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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2006 8:13    Onderwerp: 7 Mei Reageer met quote

May 7

1915 German submarine sinks Lusitania

The earlier German attacks on merchant ships off the south coast of Ireland prompted the British Admiralty to warn the Lusitania to avoid the area or take simple evasive action, such as zigzagging to confuse U-boats plotting the vessel's course. The captain of the Lusitania ignored these recommendations, and at 2:12 p.m. on May 7, in the waters of the Celtic Sea, the 32,000-ton ship was hit by an exploding torpedo on its starboard side. The torpedo blast was followed by a larger explosion, probably of the ship's boilers. The Lusitania sank within 20 minutes.

Germany justified the attack by stating, correctly, that the Lusitania was an enemy ship, and that it was carrying munitions. It was primarily a passenger ship, however, and among the 1,201 drowned in the attack were many women and children, including 128 Americans. Colonel Edward House, close associate of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, was in London for a diplomatic visit when he learned of the Lusitania’s demise. “America has come to the parting of the ways,” he wrote in a telegram to Wilson, “when she must determine whether she stands for civilized or uncivilized warfare. We can no longer remain neutral spectators.”

Wilson subsequently sent a strongly worded note to the German government—the first of three similar communications—demanding that it cease submarine warfare against unarmed merchant ships. Wilson’s actions On the afternoon of May 7, 1915, the British ocean liner Lusitania is torpedoed without warning by a German submarine off the south coast of Ireland.

Faced with the overpowering size and strength of the British Royal Navy at the outset of World War I, Germany realized its most effective weapon at sea was its deadly accurate U-boat submarine. Consequently, in February 1915, the German navy adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, declaring the area around the British Isles a war zone, in which all merchant ships, including those from neutral countries, would be subject to attack.

Though the United States was officially neutral at this point in the war, Britain was one of the nation’s closest trading partners, and tensions arose immediately over Germany’s new policy. In early May 1915, several New York newspapers published a warning by the German embassy in Washington that Americans traveling on British or Allied ships in war zones did so at their own risk. On the same page, an advertisement announced the imminent sailing of the British cruise liner Lusitania from New York back to Liverpool.

prompted his secretary of state, the pacifist William Jennings Bryan, to resign. His successor, Robert Lansing, took quite a different view of the situation: the sinking of the Lusitania had convinced him that the United States could not maintain its neutrality forever, and would eventually be forced to enter the war against Germany.

On the German side, fear of further antagonizing Wilson and his government led Kaiser Wilhelm and Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg to issue an apology to the U.S. and enforce a curb on the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. By early 1917, however, under pressure from military leaders who advocated an aggressive naval policy as an integral component of German strategy in World War I, the government reversed its policy, and on February 1, 1917, Germany resumed its policy of unrestricted U-boat warfare. Two days later, Wilson announced that the U.S. was breaking diplomatic relations with Germany; the same day, the American liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. The United States formally entered World War I on April 6, 1917.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2006 8:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915


Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Die Russen bei Rossienje geschlagen

Großes Hauptquartier, 7. Mai.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Ypern wurden alle Versuche der Engländer, uns die seit 17. April einen Brennpunkt des Kampfes bildende Höhe 60 südöstlich von Zillebeke zu entreißen, vereitelt. Wir gewannen dort weiter Gelände auf Ypern. Der Feind verlor bei diesen Kämpfen gestern sieben Maschinengewehre, einen Minenwerfer und eine große Anzahl von Gewehren mit Munition. Bei Fortsetzung ihrer Angriffe erlitten heute früh die Engländer weitere große Verluste.
Zwischen Maas und Mosel behaupteten und befestigten wir den auf den Maashöhen und südwestlich und südlich des Aillywaldes errungenen Geländegewinn. Bei Flirey ist ein schmales Grabenstück unserer Stellung noch im Besitz der Franzosen. Sonst wurden dort alle Angriffe abgewiesen.
Angriffsversuche des Feindes nördlich von Steinabrück im Fechttale wurden durch unser Feuer im Keime erstickt.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Kämpfe südlich von Szadow und östlich von Rossienje endeten mit einer ausgesprochenen Niederlage der Russen, die starke Verluste erlitten, 1500 Gefangene verloren und sich im vollen Rückzuge befinden.
Südwestlich von Kalwarja, südlich von Augustow und westlich von Prasznysz wurden russische Teilangriffe von uns blutig abgeschlagen. In diesen Kämpfen büßten die Russen 520 Gefangene ein.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Auch die Kämpfe auf dem rechten Ufer des unteren Dunajec endeten gestern mit einem vollen Erfolg für die verbündeten Truppen. Der Feind ist dort in schnellstem Rückzuge nach Osten; nur an der Weichsel hielt noch eine kleine Abteilung von ihm Stand.
Weiter südlich drangen wir auf dem rechten Ufer der Wisloka in Richtung auf den Wislok und über Jasionka vor. Vielfach stießen Teile des rechten Flügels der Heeresgruppe des Generalobersten v. Mackensen bereits mit den aus der Karpathenfront westlich des Lupkow-Passes vor den dichtauf folgenden Verbündeten im schleunigsten Rückzug befindlichen russischen Kolonnen zusammen.
Mit jedem Schritt vorwärts steigert sich die Siegesbeute.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die Wislokastrecke von den Verbündeten überschritten

Wien, 7. Mai, mittags.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Unter fortdauernden Verfolgungskämpfen überschritten die verbündeten österreichisch-ungarischen und deutschen Streitkräfte die Wisloka-Strecke Pilzno-Jaslo mit den Vortruppen. Südlich Jaslo sperren im Raume Dukla-Rymanow starke eigene Truppen die Karpathenstraße, auf denen die Russen in regellosen Kolonnen nach Norden und Nordosten zurückgehen. Diesen seitlichen Kolonnen folgt auf den Fersen unsere über die Beskiden vordringende Armee, in deren Verband auch deutsche Kräfte kämpfen.
Die Zahl der Gefangenen und die Kriegsbeute nehmen weiter zu; speziell unser 10. Armeekorps erbeutete gestern allein 5 schwere und 16 leichte Geschütze. Unsere Truppen an dem östlichen Abschnitt der Karpathenfront wiesen unterdessen verzweifelte russische Angriffe unter den schwersten Verlusten für den Gegner ab. So wurde gestern ein neuer Vorstoß gegen die Höhe Ostry durch wirkungsvollstes Artilleriefeuer zurückgeschlagen, 1300 Mann des Feindes gefangen, mehrere Abteilungen durch flankierendes Feuer aufgerieben. Auch an der Front in Südostgalizien scheitern alle Versuche des Gegners, einzelne Stützpunkte zu erobern
Auf dem südlichen Kriegsschauplatz keine Ereignisse. Im Geschützkampf vernichteten unsere Mörser durch Volltreffer französische Marinegeschütze bei Belgrad.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)


Die "Lusitania" torpediert

Queenstown, 7. Mai. (W. B.)
Meldung des Reuterschen Bureaus: Der Cunarddampfer "Lusitania" ist torpediert worden und gesunken. Hilfe ist abgesandt. Die "Lusitania" war der beste Dampfer der Cunardlinie mit 31500 Registertonnen. 2)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2006 9:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zelfs Romain Rolland, de naar Zwitserland uitgeweken Franse pacifist en winnaar van de Nobelprijs voor de Literatuur in 1915, die tot dan toe meestal in opvallend milde en overwegend verzoenende woorden heeft gesproken, schiet de daad in het verkeerde keelgat. Hij schrijft het volgende over het zinken van de Lusitania:
Quote:
‘En dit is de dag (7 mei 1915) die het stupide Duitsland uitkoos om de grote Engelse oceaanstomer Lusitania, die met 2000 passagiers en bemanningsleden uit Amerika terugkeert, te laten zinken.
Deze ongelooflijke domheid van de Pruisische oorlogspolitiek overschrijdt alle grenzen. Net zoals bij Leuven en bij Reims denkt ze de wereld te kunnen terroriseren. En ontketent slechts verontwaardiging …
Ik betreur dat Zuid-Duitsland en het eveneens verfijndere en menselijkere Oostenrijk met het brute Pruisen, dat het in de afgrond sleept, onder een hoedje speelt. En daarbij had de situatie van Duitsland in deze oorlog van een tragische grootsheid kunnen zijn. Het had de hele wereld tegen zich, een hatende wereld die zijn ondergang wilde. Juist dat overmatige gevaar (ik durf zelfs te zeggen: die onrechtvaardigheid) had het hart van alle Duitsers moeten verheffen en met de wil moeten bezielen, de tegenstanders een bekentenis van hoogachting te ontworstelen. Daarbij had het zich bij dit enorme gevaar waardig moeten gedragen, had het van zichzelf rechtschapenheid en grootmoedigheid moeten eisen, zelfs als de vijanden dat ontbeerden. Dan had de wereld het geweldig opgehitste roofdier gerespecteerd. In plaats daarvan verscheurt Pruisen verdragen, brandt het steden neer, vermoordt het de bevolking, vernietigt het kathedralen, brengt het onschuldige passagierschepen tot zinken, vervolgt het onschuldigen …
En zo wordt alle heldenmoed en alle lijden vergeefs, want het heeft die bezoedeld.’


Uit: Krieg. Ieper, het martyrium van 14/18 door Duitse ogen.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 15:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Sinking of the Lusitania, 1915

The two ships converged at about 2 pm. After stalking his prey for an hour, Captain Schwieger unleashed one torpedo that hit its target amidships. The initial explosion was followed quickly by a second, more powerful, detonation. Within 20 minutes the great liner had slipped under the water, taking 1,198 victims with her. Among the dead were 138 Americans. Many in the United States were outraged. A declaration of war was narrowly averted when Germany vowed to cease her policy of unrestricted submarine warfare that allowed attacks on merchant ships without warning. However, American public opinion had turned against Germany and when she resurrected her unrestricted submarine warfare policy in February of 1917, America decided to go to war.

"Great confusion arose on the ship. . ."

Captain Schwieger kept a diary of the voyage. We join his story as he first catches sight of the Lusitania in the early afternoon of May 7, 1915:

"2 pm Straight ahead the 4 funnels and 3 masts of a steamer with a course at right angles to ours. . . Ship is made out to be a large passenger liner.

3:05 pm Went to 11m and ran at high speed on a course converging with that of the steamer, in hopes that it would change course to starboard along the Irish Coast.

The steamer turned to starboard, headed for Queenstown and thus made it possible to approach for a shot. Ran at high speed till 3 pm in order to secure an advantageous position.

3:10 pm Clear bow shot at 700 m. . . angle of intersection 90 [degrees] estimated speed 22 nautical miles.

Shot struck starboard side close behind the bridge. An extraordinary heavy detonation followed, with a very large cloud of smoke (far above the front funnel). A second explosion must have followed that of the torpedo (boiler or coal or powder?).

The superstructure above the point of impact and the bridge were torn apart; fire broke out; light smoke veiled the high bridge. The ship stopped immediately and quickly listed sharply to starboard, sinking deeper by the head at the same time.

Great confusion arose on the ship; some of the boats were swung clear and lowered into the water. Many people must have lost their heads; several boats loaded with people rushed downward, struck the water bow or stern first and filled at once.

On the port side, because of the sloping position, fewer boats were swung clear than on the starboard side.

The ship blew off steam; at the bow the name “Lusitania” in golden letters was visible. It was running 20 nautical miles.

3:25 pm Since it seemed as if the steamer could only remain above water for a short time, went to 24m. and ran toward the Sea. Nor could I have fired a secong torpedo into this swarm of people who were trying to save themselves.

4:15 pm Went to 11m and took a look around. In the distance straight ahead a number of life-boats were moving; nothing more was to be seen of the Lusitania. The wreck must lie 14 nautical miles from the Old Head of Kinsale light-house, at an angle of 358 degrees to the right of it, in 90m of water (27 nautical miles from Queenstown) 51 degrees 22’ 6” N and 8 degrees 31’ W. The land and the lighthouse could be seen very plainly.

4:20 pm When taking a look around, a large steamer was in sight ahead on the port side, with course laid for Fastnet Rock. Tried to get ahead at high speed, so as to get a stern shot. . .

5:08 pm Conditions for shot very favorable: no possibility of missing if torpedo kept its course. Torpedo did not strike. Since the telescope was cut off for some time after this shot the cause of failure could not be determined. . . The steamer or freighter was of the Cunard Line.

6:15 pm . . . It is remarkable that there is so much traffic on this particular day, although two large steamers were sunk the day before south of George’s Channel. It is also inexplicable that the Lusitania was not sent through the North Channel."

"The Sinking of the Lusitania, 1915," EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2007).
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 15:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE MONTHLY DIARIES OF Lt RALPH. D. DOUGHTY. M.C.

