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28 Februari

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Feb 2006 7:33    Onderwerp: 28 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 28. Februar

1914

1915
Bedeutende Erfolge in den Vogesen und bei Verdun
Die geringen Verluste in der Winterschlacht in Masuren
Des Kaisers Dank an Hindenburg und Ludendorff
Fortdauer der Karpathenschlacht
Russische Kampfweise

1916
Erfolgreicher Vorstoß in der Champagne
Weitere Fortschritte bei Verdun
Eine deutsche Protestnote an Portugal
Die Beute von Durazzo
Die Flucht der Italiener aus Durazzo
Eine deutsche Erklärung in Washington zum U-Boot-Krieg
Die Besatzung der "Westburn" verhaftet

1917
Neuer Sturmerfolg an der Valeputna-Straße
Englischer Angriff an der Somme abgewiesen
Die deutschen Erfolge an der Ostfront
Die neue türkische Stellung am Tigris

1918
2000 Maschinengewehre in Minsk erbeutet
Finnland bittet um deutsche Hilfe
Bombenangriff auf Venedig
Bevorstehender österreichisch-ungarischer Einmarsch in Podolien

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Feb 2006 7:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 28

1916 German Cameroons surrenders to Allied forces

On this day in 1916, Allied forces complete their conquest of the Cameroons, a German protectorate on the coast of western Africa.

Drawn by the rich trade of slaves, ivory and rubber established in the 17th century, German and British settlers began to explore inland Africa beginning around 1860. In 1884, Germany established a protectorate over the Douala region; Britain did not dispute the claim. By the early 20th century, Germany had built roads, begun the construction of a railroad and cultivated large plantations of cacao, palm and rubber in the region. They had also built a city, Douala, on the Atlantic coast, which by 1914 served as the principal port and wireless station in the Cameroons.

The British launched their campaign in the German Cameroons in late summer 1914, just after the outbreak of World War I; it would last 18 months. The British failed to anticipate the German strategy: knowing the formidable strength of the British navy, the Germans decided not to concentrate on defending the coast, but instead to withdraw inland and use the rough interior of the continent to fortify their resistance. Thus, although British forces earned quick successes—they secured Douala by September 27, 1914, without firing a shot—they were not able to fully take control of the Cameroons until the following February.

The West African Frontier Force, fully committed in the Cameroons until March 1916, was one of two sets of “local” troops that the British turned to in Africa; the other was the South African Defense Force, which concentrated on the campaign in German Southwest Africa (now Namibia). African soldiers in World War I were generally compelled to enlist or were mercenaries. Some served on both sides during the war.

In 1919, during the Versailles peace conference, Britain was given a mandate over one-fifth of the former German Cameroons; the rest was assigned to France. A mandate was a commission granted by the newly created League of Nations allowing member states of the League to establish their own governments in former German territories. Both the British and French Cameroons were made trust territories of the United Nations after World War II. The French Cameroons gained their independence in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon. The following year, after a U.N. plebiscite was conducted in the British Cameroons, the southern half of the territory joined the Republic of Cameroon, while the Northern Cameroons became part of Nigeria.
www.historychannel.com
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AE1 (1914-1914)

The AE1, the Royal Australian Navy’s first submarine, was commissioned in the United Kingdom on 28 February 1914. After commissioning, AE1 accompanied by AE2, sailed to Australia crewed jointly by British and Australian sailors, arriving at Sydney in May 1914.

Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, both submarines proceeded to New Guinea for operations against the German colonies. On 14 September, AE1, accompanied by HMAS Parramatta, left Blanche Bay, New Britain, to patrol off Cape Gazelle. She was last seen by Parramatta at 3.30 pm that day and no trace has been found of her, or her company, since. It has been presumed that AE1 struck an uncharted reef and sank.

http://www.awm.gov.au/units/unit_10759.asp

The E class submarines HMA Ships AE1, (LCDR T. F. Besant, RN), and AE2, (LCDR H. H. G. D. Stoker, RN), were commissioned in Portsmouth, England. AE1 and AE2 were laid down in Vickers Yard, Barrow-in-Furness, England. AE1 was launched on 22 May 1913, and AE2 on 18 June 1913. AE1 and AE2 departed Portsmouth on 2 March 1914, for Australia.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1914-1918/
Zie ook http://www.eurekacouncil.com.au/Australia-History/History-Pages/1914-hmas_ae2.htm
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“I hope you live a life you are proud of. If you find that you are not, l hope you have the strength to start all over again.
- F. Scott Fitzgerald


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 27 Feb 2010 20:34, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Butte de Vauquois

Van oktober 1914 tot februari 1915 werd gevochten om de herovering van de heuvel waarbij de Fransen hun aanvallen moesten uitvoeren zonder artillerieondersteuning. Na zeer zware verliezen bezetten zij de zuidzijde van de heuvel. Nieuwe Franse aanvalsgolven tussen 17 februari en 4 maart braken uiteindelijk de Duitse tegenstand. Dit ging ten koste van enorme verliezen: alleen al bij de aanvallen tussen 28 februari en 4 maart werden 3.000 mannen gedood, gewond of vermist.

Midden maart bezette de 11e Divisie van generaal Valdant de zuidelijke helft van het inmiddels volledig in puin geschoten dorp Vauquois waar de Fransen zich ingroeven en, tijdens een tegenaanval, voor het eerst te maken kregen met een nieuwe verschrikking: de vlammenwerper, die hier voor de eerste keer aan het Westelijk Front werd gebruikt. De Duitsers groeven zich in langs de noordkant van het dorp; de loopgraven lagen soms niet meer dan een steenworp van elkaar verwijderd.

http://www.meuse-ardennes.com/vauqois.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdun als symbool

Een nieuwe lokale bevelhebber werd benoemd: generaal Philippe Pétain. Hij kreeg de opdracht, die Von Falkenhayn voorzien had. Ten koste van alles moest hij de rechter Maasoever tegen de Duitse aanvallen verdedigen. Pétain vestigde zijn hoofdkwartier in Souilly (ten zuiden van Verdun). Daarna moest hij vijf dagen het bed houden wegens een hevige en levensgevaarlijke longontsteking. Terwille van het moreel werd dit feit voor de troepen verborgen gehouden.

Op 28 februari trad plotseling de dooi in. De aanvoer van troepen en voorraden naar Verdun dreigde hopeloos vast te lopen. De belangrijkste aanvoerroute, vanaf Bar le Duc naar Verdun, bleek één grote modderpoel te worden.

