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10 Februari

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2006 0:44    Onderwerp: 10 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 10. Februar

1914

1915
Größere Kämpfe an der ostpreußischen Grenze
Flucht der Russen in der Bukowina
Konferenz der nordischen Reiche

1916
Neue Kämpfe an der Westfront
Angriff deutscher Seeflugzeuge auf Ramsgate
Der Reichskanzler über die deutsch-amerikanischen Beziehungen
Abgewiesene russische Angriffe in Wolhynien

1917
Gesteigerte Kampftätigkeit an der Westfront
Lebhafte Artillerietätigkeit an West- und Ostfront
Über 1000 feindliche Flugzeuge seit Kriegsbeginn abgeschossen
Die Flugzeugbeute im Dezember
Fliegerangriff auf Dünkirchen
Luftangriff auf französische Flugplätze
14000 Tonnen U-Boot-Beute in der Nordsee
Abreise des amerikanischen Botschafters Gerard
Erfolgreiche nächtliche Unternehmung im Görzischen
Ein englischer Torpedobootszerstörer gesunken
Die Note der Schweiz an Deutschland
Die Absage der Schweiz an Wilson

1918
Erkundungsgefechte an Teilen der Westfront
Rede des Kaisers über die Erzwingung des Friedens
Trotzki erklärt den Kriegszustand für beendet
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 10 Feb 2006 0:46, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2006 0:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 10

1916 U.S. secretary of war resigns

As a result of bitter disagreements with President Woodrow Wilson over America’s national defense strategies, Lindley M. Garrison resigns his position as the United States secretary of war on this day in 1916.

Garrison came to Wilson’s attention while serving as vice-chancellor of New Jersey (in addition to running a legal practice) and was appointed secretary of war in January 1913 upon Wilson’s ascent to the White House. After the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914, Garrison clashed repeatedly with many in the Wilson administration, including the president himself, who regarded the secretary as notably hawkish with respect to America’s national defense.

The main disagreement between Garrison and the president arose from the Wilson administration’s long-term national defense plans and short-term U.S. military preparedness in light of the ongoing war in Europe. At the time, Wilson favored a policy of strict neutrality—he would be reelected later that year on a platform promising to keep America out of the war—and he objected to Garrison’s belief that a full-time reserve army should be created as a foundation for national defense and, more immediately, for support in case the U.S. entered the European war.

In his letter of resignation to the president, Mr. Garrison wrote, “It is evident that we hopelessly disagree upon what I conceive to be fundamental principles. This makes manifest the impropriety of my longer remaining your seeming representative with respect to those matters. I hereby tender my resignation as Secretary of War, to take effect at your convenience.” Assistant Secretary of War Henry Breckinridge also resigned his position out of loyalty to Mr. Garrison.

Newton D. Baker, a former mayor of Cleveland, took over as secretary of war upon Garrison’s resignation. Chosen by Wilson for his pacifist leanings—and distrusted by such hawks as Wilson’s steadfast Republican opponent, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge—Baker would nonetheless help the president reach the decision to enter the war in April 1917, submit a plan for universal military conscription to Congress and preside over the mobilization of some 4 million American soldiers.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2006 6:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
10. British conscription law goes into effect.
http://www.wwiaviation.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2008 10:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 februari 1918
Erkundungsgefechte an Teilen der Westfront

Großes Hauptquartier, 10. Februar.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
An einzelnen Stellen der Front Artilleriekampf.
In Erkundungsgefechten wurden nahe an der Küste Belgier und Franzosen, nordöstlich von Ypern, sowie zwischen Cambrai und St. Quentin Engländer gefangen.
Heeresgruppen Deutscher Kronprinz und Herzog Albrecht:
Im Maasgebiet, beiderseits der Mosel und in einzelnen Abschnitten nordöstlich und östlich von Nancy erhöhte Tätigkeit des Feindes. Französische Erkundungsabteilungen drangen in der Selle-Niederung vorübergehend ein; in der Gegend westlich von Blamont wurden sie vor unseren Hindernissen abgewiesen.
Von den anderen Kriegsschauplätzen nichts Neues.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)
© http://www.stahlgewitter.com/18_02_10.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919: The 40-hours strike

An estimated 10,000 English troops in total were sent to Glasgow in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of George Square. This was in spite of a full battalion of Scottish soldiers being stationed at Maryhill barracks in Glasgow at the time. No Scottish troops were deployed, with the government fearing that fellow Scots, soldiers or otherwise, would go over to the workers side if a revolutionary situation developed in Glasgow.

On 10 February 1919 the 40-hours strike was called off by the Joint Strike Committee. Whilst not achieving their stated aim of a 40-hour working week, the striking workers from the engineering and shipbuilding industries did return to work having at least negotiated an agreement that guaranteed them a 47-hour working week; 10 hours less than they were working prior to the strike.

Interessant artikel op http://libcom.org/history/1919-the-forty-hours-strike
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EXTRACT FROM THE DECREE OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE ANNULLING STATE LOANS

10 February 1918

1. All State loans contracted by the Governments of the Russian landlords and Russian bourgeoisie, enumerated in a special list being published, are annulled (wiped out) as from December 1917. The December coupons of these loans will not be paid.

2. All guarantees given by the said Governments in connexion with loans of various undertakings and institutions are similarly annulled.

3. All foreign loans are annulled unconditionally and without any exceptions.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/February/10.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Abdülhamit II (1842-1918), de 34ste sultan van het Ottomaanse Rijk.

Kort nadat Abdülhamit II was aangetreden verklaarden de Russen hem de oorlog. In 1877 geraakten de Russen tot vlak bij Adrianopel. Roemenië en Servie gingen verloren.

De Jong-Turken voerden in 1908 onder leiding van Enver Pasja een succesvolle staatsgreep uit. De grondwet van 1876 werd toen weer van kracht. Na een mislukte contrarevolutionaire coup in 1909 besloot de Nationale Vergadering sultan Abdülhamit II af te zetten en te verbannen naar het Griekse Saloniki. Later werd hij overgebracht naar Istanbul waar hij op 10 februari 1918 overleed.

