huis, wat ik fijn vind. - Trouwens, ik heb hier heelemaal 'n best en gerieflijk kwartier en Ada is erg in haar voordeel veranderd. Ze is wel 'n beetje kleinsteedsch maar van erg ruime en verrassend-democratische opvattingen. Dit laatste - democratisch bedoel ik - schijnt eigenlijk, natuurlijk onder den invloed van het fabrieks leven, heel Vlissingen zoo'n beetje geworden te zijn.

We dronken bijvoorbeeld 'n biertje in een soort strandcafé waar Rika Brand-Bekker met haar damesorkest speelde, en waar tot mijn groote verwondering eerste rangs- en derderangs Vlissingers huiselijk door elkaar zaten, officieren van land- en zeemacht met hun dames naast matrozen en soldaten met hun meisjes! Dat ware in 't Vlissingen-van-mijn-tijd 'n onmogelijkheid geweest, zooals 't bijvoorbeeld in Middelburg nòg 'n onmogelijkheid is. De oorlogsinvloed is daarin waarschijnlijk ook al te bespeuren. -

Na mijn rommel uitgepakt te hebben - scheerzeep en postpapier heb ik o.a. vergeten - ging ik om twaalf uur in m'n mandje, sliep eerst niet en daarna erg onrustig, maar werd vervolgens om tien uur lekker frisch wakker. Ik geloof heusch, dat mijn verblijf hier mij erg goed zal doen. -

En nu, lieve Schat, weet je dus weer zoo'n beetje een en ander van mij af, en ga ik mij eens wijden aan mijn plichten van ‘Officier van Piket’, d.w.z. zorgen, dat vanavond en vannacht een snoode vijand niet met mijn ouwe Vlissingen of hetzelfs verdedigings werken wegloopt.

Laat mij door Brander zoo gauw mogelijk jouw portret en dat van de kinderen opzenden, dat hij bij De Neye heeft achtergelaten. Scheerzeep en postpapier heb ik hier al kunnen koopen, zeep veel goedkooper zelfs dan in Den Haag of Amsterdam.

Dag, mijn eigen Vrouws; laat mij gauw eens wat van je hooren. Mijn burgeradres is: ‘Huize Ophir’ Badhuisstraat 122. Telefoon 120. Vlissingen. Mijn militair adres: 1e Lt. J.L. Pisuisse Ct. 4e Compagnie Reserve Bataljon B. 25e Regiment Infanterie. Veldleger. Maar voor jouw brieven is 't eerste adres goed genoeg. Tusschen haakjes: heel Vlissingen kletst natuurlijk gezelligjes over ‘die joenge Piezewies’, die als officier in zijn vaderstad is weergekeerd! Lollig om 't te zien en te hooren!

Nou, dag schatte pop-van-me. Veel lieve zoenen op je lieve oogen en je zachte bruinverbrande velletje van

Je Swiepje

Eventueel mij toekomende brood-, vet-, vleesch- en andere kaarten heb ik hier noodig! Zend mij die op! Daag! Oók de gitaar wil ik graag hebben!

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/pisu001mijn01_01/pisu001mijn01_01_0013.php
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