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3 Januari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2006 7:12    Onderwerp: 3 Januari Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

January 3

1917 British nurse Marion Rice writes from a hospital on the Western Front


“You never know what is going to happen from one day to the next,” nurse Marion Rice writes on this day in 1917, from an army hospital in Caux Seine Auf, France. Her brief Christmas leave to Paris had just been cut short by an influx of wounded soldiers that forced her and her fellow nurses to return to work.

Rice begins her letter by expressing how much she yearned to be sitting down with the family to eat some “home food”; she continued with an account of her recent trip to Paris with other nurses from her hospital. She had enjoyed a trip to the cinema—a new invention at the time—and a shopping excursion before receiving a telegram from the hospital telling her to return at once, as “wounded were arriving.”

After a difficult train voyage, Rice was faced with a scene at the hospital unlike any she had experienced before. She wrote: “Now we have been put into a different class instead of receiving the more lightly wounded like all the other hospitals in the war zone we get heavy ones particularly bone cases such being Dr. Fitell's specialty. Also we draw from three distributing stations instead of one…In this lot there were one hundred and you never smelled such smells or saw such sights. I can't tell you how many amputations there were almost all of which will have to be done over. One man has both legs gone, he lay in a shell hole six days, there was nothing to eat but the hole was filled with water and in that water lay decaying the body of his best friend. And he had to drink that water to keep alive. Pleasant isn't it.”

Rice’s letter, with its observations of both the commonplace and the horrifying, reflects not only the unique reality of life in the army hospitals on the Western Front during the long and grueling conflict, but also the devastating human toll of the war.

To read Rice’s letter in its entirety or to read other letters written from the front during World War I, visit HistoryChannel.com’s Dear Home: Letters from World War I exhibit.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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1914

1915
Ein russischer Stützpunkt in Westpolen genommen
Erstürmung einer Höhe bei Gorlice
Vormarsch der Türken im Kaukasus
Die tapfere Restmannschaft der "Emden"

1916
Erfolgreicher Feuerüberfall bei La Bassée
Neue russische Durchbruchsversuche an der beßarabischen Front gescheitert
Tausend Deutsche und Untertanen der Verbündeten in Saloniki verhaftet
König Peter in Saloniki

1917
Weitere Erfolge in der Norddobrudscha
Der befestigte Milcovul-Abschnitt erreicht

1918


http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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JANUARY 3, 1914 - Chassis and nacelle of the Nieuport-built Dunne biplane

http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%200007.html
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Merthyr Express, dated 3 January 1914

Great Fire at Pontlottyn: Mr. Will Haggar’s Theatre Destroyed
At 6 p.m. last Friday, a disastrous fire broke out at Mr. Will Haggar’s Theatre at Pontlottyn. The fire broke out in the engine room beneath the canteen and operator’s room. The Theatre was burned to the ground in 15 to 20 minutes, fanned by a great wing. Councillor Ben Hughes phoned for the Bargoed fire brigade, in addition to the local brigade. The Hall was used by Mr. Haggar as a picture palace and variety hall, and was capable of holding 800 to 1,000 people. It was a wooden structure. He had purchased the building just two years ago. The ‘turn’ for the week was Dockstader, illusionist and conjurer, and all his equipment, worth £200-£250, was lost in the blaze. Mr. Haggar was away at Tredegar where he has another theatre.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/waleshistory/2010/02/william_haggar_fleapit_cinema.html
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James Connolly: "Mr Murphy’s Great New Year Speech"
Irish Worker, 3 January 1914.

We are informed that on Wednesday, December 31st (New Year’s Eve), a special meeting of the Employers’ Association was held in the Antient Concert Rooms to hear an address by Mr William Martin Murphy. The meeting was called at the personal request of that gentleman, and was the most remarkable gathering that has been held since the beginning of the dispute. The great hall was taxed to its utmost, and the remarkable address was listened to in absolute silence, in fact with a feeling almost of awe-struck wonderment. We dare not speculate upon the possible results of this unique pronouncement.

Mr Murphy said: “Gentlemen, I have called you together on the eve of the New Year, 1914, because I have something to tell you that I feel can better be told upon such an occasion than upon any other. It has long been the custom amongst Christian nations to make the closing of the old year and the opening of the book of the new an occasion for the promulgation of new policies, and for the renunciation of old sins. Such of us as feel wearied and worn out with old forms of iniquity and desirous of aspiring after a newer life in which to qualify for a greater righteousness naturally choose that period in which the thoughts of men turn to change as the period best suited to mark their change of heart. For that reason I have fixed upon this evening as the most auspicious occasion, and the one most calculated to awaken in your breasts a responsive throb for the review of the past and the announcement of the change of policy I intend to follow upon my change of heart (sensation). Yes, gentlemen, I intend to embark upon a new line of policy – a policy that I hope will reconcile me at last to the great heart of the Dublin public, of the generous Irish public from whom I have been so long estranged.

“For years I have followed in Ireland a policy which set my own interests above and before everything else. I have schemed and contrived by every means to obtain control of every kind of business, even if in doing so I had to destroy the business and wreck the prospects of helpless orphans. I have never followed any policy of Christian charity, of humane pity, even of common decency, to restrain me when engaged trying to obtain possession of the business interests of those whom I considered as business rivals. I have made a fine art, or perhaps I should say a scientific business of the accumulation in my own hands of the fortunes and control of destinies of others. My path through the business world has been marked by the ruin of others, and all over Dublin and the other scenes of my activities can be traced the sufferers – suffering in silence for the most part, as I have successfully manipulated into silence every avenue of publicity by means of which they could make themselves heard.

“What I have done to the business people in this business world I have done even more ruthlessly and unscrupulously to those members of the working class who dared to cross my path. You all know the tale of the West Clare Railway. How I terrorised the whole countryside into acceptance of my terms, how I evicted poor Irish labourers for daring to ask as a weekly wage a sum not sufficient to pay for a box at the Opera for one of my guests at Dartry Hall, how I secured that this eviction should pass and win the approval of a venal Home Rule Press which had grown into popularity by the denunciation of evictions not one half as cold-blooded and merciless, and how in spite of this eviction of my poor countrymen and women I still managed to pose before the public as a pure-souled patriot and lover of my kind. All this you know, gentlemen! You also know – for you have been participating in my crime – how I managed our latest attempt to reduce to soulless slavery the gallant workers of Dublin. You know how I managed to secure a sufficient number of slaves prepared to sell their manhood for a chance to earn a few miserable shillings; how I used those slaves, and when I was sure of their slavishness proceeded to goad the more manly workers into revolt, and then supplanted them by the help of those Judases. How I had prepared my plans so that the Judge who tried the strikers, arrested by a police force drunken with rural hatred of the city, should feel that his own right to dividends was on trial when confronted by a working class prisoner, and should hit out vindictively with fiendish sentences accordingly. You also know, none better, how we had our secret agents in every club, society and gathering place in the city. How we encouraged them to play upon the most sacred offices and the most hallowed institutions and to divert them to our uses. How we made priests of the Most High imagine they were obeying the call of God when in reality they were only being galled by our carefully poisoned suggestions – made them mistake the insinuations of the devil for the inspirations of God. How we secured that through the influence of some of our lady shareholders the uniformed ruffians of the police should be let loose to insult with foul-mouthed indecencies the brave girls who dared to strike against the unbearable conditions you imposed upon them, and when in the pride of their outraged purity they resented the insults the same police bullies beat them, arrested them, and perjured themselves to swear their liberties away. All this you know, gentlemen! You also know how we made the streets of Dublin a place of terror for every worker not prepared to sell his class; how our uniformed brutes (whom I despised even whilst using them) batoned, kicked and maimed all and sundry; how we murdered two men in Dublin and left another widow and six orphans in Kingstown [1]; how we armed scabs to shoot at will, and how, in short, we have made of the Capital City of our country a place of slaughter, of misery, and a byword amongst the nations.