Helemaal lezen? http://historiek.net/index.php/Ottomaanse-Rijk/Abdulhamit-II-1842-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOCIAAL-DEMOCRATISCHE PARTIJ in NEDERLAND
VERKIEZINGSPROGRAM


vastgesteld in de vergadering van 10 Februari 1918.

1. Verzekering van een gelijke minimumuitkeering aan alle arbeiders en daarmede gelijk te stellen personen, ook voor de werkloozen, zieken, tijdelijk of duurzaam invalieden, vrouwen, jeugdige arbeiders en ouden van dagen (60 jaar en daarboven).
Extra-uitkeering aan vrouwen met kinderen beneden 18 jaar, en aan zwangere vrouwen, te beginnen minstens 3 maanden vóór de geboorte van het eerste kind.

2. Sterk progressieve belasting uitsluitend op de hooge inkomens, het kapitaal en de kapitaals-vermeerdering, met overgang naar het Staats-erfrecht.
Annuleering van de Staats-schulden.
Konfiscatie van de Oorlogswinsten.
Nationalisatie van den bodem; óók om de mogelijkheid te scheppen van woningbouw op groote schaal.
Inbeslagneming van de overtollige woningruimte, en distributie daarvan onder hen, die hieraan gebrek lijden.
Bevordering van de productieve landbouw-associatie door landarbeidersorganisaties, gemeenten, enz.

3. Algemeene Staatszorg voor de lichamelijke en geestelijke opvoeding van het kind op den grondslag van het verplichte neutrale, kostelooze openbare onderwijs tot het 18e jaar met vrije leermiddelen, voeding, kleeding en verzorging.
In het algemeen kostelooze openstelling van alle inrichtingen van openbaar onderwijs, met verstrekking van financieelen steun wegens derving van loon.

4. Maximum arbeidsdag van 8 uur om te komen tot den zes-urendag; 1˝ rustdag per week.
Verbod van loonarbeid voor kinderen tot het 18e jaar.

5. Grondwetsherziening om te geraken tot onmiddellijke invoering van gelijke politieke rechten voor alle mannen en vrouwen van het 18e jaar af.
Demokratiseering van alle vertegenwoordigende besturende, beheerende en rechterlijke lichamen.
Republikeinsche regeeringsvorm.
Afschaffing van de Eerste Kamer.
Afschaffing van alle standsverschillen.
Invoering van het volksinitiatief, het volks-referendum en het recht tot onmiddellijke terugroeping van alle lasthebbers.
Scheiding van Kerk en Staat.

6. Volledige openbaarheid der buitenlandsche betrekkingen.
Vervanging der beroeps-diplomatie door konsulaire agentschappen en arbeidersdelegaties.
Zoo nauw mogelijke aaneensluiting van alle demokratische machten tot bevordering van samenwerking tusschen de volken en wegneming van de oorzaken die tot den oorlog voeren.

7. Afschaffing van het militaire stelsel.
Volkswapening tegen het Imperialisme.
Opheffing van de militariseering van alle verkeer en bedrijf.

8. Indië los van Holland.
Volledig en vrij zelfbeschikkingsrecht voor alle overzeesche bezittingen en koloniën.

9. Volledige opheffing van alle wetten en bepalingen die de vrijheid van drukpers, het recht van vereenigen, vergaderen en de stakings-vrijheid beperken of belemmeren, ook voor militairen en personen in dienst van openbare lichamen.

10. Algemeen verbod van uitvoer van de noodige levensmiddelen voor mensch en dier.
Inventarisatie en inbeslagneming van die levensmiddelen en beschikbaarstelling
hoogstens tot de prijzen van Juli 1914.
Distributie door de klasse-organisaties van het proletariaat.

Uit: J.A. Jungman en F.K. van Iterson, red., Parlement en kiezer. Jaarboekje 1918 –1919, Den Haag, 1918, 134-135.
http://dnpp.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/root/programmas/Verkiezingsprogramma/1918/SDPN_verkiezingsprogram_19181.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jack Barton's War Diary - February 1918

Sunday, 10th February, 1918

Finlayson goes on leave is the only note in my diary.

We are getting our rum issue each night, fairly regularly and in order to issue it to the men “fairly” I carried the brass nose cap of a small shell which just held a fair nip. Rum would arrive at Company Headquarters each night with the rations and could only be obtained by the Officer or the Sergeant of a platoon. By issuing the rum through my measure if the main issue to the platoon was a little generous I might save up on the rum and have some stored up.

On this particular night I had two half bottles stored in my possie beneath my blanket. It was Finlayson’s turn to go on listening post duty. He came to me and said, “Its very cold tonight Sir could you let me have a drop of rum”. Scotty Finlayson was my batman. He was bred on the West of the Island of Skye and had come to Australia before the War. He had a very good reputation with the Battalion as a stretcher bearer. He had served on Gallipoli, Scotty was about the oldest man in my platoon. It was on account of Scotty’s age and it being a cold night I gave him a nip of rum and after I had handed it to him my suspicions were aroused that he had already helped himself to some. When I returned the bottle to its place and I shook the other bottle I knew that my suspicions had been right.

By this time Scotty was in the listening post and commenced firing his rifle. Each time his rifle went off a burst of Fritz machine gun bullets would smack across the cover and cover for such a little post was not plentiful. So I brought Scotty back and took away his rifle sending him to his possie. He obeyed all this until he heard the voice of Sergeant Larkings speaking to me in the trench just in front of his possie. At this he came out and wanted to fight Larkings and also said he was going to raid a German post.

I was naturally alarmed at the commotion and voices were pitched too high – too much noise was being made. He quickly subsided, however, when I spoke to him and ordered him to go to his possie again he obeyed. By a lucky chance a Blighty leave pass for Scotty arrived this night and before break of day Scotty was off on his way to Blighty. By the time he would be back after 14 days leave all would be forgotten.

