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22 December

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Dec 2005 9:45    Onderwerp: 22 December Reageer met quote

December 22

1917 Russian-German peace talks begin at Brest-Litovsk

A week after the armistice was signed between Russia and Germany and nearly three weeks after a ceasefire was declared on the Eastern Front, representatives of the two countries begin peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, near the Polish border in what is now the city of Brest, in Belarus.

The leader of the Russian delegation was Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik People’s Commissar for Foreign Relations. Max Hoffmann, the commander of German forces on the Eastern Front, served as one of the chief negotiators on the German side. The main difference of opinion in Brest-Litovsk was over cessation of Russian land to the Germans—the Russians demanded a peace “without annexations or indemnities” and the Germans were unwilling to concede on this point. In February 1918, Trotsky announced he was withdrawing the Russians from the peace talks, and the war was on again.

Unfortunately for Russia, with the renewal of fighting the Central Powers quickly took the upper hand, seizing control of most of Ukraine and Belarus. The Bolshevik hope that the workers of Germany and Austria, offended by their governments’ naked territorial ambition, would rise up in rebellion in the name of the international proletariat soon vanished. On March 3, 1918, Russia accepted peace terms even harsher than those originally suggested, losing Poland, Lithuania, and the Baltic states of Estonia, Livonia, and Courland to Germany. Meanwhile, Finland and the Ukraine saw Russia’s weakness as an opportunity to declare their independence. In all, Brest-Litovsk deprived Lenin’s new state of one million square miles of territory and one-third of its population, or 55 million people.

www.historychannel.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Dec 2005 9:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 22. Dezember

1914
Neue heftige Kampfe in Polen
Abgeschlagene französisch-englische Angriffe
Ein feindlicher Flieger über Straßburg
Ein deutscher Flieger über Dover
Vergebliche russische Angriffe in Galizien
Der Krieg im Orient

1915
Neue Kämpfe um den Hartmannsweilerkopf
Leichte Erkrankung des Kaisers
Tod des Siegers von Lüttich, General v. Emmich
69 Geschütze bei Ipek erbeutet
Seegefecht vor Varna
Vermehrung des englischen Heeres auf vier Millionen Mann
Der Wechsel in den oberen englischen Kommandostellen
Ein japanischer Dampfer im Mittelmeer versenkt
Die zweite Note Amerikas an Österreich-Ungarn

1916
Weitere Fortschritte der Dobrudscha-Armee
Ein Verhandlungsvorschlag Wilsons an die Kriegführenden
Der Wortlaut der Note Wilsons
Erfolglose russische Unternehmungen am Trotus-Tal
Graf Czernin k. u. k. Minister des Äußern
Der siegreiche Kampf in der Norddobrudscha

1917
Neue italienische Gegenangriffe am Monte Asolone gescheitert
Die Eröffnung der Friedensverhandlungen in Brest-Litowsk
General Guillaumat Oberbefehlshaber der Saloniki-Armee

1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Dec 2005 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 december 1915
Egypte

Generaal Sir Archibald Murray vervangt Lt Gen Sir John Maxwell als bevelhebber van de Engelse troepen in Egypte.

22 december 1916
Verdun

Gen Charles Mangin, de meedogenloze rechterhand van Nivelle verlaat Souilly en neemt het bevel op van het 6e leger. Hiermee komt de slag bij Verdun effectief tot een einde. Hierdoor kan de balans worden opgemaakt:
Frankrijk: 377.231 man verlies
Duitsland: 337.000 man verlies
Totaal meer dan 700.000 waarvan wellicht 420.000 doden.

Bron: The Almanac of World War I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Givenchy, 1914

Fought from 18-22 December 1914 the Battle of Givenchy saw an initially advancing British force face strong opposition (and counter-attack) from a solidly entrenched German force around the village of Givenchy (in Pas-de-Calais, and which was held by the British). (...)

Nevertheless the German counter-attacks continued and several salients were driven into the British line until reinforcements from First Army were brought up by Douglas Haig the following day. With the fresh influx of men - relieving the Indian division - the line was restored to its original position.

Thus fighting died down on 22 December with the opposing lines where they had started. British casualties ran at twice those of the German force: 4,000 against 2,000.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/givenchy.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spain: Teatro Arriaga, Bilbao...