7th May 1915 - Exit sniper*. Under shell fire all day. They got our range early in the morning and won't forget it. Both English and French Battery's on either side of us had a few casualties yesterday. To our surprise we find the enemy in possession of big howitzers, one fuse head fell into our trench and is a beauty. Subjected to rifle fusillades all afternoon, got quite used to the musical noise the bullets make going overhead. Saw Chas today. Hear that Norman is all right. We're only 1200 yds off the enemies first line trench. Quiet night.

* 6th May 1915 - (...) As I write this seated on the left gun seat waiting for the order to open fire again, they're not half peppering us. Our friend the sniper has our range and occasionally lobs one into our pit. We're after him tonight. Reckon he's had a fairly good innings. (...)

http://www.thekivellfamily.co.nz/family_pages/ralphs_diaries/monthly/01_may_15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 15:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dennis, Walter, Ship's Log, 6-9 May 1915
(in British Forces in the Middle East)


May 7th – Distance from Helles Point to Gaba Tepe 11 miles Distance steamed since leaving Sheerness 18,156 miles Coal received to-day 410 tons Coal received since mobilizing 18,628 tons At 4.30 am we weighed and, leaving the Dardanelles, proceeded to the West of Gallipoli Peninsula and anchored again at Gaba Tepe at 7.30. Shortly after we arrived the “Canopus” weighed & proceeded to the Dardanelles. At 1 o/c pm we shifted berths further seawards, to coal, & at 1.30 pm the SS “Pikepool” secured alongside & coaling commenced. Coaling finished at 5 o/c pm when we again shifted berths and at 7 o/c pm the supply ship “Baron Ardrossan” secured alongside with stores & ammunition. Some excitement was caused about now by the appearance of a Taube. Two bombs were dropped, but, as is usually the case, they missed, falling in the water about 100 yards off our beam.

http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/dennis-walter-ship039s-log-6-9-may-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 15:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 1915

Maori, British, Tribal class Destroyer.
Struck a mine off Zeebrugge whilst undertaking a reconnaissance mission. There were no deaths but the entire crew was captured.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk15.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 15:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Norman Thomas Gilroy war diary

Friday 7th May. At 9am the “Sudmark”, having taken all the water she required, cast free and moved off to a fresh anchorage. At 10am a picket boat came alongside with orders, she had a Turkish prisoner aboard who was being conveyed to one of the other ships, he was one of a party of 12 who were captured; 11 of them had since died, and he was kept to see what information he could impart, he was only about 5ft. 6. but was a very seedy looking individual not badly clothed in khaki, with a woollen cap, heavy greatcoat, and tan boots. His appearance altogether was not very ferocious but quite different to what I expected. At 11am the transport “Novian” also carrying A.A.S.C. came alongside for 300 tons of water; she had hardly made fast to us when soldiers swarmed aboard eager to make purchases from our canteen. At 6.50p a big crowd of soldiers were aboard scattered about the decks talking, when we noticed an aeroplane approaching from the South flying at an enormous altitude; without a glass her distinguishing marks could not be seen; through the glass 4 black crosses could be seen; we all kept our eyes turned skywards, rather interested in her movements; slowing down as she approached, she flew over the top of us, as far forward as the bows, when she turned right around and flew Southwards. As soon as we saw her turn around we expected something to happen. It did. Two very loud cracks, in quick succession aft and two great columns of water spouting heavenwards, about 30 yards from out stern, indicated where two explosive bombs dropped. Seeing the two boats tied together the airman evidently thought he had a good target. Had a strong wind not been blowing at the time his conclusion would probably have been justified and some damage done to the two ships. She evidently escaped the notice of the warships till the bombs exploded for there was not a single shot fired till she was well out of range.

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2009/D03167/a2702.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 16:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1 at Sea -
Royal Navy Despatches, Gallantry and Civil Awards from the London Gazette


21 SEPTEMBER 1917
MESOPOTAMIAN CAMPAIGN
NAVAL DESPATCH dated 7 May 1917

The following despatch has been received from Vice-Admiral Sir Rosslyn E. Wemyss, K.C.B., C.M.G., M.V.O., late Commander-in- Chief, East Indies Station, covering a report by Captain Wilfrid Nunn, C.M.G., D.S.O., R.N., on the operations of H.M. Gunboats in Mesopotamia from December, 1916, to March, 1917:

7th May, 1917.

SIR:

Be pleased to submit to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty the enclosed report on the recent operations in Mesopotamia rendered to me by Captain Wilfrid Nunn. C.M.G., D.S.O., R.N.

2. I take this opportunity of specially bringing to Their Lordships' notice the excellent conduct of Captain Nunn during the whole period that he has commanded the Flotilla on the Tigris. Through force of circumstances this command devolved upon an officer of less standing than might have been otherwise expected, and he has shown himself under all circumstances not only to have been worthy of his responsible position, but to have carried out his duties with a zeal and dash worthy of the best traditions and to have shown a very remarkable capacity for command.

I am, Sir, Your obedient.Servant,

R. E. Wemyss, Vice-Admiral, Commander-in-Chief,

H.M.S. "Mantis," 21st March, 1917.

SIR: I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations on the Tigris during the months of December, 1916, and January, February, and March, 1917, which led to the capture and occupation of Baghdad by our forces on 11th March, 1917.

2. Our advance on the right bank of the Tigris began on 13th December, 1916, when our troops established themselves on the Shatt al Hai.

The general situation early in January was as follows:

On the left bank our forces were held up by the Turks in the extremely strong Sannaiyat position, while on the right bank we had advanced much further up the river. The Turks opposed to us were commanded by Khalil Pasha. They were well dug In in strong positions.

Very large improvements have been effected in the Transport department, railways have been constructed, and a large number of river craft arrived.

A number of these, and also barges, were put together at Abadan and Basra, and the facilities for repairs much increased, and wharves constructed.

3. The gunboats at the Tigris front have cooperated with the Army in many intermittent bombardments of the enemy positions, and some very good results have been obtained, besides frequently engaging enemy aircraft.

We have at all times received great help from the Army, the Artillery officers and Staff being indefatigable in rendering the Navy every assistance.

The 14th Kite Balloon Section, R.N.A.S., commanded by Commander Francis R. Wrottesley, R.N., marked for us on many occasions, besides the useful work it has done keeping look-out for the Army.

Aeroplanes have also been frequently put at the disposal of the Royal Navy for spotting.

While keeping some gunboats at the Tigris front, I have also always, at the request of the military authorities, stationed others at various points on the line of communication, and two have been stationed in the Euphrates, in touch with the troops at Nasiriyah.

The following of H.M. .Ships have been engaged in the operations at various times:

H.M.S. "Tarantula," Commander Henry G. Sherbrooke.
H.M.S. "Mantis," Commander Bernard Buxton.
H.M.S. "Moth," Lieutenant-Commander C. H. A. Cartwright.
H.M.S. "Gnat," Lieutenant-Commander E. H. B. L. Scrivener.
H.M.S. "Butterfly," Lieutenant-Commander G. A. Wilson.
H.M.S. "Sawfly," Commander G. F. A. Mulock, D.S.O.
H.M.S. "Snakefly," Lieutenant R. P. D. Webster.
H.M.S. "Greenfly," Lieutenant-Commander A. G. Seymour, D.S.O.
H.M.S. "Gadfly," Commander E. K. Arbuthnot.
H.M.S. "Grayfly," Lieutenant C. H. Heath-Caldwell, D.S.C.
H.M.S. "Stonefly," Lieutenant M. Singleton, D.S.O.
H.M.S. "Mayfly," Lieutenant R. H. Lilley, D.S.C.
H.M.S. "Waterfly," Act. Commander Charles T. Gervers.
H.M.S. "Firefly," Lieutenant-Commander C. J. F. Eddis.
H.M.S. "Flycatcher," Lieutenant Hugh Lincoln, R.N.R.
H.M.S. "Scotstoun," Lieutenant S. E. Nicolle.

4. Operations proceeded in a most satisfactory manner, and early in February our forces were in possession of the right bank as far as to the westward of Kut el Amara, with bridges over the Hai, large numbers of prisoners having been taken, guns captured, and heavy loss inflicted on the enemy.

After intense bombardment, in which the gunboats co-operated, a successful assault of the Sannaiyat position was made on 22nd February, and a footing obtained in the Sannaiyat position. During the night of the 22nd-23rd dummy attempts were made to cross the river in various places above Sannaiyat, and just before daybreak of the 23rd covering parties were rowed across the Tigris near Shumran in pontoons, a surprise landing effected, and a bridge thrown across.

By evening the infantry of one division had crossed, and another followed, the enemy trying ineffectually to stem the British advance on the Shumran peninsula.

Meanwhile our troops were pushing forward boldly through the Sannaiyat position.

The whole Turkish position was manifestly becoming untenable, and they commenced a general retreat, which developed later into a rout.

5. I was present at the operations on board H.M.S. "Tarantula," and later on on board H.M.S. "Mantis," other of H.M. Ships present being "Moth," "Butterfly," "Greenfly," "Gadfly," "Snakefly," "Waterfly", "Flycatcher," and "Scotstoun" were also present at the front from time to time, and H.M.S. "Gnat" rejoined me on 4th March.

6. On the forenoon of 24th February I moved up river with "Tarantula," "Moth," "Mantis," "Butterfly," "Gadfly," and arrived at Kut el Amara at 9.30 p.m., where I landed and hoisted the Union Jack.

The town was deserted and in ruins. Early on the morning of the 25th I moved on up river and communicated with our troops near Shumran.

Floating mines had been seen in the river, but were easily avoided.

7. During the morning I received a message from the Army Commander asking me to cooperate in pursuing the retreating Turkish Army, and I pressed on up river. We were abreast of our leading Infantry at about 9.30 a.m. and in sight of the Turkish rearguard, on which we at once opened with rapid fire, inflicting heavy casualties. This the enemy soon returned, opening an accurate fire on us with field batteries, and several 5.9 howitzers from a prepared position among the sand hills in the neighbourhood of Imam Mahdi. Our troops were advancing, and some of our field artillery considerably relieved the situation by the rapidity with which they came into action.

The battle continued, during the day - all ships being hit by splinters of shell, but luckily no serious damage was done.

Lieutenant John H. Murdock, R.N.R., of H.M.S. "Mantis," was somewhat severely wounded in the afternoon.

8. The enemy evacuated their position during the night, and we pushed on with the Army in pursuit on the morning of 26th February.

It soon became evident that the Turkish Army was much demoralised, and I received a message by W/T from General Sir F. S. Maude during the forenoon to push on and inflict as much damage as possible.

We proceeded at full speed in "Tarantula," leading "Mantis" and "Moth," H.M. ships "Gadfly" and "Butterfly" following at their utmost speed.

My flotilla passed the small town of Bghailah at 2 p.m. White flags were flying over the town, and later on Commander Ernest K. Arbuthnot, of "Gadfly" hoisted the Union Jack over the town, bringing in also about 200 prisoners and some trench mortars.

9. Just above Bghailah we now began to come up to numbers of Turkish stragglers on the left bank of the Tigris, and some guns partially submerged in the river, where they had been abandoned. We opened fire on all who did not surrender.

The smoke of steamers had been seen ahead, and we were soon able to distinguish several steamers, including H.M.S. " Firefly," which we had to abandon on 1st December, 1915, when her boiler was disabled by a shell during the retreat from Ctesiphon and we were surrounded by the Turkish Army.

We shortly afterwards got into gun range of the small shipping and opened a heavy fire, particuiarly on "Firefly" and the armed enemy ship "Pioneer," who both replied. The "Firefly " made some good shooting at us with her 4-inch gun.

10. The Turks retreating on the left bank were becoming more numerous; they now had our cavalry division in pursuit of them on their right flank and the gunboats on their left.

The enemy were firing at us from three directions, and on approaching Nahr Kellak bend I observed a large body of enemy on the left bank at the head of the loop in the river, and gave orders for all guns to be fired on them.

They proved to be a strong rearguard, and opened on us with field and machine guns and heavy rifle fire. At this close range there were casualties in all ships, who were all hit many times, but our guns must have caused immense damage to the enemy, as we were at one time firing six-inch guns into them at about 400 to 500 yards.

Besides the Turkish Artillery there were a large number of enemy with rifles and machine guns behind the bend at a range of about 100 yards from the ships.

In the act of turning round the bend shot came from all directions, and casualties of "Moth," which came last in the line, were particularly severe.

There were casualties in all three ships, "Moth," which was magnificently handled by Lieutenant Commander Charles H. A. Cartwright, who was himself wounded, had three officers wounded - all severely - out of four, and two men killed and eighteen wounded, which is about 50 per cent, of her complement.