“Well, gentlemen, what has it all profited us? At the end of it all we find that the workers of Dublin are still unsubdued, and I now believe are unsubduable and unconquerable. You can extract what comfort you may from that fact. For myself now at the opening of the New Year I am determined to do what I can in the few years left me to try and make amends for all the long array of crimes against my kind of which I have been guilty. I, at least, will no longer make war upon the liberties of my poorer brothers and sisters, or use my ill-gotten wealth to exploit others. What I have done I cannot restore, but I can restore to the working class the rights of which I used my wealth to deprive them. From this night, gentlemen, I cease to hold the pistol of starvation at the heads of the poor to make them surrender their souls and liberties. I propose to go down to the Tramway Depots and hunt away the foul vermin who now pollute the cars by their presence. I propose to open the dispatch business of the Independent and Herald with Transport Union members, and if they will permit me I will grasp the hand of each and beg their pardon for my crimes against their manhood. These will be but the beginning.

“From this day forward I am at the service of every honest cause, and I trust that the closing years of a life spent in unscrupulous acquisition of gold may be worthy of some honour when spent as they will be spent in trying to win instead the esteem of my fellows.

“To-day I am sending to Jim Larkin, whom I have grown to esteem and value as a worthy citizen, an invitation to do me the honour of consenting to dine with me on New Year’s Day at the Imperial Hotel. There on the spot made historic by Larkin [2], I propose that he and I shall make a pact of friendship, and trust that united our efforts will succeed in purging Dublin and Ireland of much of its squalor and misery, and set its feet upon the upward path that leads towards righteousness.”

(NOTE. – Up to the present the invitation has not arrived, and we are wondering whether our reporter invented the speech of Mr Murphy, as Murphy’s supporters have hitherto invented so many speeches attributed to Mr Larkin.)

JAMES CONNOLLY.

Notes
1. James Nolan and James Byrne were killed by a police baton charge, and another James Byrne died on hunger strike in prison.
2. It was from a balcony of the Imperial Hotel that Larkin spoke on Bloody Sunday.


http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1914/01/murphy.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jan 2011 13:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Preceding the Outbreak of War

3 January 1896 - A freebooter raid by local South Africans from the British Cape Colony against the South African Republic, the notorious Jameson Raid, was defeated by "Oom Paul" Krueger's Boer Commandos. Kaiser Wilhelm II sent a telegram ("the Krueger telegram") to congratulate the Republic (its intent was to pressure Britain into joining the Triple Alliance, but it back-fired) and it raised a storm of public protest in Britain leading to pressure on the Government to open negotiations with France and Russia. Her Majesty's Government perceived that it was increasingly isolated in a Europe rapidly dividing into contending alliance systems.

3 January 1896 to 29 May 1901 - Britain spent five years after the Krueger telegram incident seeking friendly arrangements with both the Entente and Triple Alliance powers at various times and to varying degrees. In the final analysis, the settlement of outstanding colonial differences with France (the Fashoda Crisis of 18 Sep-3 Nov 1898) proved easier than swallowing the arrogance of the Kaiser.

http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/mowbray/gw-pre.htm
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Police Department History

July 5, 1913- The first female Portsmouth Police Officer, Miss Vera Virginia Bash, is sworn in with arrest powers to help "the citizens of Portsmouth feel assured that she will make the young people of Portsmouth better, morally, physically, and mentally…" She is dismissed just 6 months later on January 3rd, 1914 for reasons unclear although the Portsmouth Herald Newspaper reports "The only fault to be found with Miss Vera Virginia Bash, the young woman who was employed to make Portsmouth a spotless town, was that she was too good looking. Her beauty interfered with her work. Just how it interfered is not made plain….The presumption is that no one had the hardness of heart to tell the young woman that beauty is not an asset to the Police Department."

Rolling Eyes http://www.cityofportsmouth.com/police/depart-history.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jan 2011 13:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HARPER'S WEEKLY, from New York City, dated January 3, 1914.



http://www.rarenewspapers.com/view/547988?list_url=%2Flist%2Fwwi_era
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Vanity Fair: The Early Years


Inaugural cover, January 1914

http://www.vanityfair.com/magazine/vintage/earlyyears
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WarChron - January 1915 - Russian Order of Battle

On 3 January, on the Southwest Front, the Russians occupied Suczawa, 30 km southeast of Radautz in Bukovina.

On the Caucasian Front, the Turkish 3rd Army attacked Russian lines at Sarikamish and Ardaban. During the battle and ensuing Russian counter-attacks, the 3rd Army suffered 75,000 casualties, 30,000 to frostbite alone, losing 90% of its troops, about one fourth of the entire Turkish Army.

In the Black Sea, elements of the Russian Fleet left Sevastopol to search for the Breslau and Turkish warships off Trabizond.

On 3 January, German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg, in agreement with Hindenburg, proposed to the Kaiser that he remove von Falkenhayn from Supreme Command.

http://warchron.com/russianOrderofBattle.htm
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Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

3 January 1915 - Winston Churchill telegraphed the commander of British naval forces in the Aegean Sea, Vice-Admiral S H Carden, asking if the Dardanelles could be forced by naval action alone. Carden replied that the straits could not be rushed but might be forced by ‘extended operations’.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-february-1915.html
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Casualty Lists of the Royal Navy and Dominion Navies, World War 1

Sunday, 3 January 1915

Charybdis, old light cruiser, damaged in collision on 9th
NUNNEY, James, Petty Officer Telegraphist, 117883, illness

Sentinel, light cruiser
PARRY, George E, Engine Room Artificer 1c, 270118 (Po), died in UK

Vivid, RN Barracks/Base, Devonport
BALL, Emanuel, Stoker 2c, K 23612 (Dev), illness

http://www.naval-history.net/xDKCas1915-01Jan.htm
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German Forces in Southwest Africa, 3 January 1915

http://carl.army.mil/nafziger/915GAAA.pdf
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Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | January 1915

Sunday 3rd January 1915

Rose 11.30. Splendid concert at Chapel in afternoon in aid of Belgians. Beautiful music, raised £12/4/-/. Had little chat with girls. Evening heard good sermon by Rev A.E. Rose, subject “The Talents”. Pointed out men are given powers and placed among certain environments in which should use them, and that account must be rendered. He emphasised that men think of their talents wrongly. They are held in trust.

