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5 Februari

 
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Mario



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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2006 10:24    Onderwerp: 5 Februari Reageer met quote

1915
6000 Russen bei Bolimow gefangen.
Das Scheitern der russischen Offensive in der Bukowina.
Bekanntgabe hervorragender Waffentaten.
Eine Kundgebung von Kaiser Franz Josef.

1916
Luftangriff auf Dünaburg.
Ein stiller Tag an den k. u. k. Fronten.

1917
Vergebliche englische Angriffe an der Somme-Front.
Fliegerangriff auf Dünkirchen.
Siegreicher Vorstoß am Plöcken-Paß.
Aufforderung Wilsons an die Neutralen zu gemeinsamem Vorgehen
Botschafter Gerard verlangt seine Pässe.
Die deutschen Dampfer in Manila unbrauchbar gemacht.

1918
Artilleriekämpfe in Flandern.
Das russische Hauptquartier in Händen der Polen.
Rege U-Boottätigkeit an der afrikanischen Küste.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2006 10:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 U.S. steamship Tuscania is torpedoed and sinks

On February 5, 1918, the Anchor line steamship Tuscania, traveling as part of a British convoy and transporting over 2,000 American soldiers bound for Europe, is torpedoed and sinks off the coast of Ireland by the German submarine U-77.

For the first three years of the war, the British Admiralty had resisted calls for a convoy system to protect merchant ships coming to Britain from the United States, Canada and other countries, on the grounds that such a system would divert ships and sailors from the defense of Britain’s own coastline or confrontation of the German enemy at sea. A stream of successful attacks by German submarines, however, finally forced the British to set up a system under which all merchant ships sailing across the Atlantic would travel in groups and would be given heavy protection by the British navy. A typical convoy could consist of 10 to 50 merchant ships, possibly including a troopship, escorted by a cruiser, six destroyers, 11 armed trawlers and two torpedo boats, each equipped with an aerial balloon from which submarines and torpedo tracks could be observed from above.

The convoy system, introduced on May 24, 1917, became especially important after the U.S. entry into the war in April 1917, when large numbers of American soldiers headed across the Atlantic. Convoy gathering points were soon established along the North American coastline. The Tuscania, captained by Peter McLean, embarked on its final journey from Hoboken, New Jersey, on January 23, 1918, carrying 2,397 American servicemen bound for the front in Europe toward Le Havre, France, as part of the British convoy HX-20.

The German submarine U-77, with its crew of 34 men under the command of Lieutenant Commander Wilhelm Meyer, spotted the Tuscania and its convoy on the evening of February 5, just eight miles off the Irish coast. After moving into position, Meyer fired two torpedoes at the Tuscania. The first torpedo missed, but the second torpedo scored a direct hit on the starboard side, causing a terrific explosion. The 14,384-ton steamer immediately took a great list and crewmembers were plunged into darkness as they began lowering lifeboats into the sea. Of the 2,397 American servicemen on the Tuscania, the convoy was able to rescue 2,187, along with the majority of the ship’s British crew.

On the whole, the British convoy system was highly successful. In the last two years of the Great War, it drastically reduced the number of ships, men and supplies lost to the Germans at sea. Above all, it played a crucial role in protecting U.S. troops crossing the Atlantic to aid the Allies: of the 1.1 million American troops transported in convoy to Europe between May 1917 and November 1918, only 637 were drowned as a result of U-boat attacks.
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Mario



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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2006 10:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 - British General Staff estimates that no more than 250,000 American soldiers could be in Europe even after a year
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2008 11:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

5 februari 1918


The sinking of the Tuscania
The ship left Hoboken, New Jersey, on her final voyage on 24 January 1918 carrying 2,013 American troops and a crew of 384. She joined Convoy HX-20 at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and proceeded to cross the Atlantic bound for Le Harve. On 5 February the convoy was sighted seven miles north of the Rathilin Island lighthouse by the German Submarine UB-77 under the command of Lt. Cdr. Wilhelm Meyer. At 5:40pm he fired two torpedoes at the Tuscania, the first of which missed, the second scoring a direct hit. By 7:00pm all the ship's lifeboats had been launched, but approximately 1,350 men remained on board. The convoy's escorting destroyers assisted in removing these, but were hampered by the continuing presence of the UB-77 in the area. The Tuscania finally sank at 10:00pm, over four hours after being struck; 230 people were lost. {One estimate indicated 201 of these were American troops, the remainder crew members.]

The Tuscania was the first ship carrying American troops to be sunk, and public opinion in the USA regarded its loss as an outrage. In 1920 the American Red Cross erected a monument on the Isle of Islay, where many of the victims had been buried before their transfer that year to the American War Cemetery at Brookwood [England] or to their homeland.

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/tuscania.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2008 13:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 - Die Sowjetregierung verfügt die Enteignung der russischen Handelsflotte und lässt das Aktienkapital der Privatbanken konfiszieren. Ein Erlass verkündet die Trennung von Staat und Kirche.

http://derstandard.at/?url=/?id=3205704
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 18:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Sheffield City Battalion

Alphaeus Casey's Diary


Alphaeus Abbott Casey was born at Annesley Woodhouse, Nottinghamshire on 22nd January 1895, the son of Thomas and Annie Casey. He was a student at the University of Sheffield when he enlisted into the ranks of the City Battalion with the number 12/69 on 10th September 1914. Between 1st January and 24th March 1915, during which time the battalion was at Redmires Camp, Alphaeus kept a detailed diary which gives a rare insight into the training regime of a Pals battalion. On 1st July 1916, he was killed in action with the battalion's "A" Company during the attack on Serre. Alphaeus has no known grave, and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.

Friday 5th February 1915

Washer up. Drill.

Outpost scheme. Was detailed as sanitary man of no. 1 picket. Had to dig trench 3 ft wide and 1 ft deep, earth piled on one side only.

Quarry 2-4.30pm. Wheeled barrow, smashed blocks. Fun doing squad drill with barrows. Paid 7/1. Peeled potatoes.

Concert in Y.M. 7-9.30pm by Endcliffe Wesleyan Choir. Excellent on whole. A beautiful girl, Isobel Duffy. English. Quiet, sweet rosy face. Clear voice. Sang Killarney. Another artist sang “When my ship comes home”. Wish I had a sweetheart to confide in. How lonely I feel often. “And God saw that it was not good for man to live alone”. Beautiful thought. My dream girl, how I love her. And man’s folly cuts short the creations of human and divine aspiration. How Clarke and Stables teased me.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 18:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE LONDON GAZETTE, 5 FEBRUARY, 1915.

