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1 April

 
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Tandorini



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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2009 18:24    Onderwerp: 1 April Reageer met quote

1916 - Gabrielle Petit wordt op 23-jarige leeftijd geëxecuteerd.

Geboortedatum: 1893
Overlijdensdatum: 1 april 1916
Overlijdensplaats: Brussel

Ze werd samen met haar zus in een weeshuis geplaatst door haar vader na het overlijden van hun moeder. Als ze 16 is verlaat ze de zusters om in Brussel te gaan wonen. Als vrouw alleen is het dan zeker geen makkelijk leven. Ze is vaak depressief en onderneemt zelfs een zelfmoordpoging.

Bij het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog is ze verloofd met een militair. Alhoewel ze het liefst aan de zijde van haar verloofde zou strijden, geeft ze zich op als vrijwilligster voor het Rode Kruis. Later treedt ze in dienst van de Britse Inlichtingendienst. In Engeland krijgt ze een korte opleiding die haar moet voorbereiden op spoorwegspionage. De Duitse troepenbewegingen per spoor worden door haar doorgegeven aan de geallieerden. Gebruikmakend van vermommingen reist ze door België. De rapporten schrijft ze op kleine blaadjes zijdepapier die ze in haar kleding verstopt. Begin 1916 loopt ze echter in de val. Ze wordt gearresteerd en ter dood veroordeeld voor "krijgsverraad bestaande uit verspieding". Op 1 april 1916 wordt ze voor het vuurpeloton gezet.

In 1920 en 1928 werden films over haar leven gemaakt. Er werden toneelstukken en gedichten over haar geschreven. Op het Sint-Jansplein te Brussel staat haar standbeeld. De cel in Sint-Gillis waar ze heeft vastgezeten, heeft een tijd als bedevaartsoord dienst gedaan.
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the beno



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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 13:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sorry Percy, ik kon het niet laten Embarassed

1915
Western Front

British air raid on Zeebrugge and Hoboken.

Germans occupy Cloister Hoek (near Dixmude).

Eastern Front

Russian advance checked in western Poland.

Russians make progress in the Carpathians.

Southern Front

Bulgarian Komstodjis attack the Serbs at Valandovo.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russians occupy Tsria (Transcaucasia).

Naval and Overseas Operations

South African forces occupy Hasuur (German south-west Africa).

British S.S. "Seven Seas" torpedoed off Beachy Head.

Political, etc.

Bismarck centenary celebrations.

Herr Dernburg, interviewed by New York Times, justifies sinking of S.S. "Falaba".

Scheme for a Dockers' Battalion at Liverpool published.

1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: Germans capture part of Vaux village.

Zeppelin raid on north-east coast, L15 captured; 22 killed, 130 injured.

Political, etc.

M. Denys Cochin appointed Minister in charge of blockade in France.

Decline of unrest in Holland.

King George presents �100,000 for war purposes.

1917
Western Front

British capture Savy (four miles west of St. Quentin) and Savy Wood.

French drive back Germans to Vauxaillon (north-east of Soissons).

A German bombardment of Reims begins.

Southern Front

Bulgar-Germans bombard Monastir (asphyxiating shells).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russians progress towards Khanikan (85 miles north-east of Baghdad).

Turks retreat towards Kasr-i-Shirin (Persia).

British occupy Kizil-Robat (26 miles south-west of Khanikan) on Diala river.

Political, etc.

British Government decide to interfere in Barrow strike. They adhere to principle of an independent Poland.

1918
Western Front

Local attacks near Albert repulsed.

Grivesnes (southern Moreuil) heavily attacked but remains in French hands.

At Hebuterne (Bucquoy) local fighting in favour of British.

Eastern Front

Berlin reports the despatch of ultimatum to Russia on subject of Finland.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Mesopotamia: British troops 73 miles beyond Ana (Middle Euphrates).

Palestine: Strong Turkish resistance near Amman; British retire to Es Salt.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British destroyer sunk in collision.

Political, etc.

Royal Air Force (under Air Ministry) formed from R.N.A.S. and R.F.C.

Canada: Anti-conscription riots in Quebec. Troops fire on rioters.
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Fritz Kempf
Ere WikiMusketier


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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 13:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 - De Royal Flying Corps en de Royal Naval Air Service vormen samen de Royal Air Force.
1918 - De Albatros D.Va 5734/17 van Vizefeldwebel Weimar wordt neergeschoten. Weimar weet de crash te ontsnappen door met een Heinecke parachute uit zijn brandende kist te springen. Hij is de eerste piloot die tijdens een luchtgevecht een parachutesprong maakt.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 14:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Medal of Honor Recipients - Interim Awards, 1915-1916

TRINIDAD, TELESFORO
Rank and organization: Fireman Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 25 November 1890, New Washington Capig, Philippine Islands. Accredited to: Philippine Islands. G.O. No.: 142, 1 April 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession at the time of the boiler explosion on board the U.S.S. San Diego, 21 January 1915. Trinidad was driven out of fireroom No. 2 by the explosion, but at once returned and picked up R.E. Daly, fireman, second class, whom he saw to be injured, and proceeded to bring him out. While coming into No. 4 fireroom, Trinidad was just in time to catch the explosion in No. 3 fireroom, but without consideration for his own safety, passed Daly on and then assisted in rescuing another injured man from No. 3 fireroom. Trinidad was himself burned about the face by the blast from the explosion in No. 3 fireroom.

http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/interim1915-16.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 14:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 1 April 1915.

Valkenswaard. 30 Maart. Met blijdschap ontvingen wij het bericht dat onze algemeen beminde Eerwaarde heer pastoor benoemd is tot deken in het dekenaat Valkenswaard. Het Valkenswaardsch Muziekkorps bracht den sympathieken herder ’s avonds een serenade. De president, de heer Adrianus Jaspers, vertolkte de algemeene gevoelens van blijdschap en innige deelname in het groote geluk, dat onzen Z.Eerw. heer pastoor te beurt viel. Zichtbaar geroerd dankte de jubilaris voor de gelukwenschen zijner beminde parochianen en sprak de hoop uit, dat God hem kracht schenke om nog lange jaren zijne diensten te wijden aan het zieleheil dergenen, die hem zoo na aan ’t harte liggen.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 14:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nog even dan...

April Fools Day - 1915

Bombs Away - The Geneva Tribune reported that on April 1 a French aviator flying over a German camp dropped what appeared to be a huge bomb. The German soldiers immediately scattered in all directions, but no explosion followed. After some time, the soldiers crept back and gingerly approached the bomb. They discovered that it was actually a large football with a note tied to it that read, “April Fool!”

The Boston Globe Price Cut - Readers of the Boston Morning Globe could have purchased their papers for half the cost on April Fool’s Day, if they had been alert. The price listed on the front page had been lowered from “Two Cents Per Copy” to “One Cent.” But almost 60,000 copies of the paper were sold before anyone noticed the unannounced price change. When the management of the Globe found out about the change, they were just as surprised as everyone else. The new price turned out to be the responsibility of a mischievous production worker who had surreptitiously inserted the lower value at the last minute as the paper went to print.