She was hit eight times by shell - one from ahead hit the fore side of stokehold casing, burst, and pierced the port boiler, both front and back, but luckily missed the boiler tubes. The after compartment was holed below the water line, and the upper deck and funnels of all ships riddled with bullets.

The quartermaster and pilot in the conning tower of H.M.S. "Mantis" were killed, but the prompt action of her Captain saved her from running ashore. I consider that the excellent spirit of the men and skilful handling of the ships by their Captains in a difficult and unknown shallow river were most praiseworthy.

11. We thus passed the enemy rearguard, and large numbers of the retreating Turkish Army were on our starboard beam. I opened rapid fire from all guns that would hear (this included heavy and light guns, pom-poms, maxims, and rifles), and at this short range we did enormous execution, the enemy being too demoralised to reply, except in a very few cases.

We were also able to shoot down some of their gun teams, which they deserted, and several guns thus fell into the hands of our forces when going over this ground.

12. The vessels ahead were now in easy range, and several small craft stopped and surrendered, including the armed tug "Sumana," which we had left at Kut during the siege, and had been captured at the fall of that place.

About 5.20 p.m. the large Turkish steamer "Basra" stopped and surrendered when brought to by a shell from H.M.S. "Tarantula,'' which had, I was afterwards informed, killed and wounded some German machine gunners. The "Firefly " kept up a heavy fire from her 4-inch gun, but our reply began to tell on her, and having been hit several times she ran into the bank and fell into our hands about 6.15 p.m. in the north-west part of the Zaljah reach, to westward of Umm al Tubul.

The "Pioneer" having been badly hit by "Mantis," was in flames near her, and some barges laden with munitions in the vicinity.

The Turks had endeavoured to set fire to the "Firefly's" magazine, but we were able to put it out and took possession of her at once, and I put a prize crew on board and hoisted the White Ensign.

Darkness now came on, and I considered it inadvisable to go on further, as we were far ahead of our troops.

I placed Lieutenant John P. Bradley, R.N.R. (of H.M.S. "Proserpine") in temporary command of H.M.S. "Firefly," with a small crew, and we moved out of the way of the burning "Pioneer," anchored for the night, and buried our men who had been killed.

13. We remained in the vicinity the following day, and I sent the "Moth" back to Basra for repairs, and the prizes down river The advance of our Army continued, and we reached Aziziyah on 1st March. Here the Turks had abandoned more guns and again retreated. I was joined here by H.M.S. "Waterfly."

The pursuit was continued on 5th March, and our cavalry again engaged the enemy rearguard near Lajj, but we were unable to distinguish anything owing to a dense sandstorm.

14. We arrived at Ctesiphon on the 6th, finding the strong position there deserted, and next day arrived in gun-range of the enemy position on the north bank of the Dialah River, which joins the Tigris on the left bank about eight miles below Baghdad.

In attacking this position we again came under heavy fire from the Turkish guns, to which we briskly replied. During the night of the 10th-11th the enemy evacuated the position, as some of our troops had crossed the Dialah, and others were carrying out a wide flanking movement on the right bank to the south-west and west of Baghdad.

An attempt had also been made to send two motor lighters full of troops to land them on the left bank above the Dialah on the night of 10th March. One of them, however, grounded in the shallow river in gun range of the enemy. I sent H.M. Ships "Tarantula" and "Snakefly" to assist, and "Tarantula" rendered valuable assistance by extricating the motor lighter from her dangerous position before daylight.

15. The Baghdad railway was seized early on the 11th March.

I proceeded up river with the gunboat flotilla, which included H.M.S. "Firefly," Lieutenant-Commander C. J. F. Eddis in command, during the day, with minesweepers ahead, and arrived at the Citadel at Baghdad in H.M.S. "Mantis" at 3.40 p.m., on Sunday, 11th March. Paddle Steamer No. 53, having on board Sir F. S. Maude and Staff, being in company with the Flotilla.

The pursuit of the enemy was continued up river, and two iron barges captured.

16. I have much pleasure in bringing to your notice the excellent behaviour and spirit of the Captains, Officers, and men under my command during these operations, which were, in my opinion, worthy of the great traditions of His Majesty's Service.

In conclusion, I desire to express how greatly the Naval Forces serving in Mesopotamia have always been indebted to the Military and Political services for never-failing help and assistance on all occasions.

I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient Servant,

Wilfrid Nunn, Captain and S.N.O., Mesopotamia.

________

I have the honour to submit the following for special mention, promotion, honours or awards:

Officers.

H.M.S. "Tarantula."
Commander Henry G. Sherbrooke, R.N. For skilful handling of his ship, and especially on 26th February, when he contributed largely to the success of the operations.
Lieutenant J. P. Bradley, R.N.R. For coolness under fire on all occasions. Lieutenant Bradley did very good work by personally taking the captured Turkish steamer "Basra " down the river laden with enemy wounded.
Sub-Lieutenant G. A. Feilman, R.N.V.R. For coolness and resource under very heavy fire, in firing with machine guns on the Turkish infantry and machine guns, when all other men were employed in working the main armament of 6-in., 12-pdr. and pompoms.
Surgeon J. C. Kelly, R.N. Attended to wounded whilst fire was at its hottest in an exposed position.

H.M.S. "Mantis."
Commander Bernard Buxton, R.N. For good work done on all occasions. His prompt action under heavy fire on 26th March saved H.M.S. "Mantis" from running aground in a critical position.
Surgeon James P. Shorten, R.N. Continued to dress and attend to the wounded in the open while under very heavy fire.
Sub-Lieutenant E. C. W. Vane Tempest, R.N.V.R. Was in charge of the gunnery of the ship, and while under hot fire he did his duty with coolness. At one time he personally worked a maxim though wounded.

H.M.S. "Moth."
Lieutenant-Commander Charles H. A. Cartwright, R.N. For excellent handling of his ship and gallant conduct on all occasions under fire, and particularly on 26th February, 1917. I submit that this officer is fully worthy of special promotion.
Surgeon Frederick G. E. Hill, R.N. Who, finding a man wounded on the battery deck, gallantly, under heavy fire, carried him into the sick bay to dress his wounds. Whilst doing this, the man received another wound through his throat, and Surgeon Hill himself received a nasty wound in his forearm. Nevertheless, although in considerable pain, and until his arm became too stiff to use it, he proceeded to dress and attend to all the wounded on board.
Lieutenant John H. A. Wood, M.C., R.N.V.R. Who was severely wounded while firing a machine gun in a totally exposed position.

H.M.S. " Snakefly."
Lieutenant R. P. D. Webster, R.N. Has shown judgment and resource on many occasions under fire.

H.M.S. "Flycatcher."
Lieutenant Hugh Lincoln, R.N.R. For good work while in command of H.M. ships "Comet" and "Flycatcher," and he has carried out the duty of forward observing Officer under fire in a very satisfactory manner.

H.M.S. "Gadfly."
Commander Ernest K. Arbuthnot, R.N. During the recent advance to Baghdad I have found this officer's knowledge and experience of great benefit, and he has shown great coolness under fire on all occasions.
Temporary Surgeon Robert G. Elwell, R.N. Has rendered valuable service under fire on many occasions.

H.M.S. "Proserpine."
Lieutenant Cecil G. Hallett, R.I.M. Has given me most valuable help throughout the campaign, and has carried out the gunnery duties for the Squadron. His experience, particularly of spotting the enemy gun positions, is of great value, and he has frequently done this under fire.

Men.

H.M.S. "Tarantula."
Chief Petty Officer W. B. Ayre, O.N. 171045 (Ch.).
Chief Engine Room Artificer H. Lovell, O.N. 268831 (Ch.).
Leading Seaman H. M. J. Thompson, O.N. 236295 (Ch.).
Able Seaman W. Stephenson, O.N. 234863 (Ch.).

H.M.S. "Mantis."
Chief Engine Boom Artificer, 2nd Class, Alexander Greig, O.N. M. 17441 (Ch.).
Petty Officer James Revell, O.N. 208740 (Ch.).
Petty Officer William H. Saunders, O.N. J5200 (Ch.).
Stoker Petty Officer Edward S. Crossman, O.N. 287047 (Ch.).
Leading Telegraphist Sydney W. Boulter, J15349 (Ch.).

H.M.S. "Moth."
Acting Chief Engine Room Artificer, 4th Class, William J. Hollies, O.N. M. 12130 (Ch.).
Stoker Petty Officer George T. Hasler, O.N. K1366 (Ch.).
Signalman Charles Poulter, B.N.V.B., O.N. London Z/3247 (Ch.).
Telegraphist Herbert W. Prior, O.N. J.32080 (Ch.).
Able Seaman Alfred E. Lucas, O.N. J.15975 (Ch.).
Able Seaman Percy W. Dean, R.F.R., Chatham B.3950 O.N. 209195 (Ch.).
Stoker John Farrell, R.N.R., O.N. S.8533.

H.M.S. "Snakefly."
Stoker Petty Officer John W. Mallinson, O.N. 303741 (Dev.).
Leading Telegraphist Martin L. Elliott, O.N. J.29215 (Dev.).

H.M.S. " Gadfly.''
Petty Officer, 1st Class, Ronald Godfrey Robinson, O.N. 198809 (Po.).
Engineroom Artificer, 2nd Class, Leonard Ernest Brown, O.N. 271864 (Po.).

The following are recommended for good services at the base, which contributed largely to the successful operations:

Captain Cathcart B. Wason, C.M.O., R.N.
Staff Surgeon Thomas W. Jeffery, R.N., H.M.S. "Proserpine."
Staff Surgeon George G. Vickery, R.N., H.M.S. "Dalhousie."
Engineer Lieutenant-Commander Stanley W. Cooke, lately of H.M.S. "Proserpine."
Paymaster Herbert G. Cavanagh, R.N, H.M.S. "Dalhousie."
Lieutenant A. H. B. Gray, R.I.M., H.M.S. "Dalhousie."
Chief Gunner Patrick J. O'Connor, R.N., H.M.S. "Dalhousie."
Carpenter William Brown, R.N., H.M.S. " Proserpine."

(Sgd.) W. NUNN,
Captain and S.N.O., Mesopotamia.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyBritishLondonGazette1707.htm#30298
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Maurice Paléologue- An Ambassador's Memoirs

Monday, May 7, 1917.

To my telegram of the 3rd May, Ribot has replied by asking Albert Thomas and myself to give him our respective opinions.

"Draw up your argument," Albert Thomas said to me; I'll then draw up mine and we'll send them as they are to the Government."

These are my views

1. Anarchy is spreading all over Russia and will paralyse her for a long time to come. The quarrel between the Provisional Government and the Soviet shows, by the very length of time it has lasted, that both are important. It is increasingly clear that disgust with the war, abandonment of all the national dreams and a lack of interest in everything save domestic problems are becoming uppermost in the public mind. Cities like Moscow, which a short time past were hot-beds of patriotic feeling, have been contaminated. The revolutionary democracy seems incapable of restoring order in the country and organizing it for the struggle.

2. Ought we to continue to put our trust in Russia and give her more time? No; because even under the most favourable circumstances she will not be in a condition to carry out all her obligations as an ally for many months to come.

3. Sooner or later, the more or less complete paralysis of Russia's effort will compel us to revise the decisions we had all come to on Eastern questions. The sooner the better, as the prolongation of the war involves France in terrible sacrifices of which Russia has not borne her share for a long time past.

4. We must therefore waste no further time but endeavour in all secrecy to find some means of inducing Turkey to propose peace to us. This line of thought necessarily excludes the idea of any reply to the latest note of the Provisional Government, as such a reply would to some extent confirm agreements which have become unrealizable through Russia's fault.

I will now give the views of Albert Thomas:

1. I admit that the situation is difficult and uncertain, but not that it is desperate, as M. Paléologue seems to think.

2. I believe that the best policy is to give the new Russia that confidence we did not refuse to the old.

3. The Government will have to decide about the Eastern policy now put forward by M. Paléologue. I will content myself with the remark that this is not perhaps a well-chosen moment for great new diplomatic combinations in the East. But I have pleasure in observing that, in advising no reply to the Provisional Government's recent note, M. Paléologue himself takes a step in the direction of the revision of agreements. Speaking for myself, I am not opposed to the idea of a strictly secret attempt to induce Turkey to propose peace to us. The only difference between M. Paléologue and myself is that I still believe in the possibility of bringing Russia back into the war by announcing a democratic policy; M. Paléologue thinks that the last chance of attaining that end has gone.