... is an opera house and it was built in Neo-baroque style by architect Joaquín Rucoba in 1890, the same architect that built the city hall. It is named after Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga, known in his time as the “Spanish Mozart”. On the night of 22 December 1914, a fire burnt it almost to ashes. Architect Federico de Ugalde was charged with the task of rebuilding the Arriaga Theatre. He renewed all building’s entire structure, making it larger and safer.The theater was rebuilt in 1985 after severe flooding destroyed it in August 1983. Currently, the Arriaga Theatre is owned entirely by the municipality and is managed by a private limited company that was incorporated on 3 October 1986. During this new phase, the theatre has welcomed first class artists and performances. It has offered many premiers and has even produced shows that have travelled to cities all over the world.

http://www.teach-project.eu/?page_id=204
Zie ook http://www.teatroarriaga.com/cronologia_en.php?idioma=_en
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Dec 2010 17:29, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Sarıkamış Disaster


Turkish artillery in snow

The Turkish Operation Plan involved a single envelopment using three corps. On the right flank, XI Corps would fix the Russians in place and conduct feint attacks. In the centre, IX Corps would fight in the direction of Sarıkamış Pass. Hafız Hakkı’s X Corps, which was to be on the left flank, would drive on Oltu, cross the Allahüekber Mountains, cut the Kars road and drive the Russians to the Aras Valley, where the Russian forces would be destroyed by all three corps acting in unison. Meanwhile the Stange Bey Detachment would conduct highly visible operations to distract and pin Russian units.

Hafız Hakkı was excited and he could not wait to launch the attack. However, for him, the fine line between his ideals and the truth was blurred. Excerpts from his letter to İhsan Paşa, commander of the IX Corps, dated 19 December 1914, shows us that he was not making his plans based on facts: “We have to make sure that the IX and X Corps arrive at Sarıkamış and Kars before the Russians. To achieve this aim, there are two conditions to meet: first, the initial attack has to be a sudden one and, second, after concluding the initial attack within a few hours, both corps should proceed at full speed. I am planning to destroy the enemy within one or two hours and then move to Oltu… I hope that the assault at İd will be concluded by the afternoon on 22 December. Then we will march 30 kilometres a day and arrive in the Kars-Sarıkamış line by 25 December…”

One of the most important sources about the Sarıkamış Campaign is the memoirs of Köprülülü Şerif Bey, who was the chief of staff of IX Corps. He mentions that they did not even possess a proper map of the region. He criticizes Hafız Hakkı: “The most unfortunate thing was that nobody, not even he himself, was asking ‘What if these plans fail?’ He was not consulting the experienced officers in his staff.”

As the major offensive began, the total available offensive strength of the Third Army was 118,660 men, 73 machine guns and 218 pieces of artillery. Turkish intelligence estimated the Russians to have a rifle strength of about 65,000.

Hostilities began on 22 December 1914. The X Corps began its movement towards Oltu, which was occupied the next day. 1000 Russian troops were taken prisoner, 4 artillery guns and 4 machine guns were captured. IX and XI Corps were advancing as well.

The second day of the campaign was marked by an unfortunate event. For nearly 4 hours at Narman, the 31st and the 32nd Divisions fought each other. This big mistake is said to have been caused by problems with the maps. By 24 December, the X Corps was well beyond Oltu after having marched a hard 75 kilometers in just over three days. It had reached the point where it would pivot toward the southeast to outflank and envelop Sarıkamış.

http://www.turkeyswar.com/campaigns/caucasus1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Footballing Anzacs

Footballing Anzacs is a tribute to the men of various Australian British Association football clubs that enlisted and fought in the Great War.

Raymond Thomas Fagg - (Lindisfarne BAFC)
Service number: 1208
Rank: Private
Roll title: 12 Infantry Battalion - 1 to 8 Reinforcements (December 1914 - September 1915)
Conflict: First World War, 1914-1918
Date of embarkation: 22 December 1914
Place of embarkation: Melbourne
Ship embarked on: HMAT Themistocles
Ship number: A32

http://ozfootball.net/museum/index.php/en/footballing-anzacs
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

An Officer's Letters From 1914

Lord James Thomas Stewart Murray was the youngest child of the 7th Duke of Atholl and was born on 18th August 1879. He served a total of twenty-three years in the Cameron Highlanders and attained the rank of Major. (...)