Tony Maloney, aka Babe Webster - A San Francisco woman was charged with “masquerading in male attire” and giving a false name because she had walked around the city dressed in a man’s suit of tweeds, introducing herself as “Tony Maloney.” She told the judge that her real name was Mrs. Babe Webster, and that she had dressed up as a man as an April fool joke. The judge released her on the condition that she return to the courthouse the next day dressed in feminine attire.

Help Wanted - An ad placed in a Chicago paper brought over 300 job seekers to Proviso Township High School in Maywood, Illinois. The ad read, “WANTED—100 Laborers; bring shovels; good pay. Apply High School, Room 9, 1st av. and Madison st., Maywood, bet. 9 and 10 am.” Some of the job seekers walked over twenty miles to get there, not having access to a car. School officials had to turn them away, explaining that the ad was a joke, but not of their doing. Seventy-five of the men ended up sleeping in the school yard. Eight members of the senior class were subsequently accused of having placed the ad and were punished “by denying them certain privileges.” Their parents protested the punishment, but Principal Witmer said, “I’d do the same thing if they did it again.”

Candy Surprise - The Chicago Daily Tribune reported that Chow Lamb, a Chinese-born laundryman, bought some candy at the confectionery store of James Constantino. Unfortunately, Mr. Lamb did not read English. Therefore he did not understand the sign beside the candy that said, “April Fool Candy—Fool a Friend.” Presumably, the candies were cotton balls dipped in chocolate. After consuming two of them, he became very sick. He later filed charges against Mr. Constantino, under section 7, chapter 38 of the criminal code, which prohibits the sale of confections adulterated with a substance injurious to health. The outcome of his lawsuit was not reported.

Do Not Kick - A prankster placed a hat on Philadelphia’s Girard Avenue. On the front of the hat he pinned a note that read, “Do not kick. Brick inside.” Raymond Perrott, a University of Pennsylvania student, saw the hat while walking along with a friend. Reportedly, he said to his companion, “Huh, that’s a joke within a joke; watch me wallop that hat.” He gave the hat a strong kick, then fell to the ground, crying out in pain. The hat flew away, revealing a brick. Perrott was taken to St. Joseph’s Hospital with a broken right toe.

Compressed Air - In what appeared to be an April Fool’s prank gone badly wrong, Harry Zahrichs of Lackawanna, New York had to be rushed to the hospital after his fellow workmen injected compressed air into his body, tearing and dislodging some of his internal organs.

Fatal Shooting - James Pooley, a bartender in Evansville, Indiana, shot and killed Frank Stein, a saloon porter. Pooley claimed he thought the gun was unloaded and was playing an April Fool joke on Stein. Walter Schmidel, owner of the saloon, later admitted that he had removed an old weapon that had been behind the bar and had replaced it with a loaded revolver.

http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/Hoaxipedia/April_Fools_Day_-_1915/

April Fools Day - 1919

The Venetian Horse Mystery - The citizens of Venice woke on the morning of April Fool’s Day to find piles of horse manure deposited throughout the Piazza San Marco, as if a procession of horses had gone through there. This was extremely unusual, since the Piazza is surrounded by canals and not easily accessible to horses. The manure turned out to be the work of the infamous British prankster Horace de Vere Cole, who was honeymooning in Venice. He had transported a load of manure over from the mainland the night before with the help of a gondolier and had then placed it throughout the Piazza. Perhaps he should have been paying more attention to his wife while on honeymoon because, evidently tired by his constant hijinks, she divorced him within a few years.

http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/Hoaxipedia/April_Fools_Day_-_1919/

About the Hoaxipedia
The Hoaxipedia is the Museum of Hoaxes's online encyclopedia of hoaxes, pranks, urban legends, and scams. The goal is to collect together in one place information about history's most interesting deceptions.

http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 14:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Military Aviation in 1916

April - It is decided that fighter aircraft should be concentrated under Army wings rather than scatted amongst Corps squadrons, thus making a clear distinction between strategic offensive fighting and other Royal Flying Corps work.

1 April - The Royal Naval Air Service Central Training Establishment at Cranwell is officially opened. The Admiralty had acquired the site in November 1915 and construction began in December of that year. Cranwell's primary role was to act as a surrogate central flying school of the Royal Naval Air Service, under Admiralty control, thereby removing the need for that service to draw upon the resources of the existing Central Flying School. The location of Cranwell enabled it to support the Royal Naval Air Service stations then being opened on the East Coast.

http://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/milestones-of-flight/british_military/1916.cfm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 14:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of Lcp P. Allsup, Y Coy. 11th East Lancs. Regt.

April 1st, 1915 - Parade 9.30AM. Pay, moved out of huts into barns.

http://www.pals.org.uk/allsup_diary01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 14:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of Lcp P. Allsup, Y Coy. 11th East Lancs. Regt.

April 1st, 1915 - Parade 9.30AM. Pay, moved out of huts into barns.

http://www.pals.org.uk/allsup_diary01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CASUALTIES of the UNITED STATES NAVY and COAST GUARD

April 1, 1917
SS Aztec, freighter, torpedoed and sunk by U.46 approx. 25 miles off Ushant, NW France (total of 28 crew lost)

EOPOLUCCI, JOHN ISADORE, Boatswain's Mate, 1st class, member of Armed Guard, first USN enlisted man to lose his life in the World War.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyUS-CasualtiesChrono1917-04April.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 17:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1917

Our listing of known sets of brothers who died on the same date in 1917.

1 April 1917 - Joseph, 24, and Thomas Wilson, 26, died while serving with the 1/6th Battalion, the Royal Highlanders (Black Watch). Sons of William and Jane Wilson, of Shivey, Sandholes, Dungannon, Co. Tyrone, they are buried in adjacent graves in Maroeuil British Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

7th King's Royal Rifle Corps: War Diary: April 1917

Ronville Caves

1st April 1917. Battalion was relieved in the line by 8th KRRC and moved to the Caves. HQ in BLUFF, coys in CHRISTCHURCH. Lieut V. Taylor RAMC on rejoining from leave returned to a Field Ambulance and was replaced by Capt T.A. Watson RAMC.

http://www.resthepast.co.uk/army/wardiaries/krrc/7btn/7krrc_apr17.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

R A F Created - The 1st of April 1918 AD

In military flying’s early days aircraft were seen, perhaps understandably, as equivalents for the horse in the cavalry or light attack ships for the navy. Armed forces around the world developed their airborne capability within their armies and navies. Britain was the first country to establish a separate air force, when the Royal Air Force was brought into being on April 1 1918.

The development of military capability in the air in Britain began as late as 1880, when balloons were used as observation posts during manoeuvres in Aldershot. The French as balloon pioneers had beaten them to it by nearly a century, when a tethered balloon was used in 1794 for the same purpose during the revolutionary wars.