4. Our friendly discussion will put the Government in a better position to view the situation as a whole. I remain of opinion that the policy I suggest is not only the more prudent of the two but more in accordance with things as they are. Nor does it rule out the Turkish scheme; but it strives to bring it about by agreement with the new Russia and not in opposition to her.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/mpmemoirs/3_13.html
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Treaty of Bucharest, 7 May 1918

Background to the Treaty
Romania, having started the war as a neutral, entered on the side of the Allies in August 1916, led by Ion Bratianu, the Allies having promised support for the fulfilment of Romanian national unity.

Revolution in Russia in 1917, followed by the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty, brought about the end of German operations on the Eastern Front. With the withdrawal of her Russian allies on the Moldavian front peace was forced upon Romania, who realistically could not continue to fight alone against the Germans.

The resulting Treaty of Bucharest, between Romania and the Central Powers, was initially ratified by the following bodies upon the given dates:

•German Bundesrat (4 June 1918)
•Romanian Chamber (28 June 1918)
•German Reichstag (3 July 1918)
•Romanian Senate (4 July 1918)

The treaty never completed ratification in Romania and was denounced in October 1918 by the Romanian government, which then re-entered the war on the Allied side.

With the Allied-German armistice of 11 November 1918 the treaty was declared void (along with the Russian Brest-Litovsk treaty).

Text of the Treaty
There follows the English translation of the German text as published the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger on 8 May, 1918.

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey on the one hand and Roumania on the other hand, animated by a desire to bring the state of war between them to an end and to re-establish the friendly relations of their peoples within the field of politics, law and economy, have decided to transform the preliminaries of peace signed in Buftea, 5 March, 1918, into a final peace treaty.

Accordingly, the plenipotentiaries of the Governments of the four mentioned Powers, namely, for the Imperial German Government, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Herr von Kühlmann, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Herr von Körner, the Director of the Foreign Office, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Dr. Kriege, the Royal Prussian Major General, Herr Hell, Chief of the General Staff of the Supreme Command of the Mackensen Army Group, the Imperial Naval Captain, Herr Bene: for the Imperial and Royal Joint Austro-Hungarian Government, the Minister of the Imperial and Royal House and for Foreign Affairs, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty's Privy Councillor, baron Burian von Rajecz; for the Royal Bulgarian Government, the Royal Ministerial President, Dr. Radoslavoff, the Royal Minister of Finance M. Tontscheff, the Royal Major General M. Zanttloff, the Deputy of the National Assembly M. Kostoff, Dr. Miletitsch, Professor in the University of Sofia; for the Imperial Ottoman Government, the Imperial Minister of Foreign Affairs Ahmed Nessimy Bey, the Imperial General of Cavalry Ahmed Izzet Pascha, the Under-Secretary in the Imperial Minister of Foreign Affairs Rechad Hikmet Bey; for the Royal Roumanian Government, the Royal Ministerial President, M. Marghiloman, the Royal Minister for Foreign Affairs, M. Arion, the Royal Minister Plenipotentiary, M. Papiniu, and the Royal Minister, in Retirement, M. Burghele, have met in Bucharest to continue the peace negotiations, and after submission of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions

Ga voor alle verdragsartikelen naar http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/bucharest1918.htm
Of ga naar http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/routreat.html of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Bucharest_(1918)
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The Bedfordshire Regiment in the Great War

WAR DIARY FOR MAY 1918

7 May 1918 - front line near Bucquoy Bn relieved 13th Bn R.FUSILIERS in front line S.W. of BUCQUOY. A.B.Coys front line, C support D reserve. Bn.Hd.Qrs RETTERMOY FARM. 4 O.Rs wounded - line very quiet. 1 prisoner captured. Most import identification. 1 AMERICAN officer attached for 3 days for instruction

http://www.bedfordregiment.org.uk/6thbn/6thbtn1918diary.html
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Karl Offer to Colonel George Byram, May 7, 1918

K. Offer
interned alien # 343

W P B Fort Douglas, Utah, 7th of May 1918.

To Colonel George L. Byram, Commandant
c/o Major E. West, Executive Officer W P B
Fort Douglas, Utah

Sir:-
I had hoped, that upon representations from different quarters
of this camp to Major West yesterday, some responsible officer
would inspect the barracks 1 to 4, where under the supervision
of two G e n t l e m e n officers and under the asumption
of a search for wire-cutters, the men of your guard, detailed,
went through our private belongings like a cyclon, destroying
and soiling and wrecking wilfully to their civilized hearts
contents.
As I am accused by the majority of the men in this
camp, that I am always siding with the administration and of
being too friendly disposed towards the Americans, because I
refuse sometimes to join their unwarranted and sometimes
unjust criticisms and complaints, I was asked by dozens yester-
day to witness the havoc wrought by your guard in their
places. -And really, I have seen vandalism by troops in and
around Peking in 1900 and during the Chinese revolution in
1911 and the Japanese troops invading Tsingtau in 1914, but
the meaneness displayed yesterday in this camp by American
guard troops I never saw before.
Others will individually describe what happened to their
places and I am sorry, that such things happen. My place looked
as bad as most of the others, but besides a few tools, I am
not missing anything. But others reported to me, that will
also report direct, that watches, diamond-pins, gold-nugget-
pins, cigars and cigarettes etc had disappeard, shirts torn
and reipped to pieces, photos of relatives smashed on the floor,
linen, clothes, neck-ties strewn on the floor and trampled
upon, I saw tobacco-jars emptied and mixed with tea and coffee.
And on top of it all we are informed of your order, that
if the man that cut the wires is not turned over by thursday,
we all go on water and bread.
I for my part herewith formally protest of being made
an assistant-guard of the fellows interned and be made respon-
sible for their deeds and acts. I am just as far above the
majority of men interned here as you are above the men that
ransacked our quarters and even the hospital and robbed and
stole what seemed of value to them. If the thieves are not
found out, how would you or Major West like to go to the
penitentiary, because the men under your command and for
whom you are responsible, committed acts worse than high-way
robberey.
Mr. Schloetelberg overheard two of the guards express
their satisfaction over the "clean job" they have done with
the words: "We ruined the fokking place for them...." and Mr.
Schloetelborg, seeing Major West near, at once reported the
men to him.

https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/rcunning/www/05071801.htm
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Presentation of the Peace Treaty Terms to the German Delegation on May 7, 1919, 3 p.m.

Session Held at the Trianon Palace Hotel, Versailles
Source: Norman H. Davis, box 44, Paris Peace Conference.

Communication of the Preliminaries of Peace to the German Delegates.

M. CLEMENCEAU said: The Session is open.
(The German plenipotentiaries were announced and entered the room.)

M. CLEMENCEAU speaks in French:
M. MANTOUX interprets the foregoing:
Gentlemen, Plenipotentiaries of the German Empire. It is neither the time nor the place for superfluous words. You have before you the accredited plenipotentiaries of all the Small and Great Powers united to fight together in the war that has been so cruelly imposed upon them. The time has come when we must settle our accounts. You have asked for peace. We are ready to give you peace.

We shall present to you now a book which contains our conditions. You will be given every facility to examine these conditions, and the time necessary for it. Everything will be done with the courtesy that is the privilege of civilised nations.

To give you my thought completely, you will find us ready to give you any explanation you want, but we must say at the same time that this Second Treaty of Versailles has cost us too much not to take on our side all the necessary precautions and guarantees that that peace shall be a lasting one.

The above was thereupon translated into German.

M. CLEMENCEAU speaks in French.
M. MANTOUX interprets the foregoing:
I will give you notice of the procedure that has been adopted by the Conference for discussion and if anyone has any observation to offer they will have the right to do so. No oral discussion is to take place, and the observations of the German Delegation will have to be submitted in writing. The German plenipotentiaries will know that they have the maximum period of 15 days within which to present in English and French their written observations on the whole of the Treaty, the headings of which are as follows:-

League of Nations
Geographical frontiers of Germany
Political clauses for Europe

Belgium, Luxemburg, Sarre, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria, Czecho-Slovachia, Poland and Eastern Prussia, Denmark, Heligoland, clauses concerning Russia and the Russian States, recognition of new European States.

Political clauses for countries outside Europe:
General clause of renunciation colonies, Siam, Liberia, Morocco, Egypt, Turkey and Bulgaria, Shantung.

Military, naval and aerial clauses.
War prisoners.
Responsibilities and punishments
Reparations and restitutions
Financial clauses
Economical clauses
Ports, waterways, rivers and railways
Aerial navigation
Organisation of Labour
Guarantees and occupation of territories
Final clauses
Execution of the armistice, end of the war, state of Peace.
Before the expiration of the aforesaid period of fifteen days the German Delegates will be entitled to send their reply on particular headings of the Treaty or to ask questions in regard to them.

After having examined the observations presented within the aforementioned periods, the aforementioned periods, the Supreme Council will send their answer in writing to the German delegation, and determine the period within which the final global answer must be given by this delegation.

The President wishes to add that when we receive, after two or three or four or five days any observation from the German delegation on any point of the Treaty we shall not wait until the end of the fifteen days to give our answers. We shall at once proceed in the way indicated by this document.

The foregoing was translated into German.

M. BROCKDORFF-RANTZAU speaks in German
Translation of the foregoing:
Gentlemen, we are deeply impressed with the sublime task which has brought us hither to give a durable peace to the world. We are under no illusion as to the extent of our defeat and the degree of our want of power. We know that the power of the German arms is broken. We know the power of the hatred which we encounter here, and we have heard the passionate demand that the vanquishers may make us pay as the vanquished, and shall punish those who are worthy of being punished.

It is demanded from us that we shall confess ourselves to be the only ones guilty of the war. Such a confession in my mouth will be a lie. We are far from declining and responsibility that this great war of the world has come to pass, and that it was made in the way in which it was made. The attitude of the former German Government at the Hague Peace Conference, its actions and omissions in the trafic 12 days of July, have certainly contributed to the disaster. But we energetically deny that Germany and its people, who were convinced that they were making a war of defence, were alone guilty.

Nobody will want to contend that the disaster took its course only in the disastrous moment when the successor of Austria-Hungary fell the victim of murderous hands. In the last 50 years Imperialism of all European States has chronically poisoned the international situation. The policy of retaliation and the policy of expansion and the disregard of the rights of peoples to determine their own destiny, has contributed to the illness of Europe which saw its crisis in the world war.

Russian mobilisation took from the statesmen the possibility of healing and gave the decision into the hands of the Military Powers. Public opinion in all the countries of our adversaries is resounding with the crimes which Germany is said to have committed in war. Here also we are ready to confess wrong that may have been done.

We have not come here to belittle the responsibility of the men who have waged the war politically and economically, and to deny any crimes which may have been committed against the rights of peoples. We repeat the declaration which has been made in the German Reichstag, at the beginning of the War, that is to say, "Wrong has been done to Belgium", and we are willing to repair it.

But in the manner of making war, also, Germany is not the only guilty one. Every nation knows of deeds and of people which the best nationals only remember with regret. I do not want to answer by reproaches to reproaches, but I ask them to remember, when reparation is demanded, not to forget the armistice. It took you six weeks till we got it at last, and six months till we came to know our conditions of peace. Crimes in war may not be excusable, but they are committed in the struggle for victory, and in the defence of national existence, and passions are aroused which make the conscience of peoples blunt.

The hundreds of thousands of non-combatants who have perished since the 11th of November by reason of the blockade were killed with cold deliberation, after our adversaries had conquered and victory had been assured to them. Think of that when you speak of guilt and punishment.

The measure of guilt of all those who have taken part can only be stated by impartial inquest before a Neutral Commission before which all the principal persons of the tragedy are allowed to speak, and to which all the archives are open. We have demanded such an inquest and we repeat this demand. In this Conference also where we stand towards our adversaries alone and without any allies we are not quite without protection. You yourselves have brought us an ally, namely, the right which is guaranteed by the Treaty, by the principles of peace.

The Allied and Associated Governments have foresworn in the time between the 5th of October and the 5th of November 1918, a peace of justice on their banner. On the 5th October, 1918, the German Government proposed the principles of the President of the United States of North America as the basis of peace, and on the 5th of November their Secretary of State, Lansing, declared that the Allied and Associated Powers agreed to this basis, with two definite deviations. The principles of President Wilson have thus become binding for both parties to the war: for you as well as for us and also for our former allies. The various principles demand from us heavy national and economic sacrifices, but the holy fundamental rights of all peoples are protected by this treaty. The conscience of the world is behind it. There is no nation which might violate it without punishment. You will find us ready to examine, upon this basis, the preliminary peace which you have proposed to us, with a firm intention of re-building, in common work with you, that which has been destroyed, and repairing any wrong that may have been committed, principally the wrong to Belgium, and to show to mankind new aims of political and social progress.

Considering the tremendous quantity of problems which arise, we ought, as soon as possible, to make an examination of the principal tasks by special Commissions of experts on the basis of the Treaty which you have proposed to us.