I wonder what my talents are?

Arrived in camp 9.15pm. Redmires covered with slushy snow. Lads comfy and well. Orders, 1 light, no undress, ready to be fetched out at night. Huts new years resolution:- no swearing. Order cancelled.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm
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Gas

(...) The second battle of Ypres, 22 April-25 May 1915, was a rare German offensive on the Western Front during 1915. It was launched with two aims in mind. The first was to distract attention from the movement of German troops to the eastern front in preparation for the campaign that would lead to the victory of Gorlice-Tarnow. The second was to assess the impact of poisoned gas on the western front. Gas had already been used on the eastern front, at Bolimov (3 January 1915), but the tear gas used there had frozen in the extreme cold. (...)

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ypres2.html

Battle of Bolimów

(...) The Battle of Bolimów was the first attempt by the Germans at a large-scale use of poison gas; the several thousand gas shells they fired proved unsuccessful when the xylyl bromide—a type of tear gas—was blown back at their own lines. The gas caused few, if any, casualties, however, since the cold weather caused it to freeze, rendering it ineffective. (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bolimov
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The Sixth Gordons in France and Flanders - Published 1921

The truce lasted from Christmas, 1914, to the 3rd of January 1915. Its end had more formality than its opening. On the afternoon of 3rd January a German officer approached our lines, accompanied by an orderly who acted as interpreter. They asked for an officer. Capt. Dawson of "D" Company, left the British trench and advanced over the open to meet them. The two officers gravely saluted, the German officer informing Capt. Dawson that instructions had been received that the ordinary conditions of warfare must be resumed. After some discussion of the time, watches were compared and were found to differ by nearly two hours ; it was then agreed that the truce would lapse after the expiry of an hour. That day only a few shots were fired, but on the following day, in obedience of orders, volleys were fired all along the line. A "feu de joie" passed from the 2nd Gordons through the 6th to the Guards, rifles being in the proper position, muzzles well in the air. Immediately after, a message passed right along the front, " Pass it along - the Kaiser's dead." The truce was over. "

http://www.kinnethmont.co.uk/1914-1918_files/xmas-truce.htm
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Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

3 January 1916 - On 2 and 3 January French forces were evacuated from Helles.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-1916.html
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Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - January 1916

Stavka. 3 January 1916

MY DEAREST,

Up to now I have not received a single letter. The train is six hours late, owing to a violent snowstorm.

A storm has been raging here too since yesterday, and in the night the wind howled down the chimney like that terrible tremolo in the "Ahnfrau." I am very grateful for your dear telegram. I am glad that your headache has nearly gone; but the naughty heart persists in being disobedient !

To-day I can Write to you and the children, as no papers have come in. I telegraphed to Ania yesterday, and received a very becoming reply.-Nobody remembered this anniversary, so that I reminded Fred. and Voeikov about it. Valia is in bed : he has a high temperature, I have only just visited him. He is feeling better, but his face is swollen up and red with the cold.

A great deal of snow has conic down during the night. I was glad to find a wooden shovel in the garden, and have cleared one of the pathways.-That is a very useful and pleasant occupation for me, as at present I take no exercise. And then I do not miss the Little One so much.

The morning reports are short nowadays, because everything is quiet at present, but on the Caucasus our troops have begun an offensive, and fairly successfully. The Turks had not expected it to take place during the winter. In Persia we are also dealing heavy blows to those accursed gendarmes, who are under the leadership of German, Austrian and Swedish officers. Among the rest, I have received a very cordial telegram from Harding, the Viceroy of India, in the name of the Government, the princes and the people. Who would have thought it ten years ago?

I was touched by the flower sent by our Friend.

Farewell till our next meeting, my darling Sunny. God guard you.

I kiss you tenderly and love you infinitely.

Eternally your

NICKY.

NOTES: "Die Ahnfrau," a drama by Franz Grillparzer. In the last act the family ghost (die Ahnfrau) rises from the grave to receive a member of the household who is dying. The wind is supposed to be howling outside the house, and, when the play is given with incidental music, the orchestra reinforces the effect with an appropriate tremolo. This drama was popular with Russian audiences.
VALIA: Prince V. A. Dolgorouky, Marshal of the Court, attached to the Tsar at G.H.Q. He was a charming and gallant man. lie went with the Tsar to Tobolsk, and was murdered, togethcr with General Tatishchev, at Ekaterinburg in 1918.


Telegram. Stavka. 3 January, 1916

Tender thanks for dear letter. I have only just received it now, as the train was late, owing to snowdrifts. The weather is warm. (But) it is beginning to freeze again. I hope you will soon recover your strength. I kiss you tenderly.

Nicky

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/january16.html
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British Forces in Mesopotamia, not including Kut Al Amara, 3 January 1916

http://carl.army.mil/nafziger/916BBMA.pdf
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Harvard ROTC Coverage - 3 January 1916 Harvard Crimson article

CAPTAIN CORDIER IN COMMAND
FIRST DRILL WILL BE HELD THIS WEEK AND LECTURE GIVEN TOMORROW.
Published: Monday, January 03, 1916

The War Department at Washington has appointed Captain C. Cordier to command the Harvard Regiment. There will be no drill today or tomorrow, but Captain Cordier will give a lecture in the New Lecture Hall tomorrow afternoon at 5.30 o'clock.

New men may still sign up for the regiment, and as many as possible are urged to do so before tomorrow night. Those who have not yet been measured for uniforms may be measured in Weld 3 any time after 9 o'clock today. The price of the equipment is $6.00, payable on January 15, and anyone who feels that he is unable to pay this should consult some member of the committee at Weld 3. No man should refrain from joining the regiment for financial reasons, as every effort will be made to keep current expenses down to a minimum.

http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1916/1/3/captain-cordier-in-command-pthe-war/
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Percy Toplis @ 02 Jan 2011 17:42 schreef:
Gas

(...) The second battle of Ypres, 22 April-25 May 1915, was a rare German offensive on the Western Front during 1915. It was launched with two aims in mind. The first was to distract attention from the movement of German troops to the eastern front in preparation for the campaign that would lead to the victory of Gorlice-Tarnow. The second was to assess the impact of poisoned gas on the western front. Gas had already been used on the eastern front, at Bolimov (3 January 1915), but the tear gas used there had frozen in the extreme cold. (...)