Scotty Finlayson was a good man and a soldier and we will hear of him again at a later date, when he is to be awarded the Military Medal (M.M.) and the last view I had of Scotty, in France, was as he marched out with his upper arm bandaged conducting two German prisoners.

http://barton101.com/wardiary/1918-02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HET ACTIVISME TE MECHELEN (1914-1918)
DOOR KARI VAN HOORICK

Hun werkwijze was aanvankelijk nogal amateuristisch, wat niet erg verwonderlijk was aangezien deze mensen weinig ervaring hadden met propagandatechnieken. Dit dilettantisme bleekduidelijk uit de eerste meetings, die op een onhandige en vooralondoordachte wijze werden georganiseerd. Zo werd er bij de keuze vande sprekers te weinig rekening gehouden met de gezindheid van dedoelgroep, met name de Mechelse bevolking. De Mechelaars waren overwegend katholiek en toch nodigden de activisten twee socialistische sprekers uit. De mislukking van deze eerste propagandabijeenkomst lag dan ook voor de hand. De activisten waren door deze tegenslag zichtbaar aangeslagen want het zou duren tot 10 februari 1918 vooraleer ze zich opnieuw aan een propagandameeting waagden.

Lees het hele artikel op http://www.flwi.ugent.be/btng-rbhc/pdf/BTNG-RBHC,%2024,%201993,%203-4,%20pp%20501-527.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ordnance Survey, Trench Map, 10 February 1917

“The Topography of Golgotha”: Mapping the Trenches of the First World War

“…and with maps I make him familiar with the topography of Golgotha.” This line, from a letter written in 1918 by the soldier-poet Wilfred Owen, conjures an ominous picture of the landscape confronting all initiates to the trenches. But it also touches on an aspect of the war that, even today, remains largely unknown and unrecognized.
Maps and their ability to familiarize a soldier with enemy-held terrain, weapon positions, obstacles and trench networks were found to be an integral part of the planning for any successful offensive.

Lees en kijk verder op http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/ordnance-survey-trench-map-10-february-1917 en http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/case-study/topography-golgotha-mapping-trenches-first-world-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charlois - (1891-1917)

De tanker 'Charlois' (1888) van de American Petroleum Company te Rotterdam, op weg van New York via Halifex naar Rotterdam, wordt op de Noordzee vermist. Na onderzoek kon later worden vastgesteld, dat de 'Charlois' onder de Noorse kust op 57. 30' N / 04. 30' O op 10 februari 1917 door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'U 59' moet zijn getorpedeerd en de voltallige bemannng (33 opvarenden) daarbij is omgekomen.

http://www.aukevisser.nl/esso/id24.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Johanna Westerdijk

Johanna Westerdijk (1883 - 1961) was een Nederlands botanicus. Zij werd op 10 februari 1917 benoemd tot buitengewoon hoogleraar in de plantenziektekunde aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Na deze benoeming, volgde in 1930 een tweede benoeming aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Ze was de eerste vrouw in een dergelijke positie in Nederland.

Ze was de stichteres van de schimmelcollectie in het Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS). Westerdijk heeft veel onderzoek verricht naar de olmenziekte en ze heeft onder meer aangetoond dat een schimmel, Ceratocystis ulmi, de sterfte bij de olm veroorzaakte. Daarom wordt in het Engels de olmenziekte nog altijd Dutch elm disease genoemd.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johanna_Westerdijk
http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1917/february_10_1917_78354.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Timeline of the Russian Revolution (1917)

February 10

The Councillor of State Mikhail Rodzianko meets with Tsar Nicholas II in Tsarskoye Selo, and warns him of massive upheavel throughout the country. Rodzianko insists that tumultuous events can be avoided by stregthening the Duma. Nicholas II ignores this advice.

Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks call a strike in Petrograd to protest the 1915 arrest of their Duma members for opposing the war.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/events/timeline/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treatment of Armed Merchantmen

The following is translation of memorandum of the Imperial German Government on the treatment of armed merchantmen:

Berlin, February 10, 1916

I
1. Even before the outbreak of the present war the British Government had given English shipping companies the opportunity to arm their merchant vessels with guns. On March 26, 1913, Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, made the declaration in the British Parliament . . . that the Admiralty had called upon the shipowners to arm a number of first-class liners for protection against danger menaced in certain cases by fast auxiliary cruisers of other powers; the liners were not, however, to assume the character of auxiliary cruisers themselves. The Government desired to place at the disposal of the shipowners the necessary guns, sufficient ammunition, and suitable personnel for the training of the gun crews.

2. The English shipowners have readily responded to the call of the Admiralty. Thus Sir Owen Philipps, president of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, was able to inform the stockholders of his company in May 1913, that the larger steamers of the company were equipped with guns; furthermore, the British Admiralty published in January 1914 a list according to which 29 steamers of various English lines carried guns aft....

II

1. With regard to the legal character of armed merchantmen in international law, the British Government has taken the position in respect of it own merchantmen that such vessels retain the character of peaceable merchant vessels as long as they carry arms for defensive purposes only. In accordance with this, the British Ambassador at Washington in a note dated August 25, 1914 . . . gave the American Government the fullest assurances that British merchant vessels were never armed for purposes of attack, but solely for defense, and that they consequently never fire unless first fired upon. On the other hand, the British Government set up the principle for armed vessels of other flags that they are to be treated as war vessels. No. 1 of Order 1 of the prize court rules, promulgated by the order in council of August 5, 1914, expressly provides "ship of war shall include armed ship."