Downing Street,
4th February, 1915.
The KING has been pleased to appoint Field-Marshal Lord Methuen, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., C.M.G., to be Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies.

http://www.gazettes-online.co.uk/issues/29060/pages/1212/page.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 18:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Notes on the Front - 5 February 1916 (Author: James Connolly)

Notes on the Front
The Ties that Bind 5 February 1916

Recently we have been pondering deeply over the ties that bind this country to England. It is not a new theme for our thoughts; for long years we have carried on propaganda in Ireland pointing out how the strings of self-interest bound the capitalist and landlord classes to the Empire, and how it thus became a waste of time to appeal to those classes in the name of Irish patriotism.

We have said that the Working Class was the only class to whom the word 'Empire', and the things of which it was the symbol did not appeal. That to the propertied classes 'Empire' meant high dividends and financial security, whereas to the Working Class that meant only the things it was in rebellion against.

Lees verder op http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/E900002-061/text001.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 18:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 5, 1917

Event: Present Mexican constitution adopted

http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1917/february_5_1917_78346.html

Mexicaanse grondwet van 1917

De Mexicaanse grondwet van 1917, formeel de politieke grondwet van de Verenigde Mexicaanse Staten (Spaans: Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is de huidige grondwet van Mexico.

De grondwet van 1917 is opgesteld in Santiago de Querétaro, tijdens de Mexicaanse Revolutie. De grondwet trad in werking op 5 februari 1917. Deze verving die van 1857. Venustiano Carranza was de eerste president die onder deze grondwet diende. 5 februari is tegenwoordig een feestdag in Mexico (Día de la Constitución). Sindsdien werd de grondwet enkele keren geamendeerd.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexicaanse_grondwet_van_1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting, 5 February 1918

GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR.


HC Deb 05 February 1918 vol 101 c2061 2061

§ 10. Mr. BUTCHER asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether he has now any official information to the effect that hundreds of British and French officer prisoners of war have been sent to Stuttgart and other places in order to be subject to the risks of air raids; and whether he will take steps to inform the German Government that, if and so long as they indulge in such practices, German prisoners of war will be brought from Donington Hall and elsewhere to London and other places where they will share with women and children and other noncombatants the dangers of attacks from the air by Germans?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON Information has been received which leaves no doubt that the German authorities have placed officer prisoners of war in localities which are specially subject to air raids.

Similar action is contemplated in this country.

§ 14. Colonel LESLIE WILSON asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether there are any and, if so, how many hospitals in the London district where patients suffering from shell shock are treated; if so, whether steps will be taken to remove all such patients to the West country or some other area in which they will be free from air raids?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON As many cases as possible are being moved out of the London district, and 450 have just left. My hon. and gallant Friend will realise that the difficulty of finding other suitable accommodation is considerable.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/feb/05/german-prisoners-of-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 156, Feb. 5, 1919

The Germans refer to the Armistice negotiations as Waffenstillstandeverhandlungen. We hope it will be worse even than they think.

Our heart goes out to the soldier who, when offered, on demobilisation, the option of fifty-two shillings and sixpence or a standard suit, replied that he would rather pay the fine.

In connection with the epidemic of burglaries in London, The Daily Express has now published a leader note saying there have been too many of late. It is hoped that this will have the desired effect.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11868/11868-h/11868-h.htm
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Fritz Kempf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 - Schieten Pégoud en zijn waarnemer Lerendu met hun Type L "Parasol" eendekker maar liefst drie Duitse vliegtuigen omlaag waarmee Pégoud direct koploper is in behaalde overwinningen.
1917 - De SMS Kronprinz en zusterschip SMS Grosser Kurfürst komen in de Duitse Bocht met elkaar in aanvaring.

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Ypres Salient on Pictures
Discover the Salient - Meet the men


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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2010 21:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En een ouwetje, voor Nederlanders én Belgen:

5 februari 1831: Jan van Speyk laat zich met zijn schip de lucht in vliegen

Na het uitbreken van onlusten eind augustus 1830 in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden gericht tegen de ‘Noord-Nederlandse overheersing', blijkt al snel dat de opstandige ‘Belgen’ vastbesloten zijn zich desnoods gewapenderhand te verzetten tegen de Nederlanders die de orde willen herstellen. Dat leidt in september tot een toename van het aantal Nederlandse oorlogsschepen op de Schelde, met name bij Antwerpen. Op 20 oktober verklaart generaal David H. Chassé de stad Antwerpen in staat van beleg. Eind oktober wordt de stad door de Nederlandse oorlogsbodems beschoten, waarop een wapenstilstand volgt. Het aantal schepen voor Antwerpen wordt eind 1830 zelfs verminderd. Vanwege drijfijs dat eind januari 1831 de nog aanwezige kanonneerboten op de Schelde bedreigt, zijn deze schepen tijdelijk verplaatst maar moeten begin februari hun posities weer innemen. Kanonneerboot No 2 wordt door sterke wind van haar ankerplaats geslagen en drijft af naar de wal, waar ze door tientallen opstandige Belgen wordt opgewacht. Dat doet Van Speyk besluiten de lont in het kruitvat te steken en zich samen met zijn schip, bemanning en geëmbarkeerde opstandige Belgen de lucht in te laten vliegen. Zijn zelfopoffering leidt in de Noordelijke provincies tot een ongekende heldenverering. Koning Willem I bepaalt nog geen week later bij KB dat er voortaan altijd een vaartuig van de Koninklijke Marine de naam Van Speyk zal dragen. Op initiatief van het College Zeemanshoop wordt door particulieren geld ingezameld voor een nationaal gedenkteken in de vorm van een vuurtoren bij Egmond aan Zee.

http://www.nimh.nl/nl/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814_1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 19:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Adolf Hitler

When the 1914-1918 war broke out, a war described by Field-Marshall Lord Allenby as 'a lengthy period of general insanity', Hitler, believing the war would set everything to right expressed himself thus: "For me it was a deliverance. I am not ashamed to say it today: I fell on my knees and thanked God.'