In this it will be our chief task to re-establish the devastated vigour of mankind, and of all the people who have taken part, by an international protection of life, health and liberty of the working classes.

As our next aim I consider the reconstruction of the territories of Belgium and of Northern France which have been occupied by us and which have been destroyed by War.

To do so we have taken upon ourselves the solemn obligation, and we are resolved to execute it to the extent which will have been agreed upon between us. This task we cannot do without the cooperation of our former adversaries. We cannot accomplish the work without the technical and financial participation of the victorious peoples, and you cannot execute it without us.

Improverished Europe must desire that the reconstruction shall be fulfilled with the greatest success, and with as little expense as is in any way possible. This desire can only be fulfilled by a clear understanding about the best methods to be employed. It would be the worst method to go on and have the work done by German prisoners of war. Certainly this work is cheap, but it would cost the world dear if hatred and despair shall seize the German people, when they consider that their brothers and sons and fathers, who are prisoners, are kept prisoners beyond the preliminary peace in the former penal work.

Without any immediate solution of this question, which has been drawn out too long, we cannot come to a durable peace. Our experts of both sides will have to examine how the German people may come up to their financial obligations to repair without succumbing under the heavy burden. A crash would bereave those who have a right to repair of the advantages to which they have a claim, and would draw after it an irretriveable disorder of the whole European economical system. The vanquishers, as well as the vanquished people, must guard against this menacing danger with its incalculable consequences. There is only one means of banishing it: - unlimited confession of the economical and social solidarity of all peoples in a free and rising League of Nations.

Gentlemen, the sublime thought to be derived from the most terrible disaster in the history of mankind is the League of Nations - the greatest progress in the development of mankind has been pronounced and will make its way. Only if the gates of the League of Nations are thrown open to all who are of good will, can the aim be attained, and only then the dead of this war will not have died in vain.

The German people in their hearts are ready to take upon themselves their heavy lot if the bases of peace which have been established are not any more shaken. The peace which may not be defended in the name of right before the world always calls forth new resistances against it. Nobody will be capable of subscribing to it with good conscience for it will not be possible of fulfilment. Nobody could be able to take upon himself the guarantee of its execution which ought to lie in its signature.

We shall examine the document handed to us with good will and in the hope that the final result of our interview may be subscribed to by all of us.

M. CLEMENCEAU: Has anybody any more observations to offer? Does no one wish to speak? If not, the meeting is closed.

Thereupon, at 4:05 p.m. the meeting closed.

http://www.ctevans.net/Versailles/Archives/Presentation.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 16:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Treaty of Versailles

The armistice of November 1918 that brought an end to four years of war between the European powers was followed some six months later (May 7, 1919) by the presentation of the formal peace treaty to the German government (The other defeated powers--Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria--were dealt with in separate treaties). After the terrible experience of a war in which millions of soldiers had died, it was expected that the general cry in the victorious nations would be a call, especially from the French, for harsh retribution against Germany in particular. For quite apart from the normal destruction wrought by the weapons of war, the German army had engaged in massive destruction of the infrastructure of those areas of France which it had overrun: stripping factories of machinery for transfer to Germany, sending hundreds of thousands of cattle and other livestock across the border and flooding or blowing-up coal mines and, during their retreat at the end, engaging in looting and pillaging on a massive scale by destroying railways, bridges and ransacking thousands of private homes. The drawing up of the treaty, therefore, was an attempt to reconcile the conflicting notions among the Big Four (Britain, France, U.S.A., Italy) on how severely the Germans were to be treated. While the British representative, Lloyd George, for both political and economic reasons, favored moderation, the French prime minister Clemenceau firmly advocated a "peace of revenge" so that Germany would never again be in a position to threaten his country. The compromise fell between these two stools; not lenient enough to elicit a grudging acceptance by the Germans nor severe enough to permanently weaken their country (through dismemberment, for instance) beyond hope of emergence to her former strength.

The issue of reparations proved to be exceedingly troublesome as payments were exacted from Gernmany for years before any fixed sums were specified. The irony lay in the fact that all reparations were ended in 1932 in the wake of the world economic depression while a country like Britain was still paying her financial debts to the U.S. as late as the 1960s. The treaty was forced upon the reluctant German government under threat of continuing the war against an exhausted Germany and signed into law on June 28, 1919, five years to the day after the event that triggered the war in the first place--the assassination at Sarajevo. The treaty is a long document of over 200 pages, incorporating 440 separate articles in addition to annexed provisions. A selection of the more significant items from the text follows.

General Headings
Pt. I Arts. 1-26, 387-427 articles d/w the setting up of the League of Nations
Pt. IIArts. 27-30 setting the territorial boundaries of Germany
Pt. III Arts. 31-117 territorial clauses relating to non-German states and areas
Pt. IV Arts. 118-158 colonial matters
Pt. V Arts. 159-202 military matters
Pt. VI Arts. 203-30, 428-40 Misc. (POWs, Guarantees, etc.)
Pt. VII Arts. 231-47 Reparations
Pt. VIII Arts. 248-312 Financial and Commercial clauses
Arts. 313-86 Navigation, Waterways, etc.

Specific Articles
Arts. 42-43 "Germany is forbidden to maintain or construct any fortifications either on the left bank of the Rhine [River] or on the right bank to the west of a line drawn [30 miles] to the East of the Rhine"--armed forces of all kinds permanently forbidden in the zone

Art. 45 "As compensation for the destruction of the coal-mines in the north of France and as part payment towards the total reparations due from Germany . . . Germany cedes to France in full and absolute possession . . .the coal mines situated in the Saar basin"

Art. 49 " . . .At the end of 15 years from the coming into force of the present Treaty the inhabitants of the said territory [i.e., the Saar] shall be called upon to indicate the sovereignty under which they desire to be placed [i.e., maintenance of the regime established by Art. 45; or union with France; or union with Germany]"

Art. 51 "The territories which were ceded to Germany [in 1871] are restored to French sovereignty . ." Germany, also, to restore all property, etc. to institutions and individuals; France to have the right to retain and liquidate all property, etc. possessed by German nationals or societies

Art. 80 "Germany acknowledges and will respect strictly the independence of Austria . . . agrees that this independence shall be inalienable, except with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations"

Arts. 87/89 "Germany . . . recognises the complete independence of Poland, and renounces in her favor [all former Polish territory in possession of Germany, excepting east Prussia]." [Poland to give freedom of transit to persons and goods and communications between east Prussia and the rest of Germany over Polish territory --goods to be exempt from duties]

Art. 99 "Germany renounces . . all rights and title over [the Baltic city of] Memel"

Art. 100 "Germany renounces . . all rights and title over [the Free City of Danzig, which] shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations" [Danzig to be within Polish customs frontiers and to concede facilities for Polish imports and exports]

Art. 116 "Germany acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and inalienable the independence of all the territories which were part of the former Russian Empire on August 1, 1914"

Art. 119 "Germany renounces . . all her rights and title over her overseas possessions [namely, German East Africa, German South-West Africa, Cameroons, Togoland]"

Art. 128 "Germany renounces in favor of China all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking" in 1901

Arts. 159, 160, 162 "The German military forces shall be demobilised and reduced . . . The Great General Staff shall be dissolved . . .the total number of [troops] not to exceed the maximum of 100,000 [4,000 officers and 96,000 other ranks] by March 31, 1920"

Art. 168 (sets strict controls on the manufacture of arms and munitions in designated plants]

Art. 173 "Universal compulsory military service shall be abolished . . . the German Army may only be constituted and recruited by means of voluntary enlistment"

Art. 174 "The period of enlistment for [nco's] and privates must be 12 consecutive years . . The number discharged for any reason before [12 year term] must not exceed in any year 5% [i.e., 5,000 men]"

Art. 175 "[Existing] officers . . must undertake the obligation to serve . . up to the age of 45 years at least . . .newly appointed [officers] . .to serve . .for 25 consecutive years at least [those discharged not to exceed 200 in any year]"

Art. 180 "All fortified works, fortresses . . situated in German territory to the west of a line drawn [30 miles] to the east of the Rhine shall be disarmed and dismantled" (the article also sets limits on army staffing, including the number of rifles and machine guns allowed)

Arts. 181-197 (sets limits on naval forces and forbids the construction and use of submarines)

Arts. 198, 1999, 201 The armed forces of Germany must not include and military or naval air forces" (also forbids manufacture or importation of aircraft

Art. 227 "The [powers] publicly arraign William II . . for a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties" [Note: his extradition from Holland for trial as a war criminal was refused by that country]

Art. 231 " . . Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies"

Arts. 232, 233, 235 " . .Germany undertakes that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allied and Associated Powers and to their property by . . . aggression by land, by sea and from the air . ." [including complete restoration of Belgium]. The amount of damage and the schedule of payments to be notified to the German government on or before May 1, 1921; 20 billion gold marks to be paid on account up to May 1921

Art. 244 "Compensation may be claimed from Germany . . in respect of . . damage to injured persons and to surviving dependents by personal injury to or death of civilians caused by acts of war . . ; (in respect of) all pensions . .to naval and military victims of war; (in respect of) allowances by (Allied governments) to the families and dependants of mobilized persons or persons serving with the armed forces; damage in respect of all property wherever situated belonging to (nationals of the Allied states)"

Art. 428 "As a guarantee for the execution of the present Treaty by Germany, the German territory situated to the west of the Rhine, together with the bridgeheads, will be occupied by Allied and Associated troops for a period of 15 years"
Arts. 429/30 provides for progressive withdrawal of occupation forces if Germany faithfully carries out treaty terms at expiration of each 5 year period (refusal of Germany to observe the treaty after the expiration of the 15 year period will result in immediate reoccupation by Allied and ssociated forces)

The following miscellaneous clauses are indicative of the opportunity taken by the victors to leave no stone unturned in bringing home to Germany the extent of her defeat:

Art. 131 Germany to restore to China (and bear all costs of reinstallation) all the astronomical instruments which her troops in 1900-01 [i.e., during the Boxer rebellion] carried away from China"

Art. 245 Germany to restore to France "the trophies, archives, historic souvenirs or works of art carried away from France by the German authorities in the course of the war of 1870-71 and during this last war . . . particularly the French flags taken in the course of the war of 1870-71 . ."

Art. 246 Germany to restore to (Saudi Arabia) "the original Koran of the Caliph Othman, which was removed from Medina by the Turkish authorities and is stated to have been presented to the ex-Emperor William II." Also, Germany to hand over to Great Britain "the skull of the Sultan Mkawa which was removed from the Protectorate of German East Africa and taken to Germany"

Art. 247 Germany to furnish to the (Belgian) Univ. of Louvain manuscripts, early printed books (Incunabula), maps and objects "corresponding in number and value to those destroyed in the burning by Germany of the Library of Louvain."

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob18.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

“Sailor Wounds Spectator Disrespectful of Flag”: The Red Scare, 1919–1921

The climate of repression established in the name of wartime security during World War I continued after the war as the U.S. government focused on communists, Bolsheviks, and “reds.” The Red Scare reached its height in the years between 1919 and 1921. Encouraged by Congress, which had refused to seat the duly elected Wisconsin trade unionist and socialist Victor Berger, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer began a series of showy and well-publicized raids against radicals and leftists. Striking without warning and without warrants, Palmer’s men smashed union offices and the headquarters of Communist and Socialist organizations. The Washington Post of May 7, 1919, noted approvingly that a sailor shot a Chicago man merely for failing to rise during the national anthem.

Chicagoans Cheer Tar Who Shot Man

Sailor Wounds Pageant Spectator Disrespectful to Flag.

Chicago, May 6—Disrespect for the American flag and a show of resentment toward the thousands who participated in a victory loan pageant here tonight may cost George Goddard his life. He was shot down by a sailor of the United States navy when he did not stand and remove his hat while the band was playing the “Star-Spangled Banner.”

Goddard had a seat of vantage in the open amphitheater. When he failed to stand he was the most conspicuous figure among the throng. When he fell at the report of the “sailor’s” gun the crowd burst into cheers and hand-clapping. When Goddard failed to respond to the first strains of the national anthem Samuel Hagerman, sailor in the guard of honor, asked him to get up.

“What for?” demanded Goddard.

"Hagerman touched him with his bayonet.

“Get up. Off with your hat.”

Goddard muttered and drew a pistol.

With military precision Hagerman stepped back a pace and slipped a shell into his gun.

Goddard started away. As the last notes of the anthem sounded the sailor commanded him to halt. Then he fired into the air.

“Halt!”

Goddard paid no attention.

The sailor aimed and fired three times. Goddard fell wounded. Each shot found its mark.