Lees verder op http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Treatment_of_Armed_Merchantmen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Dogger Bank (1916)

The Battle of Dogger Bank on 10 February 1916 was a naval battle between the Kaiserliche Marine of the German Empire and the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom during the First World War. Three German torpedo boat flotillas sortied into the North Sea and encountered the British Fifteenth Mine-sweeping Flotilla near Dogger Bank. The German vessels at first hesitated, mistaking the British ships for cruisers, but eventually decided to engage them. The British vessels were actually minesweeping sloops and attempted to flee. In the engagement that ensued HMS Arabis was sunk before the British squadron was able to escape. Although the Germans were victorious they inflated their victory by reporting they had sunk two British cruisers, when in fact the only vessel sunk was the sloop Arabis.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dogger_Bank_(1916)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SMYTHE FAMILY HISTORY

10 February 1916
Oh so Flo is still alive and well is she. I’m so glad. Look Viola how about doing me a favor, & I’ll kiss you on the nose & under your adorable chin. Please buy her a pen & a bottle of ink & a PC. If it’s any news to you Bill Chapman tried to enlist 3 times so he’s not a shirker…. Yes I must say Viola that your writing is about as bad as mine, which is quite inexcusable …. Candidly & of course without any prejudice to Wal, I think he ought to enlist. Thousands of other families have given all their eligible males. If the Huns got hold of his sisters they wouldn’t spare them cos they were precious to him…. Yes I should think I do remember that last Sunday in Sydney. By the way I heard poor Rathie was missing after the Lone Pine fight. Is there any news of him? Remind me to his sister & tell her I do hope her brother are OK….

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/16_2.htm

Op deze site:

World War I Letters of Bert Smythe
Letters home from the trenches. Over 100 letters from the
four eldest Smythe boys from Gallipoli, France and Belgium.

World War I Diary of Percy Smythe
A complete and detailed diary of WWI from 1915 training in Australia, through Gallipoli, France, Belgium and Blighty.

Lest We Forget
Service records, medals, citations and stories from
WWI and II for the whole Smythe clan.

http://www.smythe.id.au/index.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilson's First Warning to the Germans

10 February 1915


The Government of the United State views those possibilities with such grave concern that it feels it to be its privilege, and, indeed, its duty, in the circumstances, to request the Imperial German Government to consider, before action is taken, the critical situation in respect of the relation between this country and Germany -- which might arise were the German naval force, in carrying out the policy foreshadowed in the Admiralty's proclamation, to destroy any merchant vessel of the United States or cause the death of American citizens.

It is, of course, not necessary to remind the German Government that the sole right of a belligerent in dealing with neutral vessels on the high seas is limited to visit and search, unless a blockade is proclaimed and effectively maintained, which this Government does not understand to be proposed in this case. To declare or exercise a right to attack and destroy any vessel entering a prescribed area of the high seas without first certainly determining its belligerent nationality and the contraband character of its cargo would be an act so unprecedented in naval warfare that this government is reluctant to believe that the Imperial Government of Germany in this case contemplates it as possible.

The suspicion that enemy ships are using neutral flags improperly can create no just presumption that all ships traversing a prescribed area are subject to the same suspicion. It is to determine exactly such questions that this Government understands the right of visit and search to have been recognized.

This Government has carefully noted the explanatory statement issued by the Imperial German Government at the same time with the proclamation of the German Admiralty, and takes this occasion to remind the Imperial German Government very respectfully that the Government of the United States is open to none of the criticisms for unneutral action to which the German Government believes the governments of certain other neutral nations have laid themselves open; that the Government of the United State has not consented to or acquiesced in any measures which may have been taken by the other belligerent nations in the present war which operate to restrain neutral trade, but has, on the contrary, taken in all such matters a position which warrants it in holding those governments responsible in the proper way for any untoward effects on American shipping which the accepted principles of international law do not justify; and that it, therefore, regards itself as free in the present instance to take with a clear conscience and upon accepted principles the position indicated in this note.

If the commanders of German vessels of war should act upon the presumption that the flag of the United States was not being used in good faith and should destroy on the high seas an American vessel or the lives of American citizens, it would be difficult for the Government of the United States to view the act in any other light than as an indefensible violation of neutral rights, which it would be very hard, indeed, to reconcile with the friendly relations now happily subsisting between the two governments.

If such a deplorable situation should arise, the Imperial German Government can readily appreciate that the Government of the United States would be constrained to hold the Imperial Government of Germany to a strict accountability for such acts of their naval authorities, and to take any steps it might be necessary to take to safeguard American lives and property and to secure to American citizens the full enjoyment of their acknowledged rights on the high seas.

The Government of the United States, in view of these considerations, which it urges with the sincere purpose of making sure that no misunderstandings may arise, and no circumstances occur, that might even cloud the intercourse of the two governments, expresses the confident hope and expectation that the Imperial German Government can and will give assurance that American citizens and their vessels will not be molested by the naval forces of Germany otherwise than by visit and search, though their vessels may be traversing the sea area delimited in the proclamation of the German Admiralty.

It is stated for the information of the Imperial Government that representations have been made to his Britannic Majesty's Government in respect to the unwarranted use of the American flag for the protection of British ships.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson%27s_First_Warning_to_the_Germans
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting, 10 February 1915

GERMAN SUBMARINES.


HC Deb 10 February 1915 vol 69 cc551-2 551

Mr. WATT asked how many submarines Germany possessed at the beginning of the War; how many of these have since been lost or destroyed; and how many new submarines have been launched by Germany since the beginning of August?

Mr. CHURCHILL As stated in Returns already published to the House, shortly before the outbreak of War there were twenty-eight completed German submarines, and an additional sixteen were either under construction or had been authorised. Further, six submarines were stated to be under construction in Germany for foreign Powers, namely, one for Norway and five for Austria-Hungary. Since the outbreak of war no information on this subject has been published or authorised by the German Government.

Mr. WATT Will the right hon. Gentleman tell the House how many have been destroyed or lost?

Mr. CHURCHILL No return of casualties in this respect has been made by the German Government.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/10/german-submarines#S5CV0069P0_19150210_HOC_86
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2010 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Acton Enterprise, 10 February 1915

WARSHIP STOPS LINER
Cretic Challenged When She Is Not Very Far From Boston

Boston, Feb. 10.--That British warships are carefully patrolling the trans-Atlantic steamer lines was demonstrated when the White Star liner Cretic was challenged less than 150 miles from Boston.
The Cretic arrived yesterday afternoon. Captain Howarth would not divulge any information concerning the identity of the warship, and the passengers were asleep when it occurred.
The vessel slowed down after being ordered to stop by the warship, but was able to proceed, when her identity was made clear to the patrol.

http://www.immigrantships.net/newsarticles/1915_newsarticles.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2011 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Siemens scandal

The Siemens Scandal of January 1914 was one of several spectacular political scandals of late Meiji and Taishō period Japanese politics. It involved collusion between several high ranking members of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the British company Vickers and the German industrial conglomerate of Siemens AG.