Ordinarily, Hitler need not have been destined for the armed forces as for many years he had been afflicted with tuberculosis. However on the 5th February 1914, months before war broke out and there being any necessity for him to take up arms in defence of his country the twenty-five year old Adolf Hitler applied for military service and was turned away as 'Unfit for the army or auxiliary corps. Too weak. Rejected.'

http://www.stomfront.org/forum/t345636/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 19:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Excerpten uit het Salland's Volksblad - 1915

5 februari 1915 - Gramsbergen: dinsdagavond is vermoedelijk een luchtschip komende uit het Zuidwesten langs onze plaats gegaan. Alhoewel voor het oog niet zichtbaar door de groote hoogte en het avonduur, konden toch sommigen duidelijk de motor hooren werken. Het zoeklicht was echter duidelijk waar te nemen.

http://www.hardenberg.nl/smartsite.shtml?id=73928
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 19:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vickers F.B.5



The Vickers F.B.5 (Fighting Biplane 5) (known as the "Gunbus") was a British two-seat pusher military biplane of the First World War. Armed with a single .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun operated by the observer in the front of the nacelle, it was the first aircraft purpose-built for air-to-air combat to see service, making it the world's first operational fighter aircraft. (...)

The F.B.5 began to be seen on the Western Front when the first examples reached No.2 Squadron RFC on 5 February 1915. The type served in ones and twos with several other units before No. 11 Squadron RFC became the world's first fighter squadron when, fully equipped with the F.B.5, it deployed to Villers-Bretonneux, France on 25 July 1915

Lees er alles over op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vickers_F.B.5



http://www.wwiaviation.com/british_2seaters1915.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Feb 2011 19:45, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 19:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Friedmann



When Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum after the June 1914 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, Russia supported Serbia, so Germany came to the support of Austria. World War I broke out on 1 August 1914 and Friedmann soon sought permission from the Head of the Observatory to join the volunteer aviation detachment. He began flying aircraft and was soon involved in bombing raids. He continued to study mathematics, writing and exchanging mathematical ideas with Steklov by letter. In a letter to Steklov written on 5 February 1915 Friedmann writes, see:-

My life is fairly even, except such accidents as a shrapnel explosion twenty feet away, the explosion of an Austrian bomb within half a foot, which turned out almost happily, and falling down on my face and head, which resulted in a ruptured upper lip and headaches. But one gets used to all this, of course, particularly seeing things all around which are a thousand times more awful.

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Friedmann.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 19:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In oorlogsnood, Virginie Lovelings dagboek 1914-1918

Vrijdag, 5 februari 1 uur - Troepen soldaten komen door mijn straat. In 't grijs, meest allen met een groenen pinhelm op. Ze zijn zwaar geladen met wapens, ransels, opgerolde pakken, met keteltjes of metalen kokers op den rug. Hun houding is gebogen, bij meest allen zinkt het hoofd naar den grond. De straat klimt nog al op, daardoor kan het komen; of is het vermoeienis? Een sleept zijn been, hij kan den vluggen pas der overigen bezwaarlijk bijhouden; een drietal hinken, strompelen, dreigen te vallen.

Ik tel en tel, misschien met een lichte vergissing, maar kom tot achthonderd. Ze zijn verdeeld in scharen van een vijftigtal: in 't eerste gelid gaan er vijf, dan telkens vier. Tusschen elk peloton, van de andere hoopen heel afgescheiden, stapt manhaftig een officier.

Ze trekken op in de richting der Leopoldkazerne, in Wilhelmskazerne herdoopt.

Later verneem ik, dat ze, van 't front komend, hier een rustpoos zullen doen.

Om drie uur ga ik in het Stadspark. Langs de lanen, met kastanjeboomen beplant, die er heen leiden, staan ijzeren palen, met aanduidingsplaten der Gentsche politie: "Verboden voor ruiters, auto's, rijtuigen en moto's." De bestrate weg — heel breed — ligt op heel de lengte berijdbaar open.
Het verbod verachtend, komen, als immer, Duitschers te paard, een, twee of drie tegelijk op die aardewegen aangedraafd of in galop, zoodat groote brokken van den grond achter hun hoeven wegvliegen, en de grond zelf hobbelig doorploegd liggen blijft.

Het weder is heerlijk, de hemel wolkeloos blauw; de meezen zingen; alles schijnt te jubelen, omdat de lente in aantocht is. Er hangt een ragfijn floers van pareltint en maluwmauve tussen de heesters, waarachter de donkerheden der dennen te sterker uitkomen. Geen adem van den wind rimpelt het effen vlak van de vijvers, waarop blanke zwanen, als pleisteren kunstwerken, onbeweeglijk liggen in den reeds warmen zonneschijn.

Enkele wandelaars; hier en daar een jeugdige, sierlijke dame met een meid, die een kinderwagentje voortstuwt; schildwachten patrouilleerend voor het Feestpaleis, voor den ingang van den Plantentuin, voor het museum van schilderijen. Maar vooral Feldgrauen, overal Feldgrauen slenterend, den dolk — versierd met gekleurde kwispels op zijde, den revolver in de scheede op de linkerflank, of het geweer op den schouder,en de bajonnet daarboven uitstekend, emblema van een bestendig dreigement.

Beneden een kleine helling staat een groep menschen, burgers en soldaten. Daar is iets te zien en ik blijf ook kijken: een jongetje, een arm kind van een jaar of twee oud, staat te schreien bij een modderigen plas, dien het goed weder den tijd nog niet gehad heeft om op te drogen.
"Allo toe, zeg waarom da ge schreemt," vraagt iemand aan den kleine, hem bij het schoudertje schuddend; doch hij jammert voort als een stil, traag, slepend gezang.

"Hij is al te klein, hij kan dat nog niet uiteendoen," zegt een andere toeschouwer.

"Zijt ge iets kwijt? Hebt ge wat verloren?" gaat het weder.

Dat woord verloren, wekt hem uit zijn kindersmart. Het betraand gezichtje kijkt eerst naar den belangstellende op en hij murmelt iets onverstaanbaars, dan met het handje den grond aanwijzend.
Elk kijkt en zoekt... Een soldaat, die, neergehurkt, ook opsporingen doet, raapt uit de modder iets op, dat hij triomfantelijk omhoog steekt en aan den knaap geeft. Getroost reeds ziet de kleine zijn schat — een marmer — aan, die hem in de vuilnis ontvallen was.