[...] joined the Camerons in France on 22nd November, and Captain Stewart-Murray was given command of "B" Company. Due to a lack of officers he was then given command of the "right half-battalion" ("A" and "B" Companies) on 7th December 1914. On the evening of 22nd December 1914, during the battle of Givenchy, Captain Stewart-Murray was attempting to locate the leading elements of his unit when he ran into a German patrol and was made a prisoner of war.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/48-brothers-arms/300-off-letter-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 16th Battalion AIF at Anzac, Gallipoli

The 16th Battalion AIF (Australian Imperial Force) was composed of South Australians and Western Australians under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Harold Pope. The unit was a cross-section of the 1914 rural and urban environments of both states. The battalion trained first at Blackboy Hill near Perth, and on 21 November 1914 left Fremantle for Melbourne. There they joined the other three battalions of the 4th Australian Infantry Brigade AIF under Colonel John Monash at Broadmeadows Camp to complete their organisation and training.

On 22 December 1914, the 16th Battalion embarked 32 officers and 979 other ranks on the transport A40 Ceramic at Port Melbourne. The men had left Broadmeadows after two days of continuous rain, and they and their equipment were saturated and muddy:

All ranks embarked thoroughly wet and with symptoms of a great prevalence of influenza

- [16th Battalion War Diary, Unit War Diaries 1914-18 War, item 23/33/1-5, AWM 4]

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/s_sixteenth.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stephan Baron Sarkotić von Lovčen



(...) Although the initial Serbian campaign was a disaster, Sarkotić handled his division well and was made a Knight 2nd Class of the Order of the Iron Crown in late 1914. Recalled to Vienna, he was promoted to General der Infanterie and appointed by Kaiser Franz Joseph as the Commanding General in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the 22nd December 1914. He assumed his new command in the new year with responsibility for the Austro-Hungarian forces in Bosnia, Herzegovina and Dalmatia with simultaneous responsibility as the Military Governor. (...)

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/biog/sarkotic.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Victor Wilde: Gallipoli Participant [1]
Graham J Whitehead


Sergeant George Wilde. Courtesy Kingston Collection.

On 29 May 1915 Thorton Richard Wilde, the caretaker of the Cheltenham Hall, was writing to the Minister of Defence regarding malicious rumours circulating in the district about his son who had been serving with Australian forces at Gallipoli. [1] Mr Wilde asked the Minister if there was any way that the despicable individual who was creating mischief could be made to justify his statements. The rumour circulating was that George Victor Wilde, his sergeant stripes removed, had been sent home in disgrace to be imprisoned in the barracks at Queenscliff. [2] The truth, the father wrote, was that Sergeant Wilde had been slightly wounded at the Dardanelles. The reply from the Minister’s office was that it was regrettable that the Department could not suggest any means by which the person spreading the rumour could be dealt with except perhaps by recourse to civil action.

George Victor Wilde, born in Richmond, was a twenty-five year old single man employed as a motor mechanic when the First World War erupted in 1914. The assassination on 28 June of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was seen as the event that triggered the war but it was the invasion of Belgium and France by Germany on 4 August 1914 that saw the beginning of the military conflict. Within a fortnight of that date the 5th Battalion of the Australian Army was raised and it was on the 17 August 1914 that George Wilde enlisted at Ripponlea, making him a very early volunteer. He had some experience of military life having been a member of the 47th Infantry 3rd Division in the colonial forces holding the rank of sergeant. After a short training period at Broadmeadows he left with his fellow members of the Fifth Battalion, H Company, for Egypt on the HMAT Orvieto. They arrived in Egypt on 2 December 1914 and four months later took part in the ‘second wave’ landing at Gallipoli. Shortly after the landing, on 25 April 1915, he received a gunshot wound to the left shoulder and to the right of the back. [3] The wound was reported as not being life threatening but he was transferred at first to Mustapha and subsequently to the general hospital in Alexandria. A short time then followed in a convalescent home at Ras-al-tin, in Alexandria’s neighbourhood, before he was placed with Base Administration at Mudros on the island of Lemnos in August 1915. At the beginning of the next year he returned to his unit.

In August of 1916 he joined the Second Training Battalion in England. Then followed different assignments at military establishments in England. One was at Tidworth in south east Wiltshire on the eastern edge of Salisbury Plain. It was probably while there in the Overseas Training Brigade that he met Matilda Eleanor Key and married her on 2 June 1917 in Middlesex. At the time her address was given as 3 Cockerton, Warminster, Wiltshire. Ten months following his marriage George was back in France and fighting the Germans with his comrades in the 5th Battalion.