The Japanese navy was engaged in a massive expansion program, and at the time, many major items (such as advanced warships and weaponry) were still being imported from Europe. Siemens had secured a virtual monopoly over Japanese naval contracts in return for a secret 15% kickback to the Japanese naval authorities responsible for procurement.

In 1914, the British firm of Vickers (via their Japanese agents Mitsui Bussan) offered the Japanese naval authorities a more lucrative deal, involving a 25% kickback, with 40,000 Yen for Vice Admiral Matsumoto Yawara, the former Chief of the Navy Technical Department, specifically involving the procurement of the battlecruiser Kongō. When the German headquarters of Siemens found out about the deal, they sent a telegram to their Tokyo office demanding a clarification. An expatriate employee of the Siemens Tokyo office (Karl Richter) stole incriminating documents indicating that Siemens had previously paid a bribe of 1,000 pounds sterling to the Japanese navy in return for a wireless contract, sold the documents to the Reuters news agency together with a copy of the telegram, and fled back to Germany.

Japanese newspapers, notably the Asahi Shimbun immediately reported the details of the corruption scandal, and the issue was raised in the Diet by members of the Rikken Doshikai political party. As the current Prime Minister Admiral Yamamoto Gonnohyoe was also concurrently Navy Minister, the scandal was of very serious proportions. Both the Army and Navy Intelligence Services and the Kempeitai launched investigations.

The Japan Weekly Chronicle newspaper reported that an Admiral Fuji of the navy procurement office had confessed to receiving payments from Vickers of a total 210,000 yen in 1911 and 1912 on various occasions, reminding its readers that whether or not the money was received illegally under Japanese law, it was certainly illegal under the British Corrupt Practices Act of 1906.

Large scale demonstrations erupted in Tokyo in early February 1914, which turned violent on 10 February 1914 and 14 February 1914. Public opinion was further outraged when it was revealed the massive scope of the naval expansion program would have left room for little else in the government budget, and that the government was therefore planning to raise taxes. Although Prime Minister Yamamoto was not directly implicated, and he took steps to dismiss naval officers in charge of procurement and shipbuilding, public dissatisfaction continued to grow, and Yamamoto was challenged to explain the bribery allegations before the House of Peers.

After both houses of Diet refused to pass the 1914 Navy budget, Yamamoto resigned on 24 March 1914, bringing down his entire cabinet with him. In May, a military court marshal reduced ex-Prime Minister Yamamoto and his predecessor Admiral Saito Makoto in rank, sentenced several leading members of the navy procurement department to prison, heavily fined both Vickers and Siemens and banned them from future participation in contracts.

With the start of World War I a couple of weeks later, Vickers was asked to restart production on the Kongō, and the men involved were all pardoned and rehabilitated.

The London Telegraph newspaper edition of 21 January 1914 reported that Karl Richter had been arrested in Germany for his theft of the incriminating papers, and sentenced to two years in prison.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens_scandal
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Feb 2011 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the 10 February 1914 New York Times:

In Jail for Flouting Poll Tax.
Special to The New York Times.

Trenton, Feb. 9. — Having said in the press and elsewhere that he would not pay the dollar yearly poll tax, Louis Josephson, a Socialist agitator, was arrested to-day by Delinquent Tax Collector J. Edwin Fell and put in jail. With costs, the claim of the city against Josephson is $2.04, but he refuses to pay it. He says the tax is unconstitutional.

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F60D11FF3A5B13738DDDA90994DA405B848DF1D3 via http://sniggle.net/Experiment/index.php?entry=09Feb11
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 14:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Card from 2nd Lt Albert Brainerd Raynes, 10th February 1915



http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/5869?CISOBOX=1&REC=5 via http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/db/results.php?CISOBOX1=postcard&CISOFIELD1=objecb&CISOOP1=exact&CISOROOT=%2Fgwa&CISOSTART=1,11
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 14:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arctic Wolf Attacks Scientist - A Unique Canadian Incident
STUART E. JENNESS - 'Arctic', VOL. 38, NO. 2 (JUNE 19@5) P. 129-132

I wish to report now a much earlier wolf attack on a human,
one that occurred in northern Canada, involved an apparently
healthy wolf, and was well documented at the time it happened.
Unlike the 1942 attack, which lasted half an hour or
more and from which the victim escaped unhurt, this attack
lasted only a few seconds, but the victim suffered a serious
arm laceration. The attack took place on 10 February 1915,
three miles north of Bloody Falls on the Coppermine River,
Northwest Territories

Lees verder op http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic38-2-129.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 14:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 10th to 18th February, 1916
I leave Béthune at two thirty am and get to Boulogne at nine thirty am. As the boat is posted for twelve fifteen, there is some time allowed us to get clean, so Dixon of the 71s and self hunt the town for a coiffeur and finally find one, with only one chair in it. After a shave, we rush the Folkestone Hotel and have a bath and then a good lunch and take the ferry for the boat. It was three forty-five before we let go the painter, but we ran across well and were not delayed on the English side. On arriving at Victoria at eight forty-five pm, I made through the crowd for a taxi and then on to the Carlisle Club, where I found RSG. We talked till twelve, and then I went to Batts, but it was some time till I got used to white sheets. I spent all my time n London, as I had a lot of things to buy, some for the Battery. The JCs were at Rubens Hotel and I saw a good lot of them. Mrs F.J. (the Fyfe-Jamiesons were relatives) was also there. My, it was grand to be back in London once more, and I made the most of it. There was always a crowd of Anzacs to be found at the Carlisle Room, and I met Reg Brown there and we had a good night together at a Bric Brac. All good times must end and on 17th at nine fifteen am I had to return, catching the train at Victoria, and was glad there was no-one to see me off, as there is to see most men. We had a good journey to France, being lucky to have a moderate sea on our stern, a little to the starboard. It was a good hour before we got off, after tieing up at Boulogne, and we were glad to get our lunch at three pm in the Folkestone. The train left for the front at one, but my journey was cut very short, as at Lillers at six thirty pm I was roused by shouts of 'Mr Manifold' and found Bates and Potter both there tryng to find me so that I would not go on to Béthune. It was a wet cold night and I did not relish the ride of seven kilometres to the camp much. However, the rain luckily kept off.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/02/diary-entry-10th-to-18th-february-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 14:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cartoon from 'The Worker' 10 February 1916.