"Schön Dank," zegt in zijn plaats een dikke, bejaarde, manke dame, die ik voor mij aan den arm eener helpster heb zien voortsukkelen, die ook was blijven staan en met een ouderwetsche buiging knikt zij goedig den hulpvaardigen soldaat toe.

Al de omringenden schieten in een luiden lach en al de duitsche krijgers lachen galmend mede, met hun jonge witte tanden en hun frisch gelaat.
Schorsing, geest- en hartsineensmelting...

Maar... In de verre verte dommelt het kanon met zware tusschenbonzen van het moordend zeegeschut...

http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1915-02-05.htm
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Adolphe Celestin Pčgoud



Médaille Militaire - "Adjudant reservist of an aviation group; has pursued enemy planes on several occasions. On 5 February 1915, he attacked a scout from a short distance causing it to fall; immediately afterwards, he attacked two two-seaters causing the first to fall and forcing the second to land." Médaille Militaire citation, 17 February 1915

http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/france/pegoud.php
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South African Aviation Corps (SAAC)

In November 1914, the Union decided the Aviation Corps was necessary to conduct a campaign against German South West Africa and a new squadron was formed including the six graduates from the Royal Flying School who were recalled from Europe. The South African Aviation Corps (SAAC) was formed 5 February 1915 and on 6 May 1915 the Corps commenced operations, mainly reconnaissance, in that area. General Botha, who had previously depended on mounted men for reconnaissance, declared 'Now I can see for hundreds of miles'. The aircraft were also used on bombing raids and the South Africans were able to out manoeuver the Germans, leading to their surrender three months later after the South African Aviation Corps entered the campaign. The Corps was awarded the South West African battle honour, a unique award as battle honours are normally only awarded to units.

http://www.saairforce.co.za/the-airforce/history/saaf/south-africa-aviation-corps
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The Wisconsin magazine (February 1915)



http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/Literature/Literature-idx?type=header&id=Literature.v12i05&pview=hide
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1916 De watersnood - Uit het dagboek van de pastoor.

Vrijdag 4, en zaterdag 5 februari 1916: de kerk staat droog, het water was zeer laag. Er woei een voortdurende zuidenwind. Er zouden twee H. Missen in de kerk zijn en een in de zaal bij Van Diepen voor kinderen en ouden van dagen. Maar helaas, de wind ging een weinig westelijk en zondagmorgen stond er een halve voet water in de kerk.

http://volendaminvogelvlucht.wordpress.com/boekfragmenten/1916-de-watersnood/
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The British Armies of 1914-1918

Fourth Formed in France on 5 February 1916, under the command of Sir Henry Rawlinson. Was renamed Second Army when Plumer moved to Italy, and reverted to Fourth Army when he returned.

http://www.1914-1918.net/armies.htm
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Dada



Hugo Ball, poet, writer, philosopher, theatre director, together with Emmy Hennings, who later became his wife, founded the Cabaret Voltaire at Spiegelgasse No.1, Zurich, on 5th February 1916. This was the birthplace of Dada. Across the street in Spiegelgasse No. 12, lived Vladimir Llych Lenin. At first the Cabaret Voltaire was a literary demonstration. Emmy Hennings sang and Ball accompanied her on the piano. He advertised in the press, inviting the young artists of Zurich. They came. Among them were Tristan Tzara, Marcel Duchamp and Georges Janco from Bucarest.

http://fusionanomaly.net/dada.html

DADA! DADA! DADA! DADA!

On Saturday night, the 5th of February 1916, in Zurich, the Cabaret Voltaire opened.

"Dada has been mixed up with an art movement though it has nothing to present as an art movement if you think of Cubism, of Impressionism, or whatever, these are all problems of form, of color, of something that is shown or devised or has the aim of being a work of art; now this we didn't have at all. We had practically nothing except what we were."