Toen gaf Pétain zijn beroemde bevel: territoriale troepen (een hulpkorps van semi-militairen en oudgedienden) moesten 24 uur per dag met schoppen steenslag op de weg gooien, zodat die door de massieve banden van de vrachtwagens zou kunnen worden vastgereden. Kapotte vrachtwagens moesten in de berm geduwd worden, zodat de stroom van voertuigen onophoudelijk zou kunnen doorgaan. Dat werkte. Dag in, dag uit, vanaf februari 1916 tot september 1916 reden de camions af en aan in twee eindeloze rijen. Rechts naar Verdun toe, links van Verdun af. In de acht dagen tot 6 maart reden 3500 vrachtwagens 190.000 man en 23.000 ton munitie naar het slagveld. Men heeft berekend dat op het hoogtepunt van de slag elke 14 seconden een voertuig voorbij reed, wat uitkomt op 250 vrachtwagens per uur.

http://members.casema.nl/r.cossee/verdun.html

De Duitsers verzinken in de modder

Op 28 februari was de Duitse aanval praktisch tot stilstand gekomen. De Fransen waren frisser en doortastender, hun oorspronkelijke divisies waren vervangen en vervolgens versterkt, terwijl de Duitse formaties in het geheel niet afgelost waren en de troepen de gevolgen voelden van een week van intensieve gevechten. Ook de beloofde reserves bleven uit. De Duitse artillerie wankelde onder de enorme moeilijkheden van het optrekken over velden die omgeploegd waren door granaten, vooral toen de dooi inviel en de klei in dikke modder veranderde. Het ergste was dat de Fransen hun aantal zware kanonnen van 164 op meer dan 500 hadden gebracht, waarmee zij de Duitse infanterie met onophoudelijke en doeltreffende kanonnades uit de flank vanaf de linker Maasoever bombardeerden, vooral vanaf de forten op de hellingen van het Bois Bourrus.

http://www.verdun.nl/La%20Bataille%20de%2016.htm
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'letters from Bert" - 28 February 1915

Mena camp 28/2/15

Dear Homefolks
Received a letter during the week from you Mum, but it only contained that page out of the Bulletin. I expect you forgot to enclose the letter _ _ _. Anyway the cartoon was very good & I’ve shown it to nearly all the men mentioned. Whitton who looked it over carefully, said “I see your sister did me the honor of leaving me out” & he was as pleased as Punch when he found himself being carried like a bag of spuds on another chaps back. Poor Elbell is very crook with pneumonia & he & Sprigy Fergusson are the only ones who didn’t see it. How did you come to miss out Cpl Rosser?

Well the blooming censor is being put on the job again so I’ll have to remain very very dumb on certain subjects so if there is no real news don’t worry.

Ida! IDA! Why the Dickens don’t you answer at once. Now Miss what do you mean by talking rot like that. I’ve decided to come home with a BEARD as well so there. Cant you see the game you you you I don’t know what. And I’m not going to stop growing my mo, till I can tie it in a nice double bow knot on my forehead after its been once around my head. You see if I come back like that, nobodyilnome & I could have a gay old time living like farmer lucerne seeds.

A coy had been going the pace lately. We held a sports meeting yesterday afternoon & a splendid concert at night. The only bad thing about the sports was that owing to lack of time one of the events had to be postponed. They are printing copies of the programme as sovenoirs & if I can get you one I’ll toss it over. They are very good & you’ll die laughing when you see it.

No. 1 platoon did best of all winning most of the events. The 100yds championship went to a man in my tent. The relay race – 1 offr & 4 men went to No1 also the horse race & sack race. No 3 won the tug of war after a great pull. A No 2 man won the mile & a No 2 sergt won fancy dress. He dressed up as “___” one of our officers & was immediately recognised.

The concert at night was even a greater success than the sports.

Vernie has gone up another stripe by todays Battalion orders. The Sergt of the Siglrs – staff Sergt. Maj Hains has been given a better job in the Engrs so Vernie has now got his job. He’s getting on finely. If anything should happen to GA at the front & the excitable little beggar’s nearly sure to be shot if he tears about at the front the way he does here, Vernie will get his job probably as a 2nd Leiut so he has good prospects.

I didn’t notice that I had not told you about the concert. One of the first events was a boxing match between Sgt McGowan, the tallest man in the Bn, & Sgt Woollsey the chiropodist who is the smallest man in the Regt. One is 6ft 6 & the other about 4ft 11. It was very laughable. Early in the contest Woollsey was knocked out, & on recovering he demanded his opponents gloves to be examined which resulted in the discovery of a horseshoe & a stone. The knockout was then disallowed & the contest proceeded. Woollsey however was getting much the worst of it as his opponent would put his glove on Woollsey face & keep him off. The third round was so willing that a chair got knocked into the centre of the ring & Woollsey seeing the chance of a life time sprang on it & hit with all his might & McGowan was counted out amidst wild & excited cheering.

After that came several comic & otherwise songs & recitations then a banjo & bones item which was very good, after that a banjo item in which the banjo was thrown & twisted over & over & not a note was spoilt. On being recalled we were given an imitation of a church service. You’d swear that you were listening to a distant organ & the tune was easily discernable. After the hymn you could hear the minister talking tho you couldn’t of course understand it, & then another hymn. “Very good. Very nice” as the nigs say.

Another boxing match was then introduced. It appeared that Lt Carter who rode the winning horse had made a bet of half a piastrie (1 ¼) with Capt McConaghy who had not paid. Consequence they decided to settle it out of court in the most approved style. There was considerable difficulty in keeping them apart till they got their gloves on, & then the poor referee, who was armed with a drumstick to enforce his authority, had the job of his life keeping the men to the confines of civilized boxing. He was compelled all throughout the contest to use the nobby end with more or less force as the occasion demanded, to prevent brutal disfiguring. In the end after he was tired out the opponents got together & with savage growls tried to pull each other to pieces, but their well meant intentions were all for nought as the officers of their respective coys rushed in & dragged them apart & the referee gave a draw. Shortly after that the band played “God Save our King” & for some reason or other everyone left so they had to finish up.

We had two bonzer 10 mile marches last week & in each case we did them before breakfast & we do another one tomorrow. We got up at 4am & after a light snack marched towards Cairo for 5 miles & then came back. It’s O.K. doing all our work in the early morning & then having the rest of the day off.

On Thursday last we left camp at 4pm & A & C took up a position about 1 ½ from the camp & we were to be attacked by B & D. They beat us badly but by underhand methods which would not have succeeded at the front. Two or three of them dressed up as “Nigs” & took oranges & chocs to sell. Of course as it was dark none of us took a tumble, as the niggers follow us with their good no matter where we go. They found out all our stragetic points & then finding that we were too strong to attack from within the stipulated bounds they attacked us in another quarter & won _ _ _. We got back to camp about 10.30pm & had tea. We had had nothing for 10 ½ hours & were pretty hungry.

Last Monday A & B went out shooting at target plates etc at unknown ranges. No 1 platoon came third. On the way home there was a bit of a scheme.