The cartoon depicts a situation in which a returned soldier is being rejected for employment because the business is able to pay lower wages for females.

http://www.anzacday.org.au/history/ww1/homefront/women.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 14:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

10 februari 1917 - Bij groepjes van 10-20-30 komen de opgeëiste werkelozen terug uit Frankrijk - en 't geen ze vertellen over hun behandeling alginder gaat alle gedacht te buiten. Men kan zich inbeelden welke vreugde, waar vader of zoon alzo ineens onverwachts weer verschijnt!!! Maar daarentegen welk verdriet bij de gebuur waar vader of zoon wegblijven - verergerd door 't geen men nu hoort vertellen over 't leven ginder... en de honger!

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0030.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 14:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 February 1917 - Pte Alfred Harper, 8th Bn Yorkshire Regiment.



A cloth-looker by trade, Alfred, who lived in Barnoldswick, was called up into the army in 1916 and arrived in France in August of that year. A Lewis gunner whilst on active service, he saw action during the later stages of the Battle of the Somme, but was killed by a shell whilst manning the line in the Ypres Salient. He is buried in Railway Dugouts Burial Ground, Zillebeke. Alfred was 22 years of age.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/component/content/1688.html?task=view
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 14:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John William Waterhouse

John William Waterhouse: (6 April 1849 - 10 February 1917) Pre-Raphaelite painter particularly known for his depiction of classical subjects and of characters and themes from classical literature and poetry, particularly from the works of Dante Alighieri, Tennyson, and Shakespeare.



John William Waterhouse - I am half-sick of shadows, said the lady of shalott (1916)

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/John_William_Waterhouse
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 15:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NZ Truth , Issue 608, 10 February 1917





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=NZTR19170210.2.66.1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 15:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS H-3



Stranded on Samoa Beach, near Eureka, California, 10 February 1917, during an early stage of the successful salvage operation by the Mercer-Fraser Company.
Photograph looks forward from off H-3 port quarter. Note sand piled against her bow and cables passed around her hull.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/ev-1910s/ev-1917/h3-salv2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 15:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MUSCAT NEW NAVAL CEMETERY

Muscat New Naval Cemetery contains only one Commonwealth burial of the First World War. This cemetery is in a cove 100 yards from Muscat Old Cemetery. It should be noted that this site is only accessible from the sea. Muscat Old Cemetery is in a neighbouring cove very close to the actual sea and is accessible from both land and sea, but the land route is by way of an ill defined pathway down a very steep hill.

Casualty: KAYE, Engine Room Artificer 3rd Class, CHARLES WILLIAM DONALDSON, M/17439, H.M.S. "Juno", Royal Navy. 10 February 1917. Age 28. Son of Mrs. Jane Ann Keighley (formerly Kaye), of "Gwynedd", Deganwy, Carnavonshire. Grave Ref. 3.4.

THE CWGC IN THE SULTANATE OF OMAN, http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/A-Z%20of%20countries%20OMAN.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 February 1918: Zulu War veteran drowns while shooting epic film
01/02/2011



Colonel Johannes Wilhelm Colenbrander, an esteemed veteran of the Zulu, Matabele and Anglo-Boer Wars, drowned on the set of African Film Productions’ epic film, ‘The Symbol of Sacrifice’. The incident also claimed the lives of Joseph Ralph Levy and William Brown, who had just returned from fighting in the World War.

Colenbrander had been hired as advisor on this film about the Zulu War of 1879 and also starred as Lord Chelmsford, the commander of the British army in Zululand. The accident happened during the filming of a scene in which Chelmsford and his troops cross the Buffalo River to relieve the garrison at Rorke’s Drift. The scene was shot at the Klip River near Henley-on-Klip, about 48km from Johannesburg. Colenbrander and his cavalry entered the water of the Klip River and was soon in 3 m deep water. When one of the horses took fright and tried to turn back to the the river bank, the uneasiness spread and several riders were thrown from their horses. Boats were immediately sent to the rescue and most of the riders were saved. But just as a boat was about to pull Colenbrander to safety, he disappeared under the water. His body, along with those of Levy and Brown, was discovered a couple of days later. It is believed that Colenbrander had had a heart attack from the strenuous swimming.

“It is something like the irony of fate that Col. Colenbrander should have come unscathed through the actual war of 1879, and through many tough encounters since then, to meet his death in a simulated reconstrution of his first campaign.” – Stage and Cinema, 16 February 1918, p.7

Shortly after the incident a formal inquest was launched and the matter was even briefly discussed in parliament. However, the film footage clearly showed the producers attempting to dissuade Colenbrander from entering the swollen river, and the case was dropped. For the safety of the actors, the producers had been willing to sacrifice historical accuracy by letting the troops cross the river on rafts. But Colenbrander, a survivor from the Battle of Rorke’s Drift, insisted on keeping the film “true to life” by crossing on horseback, despite the fact that a few days earlier his doctors had advised him against horseriding due to his weak heart.

Colonel Colenbrander was 61 years old at the time of his death. He was received a military burial on 14 February 1918.