Returning to the question of rumour, it is not known what motivated the rumourmonger back in Cheltenham. Each rumour often has a ‘smidgin of truth’ which makes it more believable but the truth is wrapped in a lie or a series of lies. It was true that George wore the three stripes of a sergeant and they had been taken away but he had not been sent back to Melbourne. Why this demotion occurred is not recorded in his army records but on 22 December 1914 only twenty days after his arrival in Egypt he was classified as a private and transferred to a new company in the Fifth Battalion. On 15 January 1917 he was restored to the rank of sergeant (temporary) while a member of Headquarters AIF in England. At the time of his wedding in June 1917 his rank was given as sergeant but on 16 March 1918 he once more reverted to the rank of private. Again there is no comment in his record of why this occurred. A few weeks later he rejoined his unit in France where he fought to halt the German offensive at Hazebrouck. On the 14 June 1918 Private George Victor Wilde was dead.

The circumstances surrounding his death were reported by several members of the 5th Battalion. He was a member of a fatigue party carrying ammunition to the front line. It was about midnight when the Germans commenced shelling. A high velocity shell exploded near him, instantly killing him and a companion. One witness said a leg had been blown off and he was badly knocked about. Another soldier confirmed the damaged state of the body. The stretcher bearers removed the body the next day and he was buried in La Kreule British Military Cemetery between Hazebrouck and Borre. Several soldiers reported seeing the grave over which a cross had been erected showing his name, number and unit. [4]

His death was reported in the Moorabbin News, 14 September 1918. Later his name was included in the Roll of Honour placed in the church of St Matthew’s Cheltenham along with nine others who gave their lives, and forty nine others who served in the 1914-1918 conflict. His name is also recorded on the broken granite column in the memorial park behind the RSL building in Centre Dandenong Road, Cheltenham.

Footnotes
1. National Archives of Australia – Records Australian Military Forces.
2. Moorabbin News, 29 May 1915.
3. National Archives of Australia - Casualty Records.
4. Australian Red Cross Society Wounded and Missing Enquiry Bureau Files – 867 Private George Victor Wilde.


http://localhistory.kingston.vic.gov.au/htm/article/494.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - December 1915

Telegram. Army in the Field. 22 December, 1915.

I thank you with all my soul for letter. Congratulate you on Anastasia's namesday. In the morning I inspected the troops of the army in this place, saw our Caucasian friends. All sections look remarkably well...

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/december15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Koningin Wilhelmina - vorstin in oorlog - 1915

Woensdag 22 december - Handelsblad schrijft: “De viering van het Kerstfeest ten Koninklijke Paleize te ’s-Gravenhage zal dit jaar, evenals verleden jaar, met het oog op de tijdsomstandigheden, achterwege blijven. Alleen zal voor de Prinses een klein Kerstfeest plaats hebben.”


HM bezoekt Leiden op 22 december 1915

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/wilhelmina-in-oorlogstijd/wilhelmina-1915/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 17:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 22 December 1915





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19151222.2.50
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 18:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 December 1915 → Commons Sitting

SS. "WOODFIELD" SUNK BY ENEMY SUBMARINE.


HC Deb 22 December 1915 vol 77 cc444-5 444

Mr. ELLIS GRIFFITH asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether he is aware that the crew, captain, and the survivors of the crew of the steamer "Wood-field," which was sunk by an Austrian submarine on 9th November, 1915, are now kept in confinement by the Spanish authorities on the Island of Melilla; and whether he will take steps to procure their immediate release?

The following question also appeared on the Paper:—

Mr. LLEWELYN WILLIAMS To ask the First Lord of the Admiralty whether the transport steamer "Wood-field," which was chartered by the Government to carry a cargo of petrol to the Dardanelles, was attacked on 6th November last by an Austrian submarine and several of the crew killed and wounded; whether, after three hours' fighting, the 445 captain decided to abandon the vessel, but himself remained on board, though injured, in order to look after the ship's wounded carpenter, who eventually died in his arms; whether the vessel was in the end torpedoed by the submarine and sunk, and the captain was picked up after many hours by one of the ship's boats; whether two of the boats landed on the island of Melilla and another on the mainland of Morocco; whether the crew and captain have been interned by the Spanish Government at Melilla; whether the Government have made any and, if so, what provision for the support of the families of the crew dependent on them at the time of the disaster; and whether the Government intend to make any acknowledgment to the master of the vessel in recognition of his conduct?