When he [Goddard] was searched, an automatic pistol, in addition to the one he had drawn, was found. Another pistol and fifty cartridges were found in a bag he carried. He said he was a tinsmith, out of work. Papers showed he had been at Vancouver and Seattle and it was believed by the authorities he had come here for the I.W.W. convention.

Source: Washington Post, 7 May 1919, 2.

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4981/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 17:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

7 May 1919, Commons Sitting

LORD FRENCH'S ARTICLES.


HC Deb 07 May 1919 vol 115 cc919-20 919

Sir D. MACLEAN (by Private Notice) asked the Secretary of State for the Home Department whether his attention has been drawn to the interesting but controversial articles appearing in the "Daily Telegraph" and purporting to be written by Lord French, the Viceroy of Ireland; whether the publication of such articles is considered by the Government to be in consonance with the duties and responsibilities of that high office—

Mr. SPEAKER The right hon. Gentleman is not entitled to ask any question respecting the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. If he has any criticism to make he must do it by putting a Motion down and raising it in the ordinary course of Debate.

Captain ORMSBY-GORE Would it not be in order to raise a question touching Lord French's position as a Field-Marshal and therefore subject to the King's Regulations?

Mr. SPEAKER No. Lord French is Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and as such his salary comes upon the Consolidated Fund; that being so, he is among those who are excepted from criticism except in that special form. If the hon. Member puts a Motion down in that special form and raises it, then it can be discussed.

Sir D. MACLEAN We are always making some slight changes in the de- 920 velopment of our Rules and practices in the House, and I do not know whether the development of the Viceroy of Ireland into a British journalist would in any sense affect—

Mr. SPEAKER Those are statements which should not be made and which the right hon. Gentleman should not make, especially standing at that box, particularly after the statement which has just fallen from me from the Chair.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/may/07/lord-frenchs-articles
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 17:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI.

Vol. 156, May 7, 1919.

Since the Muzzling Order, says a weekly paper, fewer postmen in the West End have been bitten by dogs. We are asked by the Dogs' Trade Union to point out that this is not due to the Muzzling Order, but to the fact that just at present there is a fine supply of dairy-fed milkmen in that district.

According to a local paper an American officer refused to stay at a seaside hotel during Easter-time because a flea hopped on to the visitors' book whilst he was in the act of signing it. We agree that it is certainly rather alarming when these unwelcome intruders adopt such methods of espionage in order to discover which room one is about to occupy.

The Board of Agriculture claims that since 1914 eleven thousand persons have been taught to make cheese. It is admitted, however, that as the result of inexperience the mortality among young cheeses has been enormous.

London butchers have protested against being compelled to sell Chilian, Brazilian, Manchurian and other beef. A simple way to distinguish "other beef" from Manchurian beef is to offer it to the cat. If it eats it, it is neither.

There has never been a case of rabies in Scotland, says The Evening News. This speaks well for the bagpipes as a defensive weapon.

"Throughout the country," says a well-known daily paper, "the hedges and trees are now budding forth into green leaves." This, we understand, is according to precedent.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12079/12079-h/12079-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 17:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jan Pieter Paauwe (1872-1956), predikant te Yerseke en Bennekom.

Hij werd geboren in het jaar 1872 en werd Nederlands-Hervormd predikant in het jaar 1901 te Yerseke. Gedurende de predikantsperiode aldaar kwam hij tot het besef dat hij onbekeerd was, hoewel vrijwel iedereen hem voor een bekeerde dominee hield.
Zijn alarmgeroep kreeg weerklank en de kerkgang nam toe.
In het jaar 1907 werd hij beroepen naar Bennekom, hetwelk hij aannam. In Bennekom kwam hij vrijwel meteen in conflict met de toenmalige reglementenbundel van Koning Willem I uit het jaar 1816. Dit conflict behelsde een verzoek tot inschrijving in het lidmatenboek van een predikant uit het toenmalige West-Indië. Dit conflict liep met een sisser af.
In het jaar 1911 ontstond er weer een conflict, ditmaal wenste een kerkvoogd zijn kind elders gedoopt te krijgen en daarvoor een bewijs van goed gedrag te ontvangen, welk verzoek door ds.Paauwe en zijn kerkeraad werd geweigerd. Elders werd het kind tóch gedoopt en werd er tenslotte censuur aangevraagd op de betreffende kerkvoogd. Deze censuur werd ongeldig verklaard door het classicaal bestuur. Ook dit conflict liep met een sisser af. Dit gold ook voor het volgende conflict, verzoek tot een verklaring van goed en zedelijk gedrag van twee jongeren die elders belijdenis wilde doen (vrijzinnige leer).
Aan het eind van het jaar 1912 is ds.Paauwe tot bekering gekomen!
Het daarop volgende conflict leidde tenslotte tot de afzetting van ds. Paauwe en zijn voltallige kerkeraad.
Wat was het geval: Een aantal joneglui wenste in 1913 in het vrijzinnige Tiel belijdenis af te leggen met het verzoek om de (inmiddels bekende) verklaring van goed en zedelijk gedrag, wat door ds. Paauwe en zijn kerkeraad geweigerd werd.
Tiel nam de belijdenis tóch af en verzocht ds. Paauwe om de namen van de jongelui in te schrijven in het lidmatenboek. Dit werd geweigerd door kerkeraaad en ds. Paauwe.
Er volgde een schrorsing welke in zou gaan per 1 januari 1914. Inmiddels had ds. Paauwe zijn proponetsbelofte uit 1901 herroepen in een preek, gehouden op 2 november 1913 over Daniël 3. Omdat ds. Paauwe en zijn kerkeraad in beroep gingen werd de schorsing uitgesteld.
Inmiddels verergerde de situatie omdat ondanks een niet geleverd bewijs van goed gedrag er in Tiel nog eens drie jongelui waren aangenomen met het verzoek om ingeschreven te worden in het lidmatenboek.
Op 7 mei werd het classicaal bestuur in het gelijk gesteld en werd ds. Paauwe en zijn kerkeraad per 2 juni 1914 voor de duur van twee maanden geschorst.
Een op 19 mei 1914 ingediend hoger beroep door ds. Paauwe en kerkeraad werd al spoedig verworpen. Ds. Paauwe en kerkeraad bleven geschorst.
Op Pinksterdag 1914 (1 juni 1914) hield ds. Paauwe zijn laatste preek als Hervormd predikant. Zijn laatste woorden als NH-predikant waren: "Armen en benen kunt gij missen, maar God kunt gij niet missen", verwijzend naar ds. Smytegelt die deze woorden ook uitgesproken had.
Reeds op 3 juni schreef het classicaal bestuur de namen van de in Tiel aangenomen lidmaten in, en zou ds. Paauwe én zijn kerkeraad weer kunnen functioneren. Zij tekenden protest aan tegen de gang van zaken en weigerden de namen van deze lidmaten in het lidmatenboek te accepteren. Ook het "onder protest aannemen" van de lidmaten werd als onbijbels door ds. Paauwe en zijn kerkeraad gekwalificeerd, wat later ook van Hervomde zijde, zelfs van de vrijzinnigen, werd toegegeven als zijnde correct van ds. Paauwe en kerkeraad.
Ds. Paauwe en kerkeraad bleven dus geschrost en werden per 1 oktober 1914 afgezet. Later heeft men van Hervormde zijde toegegeven dat dit onjuist en onbillijk was, echter werd ds. Paauwe niet gerehalibiteerd.
Ds. Paauwe verstigde zich vrij spoedig na zijn afzetting in Den Haag, waar hij tot zijn dood in 1956 is blijven wonen.
Ds. Paauwe heeft zich altijd als Nederlands Hervomd predikant beschouwd, maar dan als NH-predikant van vóór 1816, dus vóór de invoering van de reglementenbundel van Willem I. Hij verwierp de afgescheiden kerken, zowel in hun leer als hun ontstaan.

http://www.oudvaders.nl/20e-eeuw/paauwe.htm
's Mans preken: http://www.oudvaders.nl/20e-eeuw/paauwe.htm#paauwe
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 17:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1914

7 mei 1914 - In de Raadhuisstraat valt een met planken geladen wagen om op de tramrails. Het lichten van de wagen kost zo veel tijd, dat het tramverkeer enige tijd via de Leidschestraat geleid moet worden.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Van links naar rechts

Op 7 mei 1917 ging Rotterdam als laatste plaats in Nederland overstag: vanaf nu moest iedereen rechts gaan rijden (en niet meer links zoals voorheen gebeurde). De Romeinen hadden als regel om links te houden op de weg. Dit is lange tijd zo geweest. Onder Napoleon werden er talrijke regels ingevoerd. Rechts rijden was daar een van.
Later werd hier wel weer van afgeweken, maar in de meeste plaatsen bleef men rechts rijden. In navolging van andere Nederlandse steden ging uiteindelijk Rotterdam ook overstag en ging men hier ook rechts rijden.

http://www.nueens.nl/nieuws.html?id=192
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 17:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 - Winsor McCay - film 1918

http://www.123video.nl/playvideos.asp?MovieID=558925
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Slag om Buggenhout, 26-27 september 1914

Het erepark te Buggenhout

Exacte cijfers van het aantal gesneuvelden tijdens de Slag om Buggenhout zijn er niet. Degene die men vindt zijn sterk uiteenlopend.

Volgens Duitse bronnen sneuvelden er te Opstal en op de Hoge Linde tussen de 120 en 150 Belgische soldaten. Dit getal lijkt erg hoog en wordt door geen enkel Belgisch document gestaafd.

Het Oorlogsdagboek van de 2e Jagers te Voet spreekt slechts over 2 doden, 28 gewonden en 8 vermisten. Twee Jagers te Voet stierven aan hun verwondingen in de ambulancie van Sint Amands en werden als onbekenden begraven op de begraafplaats van de gemeente.

Louis De Bondt en Francis Hallemans hebben in hun boek "1914-18 in Londerzeel en Noordwest Brabant" een lijst van 38 gesneuvelden opgenomen. Daarbij komen dan nog de gesneuvelden te Opdorp, waarschijnlijk een 8-tal Grenadiers.

Verder zijn er ook nog de gewonden waaronder 28 Jagers te Voet, 19 grenadiers en een onbekend aantal van het 1e Linie, waarvan er ongetwijfeld verscheidene zijn bezweken. Een aantal heb ik opgespoord, ook al is dit niet met 100% zekerheid te zeggen.

Ikzelf heb samen met de NSB Buggenhout, Heemkring Ter Palen en André De Clercq een lijst samengesteld van 61 namen, bestaande uit 2 artilleristen,21 jagers te voet, 31 infanteristen en 7 grenadiers.

Aanvankelijk werden de soldaten in een veldgraf begraven. De gesneuvelden te Opwijk, Sint Amands en Puurs werden op de gemeentelijke begraafplaats bijgezet en later overgebracht naar de Belgische Militaire Begraafplaats te Willebroek. De gesneuvelden te Buggenhout werden verspreid over de 3 begraafplaatsen herbegraven: 19 te Buggenhout-centrum en een onbekend aantal te Opdorp en Opstal aan de respectievelijke kerken.

Bij de herbegraving op 7 mei 1915 van 19 gesneuvelden te Buggenhout-centrum werden de lijken in kisten op karren voor de kerk geplaatst. De gebeden werden door de parochiepriester gelezen waarna de rouwstoet, voorafgegaan door de kerkelijke en burgerlijke notabelen, zich naar de begraafplaats begaf. De militaire eer werd bewezen door een Duits detachement afkomstig uit Dendermonde. De Duitse Kommandant hield een korte grafrede waarin hij hulde bracht aan de vaderlandsliefde van de gesneuvelden.

Later werden al deze slachtoffers door de Duitsers overgebracht naar de Belgische Militaire Begraafplaats te Dendermonde.

De veldwachter van Opwijk - Jan Hermus - en Juffrouw Oriane uit Londerzeel zorgden er samen voor dat de veldgraven werden opgespoord en de gesneuvelden geïdentificeerd en degelijk begraven werden.

Na de oorlog kregen de families de kans om de gesneuvelden in de gemeente van afkomst bij te zetten. Een aantal bleef echter begraven op de 2 Militaire Begraafplaatsen uit de buurt, nl. Dendermonde en Willebroek.

Van de Duitse verliezen heb ik (nog) geen exacte cijfers gevonden. 3 Duitse soldaten werden te Opwijk begraven, 4 anderen werden samen met de gesneuvelde grenadiers op 22 maart 1915 aan de zuidkant van de kerk van Opdorp begraven. Al deze gesneuvelden werden na de oorlog bijgezet op de Militaire Begraafplaats van Vladslo (bij Diksmuide) waar ze nu nog steeds rusten.

http://www.everyoneweb.com/buggenhout1418/Pr_Update_Knooppunt_Inhoud.aspx?WebID=buggenhout1418&BoomID=B1&KnooppuntID=K483&LG=
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 18:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

7 mei 1917 - De uitrusting en de wapens voor twee gendarmes werd meer dan vijf maanden na hun aankomst in Baarle-Hertog in ontvangst genomen. Het betrof een zending per trein door kapitein commandant Holvoet in Folkestone. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2010 18:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Woensdag 7 Mei 1919.