Context: The Symbol of Sacrifice (1918) was based on the historical events surrounding the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 and dealt with the battles of Isandlwana, Rorke’s Drift and Ulundi. Special focus was given to the involvement and death of the Prince Imperal of France, Napoléon Louis Eugčne Jean Joseph, as well as to a scene where lieutenants Coghill and Melville heroically saved the British flag before dying – the flag thus becoming a symbol of sacrifice. The film also portrayed two fictional love stories, one between two young white lovers and the other a young Zulu couple. The film was directed by African Film Productions head I.W. Schlesinger and Joseph Albrecht and the cast included Mabel May, Dick Cruikshanks, Holger Petersen and the Zulu actor Goba.

http://mediahistory.co.za/2011/02/01/10-february-1918-zulu-war-veteran-drowns-while-shooting-epic-film/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 15:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Official Russian Announcement of Withdrawal from Brest-Litovsk Peace Talks, 10 February 1918

Reproduced below is the text of the official Bolshevik announcement published on 10 February 1918 declaring Russia's withdrawal from the Brest-Litovsk peace negotiations.

At the same time as its withdrawal from the peace talks - on accounts of the annexationist demands of the representatives of the Central Powers - Leon Trotsky simultaneously announced that Russia had also unilaterally pulled out of the war: fighting was to cease immediately.

Trotsky was however obliged to return to the peace conference once German-led forces instigated military advances into Russian territory immediately after his announcement (and prodded by Lenin who feared ever worse peace terms). Russia indicated its willingness to sign the treaty on 28 February; it was duly signed on 3 March 1918.

Leon Trotsky's Announcement of Russian Withdrawal from Brest-Litovsk Peace Negotiations, 10 February 1918

The peace negotiations are at an end. The German capitalists, bankers, and landlords, supported by the silent cooperation of the English and French bourgeoisie, submitted to our comrades, members of the peace delegations at Brest-Litovsk, conditions such as could not be subscribed to by the Russian revolution.

The Governments of Germany and Austria possess countries and peoples vanquished by force of arms. To this authority the Russian people, workmen and peasants, could not give its acquiescence. We could not sign a peace which would bring with it sadness, oppression, and suffering to millions of workmen and peasants.

But we also cannot, will not, and must not continue a war begun by Tsars and capitalists in alliance with Tsars and capitalists. We will not and we must not continue to be at war with the Germans and Austrians - workmen and peasants like ourselves.

We are not signing a peace of landlords and capitalists. Let the German and Austrian soldiers know who are placing them in the field of battle and let them know for what they are struggling. Let them know also that we refuse to fight against them.

Our delegation, fully conscious of its responsibility before the Russian people and the oppressed workers and peasants of other countries, declared on February 10th, in the name of the Council of the People's Commissaries of the Government of the Federal Russian Republic to the Governments of the peoples involved in the war with us and of the neutral countries, that it refused to sign an annexationist treaty.

Russia, for its part, declares the present war with Germany and Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria at an end.

Simultaneously, the Russian troops have received the following order for complete demobilization on all fronts.

Text of Military Order

No military operations must again take place.

The beginning of a general demobilization on all fronts is decreed. I order the issue of instructions on the front for the withdrawal of the troops from the first lines and for their concentration in the rear, and, further, for their dispatch to the interior of Russia, in accordance with the general plan for demobilization.

For the defence of the frontier some detachments of younger soldiers must be left.

I beg our soldier comrades to remain calm and await with patience the moment of the return of each detachment to its home in its turn. I beg that no effort be spared to bring into the stores all artillery and other military equipment which cost milliards of the people's money.

Remember that only systematic demobilization can be carried out in the shortest time, and that systematic demobilization alone can prevent interference with the sending of food supplies to those detachments which remain for a certain period on the front.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/brestlitovsk_trotskywithdrawal.htm
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The Dead Are With Us - A lecture by Rudolf Steiner, Nüremberg, February 10, 1918

OUR studies in Spiritual Science contain much that we cannot, perhaps, put to direct application in everyday life, and we may sometimes be inclined to feel it all rather remote from everyday life. But this is only seemingly the case. What we receive into the sphere of our knowledge concerning the secrets of the spiritual world is at every hour, at every moment, of vital and profound significance for our souls; what seems to be remote from us personally is often what the soul inwardly needs, In order to know the physical world we must make ourselves acquainted with it. But to know the spiritual world it is essential that we ourselves think through and make mental pictures of the thoughts and conceptions imparted to us by that world. These thoughts then often work quite unconsciously within the soul. That upon which the soul is working may seem to be quite remote, while in reality it is very near indeed to the higher domains of the life of soul.

Zweef verder op http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/19180210p01.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chinese Labourers in French and British Service on the Western Front

French Chinese Labour Corps

•Recruitment began: July 1916
•Recruitment ended: February 1918
•Total recruited and sent to the Western Front: 45,000

In May 1916 the French and Chinese governments secretly agreed to allow the recruitment of up to 50,000 Chinese labourers to serve behind the lines in France. To avoid accusations that this violated China’s official position of neutrality, the labourers were recruited by private Chinese front companies and then contracted out to French front companies, ostensibly for private civilian work in France. The first Chinese labourers contracted under this scheme arrived in France in August 1916. On arrival they came under the control of the French Ministry of War and were organised and treated as labour units of the French Colonial Army.

On 24 February 1917 the French transport ship SS Athos was torpedoed by a German U-boat in the Mediterranean on its way from China to France. A total of 543 Chinese labourers on board died in the sinking. On 14 March the Chinese government broke off diplomatic relations with Germany in protest.

British Chinese Labour Corps

•Recruitment began: November 1916
•Recruitment ended: April 1918
•Total recruited: 106,000
•Total sent to the Western Front: 100,000
•Total sent to Mesopotamia and Egypt: 6000

Following the French lead, the British decided to establish their own Chinese labour recruitment programme in August 1916. Unlike the French, they used private recruitment agents in China who were contracted directly to the British War Office. The recruitment agents simply directed potential recruits to the British territory of Wei-hai-wei in Shandong Province, where they were given contracts by British Foreign Office staff and placed under the administrative control of the War Office. After some teething problems this scheme was in full operation by the end of 1916. The first contingent of 1000 recruits embarked from Wei-hai-wei for England on 18 January 1917 and arrived in Plymouth on 11 April. The British Chinese Labour Corps was organised as a labour unit of the British Army and the recruits were subject to British military law.