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY to the ADMIRALTY (Dr. Macnamara) I had intended to give the following answer in reply to Question 1. As it deals with the same subject, perhaps I may give it in reply to both questions. The "Wood-field" was sunk by an enemy submarine off the coast of Morocco on the 3rd November, as stated by my right hon. Friend the Under-Secretary of State for War, on the 7th instant. As then stated, the casualties amongst the military and crew were six persons killed and fourteen wounded. The survivors, forty-five British and nine Arabs (firemen), are all understood to be now in the hands of the Spanish authorities, by whom they have been treated with every consideration and kindness, the wounded in particular being well looked after. My right hon. Friend the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has been and is in communication with the Spanish Government. I understand that the owners of the vessel are making suitable arrangements in regard to the families of the survivors. As regards the other statements in my hon. Friend's question, I have, so far, no information.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/dec/22/ss-woodfield-sunk-by-enemy-submarine
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PRINCESS PATRICIA’S CANADIAN LIGHT INFANTRY

(...) Arriving in France on the 22nd December, 1914, the Battalion was located at
Blaringham [Blaringhem] a and employed in digging trenches until the 3rd of January 1915
when it marched to Meteren enrout [en route] for Dickebusch, and took over the trenches at
Vierhoek- Bois Carre Sector, from the French on the 15th January, 1915. (...)

http://www.cefresearch.com/matrix/War%20Diaries/transcribed/bde7/bde7y1915.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 18:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Karl Schwarzschild

Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German physicist. He is also the father of astrophysicist Martin Schwarzschild.

He is best known for providing the first exact solution to the Einstein field equations of general relativity, for the limited case of a single spherical non-rotating mass, which he accomplished in 1915, the same year that Einstein first introduced general relativity. The Schwarzschild solution, which makes use of Schwarzschild coordinates and the Schwarzschild metric, leads to the well-known Schwarzschild radius, which is the size of the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole.

Schwarzschild accomplished this triumph while serving in the German army during World War I. He died the following year from pemphigus, a painful autoimmune disease which he developed while at the Russian front. (...)

Relativity - Einstein himself was pleasantly surprised to learn that the field equations admitted exact solutions, because of their prima facie complexity, and because he himself had only produced an approximate solution. Einstein's approximate solution was given in his famous 1915 article on the advance of the perihelion of Mercury. There, Einstein used rectangular coordinates to approximate the gravitational field around a spherically symmetric, non-rotating, non-charged mass. Schwarzschild, in contrast, chose a more elegant "polar-like" coordinate system and was able to produce an exact solution which he first set down in a letter to Einstein of 22 December 1915, written while Schwarzschild was serving in the war stationed on the Russian front. Schwarzschild concluded the letter by writing: "As you see, the war treated me kindly enough, in spite of the heavy gunfire, to allow me to get away from it all and take this walk in the land of your ideas." In 1916, Einstein wrote to Schwarzschild on this result:

I have read your paper with the utmost interest. I had not expected that one could formulate the exact solution of the problem in such a simple way. I liked very much your mathematical treatment of the subject. Next Thursday I shall present the work to the Academy with a few words of explanation.
—Albert Einstein,

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Schwarzschild
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 December1916: Future NZ PM Fraser charged with sedition



Peter Fraser's trial in the Wellington Magistrates' Court was the sequel to a speech he had given attacking the government's military conscription policy. A number of other union leaders were charged with the same crime. Fraser was convicted and served 12 months in gaol.

Enlistment had slowed after the initial rush to volunteer when the First World War broke out. The government responded with the Military Service Act, which became law on 1 August 1916. This introduced conscription, initially for Pakeha men only. Limited allowance was made for people who objected – only members of religious bodies that had, before the outbreak of war, declared military service 'contrary to divine revelation' could be exempted from service. Many of those involved in the socialist and labour movements in New Zealand objected to fighting an 'imperialist war' and argued that 'New Zealand workers had no quarrel with German workers'. The New Zealand Labour Party (founded in 1916) insisted that conscription should not be introduced unless it was accompanied by the conscription of wealth.