Oh I forgot to tell you that in the concert a presentation was made to Capt - now Major Brown the O.C of A & who is very very strict in every sense of the word & knows his work thoroughly. The presentation was got up by the old & new defaulters of A & when the miles of tissue paper was removed it was found to be an “Infantry training manual”. Everybody fairly rocked with laughter. It seemed so funny. He took it in the right spirit & informed them that he’d study it closely & try & discover some new method of getting at them.

A coy is very progressive & they often hold concerts. I believe that Major Brown is at the bottom of it all too. I’ve been hitting it fairly well with him lately tho my men are horribly incompetent. It makes me feel as if I’d like to be in the ranks instead of a flagwagger as I felt certain that with the men I’ve got I’ll never be able to keep the lines of communication clear.

It’s nearly lights out now so I’ll close with best love & wishes to you all. If you see Clytie or Mrs Fox tell them I’ll write them during the week. Haven’t got a stamp. Your loving son & brother Bert.

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/15_9.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 February 1917, Commons Sitting

ALIEN ENEMIES.


HC Deb 28 February 1917 vol 90 cc2033-5 2033

§ Sir H. CRAIK asked the Secretary for Scotland how many alien enemies there are uninterned in Scotland; how 2034 many of that number are in the Glasgow district; and how many are in prohibited areas?

§ Mr. MUNRO Excluding British-born wives, there are, approximately, in Scotland, 770 uninterned enemy aliens, of whom 450 are men and 320 women; 300 men and 150 women are in the Glasgow district. Of the remainder, 84 men and 105 women are in other prohibited areas.

§ Mr. W. YOUNG How many of these are friendly?

§ Mr. MUNRO I would like to say that the total number which I have given includes friendly aliens, and in addition to, that, a very large proportion of those included in the figures are persons who have resided in the country over forty years.

§ Sir H. CRAIK asked the Secretary for Scotland how many alien enemies previously residing in Scotland have been interned, and how many from the Glasgow district?

§ Mr. MUNRO The numbers are approximately 400 from Glasgow and 700 from the rest of Scotland.

§ Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the Secretary for Scotland who are the Advisory Committee in regard to alien enemies in Scotland; whether it is proposed to strengthen it; how many cases they have considered; how many they have left uninterned; and how many have been released from internment?

§ Mr. MUNRO The Scottish Advisory Committee consists of Lord Dewar (Chairman) and my hon. Friends the Member for South Lanarkshire and the Member for Govan, the latter of whom has recently taken the place of my right hon. Friend the Member for Kirkcaldy Burghs. The Committee has examined over 1,800 cases, and, in addition, it has recently revised all cases in prohibited areas. The men of all ages exempted from internment or repatriation number about 400, and 68 have been released, some of whom are now in England. I see no reason to alter the composition of the Committee.

§ Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS Will the right hon. Gentleman make a report to the House as to the work of this Committee such as we have had in regard to England?

§ Mr. MUNRO Yes, I will consider that suggestion.

§ Mr. WATT Are we to understand that only 400 were interned out of the 1,800 cases examined?

§ Mr. MUNRO I must refer the hon. Member to the answer I have given.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February Revolution of 1917

On 27 February (12 March), an armed rebellion broke out in Petrograd. In the morning, soldiers from the Volynsky Regiment rebelled; they were followed by reserve soldiers from the Litovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments (their barracks were at 37/1 Kirochnaya Street; memorial plaque installed). On 27-28 February 1917, other units from the Petrograd Garrison joined them (on the morning of 27 February, 10,000 soldiers rebelled; during the course of the day, there were over 25,000; by evening, there were over 67,000; on 28 February, there were 127,000). The Main Arsenal, the Telegraph Service, the Central Post Office, and various railway stations, bridges, and governmental buildings all passed into the hands of revolting soldiers and workers. Police stations were looted; the Kresty (Crosses) Prison and the Temporary Confinement Building were captured; the Circuit Court buildings on Liteiny Avenue and the Lithuanian Prison Castle (on Kryukov Canal) were burnt; all prisoners were set free, and arrests began of the Tsar's ministers. General Khabalov and A. P. Balk, the Petrograd Chief of City Administration, together continued their resistance from the city administration building (2 Gorokhovaya Street), but to no avail. On 27 February, they sent a combined detachment headed by Colonel A. P. Kutepov with the purpose of "installing order", only to have the soldiers "disperse" among the rebels. Khabalov and all troops loyal to the government tried to consolidate at the building of the Main Admiralty, but by 28 February (13 March) 1917 the had to surrender.

http://www.encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804022822

On 28 February 1917, the bourgeois parties in parliament, the Duma, form a provisional government under the leadership of Alexandr Kerenski.

http://www.willy-brandt.de/bwbs_biografie/February_revolution_in_Russia_B693.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 22:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Into The Blue: Pilot Training in Canada, 1917-18
Dispatches: Backgrounders in Canadian Military History
Hugh A. Halliday and Dr. Laura Brandon

Lieutenant-Colonel (later Brigadier) C.G. Hoare, the RFC officer who headed the new training organization in Canada, moved quickly when he arrived from Britain in January 1917. He ordered that flying instruction commence at Long Branch on 28 February 1917, although buildings were still under construction and the first JN-4s had been completed and approved for service only days before. The largest school, Camp Borden, began flying training on 30 March 1917.

http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/explore/military-history/dispatches/into-the-blue-pilot-training-in-canada-1917-18
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 28 FEBRUARY 1918

Page 16 - A COMRADE’S TRIBUTE
A generous comrade’s tribute to a comrade in arms is paid by a soldier of the 1st Auckland Infantry Battalion in the following letter: “My brave old comrade, Tom FORREST, has won the Military Medal and there was never a more popular and well deserved award made. He is the gamest, toughest bit of good old British ‘stuff’ that ever walked and we will never forget him. While with No.4 gun in an outpost, his team and others were hit by an enormous shell and 7 were killed and 2 wounded. He was buried up to his chest. He was stunned and the drum of his ear broken. In broad daylight and in spite of the fact that enemy snipers were thick on a hill in front of us, he walked coolly across the open, some hundreds of yards, to get a stretcher. He had a little white band on his arm which may have made the enemy respect him as a stretcher bearer but instead of that it is a gamble whether the Germans will respect a bearer. The Colonel made him stop in his dugout for a rest and then wanted to send him away but Tom said ‘No’, he would stay with his chums and did so. However, when we got out his ear started to bleed and he has gone to hospital.” Private FORREST is a son of Mrs Langsford of Hauraki Road, Takapuna.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn28feb1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 22:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Opa Geert Aalders in dienst

Volgens het bord dat op de foto te zien is, is de foto genomen te Hoogeveen op 28 februari 1918. Er staat verder bij "Detachement 2-8 L.W.J.".