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ypres2.html

Battle of Bolimów

(...) The Battle of Bolimów was the first attempt by the Germans at a large-scale use of poison gas; the several thousand gas shells they fired proved unsuccessful when the xylyl bromide—a type of tear gas—was blown back at their own lines. The gas caused few, if any, casualties, however, since the cold weather caused it to freeze, rendering it ineffective. (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bolimov


Klopt niet, dit zijn feiten van 31 januari..
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Barnes, Mr. & Mrs. C. J., Birmingham, Alabama, to Hon. John H. Bankhead, Washington, D.C., 3 January 1916.



Birmingham, Alabama.
Jan. 3rd 1916

Hon. J. H. Bankhead
Washington, D.C.

My Dear Sir,
As your constituents, we desire to protest against this program of preparedness which the jingoes and newspapers are urging upon Congress which threatens this country.

The whole business is in opposition to the precepts and practices of this nation, and is most disgustingly undemocratic. As the duly elected representative of a democratic people, we expect you to stand firm and true to the colors to which you are pledged.

Very truly yours,

Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Barnes
1318 No. 26th Street

http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/ww1/lesson2/doc08f.html via http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/ww1/lesson2/index.html
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Operations 1914-1916

Other than 4 Squadron, 12 Squadron’s stay at St Omer would prove to be the longest of any flying unit. It was also significant for the events of 3 January 1916 when the bomb store on the aerodrome caught fire. The squadron CO, Major Cyril Newall, broke into the shed with his corporal driver to put out the fire – even though some of the incendiary bombs were already alight. They worked for 10 minutes alone and for an hour afterwards, Newall, a dirty and blackened figure, took the lead in rolling red-hot bombs out of harm’s way. For this action both individuals were decorated, Cyril Newall receiving the Albert Medal.

http://www.crossandcockade.com/Operations1914-1916.asp

Citation for the Albert Medal, published in the London Gazette

"On the 3rd January, 1916, at about 3 p.m., a fire broke out inside a large bomb store belonging to the Royal Flying Corps, which contained nearly 2,000 high explosive bombs, some of which had very large charges, and a number of incendiary bombs which were burning freely. Major Newall at once took all necessary precautions, and then, assisted by Air Mechanic Simms, poured water into the shed through a hole made by the flames. He sent for the key of the store, and with Corporal Hearne, Harwood and Simms entered the building and succeeded in putting out the flames. The wooden cases containing the bombs were burnt, and some of them were charred to a cinder."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyril_Newall,_1st_Baron_Newall
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Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

Januari 1916 - Onder druk gezet door de woedende Duitsers en verbolgen over het feit dat hun rigoureuze toezicht klaarblijkelijk niet kon ver­hinderen dat de Belgen een huzarenstukje hadden volbracht met de oprichting van een draadloze zender, besloten de Nederlanders omstreeks de jaarwisseling om Baarle-Hertog nog strenger te bewa­ken. Extra troepen werden gelegerd in Baarle-Nassau. (Jan Huijbrechts in “Castelré 1914-1918, Begrensd Overleven”)

3 januari 1916 - “Het interneringskamp aan de Nijverstraat in Tilburg is voortaan telefonisch bereikbaar.” (Tilburgse Courant)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/
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The British Corps of 1914-1918

XIV Corps - Formed in France in 3 January 1916 under Lt-Gen the Earl of Cavan. First seriously engaged on the Somme in 1916. Moved to Italy in November 1917 and temporarily became GHQ for that theatre in April 1918. Reformed as XIV Corps in October 1918.

http://www.1914-1918.net/corps.htm
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Soldiers of the 38th: Private Archibald McLean, MM

Born on 23 July 1897 in Dumburton, Scotland - son of Alexander McLean, Mount Dennis, Ontario - at the time of his enlistment in 1916: present address same as father; trade as checker; single; no current or previous military service; Presbyterian; height of 5 feet 7.25 inches; chest of 33.5 inches fully expanded; fair complexion; gray eyes; brown hair.

Joined the 126th Battalion, CEF, in Toronto, Ontario, on 3 January 1916 (number 775132) - taken on the strength of the 38th Battalion, CEF, on 4 or 6 December 1916 - wounded on 30 October 1917 - rejoined the 38th Battalion on 14 December 1917 - struck off the strength of the 38th Battalion on 16 June 1919.

Awarded the Military Medal - no official citation - unit recommendation dated 7 September 1918: "For gallantry as a Battalion runner during Scarpe Operations, Sept 1st and 2nd 1918."

http://38thbattalion.blogspot.com/
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Cheltonians Who Gave Their Lives in the Great War - 1916

3rd January 1916 - Pte Samuel Walter BILLINGS, 19th Bn Royal Fusiliers, died of wounds in France.

http://www.remembering.org.uk/timeline_1916.htm
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NYTimes.com Site Map: Free Articles from 1917, by Month

http://spiderbites.nytimes.com/free_1917/index.html
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Albert Mol



Albert Mol (Amsterdam, 3 januari 1917 — Laren (Gelderland), 9 maart 2004) was een Nederlands acteur, danser, cabaretier en schrijver.

Grote bekendheid kreeg Mol met zijn rol als panellid van het jaren '70 spelletje 'Wie van de Drie'. Al eerder was hij bekend geworden in de film Fanfare (1958) van Bert Haanstra. Later speelde hij ook mee in de film Op hoop van zegen (1986). Ook had hij tegen het einde van zijn loopbaan een gastrol in de comedyserie Toen was geluk heel gewoon. Hij trad veel op met Wim Sonneveld. Mol was een van de eerste televisiepersoonlijkheden die er openlijk voor uitkwam homoseksueel te zijn.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Mol
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Fred Leist

By the outbreak of the First World War Frederick William Leist was an ex-patriot living and working in London as an illustrator for the Graphic. During the war Leist initially worked for the British War Office and H.M. Stationery Office designing recruitment posters from 1915-1916. Then, in 1917, he became one of ten Australian artists living in Britain to be appointed official war artists. Leist was attached to the 5th Division Australian Imperial Force (AIF) as an honorary lieutenant from 3 January 1917 until 31 March 1920. He was at the Western Front from September to December 1917 and again from June to August 1918, this time working alongside fellow artist A. Henry Fullwood. His skill as a draughtsman and ability to work quickly 'en plein air' ensured that collectively his drawings, watercolours and small oil paintings give an insightful impression of life at the front line for Australian soldiers, the Belgium and French civilians living alongside them and the battle ravaged landscape itself.


Fred Leist, Craterland, 1917

http://www.awm.gov.au/people/65089.asp
Meer werk van Leist: http://www.awm.gov.au/search/collections/?q=Fred+Leist+&conflict=all
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Punch, 3 January 1917



"The White House Mystery."

"UNCLE SAM: 'SAY, JOHN, SHALL WE HAVE A DOLLAR'S WORTH?'"