In April 1911 the Royal Engineers took up the aerial challenge, with the formation of an Air Battalion in Larkhill, Scotland. At the end of the same year the navy, aware of the potential of airborne observers, set up the Royal Naval Flying School in Kent.

The government rapidly saw the need for coordination of the aerial efforts of the two rival military arms, establishing the Royal Flying Corps in the spring of 1912, but as WWI inexorably approached the navy reasserted its control over part of the UK’s air capability, the airship squadrons within the RFC being brought back under naval command as the Royal Naval Air Service. In September 1914, a month into the conflict, the navy formed its own aircraft squadrons, in effect returning to the situation that had held before the RFC was created.

The rivalry between army and navy had existed for centuries and remains to this day. The wartime government, however, could see the duplication of effort and the foolish squabbling over limited aircraft resources, and in November 1917 passed an act to enable it to create a separate air force, with an Air Ministry to oversee that force. Lord Rothermere was appointed as Secretary of State in charge of that department, and he was able to drive through the much required reorganisation.

For much of the war the RFC had struggled against the Germans, who with planes like the Fokker Albatross too often had the technological advantage over the Allies, though when the RAF was formed this situation had to a great extent been turned around. The Zeppelin air raids on Britain which began in 1915 had awoken the homeland to the importance of the aerial threat in modern warfare.

On April 1 1918 the Royal Air Force came into being, the RFC and the RNAS uniting, though it took some time for certain old rivalries to disappear within the combined force, naval and army ranks remaining in use within the force until after the end of the conflict. On the same day the Women’s Royal Air Force was also instituted.

The RAF’s first operation was undertaken by Bristol fighters belonging to 22 Squadron on the day it was formed. When the fighting ended in November 1918 the RAF and its allies were unquestionably in control of the skies over the Western Front.

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=3
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1 April 1919, Commons Sitting

SOLDIERS' GRAVES.


HC Deb 01 April 1919 vol 114 c1041 1041

Commander Viscount CURZON asked the Secretary of State for War if he will give an assurance that he will permit the remains of British soldiers buried in Germany to be exhumed and brought home for reinterment, should the relatives so desire, as soon as the transport facilities permit?

Captain GUEST This matter will receive sympathetic consideration as soon as the condition of affairs permits.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/apr/01/soldiers-graves
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Man Has Arisen!

Source: Th. Rothstein, under his pseudonym John Bryan, “Man Has Arisen!” The Call, 1 April 1920, p.2

"Among the photographs recently brought over from Soviet Russia by a friend there, is one showing a large decorated banner erected for the second anniversary of the November Revolution, over the tombs of the revolutionary martyrs in the principal square of Petrograd, and bearing the legend “Dedicated to the host of the Great who have departed from Life for the sake of Life.”

EUROPE’S AGONY.
How true this legend rings in comparison with the similar idea expressed In the Christian doctrine of Easter! Look at the world — look at it as it is, one thousand eight hundred and eighty seven years after its supposed redemption by the blood of crucified Christ. The earth is still soaked with the rivers of blood shed in the recent “Great” War. Half the world lies in ruins with a decimated population starved unto death and perishing from cold. Typhus, crime, and civil war rage over the greater part of Europe, and soon, soon the rest of the continent will also succumb to them. Over this colossal wreckage of humanity a handful of rich, grown richer through that very blood and misery, hold sway, rolling in gold, luxury, and pleasures, extracting the last drop of marrow from the bones of the surviving wretches, and stretching forth their tentacles to the new races which the war has delivered to their insatiable lusts. A world “redeemed,” indeed. What mockery, what hypocrisy! The pagan world could not have been worse than this world of Christianity. Only it had no bishops to preach from the pulpits the Easter lie and to administer “opium” to the masses, as the Bolshevik inscription on one of Moscow’s church gates boldly puts it.

Lees verder! “Marxists Internet Archive”, http://www.marxists.org/archive/rothstein/1920/04/01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2010 7:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thursday 1st April 1915 - Diary of HV Reynolds

'Reveille* sounded this morning at 5am and the Division went out on the desert for a days field work. Our unit marched out to White house where our section remained while the remainder of the unity went further on, they returned at 3pm and we set off back to camp.’

*Reveille is a bugle call used to mark the phases of a soldiers day. At the end of the day soldiers were called back to their barracks through the call of ‘Last Post’.

For the classroom: During commemorative ceremonies the Last post is often played. What might be the significance of this?

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/04/01/thursday-1st-april-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2010 7:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Roland Garros uses deflector plates, 1st April, 1915

Roland Garros was born in France in 1882. An experienced pilot, Garros was the first Frenchman to cross the Mediterranean by air. On the outbreak of the First World War, Garros was sent to serve on the Western Front.

Garros realised that he would have more success in dogfights if he could find a way of firing a machine-gun through the propeller. Working with Raymond Saulnier, a French aircraft manufacturer, Garros, added deflector plates to the blades of the propeller of his Morane-Saulnier. These small wedges of toughened steel diverted the passage of those bullets which struck the blades.

Now able to use a forward-firing machine-gun, went out searching for his first victim. On 1st April 1915, Garros approached an German Albatros B II reconnaissance aircraft. The German pilot was surprised when Garros approached him head-on. The accepted air fighting strategy at the time was to take 'pot-shots' with a revolver or rifle. Instead Garros shot down the Albatros through his whirling propeller.

In the next two weeks Garros shot down four more enemy aircraft. However, the success was short-lived because on 18th April, a rifleman defending Courtrai railway station, managed to fracture the petrol pipe of the aircraft that Garros was flying. Garros was forced to land behind the German front-line and before he could set-fire to his machine it was captured by the Germans. After finding out about Garros' invention, German pilots began using these deflector plates on the blades of their propellers.

In 1918 Garros escaped from Germany and returned to active service on the Western Front. Roland Garros was shot down and killed at Vouziers on 5th October 1918.

http://www.patriotfiles.com/index.php?name=Sections&req=viewarticle&artid=7021&page=1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Burston Strike School, 1914 - 1939

The longest strike in history was not staged by miners but by minors - the children of a small village in Norfolk. On 1 April, 1914, pupils of the Burston village school, supported by their parents, took to the streets in protest at the dismissal of their teachers, Tom and Kitty Higdon. The strike lasted for over 25 years.

Leuk artikel! Lees verder op http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A6017456
Zie ook http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/1304143179/
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mrt 2011 19:50, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 19:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Opening of the Salvation Army Bethany Maternity Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand, 1 April 1914.



http://www.ajlassociates.biz/showmedia.php?mediaID=534
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jules Andre Peugeot, 1893 - 1914



Born at Etupes (Doubs) on 11th June 1893, Jules always wanted to be a teacher. After studying hard and passing the necessary exams at his teacher-training establishment at Bescancon, he finally succeeded in his dreams and was offered a position at a school at Villers le Lac in October 1912.