Héérlijke foto... http://www.jacobboerema.nl/genealogie/Opa-Geert-Aalders-in-dienst.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ARMISTICE FATALITIES: Australian service personnel who died on 11 November 1918

Sapper William Sandiland Howden (service number 9549) was born in White Kirk, Scotland on 29 May 1887. His parents remained in Scotland although he and his sister had since settled in Australia. His sister lived with her husband in Kurri Kurri, while he lived and worked as a coalminer near Wollongong. He initially attempted to enlist in early 1915 but was rejected for having poor teeth. Despite his dental problems, he successfully enlisted on 23 November 1917. Because of his mining background he served with the engineers in the 1st Australian Tunnelling Company. He embarked from Melbourne on 28 February 1918 and arrived at Liverpool on 20 April 1918. After spending four months in England, he eventually joined his unit in France on 11 September 1918. On 29 September he was wounded in action. A report from the No. 9 General Hospital in France provides an account of what happened next:

The above-named soldier was admitted to this hospital on 1.10.18 suffering from the effects of shell wounds leg, right, and compound fracture of leg, left. His right leg was amputated and a transfusion of blood was given on the 3.10.18 but he died from general infection and exhaustion on 11.11.18. He was buried in St Sever Cemetery Rouen on the 12.11.18. Grave No. 9362.

http://www.warmemorialsnsw.asn.au/traditions/remembranceday.cfm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 22:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1919)

28 februari 1919
Bijna vier maanden na het einde van de Duitse bezetting was er nog altijd geen sprake van enige bewegingsvrijheid. Dokter Govaerts vroeg daarom toelating om met zijn automobiel of motorcyclette patiënten te bezoeken. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=192&Itemid=47
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2010 23:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 February 1922, Commons Sitting

GERMAN MOUTH ORGANS.


HC Deb 28 February 1922 vol 151 c265 265

Lieut.-Colonel JAMES asked the President of the Board of Trade whether his attention has been drawn to the sale in London of mouth organs of German origin, enclosed in a box marked Moëwenspuk, and embellished with a portrait of the commander of the raider "Moëwe," the German ensign, and ships being sunk without trace at sea; and whether he is able or willing to take the necessary steps to prevent the further importation of this and similar specimens of offensive German propaganda?

Sir P. LLOYD-GREAME (Secretary, Overseas Trade Department) I have no information regarding the articles in question. But from the description given in my hon. and gallant Friend's question, I doubt whether there is any power to prevent the importation of these articles. If, however, my hon. and gallant Friend will send me one of these articles and the box in which it is sold, I will have the matter looked into.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1922/feb/28/german-mouth-organs
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Makati City

Makati (Lungsod ng Makati) is one of the 16 cities that comprise Metro Manila or the National Capital Region in the Philippines. It is known for its developed business district making it one of Asia's prominent financial, commercial and economic centers. (...)

Makati literally means “ebbing tide”. In the 1570s when the Spanish began to take over the Philippines, Spanish conquistador Miguel Lopéz de Legaspi declared the city’s area as a worthless swamp. But in later years, the worthless swampland was turned into a social, economic and cultural area. When the Spanish colonizers gave up the country to the Americans, the Americans established Fort McKinley in the city. With its population of 2,500, San Pedro de Makati was established in 1901. By 28 February 1914, Philippine Legislature Act No. 2390 was passed shortening the name to merely Makati.

http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Makati_City
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Friedmann



(...) When Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum after the June 1914 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, Russia supported Serbia, so Germany came to the support of Austria. World War I broke out on 1 August 1914 and Friedmann soon sought permission from the Head of the Observatory to join the volunteer aviation detachment. He began flying aircraft and was soon involved in bombing raids. He continued to study mathematics, writing and exchanging mathematical ideas with Steklov by letter. In a letter to Steklov written on 5 February 1915 Friedmann writes:-

My life is fairly even, except such accidents as a shrapnel explosion twenty feet away, the explosion of an Austrian bomb within half a foot, which turned out almost happily, and falling down on my face and head, which resulted in a ruptured upper lip and headaches. But one gets used to all this, of course, particularly seeing things all around which are a thousand times more awful.

Also in this letter he asked Steklov's advice on integrating equations he had obtained from theoretically modelling bombs dropping. At this time the Russians were blockading the town of Przemysl, which was defended by Austrian troops, and Friedmann flew bombing missions over the town. He had used his mathematical skills, together with a suggestion from Steklov, to compute the trajectory that the bomb would take. In a letter of 28 February 1915 he wrote:-

I have recently had a chance to verify my ideas during a flight over Przemysl; the bombs turned out to be falling almost the way the theory predicts. To have conclusive proof of the theory I'm going to fly again in a few days.

Friedmann was awarded the George Cross for bravery with his flights over Przemysl. In the summer of 1915 the Russian army retreated on its south west front. Friedmann was sent to Kiev and there he gave lectures on aeronautics for pilots. (...)

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Friedmann.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sergei Witte



Due to the revolution Count Witte insisted on the reform of the political system of the country. After a long period of hesitation the Tsar agreed to a reform of the Ministerial Council. The document was published and became known as the Manifesto of the 17th of October.

Witte pointed out the necessity of immediate reforms, underlining that natural development would inevitably lead Russia to a constitutional Monarchy. The Tsar agreed with these arguments and suggested preparing the corresponding manifesto. The monarchical power was limited to elective representative institution. For the first time in many centuries the population received political freedoms. Literally the day after the manifesto was released there was a question as to whether it was possible to consider it as the constitution. Though it wasn’t a constitution, it was defiantly a precedent.

The manifesto made a huge impact on internal policy. Its substantive provisions already could not be revoked. Russia entered a new phase of political development.

Witte had been put in charge of the Council of Ministers in the most difficult period of the first Russian revolution. His political career reached its absolute peak.

His actions as head of the office cooled the country and ended the revolution. He started the major vital reforms declared in the Manifesto. But due to his disagreements with the Emperor he was forced to resign at the end of April 1906. But Witte was fully confident that he had resolved the main problem - providing political stability to the regime. His resignation practically turned out to be his career’s end. But Witte did not depart from political activity, remaining a member of the State Council.

When WWI began Witte, foretelling that it would be the end for the monarchy, declared his readiness for a peace making mission and negotiations with Germany. But he became mortally ill at that moment.

Count Sergei Witte died on 28 February 1915 at the age of 64. His political legacy remained controversial for a long time, but he was undoubtedly one of the key figures in the political arena at the end of 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century.

http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/politics-and-society/sergei-witte/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MERCHANT SHIPS: ARMING, RAMMING, AND WARNING

After the outbreak of war the Admiralty issued orders to merchant ships dictating resistance to U- boats when possible. The orders of 10 February 1915 directed merchant ships to escape when possible, but "if a submarine comes up suddenly close ahead of you with obvious hostile intention, steer straight for her at your utmost speed..." Further instructions, issued ten days later, told armed steamers to open fire on a submarine even if it had not yet fired. Given the extreme vulnerability of a submarine, either to ramming or to even small-caliber shellfire, a U-boat that surfaced and gave warning against a merchantman so instructed was putting itself in serious peril. The Germans were well aware of these orders; although they were meant to be secret, copies were soon obtained from captured ships (and, Beesly indicates, from wireless intercepts as well).