Britain repeatedly urged the United States to come to the aid of the Allies. President Woodrow Wilson hesitated because American popular opinion opposed participation.

http://www.lermuseum.org/ler/mh/wwi/changingtactics.html
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Republic of Korçë (1917-1918)



The French entered Korçë on 29 November 1916. On 10 December 1916, by order of the French General Sarrail, a protocol was signed between the French Colonel Descoins and a group of Albanian representatives. A local government composed of 12 members was appointed and was granted many legislative powers. Themistokli Gërmenji was the head of executive power with the title of Prefect of Police.

Korçë was thus awarded the statute of "autonomous province". The Skanderbeg flag was approved together with the Tricolor ribbon and used in the city hall.

On 23 June 1917, Italy proclaimed the independence of Albania under her protectorate, justifying this with the French precedent in Korçë. Austria-Hungary had done it before on 3 January 1917.

http://flagspot.net/flags/al_w1914.html
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MUNITIONS DEATH

Uxbridge County Court dealt with the clainms on behalf of two munition workers in local factories

Daisy Hitchings of 16 Pickett Street, Balham (loss of finger)

Daughter of Mary Ann E Bosher of Melbourne Cottages, Alma Road, Windsor - Killed in an accident at the Munitions factory 3rd January 1917

http://ourhistory-hayes.blogspot.com/2010/10/ww1-july-1917-uxbridge-notes.html


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Zeppelins of the Great War 1914 - 1918

LZ-88

Tactical: L 40
Usage: military
First Flight: 3 January 1917

LZ-88 participated in six reconnaissance missions and two attacks on England, dropping 3,105 kg of bombs (a large percentage of which missed their targets). She was damaged beyond repair in a failed landing on 16 June 1917 in Nordholz.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_2.html
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Bertrand Russell, Periodical, 3 January 1918



http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/russell-bertrand-periodical-3-january-1918
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Th. Rothstein, under his pseudonym John Bryan 1918: "The Austro-German Peace Terms"
Source: The Call, 3 January 1918

One of the greatest war-bubbles has burst. For eighteen months, if not more, every close student of German political affairs has known that Germany, with her Allies, would be prepared to .make peace at any moment on the basis of no forcible annexations, at least, in the West and, since the Russian Revolution, also in the East. The Allied Governments have known this also. They have all along been in touch with unofficial agents of the enemy Powers in neutral countries, and knew perfectly well, in December last, when the Germanic Powers made an official offer to open peace negotiations, that they could have back, for mere asking, Belgium and northern France, with Serbia and Rumania thrown in. If any doubt still lingered in their minds on this subject, the peace resolution passed by the German Reichstag on July 19th, the re­peated declarations of Count Czernin, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister, and the reply returned by Germany and Austria to the Pope were quite sufficient to dispel it. But it did not pay them to tell the truth to the peoples of the Entente countries. With unabated zeal they continued, through their hireling or backboneless Press, as well as through the mouths of their “eminent” statesmen, to propagate the view that Germany and Austria were out for annexa­tions, for world domination, for the oppression or suppression of small States, in order to con­ceal their own determination to continue the war until they could secure annexations in all parts of the World for themselves. Now, closely fol­lowing the publication of the secret arrange­ments between the Allies on the subject of the future partition of the world among themselves, comes the revelation about the real “war-aims” of Austro-Germany. The reply returned by the Austro-German peace delegates to the Russian conditions of peace states quite plainly and beyond all possibility of equivocation and cavil: First, “it is not the intention of the Allied Gov­ernments to appropriate forcibly the territories which are at present occupied”; second, “it is not the intention of the Allies to rob of its inde­pendence any of the nations which in the course of this war have lost their political independence.” This is as clear as noonday. Germany renounces the idea of keeping Belgium and northern France as well as, in conjunction with her Allies, Serbia, Rumania, Poland, Lithuania and Courland, against the will of their inhabitants, and is pre­pared to restore the independence of Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro and Rumania. Bear in mind: the Austro-German reply does not equi­vocate in the employment of the term: indepen­dence. It does not qualify or limit it by the word political, which might have suggested that it does not provide for the economic independence of the four States mentioned. It simply uses the term independence, which can only mean in­dependence all round.

The public has been surprised at this declara­tion, and we hear that even in Russia the “moderate elements,” that is, those who have hitherto shared the common delusions as to the character of the war, have been taken aback and are praising the Bolsheviks for having “extorted” such terms from the Central Powers. The pub­lic may well be surprised in view of the state of dense ignorance in which it has hitherto been kept by its rulers and its unscrupulous Press. Will it now draw the proper conclusion from this revelation of truth? Will it now at last under­stand that if the war continues it will not be because Germany and Austria want annexations and are bent to destroy the independence of Belgium and Serbia and to appropriate the mining district of Briey, but because its own side aspires to territorial aggrandisement and economic enslavement of weaker States and races?

Exception will be taken to the third clause of the Austro-German reply by which the Central Powers refuse to admit the principle of self?determination in the case of those national groups which have lost or never enjoyed State indepen­dence before the war, and which now dwell within the confines of the existing States. On this point we must be frank. When the Bol­sheviks express their dissatisfaction at this atti­tude, they have a perfect right to do so. They have solemnly proclaimed the principle of self-determination in application to the nationalities inhabiting Russia and do not shrink from grant­ing them even the right of separation and of com­plete independence. But what right have our “democrats” to object to the stand taken up on the question by the Central Powers, seeing that they are only prepared to apply the principle of self-determination to the savages of Central Africa or to the Arab nomads of Mesopotamia, or at best to the non-German national groups in Austria-Hungary and Germany. They carefully avoid all mention of the Irish and the Boers and the Egyptians and the Indians within their own Empire, who by repeated acts of wholesale rebellion or individual “sedition” have proved their resentment against the British connection in a much more convincing fashion than the Czechs and Slovaks, or the Arabs of Mesopotamia have ever shown towards their rulers: Is it not all humbug and hypocrisy and a transparent disguise for piratical and Imperialist designs?

True democrats and honest men will recognise in the terms of the Central Empires a good work­able basis for the discussion of peace. That the Bolsheviks have succeeded in eliciting them only shows what the masses of the people can do if they only want to be honest towards themselves and others and have the courage to assert their will.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rothstein/1918/01/peace.htm
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Dora B. Montefiore: "An Open Letter to Lenin"
Source: The Call, 3 January 1918

Dear Comrade,—Many of us in the British Socialist Party desire to send you a message of good cheer and of congratulation on the manner in which you and those surrounding you are steadily and scientifically laying the foundations in Russia of a Social-Democratic Commonweal.