http://inkhornterm.blogspot.com/2009/04/troglodyte-world-1916-french-woman.html

Cabaret Voltaire
from the "Dada Dictionary" in Dada: Monograph of a Movement

During the First World War, Switzerland, and more especially Zürich, became a place of retreat for refugees from all the countries of Europe. It was the ideal breeding ground for their manifestations against war, jingoism and outmoded aesthetical traditions. It was at Zürich that Lenin and his friends laid the plans for the Russian Revolution, and there lived pacifist poets such as Schickele, Leonhard Frank, and Franz Werfel. A special group was formed by Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings (German poets), Hans Arp (an Alsatian painter, sculptor and poet), and two Roumanians: Marcel Janco, a painter, and Tristan Tzara, a poet.
Hugo Ball had at one time been stage director at the Munich "Kammerspiele." Later, at Zürich, he became a pianist in a group of actors providing cheap entertainment in popular music halls. At the beginning of 1916 Ball rented an empty hall belonging to Ephraim Jan, an elderly Dutch sailor who was running a "Dutch Room" at the "Meierei" ("Dairy Inn"), at Nr. 1 Spiegelgasse, Zurich. There Ball planned to open his own cabaret together with his wife Emmy Hennings, at once poetess, recitationist, and vocalist. For a name, they chose the somewhat suspicious-sounding epithet "Cabaret Voltaire." They asked Hans Arp, Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara, members of their circle, to collaborate, and the cabaret was opened on February 5th, 1916.
Its dark premises were artists' club, exhibition room, pub, and theater, all rolled into one. The artists' performances consisted of the oddest works which had never before been seen or heard. Noise music, simultaneous poems recited by 4 to 7 voices speaking all at once, bizarre dances in grotesque masks and fancy costumes, interrupted by readings of German and French sound verses sounding like nothing on Earth, and solemn incantations of texts by the mystic Jacob Böhme and of Lao-Tse. On the walls had been hung pictures by artists whose names had been unknown until then: Arp, Paolo Buzzi, Cangiullo, Janco, Kisling, Macke, Marinetti, Modigliani, Mopp, Picasso, van Rees, Slodki, Segal, Wabel, and others.
On May 15th, 1916, Ball published a pamphlet entitled "Cabaret Voltaire," a collection of artistic and literary contributions (by Apollinaire, Arp, Ball, Cangiullo, Cendrars, Hennings, van Hoddis, Huelsenbeck, Janco, Kandinsky, Marinetti, Modigliani, Oppenheimer, Picasso, van Rees, Slodki, and Tzara). In his introduction, Ball wrote these programmatic words: "When I founded the Cabaret Voltaire, I was of the opinion that there ought to be a few young people in Switzerland who not only laid stress, as I did, on enjoying their independence, but also wished to proclaim it. I went to Mr. Ephraim, the owner of the "Meierei" restaurant and said, 'Please, Mr. Ephraim, let me have your hall. I want to make a cabaret.' Mr. Ephraim agreed. So I went to some friends of mine and asked them, 'Please, let me have a picture, a drawing, an engraving. I want to have an exhibition to go with my cabaret.' And I went to the friendly press of Zürich and said, 'Write a few notes. It shall be an international cabaret. We want to do some beautiful things.' And they gave me pictures, and they wrote the notes. So, on February 5th, we had our cabaret. Mrs. Hennings and Mrs. Leconte sang French and Danish songs. Mr. Tristan Tzara recited Roumanian verses. A balalaika band played some charming Russian folk-songs and dances. Much support and sympathy came to me from Mr. Slodki, who designed the poster for the Cabaret; and from Mr. Hans Arp, who placed at my disposal a few works by Picasso, in addition to his own works, and who also got me some pictures from his friends: O. van Rees and Arthur Segal. There was also much assistance from Messrs. Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, and Max Oppenheimer, who willingly experssed their readiness to appear at the cabaret. We organized a Russian soirée, and soon after a French one as well (with works by Apollinaire, Max Jacob, André Salmon, A. Jarry, Laforgue, and Rimbaud). On February 26th, Richard Huelsenbeck came from Berlin, and on March 30th we performed fabulous Negro music (always with the big drum, boom, boom, boom-drabatja mo gere drabatja mo boonooo...). Mr. Laban was present at the performance and was quite enthusiastic. Thanks to the initiative of Mr. Tristan Tzara, who along with Huelsenbeck and Janco, performed for the first time in Zürich and, indeed, in the whole world, simultaneous verses by Messrs. Henri Barzun and Fernand Divoire, as well as a simultaneous poem of their own composition. For the little pamphlet we are publishing today, we have to thank our own initiative and the assistance of our friends in France, Italy, and Russia. It is to exemplify the activities and the interests of the cabaret, whose whole endeavour is directed at reminding the world, across the war and various fatherlands, of those few independent spirits that live for other ideals. The next aim of the artists united here is to publish an international periodical. This will appear at Zürich and will be called 'DADA Dada Dada Dada Dada.'" (- Hugo Ball, Zürich, 15 May 1916)
In this declaration the name of "Dada" is documented for the first time, and from here it was carried into the world. On July 14th, 1916, the first Dada Soirée took place at the "Waage" hall; and in the same month the series of books, "Collection Dada," began to appear. Tzara's "The First Heavenly Adventure of Mr. Febrifuge," with illustrations by Marcel Janco, was the first to be published, then Huelsenbeck's "Fantastic Prayers" and "Schalaben Schalomai Schalamezomai," and Tzara's "25 Poems," all illustrated by Arp.
On March 17th, 1917, the "Galerie Dada" was opened at No. 19 Bahnhofstraße, and activities transferred there from the "Cabaret Voltaire," which had been closed in the meantime. "Sturm-Soirées" were given, among them a performance of Kokoschka's play "Sphinx and Man-of-Straw," an "Evening of New Art," exhibitions of ancient and modern art, etc. From July 1917, to May 1919, four issues of the new periodical "Dada" were published with Tzara as editor.
In February 1919, Picabia published No. 8 of his 'vagabond periodical' "391" with collaboration of the Zürich dadaists. October 1919 saw the publication of the last Zürich dada periodical "Der Zeltweg," edited by Otto Flake, Walter Serner, and Tristan Tzara. After the borders between the countries of Europe had been opened once more, links with Berlin, Cologne and Paris were re-established. Huelsenbeck founded a dada-group in Berlin, Arp and Max Ernst founded one in Cologne. On Tzara's initiative a particularly active group sprang up in Paris. Dada extended to Holland (van Doesburg), and Schwitters founded "Merz," his own version of DaDa, in Hannover. And the influence of DaDa extended to Italy, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Spain, Russia, and the United States.

http://members.peak.org/~dadaist/English/Graphics/cabaret_voltaire.html
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ALLEGED TEXT OF THE OTTOMAN GOVERNMENT'S PROCLAMATION ORDERING THE DEPORTATION OF THE ARMENIANS; REPRINTED FROM AN ARTICLE BY MISS ELEANOR FRANKLIN EGAN IN THE PHDLADELPHIA «SATURDAY EVENING POST,» 5th FEBRUARY, 1916.

Our fellow countrymen, the Armenians, who form one of the racial elements of the Ottoman Empire, having taken up, as a result of foreign instigation for many years past, with a lot of false ideas of a nature to disturb the public order ; and because of the fact that they brought about bloody happenings and have attempted to destroy the peace and security of the Ottoman state, and the safety and interests of their fellow countrymen, as well as of themselves ; and, moreover, as they have now dared to join themselves to the enemy of their existence† and to the enemies now at war with our state—our Government is compelled to adopt extraordinary measures and sacrifices, both for the preservation of the order and security of the country and for the welfare and the continuation of the existence of the Armenian community. Therefore, as a measure to be applied until the conclusion of the war, the Armenians have to be sent away to places which have been prepared in the interior vilayets ; and a literal obedience to the following orders, in a categorical manner, is accordingly enjoined on all Ottomans :

First.—All Armenians, with the exception of the sick, are obliged to leave within five days from the date of this proclamation, by villages or quarters, and under the escort of the gendarmerie.

Second.—Though they are free to carry with them on their journey the articles of their movable property which they desire, they are forbidden to sell their lands and their extra effects, or to leave the latter here and there with other people, because their exile is only temporary and their landed property, and the effects they will be unable to take with them, will be taken care of under the supervision of the Government, and stored in closed and protected buildings. Anyone who sells or attempts to take care of his movable effects or landed property in a manner contrary to this order, shall be sent before the Court Martial. They are free to sell to the Government only the articles which may answer the needs of the Army.

Third.—Contains a promise of safe conduct.

Fourth.—A threat against anyone attempting to molest them on the way.