There were a number of instances of such resistance to U-boats before the sinking of LUSITANIA. The first recorded ramming of a U-boat by a merchant ship came on 28 February 1915, when the steamer THORDIS rammed and damaged a submarine off the south coast of England (Bailey and Ryan state that five U- boats were sunk by ramming before May 1915, but they are not clear on whether any of these sinkings were by merchant ships). Most merchant ships, however, did not yet have guns, and there are only two known cases of armed resistance to submarines before the sinking of LUSITANIA.

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/lusika02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The War Sonnets: V The Soldier by Rupert Brooke, 1887-1915, written in 1914



This is Brooke's best-loved and best-known poem, perhaps because in it he was actually writing his own epitaph. His deep love of his Country is very moving and the respect he shows for the English people is quite evident.
It was [written] after he enlisted in the Navy in September 1914 and before February 28th 1915 when he set sail for the Med.



If I should die, think only this of me:
That there's some corner of a foreign field
That is for ever England. There shall be
In that rich earth a richer dust concealed;
A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware,
Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam,
A body of England's, breathing English air,
Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home.

And think, this heart, all evil shed away,
A pulse in the eternal mind, no less
Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given;
Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day;
And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness,
In hearts at peace, under an English heaven.


http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/33925-Rupert-Brooke-The-War-Sonnets---V-The-Soldier
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
( Originally Published 1919 )

IMMEDIATELY after the audacious assault upon the 23rd Bavarians, on February 28th, 1915, the enemy began a bombardment of the position held by the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry with heavy artillery, the usual preliminary to a counter-attack. However, the German commander was evidently not strong enough in either men or guns to make an effective reprisal and only No. 3 Company of the Princess Patricia's had casualties to report. The day passed without further noteworthy incident. Dawn of the 1st of March initiated a week of severe fighting, and the battle-line south of the village of St. Eloi ebbed and flowed until the 6th, when the firing-line trenches then occupied by the battalion were actually vacated to permit of intense concentrated artillery fire being directed on the nearest enemy trenches. This had such satisfactory results that the German front line was rendered practically untenable, excepting for individual snipers.

http://www.oldandsold.com/articles11/canada-worldwar1-14.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harold Williams, Daily Chronicle (28th February, 1917)

All attention here is concentrated on the food question, which for the moment has become unintelligible. Long queues before the bakers' shops have long been a normal feature of life in the city. Grey bread is now sold instead of white, and cakes are not baked. Crowds wander about the streets, mostly women and boys, with a sprinkling of workmen. Here and there windows are broken and a few bakers' shops looted. But, on the whole, the crowds are remarkably good-tempered and presently cheer the troops, who are patrolling the streets.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Bruce Lockhart, diary entry (28th February, 1917)

Revolution in Moscow. Great scenes in front of Duma. Workmen and Socialists take the upper hand and encamp in Duma. Troops all come over. No bloodshed and the crowd on the whole very orderly. No news from Petrograd.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private Peter Harding, 3rd Battalion (New South Wales), in a support trench in the ‘Maze’, near Le Sars, 28 February 1917.



http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/warlencourt/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to A. W. Lawrence

28.2.17.

Dear Worm,

Herewith a few 1/8 piastre Hejaz stamps - a new denomination just going to be issued. The perforation I think better than the old style, and I like the design. What do you think?

Inform me if there are any other values of which you want more. Those published are 1 P.T. 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 P.T. Blue Red Green and Orange. Also tax stamps, but I don't suppose you care about them. A 2 P.T. is under weigh. It has an arch and grill design, and I like it.

N.

Just off again.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170228_a_w_lawrence.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

‘Izwestija’

(voluit Izwestija Petrogradskovo Sovjet a Rabotsjich i Soldatskich Depoetatov’ — Mededelingen van de Petrogradse Sovjet van Arbeiders- en Soldatenafgevaardigden) dagblad dat vanaf 28 februari 1917 verscheen. Na de vorming van het Centrale Uitvoerende Comité van de Sovjets van Arbeiders- en Soldatenafgevaardigden op het Eerste Sovjetcongres voor geheel Rusland werd het blad het orgaan van het Centrale Uitvoerende Comité, hetgeen ook als aanvulling in de naam van de krant werd vermeld. Het blad was in handen van de mensjewieken en sociaal-revolutionairen en bestreed op verbitterde wijze de bolsjewieken. Na de Oktoberrevolutie werd de ‘Izwestija’ het officiële, in Moskou gevestigde orgaan van de Sovjetmacht.

http://www.marxists.org/nederlands/lenin/1917/catastrofe/2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 11:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Muiterijen in het Franse leger in 1917

Ondanks het feit dat Barthas de Franse soldaten afschildert als willoos slachtvee, was het tot op het hoogste niveau bekend dat er iets broeide in het Franse leger. Op 29 december 1916 had generaal Nivelle aan de minister van Binnenlandse Zaken gemeld dat er onder de troepen vlugschriften werden verspreid met een antimilitaristische en pacifistische inslag. Hij verzocht de minister van Binnenlandse Zaken hem een lijst ter hand te stellen van groeperingen en personen die daarvoor verantwoordelijk waren. Er moesten maatregelen worden genomen: deze vlugschriften ondermijnden het moreel en de discipline van de troepen te velde. Op 28 februari 1917 had Nivelle nog geen antwoord gehad op zijn verzoek en hij wendde zich nu tot de minister van Oorlog en wees hem op het bestaan van subversieve elementen binnen de krijgsmacht die ernstige schade toebrachten aan ‘de juiste zaak waarvoor de soldaten streden’. De minister van Binnenlandse Zaken schreef daarop geruststellend aan de minister van Oorlog dat de generaal zich nergens zorgen over hoefde te maken: er waren al maatregelen genomen.

Lees vooral verder... http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/muiterijen/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edmund John

Edmund John (27 November 1883 - 28 February 1917) was a British poet of the Uranian school whose verses were modeled on the Symbolist poetry of Swinburne and other earlier poets. Much of his work was condemned by critics for being overly decadent and unfashionable. He fought in the First World War but was invalided out in 1916. He died a year later in Taormina, Sicily.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_John
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS ACT, 1917, ACT NO. 5 OF 1917 [28th February, 1917.]

An Act to consolidate and amend the law providing for the destruction or other disposal of certain documents in the possession or custody of Courts and Revenue and other public officers.

http://www.helplinelaw.com/docs/THE%20DESTRUCTION%20OF%20RECORDS%20ACT,%201917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Baron Charles de Broqueville on President Wilson's Addendum to the Fourteen Points, 28 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of an official statement issued by the Belgian Prime Minister, Baron Charles de Broqueville, regarding the Fourteen Points, dated 28 February 1918.