Across the deafening scream and roar of European battlefields it is difficult for the voices of Reason and of real Reconstruction from the workers in the different countries involved in the ghastly slaughter to make themselves heard, and we realise only too well how the news that is allowed to filter through to you, revealing to you the gradual loss (without an official protest from the leaders of the People) of our liberties in this England of ours, which boasts of being the home of Liberty, must tend to make you feel at times that you in Russia are fighting single-handed-against capitalism and its sinister self-expression, modern militarism. But, dear comrade, those of us who share with you the economic interpretation of existing social conditions, based on the exploitation of the workers, are following with the closest sympathy and comradely support, the shrewd blows you, and those with you, are aiming at privilege, at competition, and at commercial exploitation. We desire to dissociate ourselves from those pseudo-Socialists who, by denouncing you as “the leader of a Party in Russia composed of thoughtless anarchists with no definite policy,” are playing into the hands of the Northcliffes and the Lloyd Georges. We rejoice in the fact that you place constructive deeds before destructive words; that you are immediately giving the people access to food, clothing and shelter, the primary necessities of life, and are meanwhile rapidly doing away with the inequalities which shut out the masses from the means of life, and from the knowledge of the secret diplomacy which oppresses them.

It is because you are so attacked by pseudo Socialists and by “Northcliffes” that we knew you and the Bolsheviks are doing the work in Russia which we Social-Democrats are waiting for our opportunity to do in England—administering the affairs of the country in the interests of the workers, instead of allowing the present gang to govern and exploit the workers in the interests of a capitalist State.

Comrade, I, with many over here, stretch out the hand of comradeship, and wish you and those with you good speed. May the People have Bread, Equality of Opportunity and Peace; and may the torch of International Fellowship be lit in the ardent glow of Human Brotherhood kindled by the Workers of Russia!

Yours in fellowship,
DORA B. MONTEFIORE

http://www.marxists.org/archive/montefiore/1918/01/03.htm
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Evening Post, Volume XCV, Issue 3, 3 January 1918





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19180103.2.2
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Het Centrum, 3 januari 1918
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Turkije wil zich bekeeren

Aan den Weenschen medewerker van het Berl. Tagebl. heeft de Turksche minister Djavid Bei aan het slot van het interview o.a. het volgende verklaard: Het algemeen belang, dat alle handeldrijvende naties en in het bijzonder wel de Russen hechten aan de vrije doorvaart door de Dardanellen is zeer begrijpelijk en indien Turkije niet meer door allerlei gevaren bedreigd wordt, waardoor zijn grondgebied zelf gevaar loopt zal het middelen weten te vinden, om handelsschepen door te laten, zoowel in vredes- als in oorlogstijden. In ieder geval koesteren wij den oprechten wensch met het democratische Rusland, dat verder afziet van imperialistische doeleinden in duurzame en oprechten vrede te leven. Over de toekomst der Armeensche bevolking zeide de minister: De Armeniërs hebben onder de militaire maatregelen en den onmiddellijken invloed van den oorlog veel te lijden gehad. Het zal een der eerste zorgen van de Turksche regeering zijn, om na het sluiten van den vrede de middelen te vinden, om ook den Armeniërs het lijden van den oorlog te doen vergeten. In het nieuwe Turkije, dat bevrijd zal zijn van druk van buiten af, en dat zich scharen wil in de rij der democratische staten van Europa, zullen alle naties van het Osmaansche rijk gelegenheid vinden zich vrij te ontwikkelen.

Hm!

De historie van het Turksche volk biedt helaas niet veel hoop.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/CE-3-1-1918.html
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V. I. Lenin: "Declaration Of Rights Of The Working And Exploited People" [1]
Written: 3 January, 1918

The Constituent Assembly resolves:

I. 1. Russia is hereby proclaimed a Republic of Soviets of Workers’, Soldiers’ and Peasants’ Deputies. All power, centrally and locally, is vested in these Soviets.

2. The Russian Soviet Republic is established on the principle of a free union of free nations, as a federation of Soviet national republics.

II. Its fundamental aim being to abolish all exploitation of man by man, to completely eliminate the division of society into classes, to mercilessly crush the resistance of the exploiters, to establish a socialist organisation of society and to achieve the victory of socialism in all countries, the Constituent Assembly further resolves:

1. Private ownership of land is hereby abolished. All land together with all buildings, farm implements and other appurtenances of agricultural production, is proclaimed the property of the entire working people.

2. The Soviet laws on workers’ control and on the Supreme Economic Council are hereby confirmed for the purpose of guaranteeing the power of the working people over the exploiters and as a first step towards the complete conversion of the factories, mines, railways, and other means of production and transport into the property of the workers’ and peasants’ state.

3. The conversion of all banks into the property of the workers’ and peasants’ state is hereby confirmed as one of the conditions for the emancipation of the working people from the yoke of capital.

4. For the purpose of abolishing the parasitic sections of society, universal labour conscription is hereby instituted.

5. To ensure the sovereign power of the working people, and to eliminate all possibility of the restoration of the power of the exploiters, the arming of the working people, the creation of a socialist Red Army of workers and peasants and the complete disarming of the propertied classes are hereby decreed.

III. 1. Expressing its firm determination to wrest mankind from the clutches of finance capital and imperialism, which have in this most criminal of wars drenched the world in blood, the Constituent Assembly whole-heartedly endorses the policy pursued by Soviet power of denouncing the secret treaties, organising most extensive fraternisation with the workers and peasants of the armies in the war, and achieving at all costs, by revolutionary means, a democratic peace between the nations, without annexations and indemnities and on the basis of the free self-determination of nations.

2. With the same end in view, the Constituent Assembly insists on a complete break with the barbarous policy of bourgeois civilisation, which has built the prosperity of the exploiters belonging to a few chosen nations on the enslavement of hundreds of millions of working people in Asia, in the colonies in general, and in the small countries.

The Constituent Assembly welcomes the policy of the Council of People’s Commissars in proclaiming the complete independence of Finland, commencing the evacuation of troops from Persia, and proclaiming freedom of self-determination for Armenia.[2]

3. The Constituent Assembly regards the Soviet law on the cancellation of the loans contracted by the governments of the tsar, the landowners and the bourgeoisie as a first blow struck at international banking, finance capital, and expresses the conviction that Soviet power will firmly pursue this path until the international workers’ uprising against the yoke of capital has completely triumphed.

IV. Having been elected on the basis of party lists drawn up prior to the October Revolution, when the people were not yet in a position to rise en masse against the exploiters, had not yet experienced the full strength of resistance of the latter in defence of their class privileges, and had not yet applied themselves in practice to the task of building socialist society, the Constituent Assembly considers that it would be fundamentally wrong, even formally, to put itself in opposition to Soviet power.

In essence the Constituent Assembly considers that now, when the people are waging the last fight against their exploiters, there can be no place for exploiters in any government body. Power must be vested wholly and entirely in the working people and their authorised representatives—the Soviets of Workers’, Soldiers’ and Peasants’ Deputies.

Supporting Soviet power and the decrees of the Council of People’s Commissars, the Constituent Assembly considers that its own task is confined to establishing the fundamental principles of the socialist reconstruction of society.