On November 26th 1913, however, Jules’ dreams had to be put on hold as he was called up for his compulsory military service. After presenting himself at his military district headquarters at Belfort, he was assigned to the 2e Bataillon of the 44e Régiment d’Infanterie (27th Infantry Brigade, 14th Infantry Division) at Montbéliard to begin his service. To a man with Jules’education and background, military life didn’t appear to be too much trouble and, on 1st April 1914, he was promoted to Corporal and placed in command of a section. By the end of July 1914, he was also under consideration to become an élčve officier (officer cadet) and had already passed exams that would have enabled him to undertake this role when he would have passed into the reserve (1916, if war had not broken out).

Lees verder op http://desert-column.phpbb3now.com/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=576
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 1914 → Commons Sitting

1ST WORCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT (COURT-MARTIAL).


HC Deb 01 April 1914 vol 60 c1168 1168

Mr. MacCALLUM SCOTT asked whether Private Harold Spiers, of the 1st Worcestershire Regiment, was tried by court-martial on the 22nd of September, 1911, and sentenced to fourteen days' imprisonment; what was the charge made against him; and what was the defence offered by him?

Mr. McKENNA The sentence was fourteen days' detention. The charge was absence without leave. He pleaded guilty, and it was stated in extenuation by his counsel that, owing to the hardships he had gone through, he did not realise the serious position in which he was placing himself.

Mr. MacCALLUM SCOTT Is it the fact that this man was ordered to serve on duty in suppressing riots in connection with a strike, and that the sight of men being shot down in the roads so unnerved him that he deserted?

Mr. McKENNA I cannot answer as to what was in the soldier's mind, but he certainly endured other hardships besides those mentioned.

Mr. JOHN WARD Are not all these statements of my hon. Friend the statements of his counsel as justification for his act?

Mr. McKENNA That is a representation by counsel as to what was in the soldier's mind. I can only answer as to the other hardships he has suffered.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/01/1st-worcestershire-regiment-court-martial
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Camp Magazine, First Royal Naval Brigade, Groningen Holland, April 1915, nummer 1



http://www.iisg.nl/collections/refugees/zo6106a-nl.php
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Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

1 April 1915 - The Anzac Corps in Egypt received orders that it was to move to the front.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/january-april-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

History Outline 1915-1918: 59 Field Company

1st April 1915 - Distinguished Conduct Medals Awarded

According to the London Gazette on the 1st April 1915:

Issue No 4048 - Sergeant Major John Buckle - 59 Field Company RE - "For Gallantry and ability near Richebourg, in directing the work of his section, when erecting wire entanglement close to the enemy position."

Issue No 9321 - Sapper Henry Whitting - 59 Field Company RE - "For conspicious gallantry in persisting in the erection of wire entanglement in front of our trenches, being necessarily exposed to fire from our own side, as well as from the enemy."

http://historyoutline1915-1918.blogspot.com/2009/10/history-outline-1915-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April Fool’s Day Cartoon, 1915



http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/Hoaxipedia/April_Fools_Day_-_1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

No. IX Squadron RAF



No. 9 Squadron was formed and disbanded twice during the First World War. The first incarnation was formed on 8 December 1914 at Saint-Omer in France from a detachment of the RFC HQ to develop the use of radio for reconnaissance missions; this lasted until March 1915.

Re-formed at Brooklands on 1 April 1915 under the command of Major Hugh Dowding (later commander of RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain) as a reconnaissance squadron, No. 9 returned to France in December 1915, flying Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2s.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/No-IX-Squadron-RAF/110554538973588
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Records of C.E.W. Bean

April 1915 - Describes landing at Gallipoli and initial fighting.

http://www.awm.gov.au/cms_images/AWM38/3DRL606/AWM38-3DRL606-4-1.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 1. April 1916

Luftschiffangriff auf London

Berlin, 1. April.

In der Nacht vom 31. März zum 1. April hat ein Marineluftschiffgeschwader London und Plätze der englischen Südostküste angegriffen. Die City von London zwischen London- und Towerbrücke, die London-Docks, der nordwestliche Teil von London mit seinen Truppenlagern, sowie Industrieanlagen bei Enfield und die Sprengstoffabriken bei Waltham Abbey - nördlich von London - wurden ausgiebig mit Bomben belegt. Des weiteren wurde über Lowestoft, nachdem vorher eine Batterie bei Stowmarket - nordwestlich Harwich - erfolgreich angegriffen war, eine große Anzahl Spreng- und Brandbomben geworfen, eine Batterie bei Cambridge zum Schweigen gebracht und dort ausgedehnte Fabrikanlagen angegriffen. Endlich wurden die Hafenanlagen und Befestigungen am Humber mit Bomben belegt. Drei Batterien wurden dort zum Schweigen gebracht. Die Angriffe hatten durchweg sehr guten Erfolg, wie von unseren Luftschiffen durch die einwandfreie Beobachtung zahlreicher Brände und Einstürze festgestellt werden konnte. Trotz überaus heftiger Beschießung sind alle Luftschiffe bis auf "L 15" zurückgekehrt. "L 15" ist nach eigener Meldung angeschossen gewesen und mußte vor der Themse auf das Wasser niedergehen. Die von unseren Streitkräften angestellten Nachforschungen sind bisher erfolglos geblieben.

Der Chef des Admiralstabs der Marine.

London, 1. April

Nach einer amtlichen Reuter-Meldung ist ein beschädigtes "Zeppelin"-Luftschiff in der letzten Nacht vor der Themsemündung niedergegangen. Die Besatzung ist von englischen Patrouillenbooten gefangengenommen worden, das Luftschiff gesunken. 1)

Die Notlandung von "L 15" in der Themsemündung

London, 1. April.

Amtlich wird bekanntgegeben: Die "Zeppelin"- Luftschiffe, die in der letzten Nacht einen Angriff unternahmen, waren in zwei Geschwader und ein abgezweigtes Luftschiff gegliedert. Die zwei Geschwader wandten sich gegen die östlichen Grafschaften, das abgezweigte Luftschiff griff die Nordostküste an. Soweit bekannt, sind 54 Spreng- und Brandbomben über den östlichen Grafschaften und 22 über der Nordostküste abgeworfen worden. Das Luftschiff, das ins Meer gefallen ist, war "L 15". Es wurde durch Geschützfeuer über den östlichen Grafschaften getroffen; eine Granate hatte den oberen Teil der Hülle in der Nähe des Hecks getroffen. Das Luftschiff fiel schnell, mit dem Heck zuerst, in die See unweit der östlichen Küste von Kent. Ein Maschinengewehr, einige Munition, ein Petroleumbehälter, der von einem Schrapnell getroffen worden war, und einige Maschinenteile wurden entweder aus diesem oder einem anderen Luftschiffe herabgeworfen. Wegen der Störung der Telegraphenverbindungen infolge des jüngsten Sturmes war es noch nicht möglich, die Opfer und Schäden genau festzustellen. Bis jetzt werden 28 Tote und 44 Verletzte gemeldet. 1)


Das Wrack des abgeschossenen deutschen Luftschiffs "L 15"

Textquellen:
1) Amtliche Kriegs-Depeschen nach Berichten des Wolff´schen Telegr.-Bureaus, Band 4, Nationaler Verlag, Berlin (1916)


http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_04_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gabrielle Petit



Gabrielle Petit (1893-1 april 1916) was een Belgische verzetsheldin uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

Ze werd samen met haar zus in een weeshuis geplaatst door haar vader na het overlijden van hun moeder. Als ze 16 is verlaat ze de zusters om in Brussel te gaan wonen. Als vrouw alleen is het dan zeker geen makkelijk leven. Ze is vaak depressief en onderneemt zelfs een zelfmoordpoging.