The Fourteen Points comprised a recipe for peace devised by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in a speech to the U.S. Congress on 8 January 1918, and subsequently clarified in a further speech to Congress on 11 February 1918.

German reaction to Wilson's speeches was prompt. German Chancellor Count Hertling's swiftly express qualified support in speeches to the Reichstag on 24 January 1918 and 25 February 1918. In the course of these Count Hertling expressed the view that Germany's current occupation of Belgium could legitimately be used as a bargaining chip during peace negotiations, a position denounced by the British Foreign secretary Arthur Balfour in a speech to Parliament on 27 February.

It was in this context that Baron de Broqueville issued a brief statement on the day following Balfour's speech in which he reiterated that negotiations for peace involving Belgium could only take place with the active support and cooperation of the Allied powers which had guaranteed Belgian independence.

Official Statement of Belgian Prime Minister Baron Charles de Broqueville on the Fourteen Points, 28 February 1918

The Belgian Government's views are known and have not changed. It affirmed them quite recently.

In its answer to the Holy See on December 24th the Belgian Government said:

The integrity of the metropolitan and colonial territory; political, economic and military independence without condition or restriction; reparation for damages and guarantees against repetition of the aggression of 1914 are the indispensable conditions for a just peace as far as Belgium is concerned.

The Belgian Government has already declared and repeated that it will not discuss peace except in consort with the powers which guaranteed its independence and which have fulfilled their obligations toward Belgium.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/fourteenpoints_broqueville.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 28 Februari 1918.

Valkenswaard.

- Omtrent den alhier gepleegden diefstal en poging inbraak, zooals in ’t nummer van Dinsdag werd vermeld, vernemen wij nog het volgende:
Zaterdagavond kwamen twee personen bij de Wed. Jaspers alhier en vroegen om te logeeren. Dit werd hun geweigerd, waarop zij heen gingen. Een poosje later miste Jaspers een kaas welke bij hem op de toonbank gelegen had. Onmiddellijk werd de gemeenteveldwachter gewaarschuwd, die oogenblikkelijk ter plaatse was en aan wien het is gelukt den dader te pakken te krijgen en achter slot en grendel te deponeeren. In gezelschap van deze twee sujetten waren twee meisjes van 18 en 19 jaar oud, welke de gestolen goederen aannamen en er mede van door gingen. Deze werden Maandag j.l. door de gemeente- en Rijkspolitie in de Leenderhei gearresteerd. Ook schenen dezen niet vreemd te zijn aan een poging tot inbraak bij de schoenfabriek van de Gebrs. Bots alhier. Zij hebben een volledige bekentenis afgelegd en zullen naar Den Bosch worden getransporteerd. Volgens ingekomen informatiën is gebleken dat deze zich aan meerdere diefstallen hebben schuldig gemaakt. Een mooie opruiming dus!

- Gisteren was brand uitgebroken in de bergplaats van J. M. schilder alhier. De bergplaats waarin verfwaren geborgen waren, brandde totaal uit. Overigens bleef de woning gespaard.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Radiotelephone

Wednesday, February 28, 1917 -- For the first time in the US, the human voice is transmitted by radiotelephone from an airplane to the ground at San Diego.

http://www.afa.org/
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Regulation of the airways

Thursday, February 28, 1918 -- Regulation of the airways begins with an order by President Woodrow Wilson requiring licenses for civilian pilots or owners. More than 800 licenses are issued.

http://www.afa.org/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Proposed communal kitchen at Quorn - scheme rejected - 1918
Loughborough Herald - 28th February 1918

In connection with the Food Economy Campaign, a public meeting was held at the Village Hall, Quorn, on Thursday evening, to consider the advisability of organising a communal kitchen for the village. There was a moderate attendance, and Mr S Hallam presided.

The Chairman said the meeting had been called to ascertain the probable support a kitchen scheme would meet with. The committee were anxious to discover if there was need for such a kitchen. If there was, they were prepared to start one. The idea was to economise the use of food. By a communal kitchen they could buy in bulk, and by having their cooking done by experienced persons the food would be prepared in ways not generally adopted in the ordinary household. Whatever was done, there must be no charity about the scheme. Every thing must be paid for, and no profit made beyond that sufficient to pay expenses.

Mr C Adams read the report of the sub-committee appointed to investigate the matter, which stated that as to premises, the committee of the Conservative Club had agreed to lend the skittle alley at a rental of 2s 6d per week, and two large gas stoves, a large copper, a counter, and cooking utensils would be required, with the services of an experienced cook. The committee had not been successful in obtaining such a person, and realised that the success of the scheme depended upon this appointment. A staff of voluntary workers would also be required. Food should be bought locally, and no arrangements could be made of the consumption of meals on the premises. The kitchen would be open Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, from 12.30 to 2 o'clock, and should be self-supporting, any sum advanced by the local authority to be repaid. It was estimated that £50 would be required for the establishment fund. If the committee could depend upon serving 250 portions each day, ranging in price from 4d to 1d each, they would be able to carry on satisfactorily.

Mr E W Hensman related his experience of a visit to the communal kitchen lately established in Nottingham. A specimen menu was presented, with prices as follows: Soup, 1d. half-pint; potatoes and other roots, 1d per portion; meat, 6d and pudding 3d per portion; and if 50 portions each were served it could be made to pay. It would be possible in Quorn to supply family dinners, which would, of course, be supplied at cheaper rates.

The Vicar spoke in support of the scheme, stating that it would mean economy in coal and labour and certainly in food. The whole question depended upon the amount of support the scheme would meet with. He moved "That in the opinion of this meeting the time has arrived when a communal kitchen for the use of this village should be started." - This was seconded by Mr A Freer.

Some discussion took place, and Mr Turner said most people, as long as they could obtain a dinner, preferred to cook and eat it at home. Mr S J Wright stated that the chief difficulty was the expense: £50 was a small sum for such a scheme. Speaking from his experience of the village, he did not think such a scheme would meet with success. Mr M Rumsey spoke in favour of the scheme, but the resolution, on being put, was lost. On the proposition of Mr E C Laundon, seconded by Mr J H Johnson, a vote of thanks to the committee for their efforts was carried.

http://www.quornmuseum.com/display.php?id=1191
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WAR DIARY, 1/8th (ARDWICK) BATTALION MANCHESTER REGIMENT

FEBRUARY 28 1918 - L'ECLEME
Training continued according to programme. LT. COL. CLIVE again addressed the men on the Benefits of War Savings Certificates. Great (?)business(?) was (?)arroused(sic)(?) and although this was the only day that steps were taken to ensure that every man understood the Scheme, a sum of 2,505.7..0 was raised by the Battalion for Savings Certificates.

http://www.themanchesters.org/wd191802.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert (4 February 1871 – 28 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). (...)