Role of Chinese labourers on the Western Front

Chinese labourers worked on the docks and in railway yards and supply depots behind the lines, loading and unloading supplies, building and repairing roads, railways and other facilities. They frequently came within range of enemy artillery while carrying out their most dangerous tasks, building support trenches, roads and other structures in the rear areas of the front line. Some were killed or wounded by shellfire while carrying out these tasks.

End of the French and British Chinese labour programmes 1918

Following the entry of the United States into the war in April 1917 the US Army expanded rapidly. The need to transport this vast American force across the Atlantic Ocean to France put increasing pressure on the already stretched capacity of Allied shipping to meet all the demands being made upon it. The French, and then the British, both decided to halt their Chinese labour recruitment programmes to free up transport ships to carry more American troops from the United States to France. The French shut down their Chinese recruitment network on 10 February 1918 and the British closed theirs on 18 April. The British estimated that by doing so they would enable an extra 10,000 American soldiers to cross the Atlantic each month.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/republic-china-facts
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Gloucestershire Regiment - 10th February 1918 - 2/5th Battalion War Diary Entry

Quiet day. Wiring redoubt & resistance line. 2 Evacuations.

http://www.glosters.org.uk/onthisday/330
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lord Beaverbrook

Born in Ontario, Sir William Maxwell Aitken (1879-1964), later ennobled as Lord Beaverbrook, was initially a successful Canadian financier before retiring from business in 1910 to embark upon a political career.

In 1910 he took up a seat in the House of Commons, where he represented Ashton-under-Lyne for the Conservative party.

With good political connections, and a close friend of future Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Aitken served on the Western Front from early in 1915 as a journalist attached to Canadian forces (as 'Canadian Eye Witness'). In May 1915 Aitken was appointed as the Canadian force's official records officer and, from 1916, the Canadian government's official representative in France.

In 1916 Aitken published a three-volume account of the war from the Canadian viewpoint, Canada in Flanders, which quickly established itself as a bestseller.

Aitken was ennobled as Baron Beaverbrook by Lloyd George (now Prime Minister, succeeding Asquith) in 1917 and appointed to the London government on 10 February 1918, as Minister of Information - dealing with government propaganda. (...)

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/beaverbrook.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir George John Bell (1872 - 1944)



On 25 August he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force as a second lieutenant in the 3rd Light Horse Regiment and sailed for Egypt in October. He was promoted lieutenant in February 1915 and from May to November served at Gallipoli where his regiment had been sent to fight as infantry. He then served in the Suez Canal zone, was promoted captain on 8 February 1916 and major on 15 April, and took command of the regiment's 'A' squadron. He participated in the early stages of the Sinai campaign, fighting in the decisive battle of Romani on 4 August and in the abortive advances on Katia and Bir el Abd. Attached to the 4th Camel Battalion, Imperial Camel Corps, in October, he saw action during the occupation of El Arish and, after months of patrol work in the western desert, rejoined the light horse at Bir el Abd in March 1917. Promoted lieutenant-colonel on 14 June, he was given command of the 3rd Light Horse Regiment and soon emerged as 'one of the most aggressive and astute leaders produced by the light horse'. He demanded from his men the same rigid standard of discipline which he imposed upon himself, but they respected him for his fairness, his coolness under fire and his almost uncanny knowledge of what the enemy was going to do next. Under his leadership they played a spirited role in the battle of Beersheba, participated in the capture of the Jordan Valley and on 10 February 1918 took Jericho without opposition.

Lees verder op http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070252b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921)
by Dr. Levan Z. Urushadze

A Trans-Caucasian house of representatives convened on February 10, 1918, establishing the Trans-Caucasian Democratic Federative Republic, which existed from February, 1918 until May, 1918. The Trans-Caucasian Democratic Federative Republic was managed by the Trans-Caucasian Commissariat chaired by representatives of Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia. On May 26, 1918 this Federation was abolished and Georgia declared its independence.

Lees verder... http://www.scribd.com/doc/19004888/Democratic-Republic-of-Georgia
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French Newspaper Interview with Josef Pilsudski, February 1919

With Germany defeated in November 1918 the path was cleared for a newly constructed Polish republic to be established with Allied backing; this was duly declared on 10 February 1919.

Lees verder op http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/poland_pilsudski2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The sinking of the Iolaire, 1st january 1919

A Public Inquiry was held in Stornoway commencing 10th February 1919, and the local community provided seven men for the jury. This was the only opportunity that the people of Stornoway were given to ask the questions so many had, and they were represented by a local solicitor, Mr J.N. Anderson. When the jury reached their verdict, at least this one was made available to the public, unlike the Naval Inquiry. Despite rumours to the contrary, drink was not held to have been a factor in the sinking at any point. The conclusions were that "the officers in charge did not exercise sufficient prudence in approaching the harbour; that the boat did not slow down, and that no look-out was on duty; and that the number of lifebelts, boats and rafts was insufficient for the number of people carried." They recommended that the last point should be particularly noted by the Navy and the Government, and also that "the Government should in future provide adequate and safe travelling facilities for Naval ratings and soldiers", which must have been scant consolation to the 58 widows and 209 father-less children bereft by the sinking. Mr Pitan, one of those representing the Navy at the Public Inquiry, reported back to his masters that the island's population as a body held the Navy wholly responsible for the tragedy.

http://www.siol-nan-gaidheal.org/iolaire.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Feb 2011 16:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MANIFIESTO DE EMILIANO ZAPATA PARA POSTULAR A FRANCISCO VAZQUEZ GOMEZ COMO JEFE DE LA REVOLUCIÓN MEXICANA
Cuartel General en el Estado de Morelos, Febrero 10, 1919


República Mexicana. Ejército Libertador.
Cuartel General.

MANIFIESTO AL PUEBLO Y A LOS REVOLUCIONARIOS MEXICANOS

Para llevar a feliz término y dejar totalmente consumada la labor unificadora, cuyas bases quedaron planteadas en los manifiestos de 15 de marzo y de 25 de abril del ańo próximo pasado, sólo hacía falta designar la persona que debiera asumir la jefatura suprema de todo el movimiento revolucionario.

Olé! http://www.bibliotecas.tv/zapata/1919/z10feb19.html
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