Fifth.—Since the Armenians are obliged to submit to this decision of the Government, if some of them attempt to use arms against the soldiers or gendarmes, arms shall be employed against them and they shall be taken, dead or alive. In like manner those who, in opposition to the Government's decision, refrain from leaving or seek to hide themselves—if they are sheltered or given food and assistance, the persons who thus shelter or aid them shall be sent before the Court Martial for execution.

http://armenianhouse.org/bryce/treatment/654-670-annexe.html
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Buffalo Bill


Buffalo Bill Cody, ca. 1875

Buffalo Bill (Scott County (Iowa), 26 februari 1846 - Denver (Colorado), 10 januari 1917), eigenlijk William Frederick Cody, was een van de kleurrijkste figuren uit het Wilde Westen. (...)

William Cody ontving in 1872 de eremedaille (Medal of Honor) voor "betoonde moed in actie" gedurende zijn dienst als burgerverkenner voor de Cavalerie. Deze medaille werd op 5 februari 1917, 26 dagen na zijn dood, weer ingetrokken omdat hij burger was en er geen recht op had volgens nieuwe richtlijnen die het leger in 1917 uitgaf. In 1989 werd de medaille nogmaals aan hem toegekend.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_Bill
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Kapitein Noel Godfrey Chavasse

De tweede militair die gedurende de Eerste Wereldoorlog het VC voor een tweede maal ontvangt was de kapitein-arts Noel Godfrey Chavasse. Bijzonder aan Chavasse is dat dit de enige militair is die gedurende één conflict, de Eerste Wereldoorlog, de VC twee maal heeft gekregen. Ook aan Chavasse wordt een hoofdstuk gewijd per verleende VC in de serie boeken die over de VC van de Eerste Wereldoorlog gaan, namelijk hoofdstuk 3 van het boek van Stephen Snelling met als titel: VCs of the First World war: Passchendaele 1917(28) en hoofdstuk 29 van het boek van Gerald Gliddon VCs of the First World War: The Somme.(29)


Noel Godfrey Chavasse (1884-1917)

De tweede militair die gedurende de Eerste Wereldoorlog het VC voor een tweede maal ontvangt is de kapitein-arts Noel Godfrey Chavasse. Bijzonder aan Chavasse is dat dit de enige militair is die gedurende één conflict, de Eerste Wereldoorlog, het VC twee maal heeft gekregen. Ook aan Chavasse wordt een hoofdstuk gewijd per verleende VC in de serie boeken die over de VC van de Eerste Wereldoorlog gaan, namelijk hoofdstuk 3 van het boek van Stephen Snelling met als titel: VCs of the First World war: Passchendaele 1917 (28) en hoofdstuk 29 van het boek van Gerald Gliddon 'VCs of the First World War: The Somme'.(29)

Chavasse werd geboren op 9 november 1884 te Oxford als eerste van een tweeling. Hij studeerde medicijnen en werd na zijn artsendiploma geneeskundig officier bij de 10th King’s (Liverpool) Regiment. Dit was een van de eerste regimenten dat bij aanvang van de Eerste Wereldoorlog in 1914 uitgezonden werd naar Frankrijk waar het op 2 november 1914 aankwam.

Chavasse probeerde door middel van vroegtijdige interventie de soldaten van het regiment zo goed als mogelijk voor te bereiden op de gevolgen van de ontberingen die te verwachten waren op en rond het slagveld. Zo trof hij vele maatregelen op het gebied van Public Health en Hygiëne. Op het slagveld diende hij anti-tetanus serums toe aan gewonde militairen, een actie waarmee hij als een van de eerste artsen in de Eerste Wereldoorlog was begonnen. Gedurende de gehele oorlog werden meer dan 11 miljoen van deze vaccins toegediend.

De eerste grote slag waarbij Chavasse betrokken raakte was de aanval op het treinstation bij Vimy op de 16e juni 1915. Het aantal slachtoffers was enorm, van de 23 officieren en 519 manschappen werden slechts 2 officieren en 140 manschappen niet gewond. Chavasse deed al het mogelijk om de gewonden die her en der verspreid lagen eerste hulp te geven en waar mogelijk te verplaatsen naar veiliger oorden.

Samen met een peloton brancardiers verrichtte hij, onder de meest moeilijke omstandigheden, vele heldendaden en zorgde er zo voor dat vele gewonden in veiligheid werden gebracht. Chavasse werd voorgedragen voor het Military Cross dat hij op 14 januari 1916 uit handen van Koning George V mocht ontvangen, maar niet voordat hij in augustus 1915 tot kapitein werd gepromoveerd.

Op de 30e juli 1916 werd het bataljon ingezet bij de gevechten rond de Somme, op 9 augustus vond een vreselijke aanval plaats, de Britten keerden verslagen terug naar de eigen loopgraven, vele militairen gewond achterlatend in de kraters van het niemandsland. Ook Chavasse raakte gewond door granaatsplinters in zijn rug. Maar dat nam niet weg dat hij wederom samen met een peloton brancardiers het niemandsland in ging om, onder zwaar vuur, eerste hulp te geven aan de gewonde militairen en hen zoveel als mogelijk in de eigen loopgraven terug te krijgen. Hij deed dit onder extreem moeilijke omstandigheden waarbij sluipschutters dit werk bijna onmogelijk maakten. Ook werd het niemandsland nog herhaaldelijk onder artillerievuur genomen.

Chavasse werd voor dit moedig en onbaatzuchtig optreden voorgedragen voor het VC. Twee brancardiers werden voorgedragen voor de Distinguished Service Medal en twee anderen voor de Military Medal. Op 26 oktober 1916 kwam de Londen-Gazette met het bericht dat aan Noel Chavasse het VC werd verleend, met de volgende tekst:

“During an attack he tended the wounded in the open all day, under heavy fire, frequently in view of the enemy. During the ensuing night he searched for wounded on the ground in front of the enemy's lines for four hours. Next day he took one stretcher-bearer to the advanced trenches, and, under heavy fire, carried an urgent case for 500 yards into safety, being wounded in the side by a shell splinter during the journey. The same night he took up a party of trusty volunteers, rescued three wounded men from a shell hole twenty five yards from the enemy's trench, buried the bodies of two officers and collected many identity discs, although fired on by bombs and machine guns. Altogether he saved the lives of some twenty badly wounded men, besides the ordinary cases which passed through his hands. His courage and self-sacrifice were beyond praise.”

Het VC werd aan Chavasse uitgereikt samen met nog zeven anderen op 5 februari 1917 door Koning George V in Buckingham Palace. Tijdens dit verlof verloofde hij zich met zijn oude vriendin Gladys. Na twee weken verlof meldde Chavasse zich weer bij het bataljon in Frankrijk.