Ebert led the new government for the next several months. He used the army under the command of Minister of Defense Gustav Noske and also Freikorps (paramilitary organizations of ex-soldiers) to suppress a Spartacist uprising against the establishment of a parliamentary democracy. Spartacist leaders Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were murdered by members of the Freikorps. When the Constituent Assembly met in Weimar in February, 1919, Ebert was chosen to be the first president of the German Republic.

The German workers protected his government from the right-wing Kapp Putsch of some Freikorps in 1920 by means of a nationwide general strike. The armed forces Reichswehr remained neutral and did not defend the republic. Nevertheless the government used the army and parts of the Freikorps in order to suppress a communist-led rebellion in Germany's main industrial area, the Ruhr district in north-west Germany. Thousands of people were killed.

Participants in the Kapp Putsch were treated leniently. The judiciary in the Weimar Republic was "blind in the right eye" . Some of the Freikorps already used the swastika as their symbol of resistance against the "red pack" at the time, and many of them as well as right-wing members of the Reichswehr would later become influential National Socialists.

Vicious attacks by Ebert's right-wing adversaries, including slander and ridicule, were often condoned or even supported by the judiciary when the president turned to the courts. The constant necessity to defend himself against those attacks also undermined his health.

Ebert died on 28 February 1925, aged 54.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Ebert
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Certificate of transfer to the reserves on demobilisation for John Barnard, 28th February 1919



http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/8266?CISOBOX=1&REC=7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LIEUTENANT COLONEL EDWIN N. MCCLELLAN, USMC



Edwin North McClellan [was] the first Marine to head the Historical Section of Headquarters, Marine Corps. (...)

With the close of the war in Europe, Maj McClellan was ordered to France on 28 February 1919 for duty with the Historical Section of the American Expeditionary Force (A.E.F.). He was specifically charged with “collecting historical data regarding activities of Marines during operations in Europe.”

http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/Whos_Who/McClellan_EN.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 12:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Argonne School

San Francisco Chronicle, Friday, February 28, 1919:

"School construction plans calling for the expenditure of $1,059,000 at once were announced yesterday by President George E. Gallagher of the Board of Education.

"The building programme, which will give to San Francisco four new school buildings [...] will begin March 5.

"On this date bids will be received for construction of a new Park-Presidio school costing, it is estimated, $130,000. Plans for this building, to be situated on a site 240 feet by 360 feet on Cabrillo street between Eighteenth and Nineteenth avenues, have been drawn.

"TO HOUSE 18 CLASSES"

"The school, a two-story brick and concrete construction, will house eighteen classes and will be completed under the programme outlined by Gallagher in February, 1920."


The building of the school was called an excellent opportunity to put returning World War I servicemen to work. The "Park-Presidio School" was soon officially named after that war's Battle of the Argonne Forest. A plaque on the front of the school read: "Argonne School - Erected A.D. 1919. Named by San Francisco in honor of her sons for their patriotic devotion their loyal services and their noble sacrifices on the battlefield of France and Belgium, 1918."


Argonne School Building, 1963

http://www.outsidelands.org/argonne-school.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 15:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE REV. CHARLES WAND MITCHELL, M.A., C.F.

(...) I have written, at length about Mitchell's services to Oriental and Patristic literature, because this is the place to do so and because his permanent fame will be connected with that side of his activity. But I have no doubt, if testimony be worth anything in human affairs, that it was as a Padre in the very Front Line that he found the life that was most congenial to his whole being. "One sees here," he wrote to me from France (28 Feb., 1916), "another palimpsest: and ancient features in town and countryside are disappearing beyond all the subtleties of chemistry to restore." Yet he was still more concerned about his men. "He was always up near the men," wrote Col. de la Perelle, his Commanding Officer, himself a Canadian, "nothing on earth could keep him away;" and it was while he was helping the doctor to bandage the wounded near the firing, line that he was fatally wounded near Monchy, on May 3, 1917.

http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/ephraim2_0_intro.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 15:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Historic site: Somme House
Porirua City Council, New Zealand

"The charm of history and its enigmatic lesson consist in fact that, from age to age, nothing changes and yet everything is completely different."
- Aldous Huxley.




Somme House on Moana Road was named to commemorate the New Zealand soldiers killed in the 1916 Battle of the Somme in World War I. It was built by Archie McMahon, who also built the Turville House and many other houses in Plimmerton. Unlike typical villas of the time, it shows early expression of typical bungalow features that became common in the 1920s and 1930s, such as the exposed-rafter ends, shallow-pitched roof and casement windows.

The land on which Somme House was built was once part of George Troup’s estate which extended up Cluny Road and included Motuhara, Moana and Airlie Roads (for more information about George Troup see the link at the bottom of this page). In 1910 the land was subdivided and sections were sold off over the subsequent years. On 17 May 1915 Troup sold Lot 79 to Robert Hird Hustler, a painter from Johnsonville. Hustler took a mortgage out on the land on 28 February 1916, probably to build the house. On 23 April 1918 the land was sold to Juanita Heather Sylvia Craw of Linton, a spinster.

Juanita Craw may have had a brother Eric Hector Dunstan Craw who was a bombardier in the First World War, who was killed in the Battle of the Somme on 25 September 1916. Eric Craw also came from Linton. Various owners have come and gone since that time.

http://www.pcc.govt.nz/About-Porirua/Porirua-s-heritage/Porirua-s-suburbs/Plimmerton-and-Camborne/Historic-site--Somme-House
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 15:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"The remains of the cellars under Mouquet Farm, in France, fronting on Courcelette Road", 28 February 1917



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mouquet_Farm_cellars_1917_AWM_E00252.jpeg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 15:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Story of Bravery: 11/774a Trooper Kenneth Anderson Bayne, Wellington Mounted Rifles



Kenneth 'Kenny' Bayne, originally from Tapanui had been a keen sportsman in his early years. He had played rugby for the Wairarapa Bush and was a member of the Konini Club. He had also won several wrestling matches in his late teens.

When war broke out, he was working as a Surveyor for the New Zealand Government in porangahau and he joined up on December 1914 with A Squadron, Auckland Mounted Rifles. After training at Trentham, he embarked overseas on 14 February 1915.

He arrived in Egypt on 26 March 1915 and began training at Zeitoun Camp after having transferred to the Wellington Mounted Rifles two days after arrival. On 16 April, he was admitted to the camp hospital with influenza and missed the intial landing at Gallipoli. Once out of hospital, he was shipped to Gallipoli and on 27 August 1915 suffered severe bullet wounds to the left arm which eventually led to the loss of use of that arm.