At the same time, endeavouring to create a really free and voluntary, and therefore all the more firm and stable, union of the working classes of all the nations of Russia, the Constituent Assembly confines its own task to setting up the fundamental principles of a federation of Soviet Republics of Russia, while leaving it to the workers and peasants of each nation to decide independently at their own authoritative Congress of Soviets whether they wish to participate in the federal government and in the other federal Soviet institutions, and on what terms.

Footnotes
[1] The draft of the declaration was placed before the All-Russia Central Executive Committee on January 3 (16), 1918, and adopted as a basis by a majority with two against and one abstention. It was referred to a Co-ordinating Commission for final drafting. The declaration was adopted by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee and published in Izvestia on January 4 (17). On behalf of the Committee it was read out by Sverdlov at the first sitting of the Constituent Assembly on January 5 (18) and motioned for approval. The counter-revolutionary majority of the Assembly rejected the motion to discuss it. On January 12 (25), it was approved by the Third All-Russia Congress of Soviets and subsequently formed the basis of the Soviet Constitution.
Paragraph 2 of Lenin’s manuscript was altered by Stalin. The paragraph beginning with the words “In essence the Constituent Assembly considers...“ was written by Bukharin and edited by Lenin.
[2] On December 6 (19), 1917, the Finnish Diet adopted a declaration of Finland’s independence. In accordance with the nationalities policy of the Soviet state, the Council of Peoples Commissars, on December 18 (31), 1917, issued a decree on Finland’s independence. At the meeting of the government, Lenin personally handed the text of the decree to Prime Minister Svinhufvud, who led a Finnish Government delegation. On December 22, 1917 (January 4, 1918), the decree on Finland’s independence was approved by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.
On December 19, 1917 (January 1, 1918), in conformity with a treaty concluded between Russia and Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria at Brest-Litovsk on December 2 (15), the Soviet Government proposed to the Persian Government to elaborate a common plan for the withdrawal of Russian troops from Persia.
On December 29, 1917 (January 11, 1918), the government issued the Decree on Turkish Armenia, which was published in Pravda No. 227 on December 31, 1917 (January 13, 1918).


http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/jan/03.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jan 2011 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Red Cross Magazine, January 1918



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Air Ministry 1918

On 3 January 1918 the Air Ministry was set up under a Secretary of State for Air advised by an Air Council. The Ministry's first task was to plan for the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service, which was effected on 1 April 1918 when the Royal Air Force came into existence.

In February 1919 the ministry became responsible for civil aviation which, before the outbreak of war in 1914, had been the responsibility of the Home Office. In January 1920 it took over responsibility for aircraft production from the Ministry of Munitions and between 1919 and 1922 it took over, by stages, from the Treasury the Meteorological Office, into which its own meteorological service and those of the other service departments was absorbed.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/displaycataloguedetails.asp?CATID=8&CATLN=1&accessmethod=5&j=1
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Joint Arab-Jewish agreement on Jewish Homeland, January 3, 1918

Feisal Hussein, King of Iraq and Syria agreed to Jewish National Home according to British Mandate (Israel and Jordan) in 1918. King of Iraq from 1921; eldest son of Hussein, sherif of Mecca. He led the Arab intifada against Turkey (1916-1918) and was designated king of Syria. Feisal was at first sympathetic to a Jewish Homeland from which he hoped to receive aid in building his future kingdom. He met Dr. Weizmann in Jordan (1918) and Paris (1919) where they reached an agreement on mutual aid, conditional on the implementation of British promises to the Arabs. Later, owing to his expulsion from Syira by the French (1920) and the influence of other Arab leaders, his attitude later became hostile.
By the mid-19th century, up to 100,000 people lived in Palestine, including a high percentage of Jews, whose forebears had lived there for thousands of years. In 1882, roughly 200,000 Muslims lived in all of Western Palestine.1 By 1918, the situation had not changed much: That was why Hussein ibn-Ali, Sherif of Mecca, and his son, King Faisal of Iraq, both endorsed and extolled the Balfour Declaration 2

Hussein wrote in Mecca's Al Qibla, in 1918, "The resources of the country are still virgin soil and will be developed by the Jewish immigrants. One of the most amazing things until recent times was that the Palestinian used to leave his country, wandering over the high seas in every direction. His native soil could not retain a hold on him.... At the same time, we have seen the Jews from foreign countries streaming to Palestine from Russia, Germany, Austria, Spain, and America. The cause of causes could not escape those who had a gift of deeper insight. They knew that the country was for its original sons [abna'ihi-l-asliyin], for all their differences, a sacred and beloved homeland. The return of these exiles [jaliya] to their homeland will prove materially and spiritually an experimental school for their brethren who are with them in the fields, factories, trades and all things connected to the land." 3

In early 1919, King Faisal, then the only recognized Arab leader in the world, executed a treaty with Chaim Weizmann adopting the understanding of the Balfour Declaration. It outlined relations between Palestine and the Arab state, recognizing the former as a National Home for the Jews, in which they should quickly settle. He wrote, "We Arabs, especially the educated among us, look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement. Our delegation here in Paris is fully acquainted with the proposals submitted yesterday to the Zionist organization to the Peace Conference, and we regard them as moderate and proper." (emphasis added) 4

The 1919 Faisal-Weizmann treaty provided a firm foundation for League of Nations ratification of the Balfour Declaration at the San Remo Conference in 1920. The proposals covered Palestine - from the Mediterranean through the entire Galilee, up to the Litany River, hundreds of miles east of the Jordan River through all of current day Jordan, and into part of the Sinai. The League assigned Palestine Mandate administration to Britain, entrusting it to establish the National Home for the Jews. 5

Agreement Between Emir Feisal Husseini and Dr. Weizman

His Royal Highness the Emir FEISAL, representing and acting on behalf of the Arab Kingdom of Hedjaz, and Dr. CHAIM WIEZMANN, representing and acting on behalf of the Zionist Organization.

mindful of the racial kinship and ancient bonds existing between the Arabs and the Jewish people, and realising that the surest means of working out the consumation of their national aspirations is through the closest possible collaboration in the development of the Arab State and Palestine, and being desirous further of confirming the good understanding which exists between them,

have agreed upon the following Articles;-

ARTICLE I
The Arab State and Palestine in all their relations and undertakings shall be controlled by the most cordial goodwill and understanding and to this end Arab and Jewish duly accredited agents shall be established and maintained in the respective territories.

ARTICLE II
Immediately following the completion of the deliberations of the Peace Conference, the definite boundaries between the Arab State and Palestine shall be determined by a Commission to be agreed upon by the parties hereto.

ARTICLE III
In the establishment of the Constitution and Administration of Palestine all such measures shall be adopted as will afford the fullest guarantee for carrying into effect the British Government's Declaration of the 2nd of November, 1917.