Lees vooral verder op http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/victoria-cross/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day in West Virginia History...



On February 5, 1917, the West Virginia House of Delegates passed a joint resolution endorsing President Woodrow Wilson's decision to break off diplomatic relations with Germany.

http://www.wvculture.org/history/thisdayinwvhistory/0205.html
Zie ook http://www.wvculture.org/history/government/houseresolution13.html
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Otto Könnecke



Könnecke entered the military in 1911 and learned to fly at Metz in 1913. When the war began, he was serving as a flight instructor. In December 1916, he was posted to Jasta 25 in Macedonia where he scored his first confirmed victory on 5 February 1917. At the end of April, Könnecke was sent to the Western Front where he often flew a green Albatros D.V with red trim and a black and white checkerboard insignia. As non-commissioned officers, Könnecke, Fritz Rumey and Josef Mai shot down 109 enemy aircraft while serving with Jasta 5.

http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/germany/konnecke.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Joseph Pershing

On February 5, 1917, the United States formally entered World War I by declaring war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Pershing was chosen to lead the American Expeditionary Forces (A.E.F.) in Europe (which would become the first U.S. Army ever sent to Europe). At this time the U.S. Army consisted of about 25,000 poorly trained and equipped men, far short of the 2,000,000 that Pershing estimated would be required. Always willing to take on a challenge, however, he instituted a recruiting and training program that resulted in his raising the required troops within 18 months. Although the French and other European allies had hoped that American troops would be fighting as part of a European force, Pershing insisted that the American Army should fight independently. Pershing's leadership abilities allowed the American Army to sweep through Europe and defeat Austria-Hungary in two years. Towards the end of the war he personally led the army at the battles of Mihiel Salient and Meuse-Argonne. In September 1919, Congress passed a special act naming him General of the Armies, making him the highest ranking military officer in U.S. history to that time, outranking even George Washington.

http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/america/unitedstates/military/pershing.htm
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Leonard Monteagle Barlow

Lieutenant Leonard Monteagle Barlow, MC and 2 Bars, (5 June 1898 – 5 February 1918) was a British World War I flying ace. He was born in Islington, London and studied electrical engineering prior to joining the Royal Flying Corps.

Barlow was posted to No. 56 Squadron and scored 20 victories whilst serving with the squadron, being awarded the Military Cross three times for his outstanding airmanship and bravery.

Dubbed 'The Gadget King', due to his inventiveness, Barlow developed an ingenious way of firing both of his SE5a aircraft's machine guns at the same time. On 25 September he claimed 3 Albatros fighters of Jasta 10, Lt. Weigand and Uzz. Werkmeister being killed and one other pilot wounded.

On 5 February 1918, Barlow was killed at Martlesham Heath whilst test flying a Sopwith Dolphin which broke up in mid air.

His final tally consisted of 12 and 1 shared destroyed, 6 and 1 shared 'out of control'.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Monteagle_Barlow
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 5 Februari 1918.

Valkenswaard.
- Zaterdag j.l. werd door de Rijkspolitie een zekere L. alhier aangehouden wegens diefstal van pluimvee van een zekeren D. alhier en het ontvreemden van broodkaarten in de gemeente Dommelen.
- Gister morgen ontstond bij M. S. een begin van brand in een der aangrenzende gebouwen der woning. Door het spoedig optreden der buren werd het gebluscht zoodat de schade gering was.
- Eveneens was bij zekeren T. V. alhier de zoldering der woning door eene kachelpijp in brand ontstoken. Ook in dit geval is ’t vuur in zijn verderen voortgang gebluscht.

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 5 Februari 1918.
Dommelen. 2 Febr. Gisteren behaalde onze dorpsgenoot, Frits Roothans, het diploma Dames- en Heerencoupe. Nog te meer eer voor hem daar hij slechts drie weken te Amsterdam een cursus heeft gevolgd. Wij wenschen den geslaagde van harte geluk met zijn behaald succes.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Indiana, Evansville, 1918, February 5



Gorged ice in front of Evansville. The winter of 1917-1918 was the coldest on record in the Ohio Valley at that time. In: "Monthly Weather Review," February 1918, p. 91.

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/brs/nwind18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lt. Stephen W. Thompson

Tuesday, February 05, 1918 -- While flying as a substitute gunner with a French squadron, Lt. Stephen W. Thompson becomes the first American to record an aerial victory while in a US uniform. He shoots down a German Albatros D.III.

http://www.afa.org/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS DENVER (C 14/PG 28/CL 16)



Drydocked at the Charleston Navy Yard, South Carolina, on 5 February 1918. Note that the ship's hull is sheathed and coppered at and below the waterline, to reduce the need for drydocking while operating on distant stations.

http://www.navsource.org/archives/04/c14/c14.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Feb 5, 1919: United Artists created

By 1919, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith were all heavyweights in the rapidly growing motion-picture industry. Chaplin was a British actor and former vaudeville performer whose “Little Tramp” persona had made him one of the biggest stars of silent film. Pickford, silent film’s favorite ingenue, and Fairbanks, her leading man on-screen and off, were equally familiar to American audiences, and Griffith’s controversial feature Birth of a Nation (1915) had become Hollywood’s first blockbuster, establishing the director as a pioneer in filmmaking techniques. All four, however, were seeking to gain more financial and artistic control over producing and distributing their films. On February 5, 1919, they joined forces to create their own film studio, which they called the United Artists Corporation.

United Artists quickly gained prestige in Hollywood, thanks to the success of the films of its stars, notably Chaplin’s The Gold Rush (1925), as well as the work of actors such as Buster Keaton, Rudolph Valentino and Gloria Swanson. Chaplin directed UA films as well as acted in them, and Pickford concentrated on producing after she retired from acting in the 1930s. With the rise of sound during that decade, UA was helped by the talents (and bankrolls) of veteran producers like Joseph Schenck, Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes and Alexander Korda. The corporation began to struggle financially in the 1940s, however, and in 1951 the production studio was sold and UA became only a financing and distributing facility.

By the mid-1950s, all of the original partners had sold their shares of the company, but UA had begun to thrive again, releasing such films as The African Queen (1951), High Noon (1952), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), Some Like It Hot (1959), The Apartment and The Magnificent Seven (both 1960) and West Side Story (1961). In addition, the company was responsible for the James Bond and Pink Panther film franchises. UA went public in 1957 and became a subsidiary of the TransAmerica Corporation a decade later.