After being wounded, Kenny was shipped to England and spent time working at the First Southern General Hospital in Birmingham. In March 1916, he was admitted to the Convalescent Hospital in Hornchurch and after a period of time was employed in the Wellington Company Orderly Room. His wounded arm continued to give him awful pain and in early October 1916, the decidion was made to send him home.

On 18 October 1916, Kenny Bayne left Plymouth, England aboard the SS Ruahine and began the journey home.

On 25 November, as the steamer was about 120 kilometres from Pitcairn Island, a baby (Theodore Edward Auston) aged two years and 10 months, crawled through an unlocked porthole and fell into the sea. Kenny Bayne, who was leaning over the rail above the cabin saw the child fall and immediately jumped overboard to try and save the child. Illuminated buoys were thrown overboard and an emergency lifeboat was launched but neither Kenny nor the baby was recovered. It was stated that the sea was infested with sharks, some up to 4 metres long and more than likely both had been attacked.

Kenny was 28 when he died and as there was no body, he is commemorated on the Wellington Provincial Memorial and the "Kenny" Bayne Memorial in Pahiatua. An article entitled 'A Tribute form his Hornchurch Cobbers' can be read in the Chronicles of the N.Z.E.F. (28 February 1917, page 7).

His World War I KGV Memorial Plaque was donated to the National Army Museum in 1990.

http://www.armymuseum.co.nz/kiwis-at-war/voices-from-the-past.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 15:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William McFadzean, War Hero



Two sections of the community celebrated, if that's the right word, the news that the men of Lurgan were off to war by parading from The Orange Hall and halls linked to the Order of Hibernian. This act of solidarity and sense of companionship was a pre cursor to the amazing act of bravery and selflessness by a young private who was born in the town...

On 1 July 1916, near Thiepval Wood, France, in a concentration trench, a box of bombs being opened for distribution prior to an attack slipped down into the trench, which was crowded with men, and two of the safety pins fell out.

Private William F .McFadzean, instantly realising the danger to his comrades, with heroic courage threw himself on top of the bombs, which exploded, blowing him to pieces, but only one other man was injured. He well knew the danger, being himself a bomber, but without a moment's hesitation he gave his life for his comrades.

Private McFadzean was awarded the Victoria Cross for most conspicuous bravery, even before the Battle of the Somme began.

Local war enthusiast Neil Hutton adds detail to the life of Private McFadzean, below, and asks the question - can anyone identify the soldier ringed as William McFadzean?



Private McFadzean was detailed as a bomber in his company, one of those who went over the top carrying canvas buckets filled with hand grenades. His physique marked him out for such a role: he stood six feet tall, weighed thirteen stone and had been an enthusiastic junior rugby player, lining out for Collegians RFC.

Perhaps you can identify the others , as they paraded for Sir Edward Carson at Balmoral on 6th June 1914.

The YCV Battalion (14th Battalion Royal Irish Rifles) crossed from England to France on the 5th October 1915 on board the Isle of Man paddle steamer the Empress Queen. In a letter home Billy McFadzean writes:

"You people at home make me quite proud when you tell me I am the soldier boy of the McFadzean's. I hope to play the game and if I don't add much lustre to it, I certainly will not tarnish it."

Commemorations for William McFadzean include: Thiepval Memorial (Pier and Face 15A and 15B), Newtownbreda Presbyterian Church, First Lurgan Presbyterian Church, Collegians RFC and Castlereagh Borough Council .

On Sunday 1st July 1917 in Newtownbreda Presbyterian Church, on the outskirts of Belfast, an afternoon service was held to pay respects to the memory of William Frederick McFadzean in what had been his home church. A tablet was unveiled on which were the words: "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends". The last post was played and the congregation sang "O' God our help in ages past" and the choir performed a beautiful anthem, a setting by Woodward of Tennyson's poem " Crossing the Bar".

William's father (also named William) was presented with his sons VC by King George V at a ceremony held in Buckingham Palace on Saturday 28th February 1917, having been granted a third-class return ticket from Cregagh to London.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/yourplaceandmine/fermanagh/A766055.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 15:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War Cross of 1916-1917, Greece



Spartan inscription ‘Either the shield or on the shield’ (meaning return victorious bearing your shield or carried dead upon it) supporting a circular laurel wreath, an upright sword imposed upon it; the reverse inscribed ‘ΕΛΛΑΣ’ (Greece) ‘1916-1917’; on replaced correct ribbon. The War Cross was instigated at Salonika on 28 February 1917 by Revolutionary Decree and confirmed by Royal Decree on 30 June 1917. The cross was awarded for bravery on the field of conflict in World War I and subsequently during the Ukraine campaign of 1920 and the Greco-Turkish war of 1919-1922.

http://cgi.ebay.co.uk/War-Cross-1916-1917-Greece-s8375-/350442720072
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 15:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 February 1918 → Commons Sitting

GERMAN ATROCITIES (BELGIUM).


HC Deb 28 February 1918 vol 103 cc1543-4 1543

Mr. JOWETT asked whether the official German White Book of May, 1915, dealing with, the. question of the German 1544 atrocities in Belgium, has been excluded from this country and its translation prohibited by the Censor?

Sir G. CAVE I understand that no application has been made for a licence to import copies of this book. The question of issuing a translation was raised in 1916, but as the book consisted largely of false statements with regard to our Allies, the Belgians, the Press Bureau refused at that time to sanction the issue.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/feb/28/german-atrocities-belgium
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 23:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Bulletin, 28 February 1918



http://www.middlemiss.org/matilda/2011/02/literary-cartoon-4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 23:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Howard, Marjorie C., Pencil drawing, 28 February 1919



Description: Girl, four lines of poetry by Sir Walter Scott

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/howard-marjorie-c-pencil-drawing-28-february-1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 23:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | February 1915

Sunday 28th February 1915

Rose 12.30am. Made most of chance. Afternoon played music, made parcels, cleaned buttons, rested. Tea.

Chapel, Arnfield preaching.

Proverbs. Keep thy heart diligently. Sermon good in parts. Said doesn’t care about German or English culture so long as heart allright. Rot.

Official news of destruction of 4 forts at entrance to Dardanelles, Allied flags over forts, first 4 mls swept clear of mines.

Had to walk from Tom Lane, que[sic] of 200 waiting for buses. Snow and rain drizzling, uphill, fagged out.

Hut looked bare and cheerless. Made bed. Sleep about 11pm.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Feb 2011 23:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Neuve-Chapelle

(...) The Battle of Neuve-Chapelle was significant for the Canadians because it was the first time that the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) had been involved in action with the enemy (with the exception of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, which had effected a raid on February 28, 1915 when serving with a British brigade). The 1st Canadian Division had just moved to France from training at Salisbury Plain, England, and prepared for its first experience of a set-piece battle, itself a first for the British who had until then served a purely defensive role in the Allied war effort. (...)

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/025005-1100-e.html
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