Borkel en Schaft. Maandagavond werd alhier in ’t café de Zwaan een vergadering gehouden om te komen tot oprichting eener burgerwacht en een afd. van den vrijwilligen landstorm. Als spreker trad op de heer Gyrath uit Valkenswaard. Staande de vergadering hebben bijna alle gedemobiliseerden zich opgegeven voor den vrijwilligen landstorm, voor de burgerwacht zal Zondag daartoe nog gelegenheid bestaan.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2010 15:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Quotations from the speeches and other works of Theodore Roosevelt

Presidential Criticism - Recently several people have written to ask us about a viewpoint TR had on criticism of the presidency. This quote was part of an editorial he wrote for the "Kansas City Star" during World War I.

"The President is merely the most important among a large number of public servants. He should be supported or opposed exactly to the degree which is warranted by his good conduct or bad conduct, his efficiency or inefficiency in rendering loyal, able, and disinterested service to the Nation as a whole. Therefore it is absolutely necessary that there should be full liberty to tell the truth about his acts, and this means that it is exactly necessary to blame him when he does wrong as to praise him when he does right. Any other attitude in an American citizen is both base and servile. To announce that there must be no criticism of the President, or that we are to stand by the President, right or wrong, is not only unpatriotic and servile, but is morally treasonable to the American public. Nothing but the truth should be spoken about him or any one else. But it is even more important to tell the truth, pleasant or unpleasant, about him than about any one else."

"Roosevelt in the Kansas City Star", 149, May 7, 1918

http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/life/quotes.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2010 15:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Personal Diary of William Harrison Walp: 1917 - 1918

Tues May 7th 1918 - Nothing doing.

http://faceprint.com/~walpd/gen/granddad_walp_diary_06.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2010 15:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Air Raids

The three airship raids of the first half of 1917 (...) produced little result other than the loss of two of the raiders, one being shot down while on the way home by a French gun near Compiegne, the other being destroyed by one of the defending aeroplanes near Harwich. On the night of May 6-7 a single German aeroplane appeared over the East End of London, and dropped a few small bombs. The attack, in itself, was unimportant, but it afforded an indication of what might come later.

Before the end of 1916 it had become evident to the German command that, if effective bombing was to be kept up on targets that were worth attacking, it would be necessary to try new methods. Early in 1917, therefore, they began equipping a squadron with special machines suitable for bombing England systematically. This formation, known as the 3rd Bombing Squadron, was distributed in aerodromes about Ghent, roughly 170 m. from London. The new machines, of the Gotha type, were capable of flying with a full load of bombs at 12,000 ft. and over. They carried a crew of three, pilot and two machine gunners. In May 1917 the squadron was ready for action, and as soon as the weather became favourable the attacks were to begin. The raids, with the exception of two minor attacks on Harwich, were aimed at London, but on the first two occasions unsuitable weather caused a failure, and the bombs were unloaded in other places.

http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Air_Raids#1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2010 15:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Friday 7th May 1915 - Dairy of HV Reynolds - Diary of an ANZAC

‘The enemies artillery has been very active, especially from Kaba Tepe, but the damage done was very slight compared to yesterday. They put one of our field guns out of action and disabled the crew. One of our seaplanes* has been very busy attempting to locate the enemy battery behind Kaba Tepe. Reinforcements have been arriving all day in destroyers.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/05/07/friday-7th-may-1915-dairy-of-hv-reynolds/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Mei 2010 15:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Famous Deaths for Year 1915

May 7th - Alfred G Vanderbilt, US millionaire, dies aboard Lusitania
May 7th - Alfred Scott Witherbee Jr, US Lusitania officer, dies
May 7th - Charles Frohman, dies aboard Lusitania

http://www.historyorb.com/deaths/date/1915

Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt I

Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt I (October 20, 1877 – May 7, 1915) was a wealthy sportsman and a member of the famous Vanderbilt family of philanthropist. He died on the RMS Lusitania. (...)

On May 1, 1915 Alfred Vanderbilt boarded the RMS Lusitania bound for Liverpool as a first class passenger. It was a business trip, and he traveled with only his valet, leaving his family at home in New York. On May 7 off the coast of County Cork, Ireland, the German submarine, U-20 torpedoed the ship, triggering a secondary explosion that sank the giant ocean liner within eighteen minutes. Vanderbilt and his valet, Ronald Denyer, helped others into lifeboats, and then Vanderbilt gave his lifejacket to save a female passenger. Vanderbilt had promised the young mother of a small baby that he would locate an extra lifevest for her. Failing to do so, he offered her his own life vest, which he proceeded to even tie on to her himself since she was holding her infant child in her arms at the time. Many consider his actions to be very brave and gallant since he could not swim, he knew that there were no other lifevests or lifeboats available, and yet he still gave away his only chance to survive to the young mother and child.

Because of his fame, several people on the Lusitania who survived the tragedy were observing him while events unfolded at the time and so they took note of his brave actions. He and Denyer were among the 1198 passengers who did not survive the incident. His body was never recovered.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Gwynne_Vanderbilt

Alfred Scott Witherbee Jr.

Passengers
American socialite Beatrice Witherbee (survived), wife of Alfred S. Witherbee, president of the Mexican Petroleum Solid Fuel Company
Her son Alfred Scott Witherbee, Jr. (died) and her mother, Mary Cummings Brown (died)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Lusitania#Passengers

Charles Frohman

One of three Frohman brothers, he was born in Sandusky, Ohio. He was the youngest, his older brothers being: Daniel Frohman (1851–1940) and Gustave Frohman (1854–1930).

Frohman died in the 1915 sinking of the RMS Lusitania by German submarine U-20. (...) Frohman was reported by survivor, actress Rita Jolivet (the only survivor of his party), to have declined a seat on a lifeboat, saying "Why fear death? It is the greatest adventure in life," echoing the famous line from Peter Pan, "To die would be an awfully big adventure". Frohman's body was recovered and brought back to the United States for burial in the Union Field Cemetery in Ridgewood, Queens, New York.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Frohman
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



Poster showing a devil seated with his arm around the shoulders of Kaiser Wilhelm II, a devil-like figure who is holding a bloody sword; the Kaiser has a gloomy look on his face even though he is being praised by the devil. "When I really began to admire you, my friend, was when you pulled that Lusitania job : When you did that, I said to myself - 'There's a man after my own heart!'"

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chums2.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A warning issued by the Imperial German Embassy in Washington about travelling on Britain's RMS Lusitania.



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lusitania_warning.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A British World War I propaganda stamp promoting the purchase of British goods and the avoidance of German goods.



The stamp shows Britannia pointing to what is probably the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915. It was printed by Perkins Bacon.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_War_I_propaganda_stamp.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eatonville Fire, May 7, 1915



This blaze started because someone wanted to burn the saloon. The man missed his target and lit G. B. Ingersoll’s hardware store on fire.

The amazing part of this story is that there was dynamite kept n the back of the hardware store. An eye witness said it was the Japanese citizens of Eatonville who went into the burning structure and carried it out.

http://eatonvilletorainier.com/?p=452
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

May 7, 1915 - Part II.—Warfare Injuries and Neuroses



Geheel te lezen via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2004159/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aletta Jacobs op vredesmissie: ‘Deze oorlog moet de laatste zijn!’
Ingelies Vermeulen

Aletta Jacobs was niet alleen Nederlands eerste vrouwelijke dokter en activiste voor vrouwenrechten, maar ook een onverschrokken pacifiste. Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog organiseerde ze een vredescongres en reisde ze door oorlogsgebied met een oproep tot vredesonderhandelingen. Documenten daarover kwamen onlangs, na zestig jaar, uit Moskou terug naar Nederland.

'Ik voel heel sterk dat we nu onze stem moeten verheffen, zodat het nieuwe tijdperk van beschaving, dat uit de as zal herrijzen, een steviger fundament zal hebben. Een basis waarop vrouwen, met hun instinctieve opbouwende en pacifistische kwaliteiten, de kans krijgen om mannen bij te staan bij het uitoefenen van de wereldpolitiek.' Zo opende Aletta Jacobs het Internationaal Congres van Vrouwen tegen Oorlog, negen maanden na het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Eind april 1915 bogen zo'n 1500 congresgangers, overwegend vrouwen, uit neutrale en strijdende landen zich in de Haagse dierentuin drie dagen lang vol inzet en emotie over oorlog en vrede.

Vooruitlopend op een tijd waarin vrouwen dankzij het kiesrecht zelf hun stempel op de politiek zouden drukken, voelden ze zich geroepen om te vergaderen over het belangrijkste politieke vraagstuk van dat moment. De Duitse Margarete Selinka stelde tijdens het congres dat dit de eerste keer in de geschiedenis was dat vrouwen niet bijeenkwamen om deemoedig te verzoeken, maar om met klem te eisen. Ze waren verenigd in het idee dat deze oorlog de laatste moest zijn. In zijn eindresolutie - waaraan Aletta Jacobs ook had meegewerkt - spoorde het congres de wereldleiders aan om een einde te maken aan het bloedvergieten en te beginnen met vredesbesprekingen. Het was de taak van neutrale landen om door middel van voortdurende bemiddeling een einde aan het bloedvergieten te maken. Door continu met nieuwe voorstellen te komen zouden de strijdende partijen overeenstemming bereiken.

Aan het einde van het congres wees Rosika Schwimmer, een bekend Hongaars feministe, er enigszins sceptisch op dat de resoluties op de diverse regeringen niet meer indruk zouden maken dan willekeurig welk ander geschrift als ze niet nadrukkelijk onder de aandacht zouden worden gebracht. 'Wij allen wensen dat onze resoluties op de meest indrukwekkende wijze zullen doordringen tot het bewustzijn van hen die over het leven van onze zonen beschikken.' Ze stelde dan ook voor om met een delegatie langs de verschillende staatshoofden te gaan om de resoluties te presenteren. Na twee stemmingsrondes werd dit voorstel aangenomen.

Aletta Jacobs kreeg de opdracht om samen met Jane Addams, een vooraanstaand pacifiste en sociaal werkster uit Amerika, langs de regeringsleiders en ministers van Buitenlandse Zaken van Engeland, Duitsland, Oostenrijk-Hongarije, Zwitserland, Italië, Frankrijk en België te reizen. Rosika Schwimmer begaf zich met een delegatie naar de Scandinavische en Russische autoriteiten. Voortvarend als Addams en Jacobs waren, vertrokken ze op 19 mei 1915 naar Duitsland, waar ze twee dagen later ontvangen werden door minister van Buitenlandse Zaken Von Jagow.

Bij hun rondreis hielden de dames weinig rekening met de gebeurtenissen op het oorlogsvlak. Zo kwamen ze een halfuur nadat Italië Oostenrijk-Hongarije de oorlog had verklaard aan in Wenen. Al in Berlijn ondervonden de dames dat hun missie werd overschaduwd door de verwachte oorlogsverklaring van Italië. Weense deelneemsters aan het congres hadden een reis naar Oostenrijk-Hongarije afgeraden. 'Niettegenstaande deze weinig bemoedigende telegrammen gingen wij toch,' schreef Jacobs. Uiteindelijk bleek graaf Von Stürgkh, minister-president van Oostenrijk-Hongarije, wel ingenomen met het bezoek van de dames. Hij spoorde hen aan zich door niets of niemand te laten ontmoedigen en sprak zich uit voor inmenging van de neutrale Europese landen. Von Stürgkh vond het zelfs onbegrijpelijk dat de neutrale landen werkeloos toekeken hoe heel Europa werd vernietigd. Ook andere regeringsfunctionarissen lieten zich soortgelijke geluiden ontvallen. Vaak wees men naar de Amerikaanse president Wilson als potentiële vredestichter.

Paus

In haar reisverslag beschrijft Jacobs de verschrikkingen van de oorlog uitgebreid: 'Het oorlogsbrood was in Wenen oneetbaar en het dagelijks rantsoen ten eenenmale onvoldoende voor den werkman en de burgers. Het volk en de dieren in de straten zagen er ondervoed en armzalig uit en de vele verminkten langs de wegen, de vuile, slordige kleeding der soldaten, alles en alles, gaf ons den indruk van een volk dat aan uitputting lijdt en zijn laatste krachten verbruikt.'