On 4 December 1916, two weeks after the first conscription ballot had taken place, the government issued new regulations to control dissent which contained a very broad definition of sedition. Fraser was arrested on 20 December and charged with having 'published seditious words' when speaking at a meeting on the 10th. These words were said to have been 'likely to incite disaffection against the Government of New Zealand and to interfere with the recruiting of His Majesty's forces.' He appeared before magistrate W.G. Riddell on 22 December. P.J. O'Regan, appearing for Fraser, stormed from the court when his request for bail was declined. Now defending himself, Fraser argued that calling for the repeal of the law, rather than for disobedience or resistance to it, was perfectly legal. Riddell disagreed and sentenced the future Prime Minister to 12 months' imprisonment. Other Labour Party members were also punished for their opposition to the war and the Military Service Act. Bob Semple (described by the Solicitor-General as 'one of the most dangerous and mischievous men in New Zealand'), Tim Armstrong, Jim O'Brien and Paddy Webb – all future Labour Cabinet ministers – also went to prison for expressing opposition to the war or to conscription.
Somewhat ironically, in 1940, Peter Fraser was Prime Minister when conscription was reintroduced to maintain New Zealand's effort in the Second World War. The man photographed selecting the first marble in the first ballot (held in September) was Bob Semple. In the war against Nazism, earlier objections to the principle of conscription would be set aside.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline/22/12
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22 December 1916 → Commons Sitting → PEACE PROPOSALS.

PRESIDENT WILSON'S NOTE.


HC Deb 22 December 1916 vol 88 c1828 1828

Sir W. BYLES May I be allowed to ask the Leader of the House whether, in view of the Adjournment for a considerable period, he can make any statement to us about the reported Note from the President of the United States in regard to the Peace overtures of the enemy?

Mr. BONAR LAW I think it must be obvious to my hon. Friend and to the House that this is a question which cannot be dealt with except in communication with our Allies and that it is absolutely impossible to make any statement now.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/dec/22/president-wilsons-note
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The Holtzendorff Memorandum of 22 December 1916 and Germany's Declaration of Unrestricted U-boat Warfare



As Chief of the Admiralty Staff of the Imperial German Navy, Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff was the driving force behind the German declaration of unrestricted U-boat warfare in 1917. In his memorandum of 22 December 1916, Holtzendorff condensed the key arguments of his fifteen-month struggle for unrestricted U-boat warfare. He focused on two issues: the unique opportunity to starve Great Britain into submission due to the crop failure of 1916 and the declining prospects for German submarine warfare under cruiser rules in the face of the progressive arming of allied merchantmen. He also believed that Germany could afford to risk a confrontation with the United States over the issue.

http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/journal_of_military_history/v068/68.1steffen.html &

The Holtzendorff Memorandum

The Chief of the Admiralty Staff of the Navy Berlin, 22 December 1916
B 35 840 I
To the Royal Field-Marshal Chief of the General Staff of the Army His Excellency v. Beneckendorff und v. Hindenburg.
Great Headquarters
Most Secret!

I have the honour to respectfully submit to your Excellency in the attachment a memorandum on the necessity for the commencement an unrestricted campaign of submarine warfare at the earliest opportunity. The memorandum is essentially a continuation of the memorandum Ref. No. 22 247 I of 27 August 1916: The Merchant Tonnage Issue and the Supply of England in 1916, which has previously been submitted to your Excellency.

Based on the detailed information attached to this memorandum, I would like to ask your Excellency to kindly follow the line of argument laid out below, and I hope to achieve agreement that it is absolutely necessary to increase our measures against England as soon as possible to the very limit of our abilities in order to exploit the favourable situation and to obtain a swift victory.

I. The war requires a decision before autumn 1917, lest it should end in the mutual exhaustion of all parties and thus in a disaster for us. Of our enemies, Italy and France are already so severely weakened in their economic foundations that they are kept in the fight only through England's energy and resources. If we succeed to break England's backbone, the war will immediately be decided in our favour. England's backbone is the merchant tonnage, which delivers essential imports for their survival and for the military industry of the British islands and which ensures the [kingdom's] ability to pay for its imports from abroad.

II. The current situation in respect to the merchant tonnage has already been mentioned in the memorandum of 27 August and is laid out in further detail in the attachment. In all brevity the situation is as follows: The [shipping] rates have reached outrageous levels, often as much as ten times as much [as in peacetime] for many important goods. We know with certainty from a variety of sources that merchant tonnage is lacking everywhere.
The current English merchant tonnage can safely be assumed to be in the order of 20 million gross register tons. 8.6 million tons of these are requisitioned for military purposes, and 1/2 million is employed in coastal trade. Approximately 1 million [tons] are undergoing repairs or are otherwise temporarily unavailable. Approximately 2 million tons are sailing for other allies, which leaves about 8 million tons of English merchant tonnage to provide for the supply of England. An analysis of statistical figures of ship movements in British ports suggests an even lower figure. In the months of July - September 1916 only 6 3/4 million tons were employed in the trade with England. In addition to that, other tonnage sailing in the trade with England can be assumed to amount to around 900,000 tons of enemy - non-English - and approximately 3 million tons of neutral tonnage. Hence, no more than 10 3/4 million GRT are at the disposal for the supply of England.