Bij het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog is ze verloofd met een militair. Alhoewel ze het liefst aan de zijde van haar verloofde zou strijden, geeft ze zich op als vrijwilligster voor het Rode Kruis. Later treedt ze in dienst van de Britse Inlichtingendienst. In Engeland krijgt ze een korte opleiding die haar moet voorbereiden op spoorwegspionage. De Duitse troepenbewegingen per spoor worden door haar doorgegeven aan de geallieerden. Gebruikmakend van vermommingen reist ze door België. De rapporten schrijft ze op kleine blaadjes zijdepapier die ze in haar kleding verstopt. Begin 1916 loopt ze echter in de val. Ze wordt gearresteerd en ter dood veroordeeld voor "krijgsverraad bestaande uit verspieding". Op 1 april 1916 wordt ze voor het vuurpeloton gezet.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabrielle_Petit
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Iron Cross of Merit with Crown on wartime ribbon, 1916-1918 issue



Iron cross pattée alisée with magnetic core on replaced correct trifold wartime ribbon. The cross was instituted on 1 April 1916 in two grades - Iron with and without Crown - as a need had been perceived for a grade below the existing Gold and Silver to reward the many people of lower ranks performing exceptional acts and services in wartime, especially in the support and auxiliary services. Early examples were in iron but as wartime shortages became more acute, zinc alloy (Kriegsmetall) was substituted.

http://www.picardyantiquesltd.com/shop/article_S2355/Iron-Cross-of-Merit-with-Crown-on-wartime-ribbon,-1916-1918-issue.html?shop_param=cid%3D80%26aid%3DS2355%26
Zie ook http://www.gwpda.org/medals/austmedl/austria.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE ASHTON TERRITORIALS, 9th BATTALION of the MANCHESTER REGIMENT - 1916 - EGYPT.

Published in the Reporter 1st April 1916.

BROTHERS WOUNDED.



"I call myself lucky that I have escaped with the loss of my left leg only. It might have been a deal worse," said Private PERCY TAYLOR, of the Ashton Territorials, son of Mr. and Mrs. G.H. Taylor, of 15, Spring Grove Terrace, Ashton, who has returned home on a short visit after about six months in hospital, prior to having an artificial limb fitted at the Queen Mary Hospital, Roehampton. Private TAYLOR is wonderfully cheery, and does not regret for one moment the price he has paid for his patriotism. In the Reporter for September 25th 1915, an account was published of Private TAYLOR'S injury. A curiously sad feature is that his brother, Lance Corporal ALBERT TAYLOR, is a prisoner of war in Germany, and that although he has not actually lost his leg, as was first stated, it is paralysed, and may eventually have to come off. Lance Corporal ALBERT TAYLOR was in the 2nd Batt. Manchester Regiment. His home is at 32, William Street, Ryecroft. He was wounded in the leg in the early stages of the war, and was taken prisoner. Private PERCY TAYLOR, who worked at Messrs. Cooper and Son's High Bank Mills, enlisted in the 2/9th Manchesters after the war commenced, and was orderly for Captain Prister and Surgeon-Major WHITEHEAD. Whilst at Peas Pottage he volunteered for foreign service, and on July 3rd left Devonport for the Dardanelles with a draft of 250. He was a member of the United Methodist Church, Stamford Street, and took a great interest in the football club. He was a capable and clever player, and well liked by the team. Private TAYLOR gave an interesting account of the way he met with his injury. He was out on September 2nd with a party of 12 digging a connecting trench up to the Royal Naval Division. They were between the two lines of fire from the Turkish and the British trenches. They were digging in the darkness when suddenly the Turks sent a flare up, and they were revealed. "We took cover as best we could, but as it was very flat there wasn't much of it," said Private TAYLOR. "About five or ten minutes passed and the Turks had opened fire, when a bullet went through my left ankle. Gee! it fairly made me sing out. I kept quiet as best I could, although the pain was intense. When I got another flesh wound in my right thigh. I says, 'PERCY it is time for you to shift.' Leaving my pick and shovel, but taking my rifle, and burdened with my equipment, I started to crawl towards where our parapet was. The bullets were singing around all the time. There was some wire, however, in front of the parapet, and I had to struggle mighty hard to get through it. My equipment kept getting caught in the wire, and whilst I was struggling a bullet struck me near the hip. Finally, I managed to get on top of the parapet, and was pulled down into the trench. It was not our battalion, but someone brought the stretchers and bandaged me up. I was taken down to the Royal Naval Division's medical officer, and I learned there that TOM PORTINGTON had been killed, and several were injured, including the officer in charge. The doctor gave me a dose of morphia, but it had not much effect. Whilst at the base I saw ARTHUR FOX, who came down wounded. He said their trench had just been blown up, and he had some of his ribs crushed. Later they took me up on the boat, the Delta. The doctor tried his best to save my leg on the boat, but was obliged to take some of it off below the knee. Finally, I arrived at Netley. I thought I had finished, but another amputation was neccessary, and this time they took it off above the knee, but they have left a fairly considerable stump. My troubles were not over then, for I started with enteric fever, and at one time it seemed all up, but I got better, being on a milk diet for two months." Whilst convalescent, the stump of Private TAYLOR'S leg became painful, and eventually it was discovered that a loose piece of the bone of the leg was working its way out. Private TAYLOR produced a match-box, and exhibited the fragment, which had evidently broken off whilst the surgeon was sawing through the bone. Although his stay on the Peninsula was comparatively brief, Private TAYLOR had an exciting time. "It was sport being in the first line trenches. You had no fatigue to do, and the shells went over you and dropped in the reserve trenches. It used to be great fun watching the French firing the 'flying pigs' or aerial torpedoes. They used to drop right in the Turkish lines, and then the Turks would scatter. Whilst sniping at them I felt something burn my head, and found that a bullet had gone clean through my cap comforter, but had not grazed my scalp. My first day in the trenches was full of events. We were told we were going in the reserve, but we had just sat down when we were ordered to the first line of the trenches. We had not been in the first line very long when a officer came along and pointing to the Turkish trenches, he said, 'You have got to take that. You will not have much trouble, as there are not many Turks in.' On we went sideways, and we could see the Johnny Turks four or five deep waiting for us, and shouting, 'Come on! Come on!' But we only feinted, because it was not really intended that we were to charge, but only to distract the attention of the Turks from another move somewhere else."