Ook in haar pacifistische rol benadrukte Aletta Jacobs het belang van gelijke politieke rechten voor mannen en vrouwen. Ze was ervan overtuigd dat de wereld pas echt zou verbeteren als vrouwen meer zeggenschap kregen. Oorlog was immers in strijd met de 'instinctieve eigenschappen' van de vrouw. In Jacobs' gesprekken met de diverse ministers keerde dit onderwerp steeds terug. Von Jagow, de Duitse minister van Buitenlandse Zaken, beweerde dat er vast binnen een paar generaties weer een grote oorlog zou komen, doordat mannen nu eenmaal een militante natuur hadden. Toen diende ze hem stevig van repliek en zei: 'Voor dien tijd zullen de vrouwen de macht hebben verkregen om samen met de mannen de regeering te leiden,' zo schreef ze in haar reisverslag.

In Italië bleek de paus een aandachtig luisteraar. Hij was op de hoogte van het congres in Den Haag en had met instemming over hun vredesreis in de krant gelezen. Toen het gesprek op het onderwerp vrouwenrechten kwam, beaamde de paus dat vrouwen meer te zeggen zouden moeten hebben over de opvoeding van de kinderen en het onderwijs op scholen. 'Maar hij vroeg of wij ook meenen dat de vrouw zitting moest hebben in de regeering en toen wij dat toestemden, zette hij groote oogen op. Van die wensch der vrouwen had hij blijkbaar nooit gehoord.'

Wanneer Jacobs signalen ontving dat ook vrouwen oorlogszuchtig konden zijn, wekte dat haar wrevel. Zo schreef ze in haar reisverslag: 'De Duitse vrouwen die wij daar ontmoetten, waren uiterst onsympathiek door de wijze waarop zij uiting gaven aan haar gevoel van nationalen trots, volkomen gemis aan medegevoel met het lijden der in den oorlog betrokken volken en met den sterk uitgesproken wensch den oorlog te laten voortduren tot Duitschland de overwinning had behaald.' En wanneer er dan op een avondbijeenkomst alleen over het sociale werk van Jane Addams gepraat mocht worden en niet over vrede, liep ze kwaad de zaal uit. Ook aan Franse zijde ontmoette ze chauvinistische vrouwen die zich 'eerst Française en daarna mensch' voelden, een mening waarbij Aletta Jacobs zich gepikeerd voelde.

Eind augustus 1915 kreeg Aletta Jacobs de onofficiële opdracht van minister-president Cort van der Linden om ook de mening van president Wilson te polsen. Op woensdag 15 september 1915 kon Aletta Jacobs in het Witte Huis een poging wagen om Wilson over te halen om zich te bemoeien met vredesbesprekingen. In haar reisverslag beschrijft ze Wilson als een echte gentleman, die tegelijkertijd een goede diplomaat was: er kwamen veel woorden uit zijn mond, maar uiteindelijk zei hij niets. 'Ik moet kunnen ageren op het ogenblik dat ik het meest geschikt acht, en op de wijze die mij dan de meest doelmatige lijkt,' zei hij tijdens de ontmoeting. In haar boek Herinneringen verweet ze Wilson later te weinig feeling te hebben met de toestand in Europa, te weinig inzicht in wat zijn macht daar zou kunnen betekenen. Wilson zelf had net na het zinken van de Lusitania, op 7 mei 1915, waarbij 128 Amerikanen stierven, even geen oor voor vredesplannen.

Met dit 'nee' van Wilson eindigde de vredesmissie van Aletta Jacobs zonder resultaat, maar niet haar streven naar vrede. Ze bleef zich inzetten voor kiesrecht als middel tegen oorlog, 'opdat straks, als de oorlogsfakkel is uitgedoofd, en getracht zal worden Europa op nieuw op te bouwen, deze opbouw op een hechte vredesbasis zal rusten'.

http://www.historischnieuwsblad.nl/00/hn/nl/162/artikel/print/6157/Aletta_Jacobs_op_vredesmissie.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Compositie III (stilleven)



Compositie III (stilleven) is een schilderij van de Nederlandse schilder Theo van Doesburg. (...) Het werk draagt rechtsonder Van Doesburgs monogram en het jaartal 1916. Op de achterzijde staat op een etiket van de 'Vereeniging van Beeldend Kunstenaars 'De Anderen'': 'Theo van Doesburg; Schoterweg 6 Rood; Titel: Schilderij III motief; Stilleven. Olieverf.; verpakking: los met hoek-; beschutting; ThvD'. Het werk was voor het eerst te zien op de tentoonstelling van De Anderen in Den Haag en moet dus voor 7 mei 1916 door Van Doesburg voltooid zijn.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compositie_III_(stilleven)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brandsteder en de linkse politiek in Nederlands-Indië


J.A. Brandsteder

De Europese bevolking in Nederlands-Indië was geen afspiegeling van de bevolking in Nederland. Dat betekende dat de politieke verhoudingen er ook anders lagen. De linkse beweging was in deze door ondernemers en ambtenaren gedomineerde wereld veel kleiner, maar ze was er wel. In 1914 werd de Indische Sociaal Democratische Vereniging, de voorloper van de Partai Kommunis Indonesia, opgericht. Een organisatie waar zowel Indonesiërs als Nederlanders lid van konden zijn.

De belangrijkste voorvechter van de ISDV was in deze jaren Henk Sneevliet. Er was ook een vakbeweging, maar die was klein en ontwikkelde zich anders dan in Europa. Hij was relatief sterk ontwikkeld in de overheidssector. Een onderdeel van die vakbeweging was de Bond van Minder Marine Personeel (BMMP). Deze bond week nog eens extra af, doordat hij Europees personeel op de Nederlandse vloot in zowel Europese als Aziatische wateren organiseerde. Europees personeel waar echter door de gevestigde Nederlandse koloniale bevolking in Nederlands-Indië op werd neergekeken. Het waren ruwe kerels die leefden onder een ruw marine-regime. Vooral tegen dat regime kwam de vakbondsman Jacob Andries Brandsteder op.

Jacob Brandsteder ging als jongen van 13 naar de marine en was al op 17 jarige leeftijd afdelingssecretaris van de BMMP. Hij werd in 1913 administrateur van het Soerabajasch Marine Gebouw. Dit gebouw ging in 1914 over in handen van de BMMP en Brandsteder kreeg een aanstelling bij de Bond. In het kleine aantal jaren dat Brandsteder actief was in Nederlands-Indië komen we hem op alle fronten van de kleine linkse beweging tegen. Hij hoorde bij de eerste leden van de ISDV en in mei 1915 werd hij gekozen tot secretaris. Ook in 1915 wordt er actie gevoerd tegen de vervolging van Indonesische journalisten, onder andere Mas Marco Kartodikromo. Er werd een comité opgericht, het Comité van Actie tegen de artikelen 63 en 66 Indische Wetboek van Strafrecht (haatzaai- of persbreidelartikelen), waar ook Brandsteder deel van uitmaakte. De actie was niet alleen gericht tegen de vervolging zelf, maar ook tegen de discriminatie. Indonesische journalisten werden namelijk zwaarder gestraft voor dezelfde ‘delicten' als Nederlandse.

Brandsteder besteedde in deze tijd de meeste aandacht aan de slechte situatie van marine- en legerpersoneel in Indië. Zijn agitatie was behoorlijk effectief. Zo demonstreerden er op 7 mei 1916 400 matrozen in de straten van Soerabaja. De actie was gericht tegen de slechte toestanden in het marinehospitaal. Het benarde gezag reageerde met harde hand. Er waren charges met sabel en pistool en er vielen diverse gewonden.

Ook keerde Brandsteder zich in woord en geschrift tegen de mensonterende toestanden in de militaire strafkampen te Ngawi en Tjimahi. In Het Vrije Woord van 10 januari 1918 riep hij officieren op te weigeren lijfstraffen ten uitvoer te brengen. Deze actie, die wel tot resultaat had dat de bestraffing van slaag met de rottan uiteindelijk werd afgeschaft, kostte hem in 1918 in hoger beroep drie maanden gevangenisstraf. Het hoger beroep diende op 10 oktober van dat jaar. Brandsteder werd direct opgesloten en kreeg geen kans moeilijke persoonlijke omstandigheden, in dit jaar was een kind overleden en was er een op komst, te regelen. Deze gevangenneming gaf ook weer onrust onder het lagere marine personeel. In Soerabaja weigerden 30 man op het appel te verschijnen wat weer de nodige arrestaties tot gevolg had. In het drukke jaar 1918 was Brandsteder tevens een van de oprichters van de radicale Soldatenbond. Deze bond gaf een blad uit, De Soldaten- en matrozenkrant, waarvan hij een van de redacteuren was.

Het Gouvernement vond de risico's van al die agitatie te groot worden. In Europa wankelde de orde en met Kiel in gedachten, waar de Duitse matrozen eind oktober 1918 het startsein hadden gegeven voor het einde van de Eerste Wereldoorlog en de val van de Duitse Keizer, leek het woord 'matroos' alleen al dreiging in te houden. Bij besluit van de gouverneur generaal van 24 september 1919 werd Brandsteder geëxterneerd wegens zijn opruiende artikelen in de periode 1 april 1918 tot 1 juli 1919 in De Soldaten- en matrozenkrant. Aardig is dat in het externeringsbesluit, met enige verbazing lijkt het, ook erkend wordt dat Brandsteder 'het zelfs als zijn duren plicht beschouwt die rust en orde in gevaar te brengen en te blijven brengen; dat dit als een volledige erkentenis kan worden aangenomen, aangezien de kapitalistische orde en rust enkel de door hem gekozen naam is voor de huidige orde van zaken en zijn streven dus is, deze in gevaar te brengen.' Brandsteder moest Indië op 6 oktober 1919 verlaten.

Terug in Nederland kwam Brandsteder terecht in de scherp verdeelde wereld van links. Hij bleef actief in de vakbeweging en overleed op 99 jarige leeftijd in de havenstad Rotterdam. Zijn verdere levensloop en publicaties zijn te vinden in de biografie in het Biografisch Woordenboek: http://www.iisg.nl/bwsa/bios/brandsteder.html

http://www.iisg.nl/scripts/print.php?language=nl&url=www.iisg.nl%2Fcollections%2Fbrandsteder%2Fbrandsteder-nl.php
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Difosgeen

7 mei 1916 - De Duitsers verschieten bij Verdun voor de eerste maal het verstikkende strijdmiddel difosgeen.

http://mpbundels.mindef.nl/35_serie/35_320/hoofdstuk_1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 21:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lord Kitchener lost at sea - Mission to Russia on H.M.S. Hampshire
The Guardian, Sunday 7 May 1916

With deep regret we record that Earl Kitchener, Secretary for War, went down with the armoured cruiser Hampshire, which was sunk on Monday evening west of the Orkneys. There is little or no hope of there being any survivors. Lord Kitchener was on his way to Russia, accompanied by members of his personal staff and officials of the Foreign Office and the Ministry of Munitions, for a discussion of military and financial questions.

Mine or submarine?
Lord Kitchener's journey

From our special correspondent

Lord Kitchener left London on Sunday night, a sleeping-saloon being attached to the eight o'clock train from King's Cross. As he passed through Edinburgh at four o'clock on Monday morning very few people were in the station, and only two or three of the higher officials knew - confidentially - that the Secretary for War was on the train. He arrived at a northern port later in the day.

The official statement leaves it open to conjecture whether the Hampshire was sunk by a mine or torpedo. So far as the public knows, there has been no recent submarine activity in the neighbourhood of the Orkneys, but formerly the northern coast of Scotland was a favourite lurking-place for enemy submarines, and the fact that the Hampshire was passing to the west of the islands may be an indication of reasons for avoiding the directer route to the east. It would, of course, be perfectly light at eight o'clock in the evening. Indeed, in that high latitude there would be no darkness all the night through. Even in Edinburgh here the light never left the sky last night.

Formerly the north coast of Scotland was a favourite resting-place for enemy submarines. The desolate and unpeopled shores abound with deep inlets which were natural refuges for small hostile craft until the navy made the locality so hot that they cleared out, not to return. The submarines bound to the west coast of England and Ireland take this route, and, if it was a torpedo that sank the Hampshire, it may have been a sheer coincidence which accounted for a submarine being on the line of the cruiser's course.

The west coast of the Orkneys is famous for its line of high cliffs, and Admiral Jellicoe's message, which states that a heavy sea was running, must be intended to indicate the smallness of the chance for the survivors of the missing boats.

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1910-1919/Story/0,6051,126462,00.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Duitse granaten ontploffen bij de aanvoerlinies na de aanval op Bullecourt, Frankrijk, 7 mei 1917



http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/bullecourt-may-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Mei 2011 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, Vol. 156, May 7, 1919.



GHOSTS AT VERSAILLES.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12079/12079-h/12079-h.htm
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