UA films garnered a slew of Best Picture Academy Awards over the course of the 1970s, for Midnight Cowboy (1969), One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975), Rocky (1976) and Annie Hall (1977). Soon after that, however, five top executives left the company in a disagreement and formed the Warner Brothers-backed Orion Pictures. UA sustained an even more devastating blow in 1980, when it released the big-budget flop Heaven’s Gate, directed by Michael Cimino. Two years in the making and way over budget, the film earned less than $4 million at the U.S. box office. After that debacle, UA struggled throughout the 1980s. In 1981, MGM bought the company, merging with it in 1983 to become MGM/UA Entertainment. In a highlight of those relatively dark years, UA did release another Best Picture winner, Rain Man, in 1988.

In 1992, the French bank Credit Lyonnais acquired the corporation and changed its name back to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., abandoning the United Artists name altogether. The James Bond and Pink Panther franchises were revived, with varying degrees of success. MGM changed hands and was reorganized repeatedly over the next decade and a half, during which UA was repositioned as a boutique producer of smaller, so-called “art house” films such as Bowling for Columbine (2002), Hotel Rwanda (2005) and Capote (2006). In November of 2006, MGM gave the actor/producer Tom Cruise (star of Rain Man) and his production partner, Paula Wagner, control over the United Artists production slate, announcing the decision as a “reintroduction” of the UA brand in the spirit of its founders. Cruise and Wagner, whose former deal with Paramount Pictures ended amid reported acrimony earlier in 2006, released their first co-production with UA, Lions for Lambs, in 2007.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/united-artists-created
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Developments in flight: 1919 - 1921

On 5th February, 1919, 13 weeks after signing of the Armistice, Germany inaugurated the first regular, sustained, passenger airline services, between Berlin and Weimar.

http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=4503655&contentId=57643
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2011 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Seattle General Strike

Wednesday, February 5, 1919, was the final day before the Seattle General Strike, and for the strike’s Executive Committee, many questions were still unanswered. Most outstanding was that of city power. Officials had complained of the mass chaos, and the public health and water supply crises, that would result from a full shutdown of Seattle City Light. Unbeknownst to all, however, the city’s weak electrical unions were not in a position to accomplish a full shutdown. They would, however, attempt to bluff the mayor into allowing one by giving a newspaper interview that morning stating they were to receive “no exemptions,” not even for the sake of public health and safety. The interview caused panic in the streets and anger within the Seattle Central Labor Council. After a meeting with the SCLC’s Metal Trades Council, the electrical unions suddenly announced they would be open to some exemptions. The mayor, however, would state that City Light would run in its entirety even if he had to use soldiers to run it.

http://radsearem.wordpress.com/2010/02/10/february-10-1919-the-seattle-general-strike-day-five/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2011 0:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The tactical decisions made before the Somme

The British Fourth Army is formed

On 5 February 1916, the staff of a Fourth British Army was formed, initially based at Tilques near Saint-Omer. It was to be commanded by General Sir Henry Rawlinson, a highly respected infantryman who had commanded IV Corps at First Ypres and in the fighting of 1915. His chief of staff (GSO1) was Major-General Sir Archibald Montgomery, who had been with Rawlinson throughout the war to date. British Commander-in-Chief Sir Douglas Haig ordered Rawlinson to take over the sector from the Somme to Fonquevillers, south of Sir Edmund Allenby's Third Army.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat15B.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2011 1:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Month In Australian Military History

5 February 1917 - Captain H.W. Murray, VC
Captain H.W. Murray, 4th Division, originally from Launceston, Tasmania, wins the Victoria Cross at Stormy Trench north-east of Gueudecourt, France.

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/feb.asp



Mad Harry Murray: Lieutenant Colonel Henry William Murray, VC, CMG, DSO (and Bar), DCM (1880–1966)

The most highly decorated soldier in the Australian army. Dashing, brave and handsome, Murray rose from the ranks to command a battalion.

He described his occupation as a “bushman” when he joined the 16th Battalion AIF in 1914, but Harry Murray was already a mature and independent leader of men. He worked at Manjimup, Western Australia, employing sleeper cutters and had earlier been an armed escort for a mining company north of Kalgoorlie. It was soon evident that he was also a natural soldier. On Gallipoli he was promoted, awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal, then commissioned as an officer in the 13th Battalion.

The following year, in France, Murray’s reputation grew, and he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) for his work at Mouquet Farm. Later, in January 1917, near Gueudecourt, in a night attack at Stormy Trench, he won the Victoria Cross. There, in fierce fighting, he fought off enemy counter-attacks and led a “brilliant charge”. At Bullecourt in April, leading his troops with the cry, “come on men, the 16th are getting hell”, he got a second DSO.

Murray was not a reckless hero, but rather a quiet and charismatic leader who believed in training and discipline and who possessed sound tactical skills. In May 1918 he was promoted lieutenant colonel to command the 4th Machine Gun Battalion.

Further honours came; he was awarded the French Croix de Guerre and appointed Companion in the Order of St. Michael and St. George. Charles Bean described him as “the most distinguished fighting officer of the AIF”.

Following the war Murray became a grazier; eventually, in 1928, he bought a property, “Glenlyon”, at Richmond, in Queensland. In the Second World War he commanded first a militia battalion then a Volunteer Defence Corps home-guard unit until he retired in 1944. He died following a car accident on 7 January 1966.

http://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/fiftyaustralians/35.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2011 1:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pandit Motilal Nehru

The First World War generated deep discontent in several sectors of Indian Society which found a focus in the Home Rule Movement. Motilal had been reluctant to join the Home Rule League, but the internment of Mrs. Besant in June 1917 brought him into the fray. He became the President of the Allahabad branch of the Home Rule League. Now began a perceptible shift in Motilal's politics. In August 1918 he parted company with his Moderate friends on the constitutional issue, and attended the Bombay Congress which demanded radical changes in the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. On February 5, 1919 he launched a new daily paper, the Independent, as a counterblast to the well-established local daily paper, the Leader, which was much too moderate for Motilal's taste in 1919.

http://www.congresssandesh.com/AICC/history/presidents/pandit_motilal_nehru.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Feb 2011 1:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Texas: Photograph of Governor Hobby signing the full suffrage bill on February 5, 1919



http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/library/ahc/suffrage/road.htm
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