LOST IN THE DESERT - ASHTON TERRITORIAL'S ADVENTURE.



Mr. A.C. Brocklehurst, the sanitary engineer of the Denton Council, has received a letter during the weekend from his brother-in-law, Private ERNEST HOPTON, of the 1/9th Ashton Territorials, who is in Egypt. Prior to the war Private HOPTON lived in Turner Street, off Ashton Road, and was a conductor on the Oldham, Ashton and Hyde Tramway Co. He is well known in Hyde district, where his wife and children at present reside. A clever penman, he has executed some capital sketches, and was training in the art of drawing cartoons. Describing his experiences, Private HOPTON write :- " The other day we had a terrific sandstorm, the second we have had since I came here, and I don't want any more, as they are horrible. They make seeing absolutely impossible, and your eyes are choked up with sand, which is very painful, and leaves them very sore, and red rimmed. The other day ( Saturday, Mar. 6th) I had an experience that I shall never forget. I was out with a patrol, and myself and another soldier were told to go out and visit an outpost at midnight. We struck out in the direction we thought was right, and after a few miles march we found that we could not find it. We had lost the trail in the darkness. So we made every endeavour to trace it again, but could not do so, and after hours of searching we found that we were doing nothing in the way of getting back, but were simply walking round in circles. We were indeed lost, and were far off the beaten track. I have read many a time when at school of men being lost on the great Sahara Desert, but I never thought I should myself experience the same. I thought of what I had read, and as serious as it really was I could not help smiling as I am always ready for something fresh to put down in my history. So finding that we were lost, and had wandered farther into the heart of the desert, we thought we had better look for footprints, and we found some, and later, to our disgust, we discovered that they were only our own - we had made them when travelling round in the circle. Then we tried the old fashioned dodge of lying on the ground with your ear to the sand, to see if we could locate sounds. No such luck as sounds - all was as still as the grave. So we gave the job up, and decided to stop in the same place, and just walk around to keep off drowsiness. It was a very queer experience, I can tell you, and one never knows who he is going to run into on those jobs; but we were ready for any surprise, and had some beautiful presents ready for any univited guests that only needed a slight tap to discharge them, and 'then the balloon would go up.' We waited till the dawn, so that we could get our bearings from the distant hills, and after a most wearing trounce we struck lucky, and at last landed back at our post, to the surprise of our men, who had given us up. I may also mention that a young man from another regiment was doing the same duty one night, and strayed out into the desert. By a stroke of luck he managed to guide himself by the moon and sun's positions, and at last struck a post after three days wandering. Had he been lost any longer he would have perished. At the time of writing this letter an Egyptian newspaper man is going round selling the 'Egyptian Mail'. They can speak only a little broken English, and the soldiers tell them what to shout. It is a common thing to hear them shouting out, 'Engleeze papiour, velly good vellygince, and sweet,' or else 'Good news, Boar War over;' and also 'Good news; Titanic sunk.' The Egyptian and Arabs try and be very friendly with the English Tommy, and some times call out to him 'Sae'eda,' meaning 'How are you?' 'Good morning,' and 'Ma cigarette baksshech,' which means 'Give me a cigarette for nothing.' Fancy giving one of those sons of darkness a cigarette. You can smell their bodies a mile off. Talk about Moses being in the bull rushes in the Nile. Some of the natives could do with dipping in the Nile, and a small amount of Jey's fluid added as a beautifier. They sit on the ground catching lice by the thousands and do not seem to have any idea of real cleaniness. Of course, I am referring to the barge men, and the men who man the 'dows,' and other kinds of cheap labour, but their teeth are excellent, and shine like pearls. I have also sampled Egyptian bread, but I don't like it at all. It smells fusty, is like the unleavened bread of the Jews, and goes bad after a day's time."

http://ashtonpals.webs.com/1916page3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der 1. Weltkrieg im April 1917

1. April
Englische Vorstöße bei Arras gescheitert
Zusammenstöße im Somme-Gebiet
Ein italienischer Angriff am Stilfser Joch abgewiesen


Bei Arras erbeuteter englischer Tank

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_04_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from 2683 William Albert Wenham to his mother, 1st April 1917





http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/8734/2456
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A 9.2-inch Howitzer of 91st Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery in position under
camouflage netting in readiness for the opening barrage of the Battle of Arras, 1 April 1917




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:9.2inchHowitzer91stBatteryRGAArras1April1917.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Financing the First World War - Hew Strachan
Oxford University Press 2004

"on 1 April 1917 Britain's cash in the United States was all but exhausted. In New York, against an overdraft of $358 million and a weekly spend of $75 million Britain had $490 million in securities and $87 million in gold. At home the Bank of England and the joint stock banks could command a reserve of Ł114 million in gold. But just at the point when the exhaustion of Britain's finances was about to cut the Entente's Atlantic trade Germany declared unrestricted U-boat warfare, with the intention of achieving the same result. The effect was finally to precipitate the United States's entry into the war."

http://dannyreviews.com/h/Financing_WWI.html
Zie ook http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_part_did_the_US_play_in_World_War_1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

736 MORE ARMY RECRUITS.; Voluntary Enlistments Since April 1,1917, Now Total 400,929
The New York Times, April 05, 1918

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F10A17F9355B11738DDDAC0894DC405B888DF1D3
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Isaac Rosenberg


Self-portrait of Isaac Rosenberg, 1915.

Isaac Rosenberg (25 November 1890 – 1 April 1918) was an English poet of the First World War who was considered to be one of the greatest of all English war poets. His "Poems from the Trenches" are recognised as some of the most outstanding written during the First World War.

(...) He wrote the poem On Receiving News of the War in Cape Town, South Africa. While others wrote about war as patriotic sacrifice, Rosenberg was critical of the war from its onset. However, needing employment in order to help support his mother, Rosenberg returned to England in October 1915 and enlisted in the army. He was assigned to the 12th Suffolk Folk Regiment, a 'bantam' battalion (men under 5'3"). After turning down an offer to become a lance corporal, Private Rosenberg was later transferred to the 11th Battalion, The King's Own Royal Lancaster Regiment (KORL). He was sent to the Somme on the Western Front in France where, having just finished night patrol, he was killed at dawn on April 1, 1918; there is a dispute as to whether his death occurred at the hands of a sniper or in close combat. In either case, Fampoux is the name of the town where he died. He was first buried in a mass grave, but in 1926, his remains were identified and reinterred, not in England, but at Bailleul Road East Cemetery, Plot V, St. Laurent-Blangy, Pas de Calais, France.