ARTICLE IV
All necessary measures shall be taken to encourage and stimulate immigration of Jews into Palestine on a large scale, and as quickly as possible to settle Jewish immigrants upon the land through closer settlement and intensive cultivation of the soil. In taking such measures measures the Arab peasant and tenant farmes shall be protected in their rights and shall be assisted in forwaxiiing their economic development.

ARTICLE V.
No regulation nor Iaw shall be made prohibiting or interfering in any way with the free exercise of religion; and further the free excercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship without discimimtion or preference shell forever be allowed. No religious test shall ever be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.

ARTICLE VI
The Mohammedan Holy Places shall be under Mohammedan control.

ARTICLE VII
The Zionist Organization proposes to send to Palestine a Commission of experts to make a survey of the economic possibilities of the country, and to report upon the best means for its development. The Zionist Organisation will place the aforementioned Comission at the disposal of the Arab State for the purpose of a survey of the economic possibilities of the Arab State and to report upon the best means for its development. The Zionist Organization will use Its best efforts to assist the Arab State in providing the means for developing the natural resources and economic possibilities thereof.

ARTICLE VIII.
The parties hereto agree to act in complete accord and harmony on all matters embraced herein before the Peace congress.

ARTICLE IX
Any matters of dispute which my arise between the contracting parties shall be referred to the British Government for arbitration.

Given under our hand at LONDON.
ENGLAND, the THIRD day of JANUARY, ONE THOUSAND NINE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN.

Chaim-Weizmann.

Feisal ibn-Hussein.

RESERVATION BY THE EMIR FEISAL
If the Arabs are established as I have asked in my manifesto of January 4th addressed to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, I will carry out what is written in this agreement. If changes are made, I cannot be answerable for failing to carry out this agreement.

Feisal ibn-Hussein.

Notes:
1. Katz, Battleground, pp. 90-115 (citing De Haas, Jacob, History of Palestine: The Last Two Thousand Years, New York: Macmillan, 1934), 123-127; Peters, Joan, From Time Immemorial, pp. 244-245, citing Dr. Carl Herman Voss, The Palestine Problem Today, Israel and Its Neighbors (Boston: Beacon Press, 1953), p. 13. Western Palestine (also then called Southern Syria) was considerably larger than the area that later became Israel. It is very misleading to cite their populations interchangeably, as Peters details.
2. Katz, Samuel, Battlegound: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine, 123-127.
3. Katz, Battleground, pp. 125-127
4. Katz, Battleground, pp.125-127


http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~samuel/feisal1.html
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Sergeant Alfred Knight

Knight was later awarded the Victoria Cross for ‘most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the operations against the enemy positions’ (London Gazette, 8 November 1917, reprinted in the Post Office Circular, 20 November 1917) at the Battle of Wurst Farm Ridge, Alberta Section, Ypres on 20 September 1917.

The report in the London Gazette goes on to describe how

‘Sergeant Knight did extraordinary good work, and showed exceptional bravery and initiative when his platoon was attacking an enemy strong point, and came under very heavy fire from an enemy machine gun. He rushed through our own barrage, bayoneted the enemy gunner, and captured the position single-handed…His several single-handed actions showed exceptional bravery, and saved a great number of casualties in the Company. They were performed under heavy machine gun and rifle fire, and without regard to personal risk, and were the direct cause of the objectives being captured.’

Knight was decorated with the Victoria Cross at Buckingham Palace on 3 January 1918. The announcement of his VC attracted a fair amount of attention when he returned to Nottingham in December 1917.

Knight was always a modest man and his dismissal of accounts by the Press of his VC action led to him being nicknamed ‘The Jolly VC’. Years later Knight spoke of his survival as a miracle and said that a 'photograph-case and a cigarette-case probably saved my life from one bullet, which must have passed just under my arm-pit – quite close enough to be comfortable!

http://postalheritage.org.uk/history/people/sergeantalfredknight
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NORTHERN WESTERN AUSTRALIA SHIPWRECKS - BROOME TO JOSEPH BONAPARTE GULF

Orient. Schooner, 9 tons. Wrecked off Broome, WA, 3 January 1918.Three lives lost.

http://oceans1.customer.netspace.net.au/northwa-wrecks.html
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MR. ISMAY'S GIFT TO THE MERCANTILE MARINE
The Times, Friday 3 January 1919

MESSAGE FROM THE KING

The Mercantile Marine Service Association, Liverpool, having informed
the King that Mr. Bruce Ismay had contributed £25,000 for the purpose of
founding a National Mercantile Marine Fund, have received the following
message from his Majesty's private secretary:---

"The King has learnt with much pleasure of Mr. Bruce Ismay's generous
gift to the National Mercantile Marine Fund. His Majesty feels sure that
this tribute to the splendid services rendered by the officers and men
of the British Mercantile Marine will be much appreciated."


http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/mr-ismays-gift-to-the-mercantile-marine-11251.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jan 2011 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AIF: Martin O'MEARA


O'Meara (right) meeting fellow VC recipient, Lt. Albert Jacka, following the fighting at Pozières.

Awarded the Victoria Cross, September 1916.

Major F. Black stated: 'On the morning of the 11th Aug, O'Meara was on scouting duty in No Man's Land. At this time some three machine guns were firing over the section of ground which he was examining and it was also being very heavily shelled by H.E. shells. About ten minutes after I saw him go over the parapet into No Man's Land I saw him return carrying a wounded man whom he had found lying in a shell hole in No Man's Land. Having dressed the wounds of this man he returned to No Man's Land in pursuance of his duties as a Scout. My notice was again drawn to this man on the morning of the 12th when the section of trench was occupied by my Coy was being heavily bombed by H.E. and Shrapnel. I withdrew the garrison to either flank from one portion that was in process of being completely obliterated which subsequently happened; one man failed to get out in time and was buried. O'Meara despite the overwhelming fire at once rushed to the spot, extricated the man concerned and thereby undoubtedly saved his life. During the advance of the Bn on the night of 9-10th a number of men were wounded and left lying on the ground over which the advance had been made and subsequently on the 11-12th runners and carriers who had occasion to cross this area were wounded there. I saw O'Meara on many occasions on the 10-11-12th Aug: searching the ground for wounded to whom he rendered first aid and whom he subsequently brought in or assisted to bring in.'

(...) Commenced return to Australia on board 'Arawa', 15 September 1918; disembarked Western Australia, 10 November 1918; discharged, 30 November 1919.

(...) OC, 24th Australian Auxiliary Hospital, Stromness, reported, 19 December 1918, that O'Meara 'is suffering from Delusional Insanity, with hallucinations of hearing and sight, is extremely homicidal and suicidal, and requires to be kept in restraint. He is not hopeful of his recovery in the near future.' Admitted to Claremont Mental Hospital (insane patient), 3 January 1919; died, 20 December 1935.

http://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showPerson?key=O'MEARA/M/3970 & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_O'Meara
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