In The Great War and Modern Memory, Paul Fussell's landmark study of the literature of the First World War, Fussell identifies Rosenberg's Break of Day in the Trenches as "the greatest poem of the war."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Rosenberg

On Receiving News of the War

Snow is a strange white word.
No ice or frost
Has asked of bud or bird
For Winter's cost.

Yet ice and frost and snow
From earth to sky
This Summer land doth know.
No man knows why.

In all men's hearts it is.
Some spirit old
Hath turned with malign kiss
Our lives to mould.

Red fangs have torn His face.
God's blood is shed.
He mourns from His lone place
His children dead.

O! ancient crimson curse!
Corrode, consume.
Give back this universe
Its pristine bloom
.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_Receiving_News_of_the_War

Break of Day in the Trenches

The darkness crumbles away
It is the same old druid Time as ever,
Only a live thing leaps my hand,
A queer sardonic rat,
As I pull the parapet's poppy
To stick behind my ear.
Droll rat, they would shoot you if they knew
Your cosmopolitan sympathies,
Now you have touched this English hand
You will do the same to a German
Soon, no doubt, if it be your pleasure
To cross the sleeping green between.
It seems you inwardly grin as you pass
Strong eyes, fine limbs, haughty athletes,
Less chanced than you for life,
Bonds to the whims of murder,
Sprawled in the bowels of the earth,
The torn fields of France.
What do you see in our eyes
At the shrieking iron and flame
Hurled through still heavens?
What quaver -what heart aghast?
Poppies whose roots are in men's veins
Drop, and are ever dropping;
But mine in my ear is safe,
Just a little white with the dust
.

http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/break-of-day-in-the-trenches/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nog een bonus dan... De man is écht goed...

Dead Man's Dump (May 1917)

The plunging limbers over the shattered track
Racketed with their rusty freight,
Stuck out like many crowns of thorns,
And the rusty stakes like sceptres old
To stay the flood of brutish men
Upon our brothers dear.

The wheels lurched over sprawled dead
But pained them not, though their bones crunched,
Their shut mouths made no moan,
They lie there huddled, friend and foeman,
Man born of man, and born of woman,
And shells go crying over them
From night till night and now.

Earth has waited for them
All the time of their growth
Fretting for their decay:
Now she has them at last!
In the strength of their strength
Suspended--stopped and held.

What fierce imaginings their dark souls lit
Earth! have they gone into you?
Somewhere they must have gone,
And flung on your hard back
Is their souls' sack,
Emptied of God-ancestralled essences.
Who hurled them out? Who hurled?

None saw their spirits' shadow shake the grass,
Or stood aside for the half used life to pass
Out of those doomed nostrils and the doomed mouth,
When the swift iron burning bee
Drained the wild honey of their youth.

What of us, who flung on the shrieking pyre,
Walk, our usual thoughts untouched,
Our lucky limbs as on ichor fed,
Immortal seeming ever?
Perhaps when the flames beat loud on us,
A fear may choke in our veins
And the startled blood may stop.

The air is loud with death,
The dark air spurts with fire
The explosions ceaseless are.
Timelessly now, some minutes past,
These dead strode time with vigorous life,
Till the shrapnel called 'an end!'
But not to all. In bleeding pangs
Some borne on stretchers dreamed of home,
Dear things, war-blotted from their hearts.

A man's brains splattered on
A stretcher-bearer's face;
His shook shoulders slipped their load,
But when they bent to look again
The drowning soul was sunk too deep
For human tenderness.

They left this dead with the older dead,
Stretched at the cross roads.
Burnt black by strange decay,
Their sinister faces lie
The lid over each eye,
The grass and coloured clay
More motion have than they,
Joined to the great sunk silences.

Here is one not long dead;
His dark hearing caught our far wheels,
And the choked soul stretched weak hands
To reach the living word the far wheels said,
The blood-dazed intelligence beating for light,
Crying through the suspense of the far torturing wheels
Swift for the end to break,
Or the wheels to break,
Cried as the tide of the world broke over his sight.

Will they come? Will they ever come?
Even as the mixed hoofs of the mules,
The quivering-bellied mules,
And the rushing wheels all mixed
With his tortured upturned sight,
So we crashed round the bend,
We heard his weak scream,
We heard his very last sound,
And our wheels grazed his dead face
.

http://www.whscms.org.uk/index.php?category_id=1702
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The History and Development of Austrian Airlines

Austria established the world’s first regular international air connection on 1 April 1918, when it opened its route between Vienna and Kiev. Initially, this served only to transport post. In July 1918, the line from Vienna to Budapest was also opened.

http://www.austrianairlines.ag/AustrianAirlinesGroup/Profil/OurHistory.aspx?sc_lang=en
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Constitution of Dáil Éireann (1 April 1919)

The Constitution of Dáil Éireann (Bunreacht Dála Éireann), more commonly known simply as the Dáil Constitution, was the short, provisional constitution of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic of 1919-1922. It was adopted by Dáil Éireann, the parliament of the Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21 January, 1919. At a meeting of the Dáil on 1 April of the same year, five separate motions to amend the constitution were adopted. The text below is the text of the constitution as amended on 1 April 1919.

Article 1 All legislative powers shall be vested in Dail Eireann, composing of Deputies, elected by the Irish people from the existing Irish Parliamentary constituencies.

Article 2 (a) All executive powers shall be vested in the members, for the time being, of the Ministry.
(b) The Ministry shall consist of a President of the Ministry, elected by Dail Eireann, and not more than nine Executive Officers, including:–
A Secretary of Finance
A Secretary of Home Affairs
A Secretary of Foreign Affairs
A Secretary of National Defence
each of whom the President shall nominate and have power to dismiss.
(c) Every member of the Ministry shall be a member of Dail Eireann, and shall at all times be responsible to the Dail.
(d) At the first meeting of Dail Eireann after their nomination by the President, or during the meeting at which the President shall himself have been elected to his office, the names of the Executive Officers shall be separately submitted to Dail Eireann for approval.
(e) The appointment of the President shall date from his election, and the appointment of each Executive Officer from the date of the approval by the Dail of his nomination.
(f) The Ministry or any member thereof may at any time be removed by vote of the Dail upon motion for that specific purpose, provided that at least seven days notice in writing of that motion shall have been given.
(g) The President may himself in writing nominate from among the Members of the Ministry a President-Substitute who shall act in his place and exercise all his powers (including the power to nominate a President-Substitute with Presidential Status, and the power to nominate Substitute Ministers) in the event of the President becoming unable by reason of enemy action, or absence abroad, or illness, or other emergency, to perform the functions of his office; if occasion arises for the President Substitute to assume office he shall act as President of the Ministry until the President resumes his functions or resigns, or until he himself becomes unable by reason of enemy action, absence abroad, illness, or other emergency, to perform the functions of the office; if at any time there is no President or President-Substitute, or if there is no President or President-Substitute able to perform the functions of the Presidential Office, a meeting of Dail shall be convened to elect a President.
(h) Whenever any Member of the Ministry other than the President shall become unable by reason of enemy action, absence abroad, illness, or other emergency, to perform the functions of his office, the President may forthwith—and shall if the incapacity shall extend over thirty days —appoint another Deputy as Minister-Substitute to fill his place and exercise all his powers during his absence, but the name of every Substitute-Minister shall be submitted for approval to the next meeting of Dáil after his appointment if the incapacity of the original Minister then continues.

Article 3 A Chairman elected annually by the Dail, and in his absence a Deputy Chairman so elected, shall preside at all meetings of Dail Eireann. Only members of the Dail shall be eligible for these offices. In case of the absence of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman the Dail shall fill the vacancies or elect a temporary Chairman.

Article 4 All monies required by the Ministry shall be obtained on vote of the Dail. The Ministry shall be responsible to the Dail for all monies so obtained, and shall present properly audited accounts for the expenditure of the same during the month of November, 1919, and thereafter twice yearly in the months of May and November. The audit shall be conducted by an Auditor or Auditors appointed by the Dail. No member of the Dail shall be eligible for such appointment.

Article 5 This Constitution is provisional and is liable to alteration upon seven days written notice of motion for that specific purpose.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_D%C3%A1il_%C3%89ireann_(1_April_1919)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1 April 1919 → Commons Sitting

CENSOR'S MUSEUM.


HC Deb 01 April 1919 vol 114 c1042 1042

Lieut.-Colonel ARTHUR MURRAY asked the Secretary of State for War if he will state what steps, if any, are being taken to preserve for the public the contents of the Censor's Museum at Strand House, including the collection of enemy propaganda literature?

Captain GUEST The contents of the Censor's Museum are being handed over to the Imperial War Museum and the British Museum.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/apr/01/censors-museum
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters between Sylvester and Eva, April 1919

Chateau-Thierry
1 April 1919

Dearest Eva,

I have given all day to a tour of the front, mostly in what used to be called in the official communiques "the section NW of Rheims", but at the end of the day a short trip also from Chateau Thierry to Belleau Wood over ground made famous by our 2nd Division (including the Marines) last June.

We got up ready to go at 9 o'clock as planned. Before leaving we met up with an Artillery Captain who wanted to get to Chateau Thierry and who was glad of the chance to come along with us, get the ride and see some more of the old battle front. Before leaving the city we drove around to the Rheims Cathedral again, to get some pictures and see it more thoroughly. The shells came from the direction of its rear so that the front except for the towers is quite well preserved, but for the rest, it is a gaping ruin. It was once one of the finest Gothic cathedrals in France.

If it was an experience to wander thru the desolate streets of Rheims at night, it was equally so to be in its heart in the morning - to think that here, where we were between nine and ten in the morning, but 5 years ago all would be bustle and business, whereas now everything was still except a very few people here and there, and a few birds singing just as though we were way out in the country. I should note, however, that the souvenir picture and postcard booths have already made their appearance out side the cathedral. What a harvest will be made there from tourists in the years to come!

From Rheims we went along the front to Soissons, stopping quite a little by the way. We stopped along the heights of the Vesle river to look at a few dugouts by the roadside, and to climb a hill which overlooked a broad expanse of valley. On top of this hill I photographed the grave of a lone British soldier, a postcard picture of whom was on the inside of his helmet, placed on his grave.

Going into the town of Fismes, a town in the same shape as all of them, we found a group of German prisoners working and one had just fallen off a wall and hurt himself seriously. The non-commissioned officer in charge of the French guard asked us for a lift to take the man to a hospital not far away, so we gave the the use of the car for that gladly of course, and ourselves found our way to the railroad station by the aid of another German prisoner who spoke English. From there we walked up the railroad track quite a distance; all along there was every kind of evidence of last summer's fighting - American, French and German. All sorts of American equipment lay around where they had been, for it was the habit of our men to cast off everything when they went into it. I picked up here a few helmets and other souvenirs, and between those we all had our car looked like a junkpile. Where the car joined us again there was a huge dump of equipment salvaged form the battleground thereabouts. The ground is being worked on all the time chiefly by prisoners, who are picking up especially the unexploded shells and grenades so that they won't endanger the farmers. When we finally got started again we continued without stop to Soissons, and took dinner there. After dinner we spent some time in the Soissons cathedral which is more badly damaged that that at Rheims, particularly the towers. Also one is allowed in the Soissons cathedral and not in that of Rheims. We were allowed to climb way up into the edge of the roof, and go all around the building where it was safe. Our French soldier guide gave me a piece of the bronze bell which had been destroyed, as a souvenir, while the rest weren't around, telling me to keep it quiet, for he didn't have enough to go around.

From Soissons we drove down to Chateau-Thierry here, a matter of 30 or 35 miles. It is all thru country which was in the path of the American advance last summer. It is nice country, too, open and expansive, and visible for long distances; civilization is creeping back for there has been a great deal of ploughing done already, and the people who belong there seem to be coming gradually back to their own.

The working parties clearing the battlegrounds seem quite numerous, and once we were stopped at a crossroads by a German prisoner, who was posted there to warn those who approached not to proceed until some explosions just below had been completed - grenades that are being blown up. I wanted to snap a picture, while they weren't looking, of the Germans, which would include also our artillery captain who was near them, merely to get into a group together persons who a few months ago would come together only to exterminate each other and now were talking together in a perfectly matter-of-fact way about such an everyday matter as how soon we'd be able to go along on our journey; but the sun wasn't right for the picture.

We made our arrangements for the night as soon as we got to the town of Chateau-Thierry, and then took a late afternoon run out as far as Belleau Wood and the town of Lucy. In this little town there is a crucifix hanging in the church which was never touched by all the firing though the rest of the church is wrecked; the object receives of course therefore much superstitious veneration. Belleau Wood must have been a tough nut to crack; it is on a small hill just over a brook it is all wooded and filled with boulders which were good protection for the Germans and hence made it all the more difficult for the Americans to take. The fighting lasted over a matter of weeks before the Germans were entirely cleared from the wood. It was no small task. Today the woods are full of peacefully growing anemones - what a contrast to the grim aspect of the place last June! We stopped on our way to look over two or three little American cemeteries out in that direction, too, but found no one any of us knew.

We have no heat tonight either, and aren't going to lose much time getting into bed.

I send you lots of love, all my love, as always.

Sylvester.

http://www.cromwellbutlers.com/sbel0419.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 1 April 1919.

Valkenswaard. In den nacht van Maandag op Dinsdag zijn bij Jan Verbiest alhier drie groote konijnen ontvreemd.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mrt 2011 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Discovering Women in Irish History: Dáil Éireann 1919-22

Constance Markievicz was still in prison when the Dáil met for the first time on 21 January 1919 but she was released to another tremendous welcome and was present on 1 April when she was appointed to the Cabinet as Minister for Labour.

http://www.scoilnet.ie/womeninhistory/content/unit3/dail_eireann_1919_22.html
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