III. If the achievements in our battle against merchant tonnage have been encouraging thus far, then the exceptionally poor world harvest of grain, including feed grain, this year provides us with a unique opportunity, which nobody could responsibly reject. Both North America and Canada will probably cease their grain exports to England in February. Then that country will have to draw its grain supplies from the more distant Argentina, but since Argentina will only be able to deliver very limited quantities, because of the poor harvest, England will have to turn to India and mostly Australia. In the attachment it is explained in detail how such an increase in the length of the grain routes will require an extra 720,000 tons of tonnage for the grain shipments alone. In practice, the implications will be that, until August 1917, 3/4 million tons of the available 10 3/4 million tons will have to be employed for a service, which had hitherto not been required.

IV. Under such favourable circumstances an energetic blow conducted with all force against English merchant tonnage will promise a certain success in a way that I have to reiterate and emphasize my statements made on 27 August 1916 that "our clearly defined strategic objective is to force a decision in our favour through the destruction of [enemy] sea transport capacity" and also that "from a military point of view it would be irresponsible not to make use of the submarine weapon now." As things stand at the moment, I cannot vouch that a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare will force England to make peace within five months time. This reservation needs to be made in respect to the unrestricted submarine warfare only. Of the currently conducted submarine warfare under cruiser a decisisve result cannot be expected, regardless of the circumstances, even if all armed merchantmen are designated as legitimate targets.

V. Based on a monthly rate of destruction of 600,000 tons of shipping through a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare, as pointed out previously, and on the well grounded expectation, elaborated upon in the attachment, that at least two fifths of the neutral tonnage sailing in the trade with England will be deterred by such a campaign, it stands to reason that the current volume English sea borne trade will be reduced by 39% within five months. This would not be bearable for England, neither in view of her future position after the war, nor in view of her ability to continue the war effort. Already, the country is at the verge of a food crisis, which will soon compel it to attempt to undertake the same food rationing measures, which we, as a blockaded country, have been forced to adopt since the outbreak of the war. The preconditions for implementing such measures are totally different and infinitely more unfavourable than in our case. They do not have the necessary administration and their population is unused to submitting to such privations. Then there is another reason why the uniform rationing of bread for the whole population will not be possible in England at this point. It was possible for Germany at a time in which bread could be substituted by other foodstuffs. That moment has been missed in England. But with only three fifths of the current sea borne trade, the continued supply with [alternative] foodstuffs cannot be maintained unless a severe rationing of grain is imposed--provided the war industry is to be maintained at its current output level. The objection that England could have sufficient domestic stockpiles of grain and raw materials has been disproved in detail in the attachment.

In addition to that, the unrestricted submarine campaign would cut off England from the trade with Denmark and Holland, which would result in an immediate shortage of fats, since one third of all butter imports and the entire margarine imports to England originate in Denmark and Holland respectively. Moreover, by threatening the sea routes to Scandinavia and intensifying activities against the Spanish iron-ore trade, it would result in a scarcity of iron-ore and wood. This will automatically reduce the coal production for lack of wood. In consequence it would also reduce the output of pig iron, steel, and subsequently the production of munitions, which depends on both. Finally, it gives us the long hoped for opportunity to strike at neutral munitions shipments, and thus it will also provide a relief for the army.

By contrast, a submarine campaign according to cruiser rules, even assuming the possibility of indiscriminate attacks on armed merchantmen, would only yield a reduction of the tonnage sailing for England by 5 x 400,000 tons--about 18%--or less than half of what could be achieved by unrestricted submarine warfare. Experience so far does not suggest that the authorization to torpedo armed merchantmen would improve upon the result of 400,000 tons of destroyed merchant tonnage, which has been achieved over the past two months. In fact, it is likely to merely compensate for a decline, which has to be expected in the course of progressing arming [of merchantmen]. I am aware that even a reduction of one fifth of English sea borne trade will have a severe impact on the English supply situation. However, I consider it unthinkable that the current English leadership under Lloyd George, who is absolutely determined, could be forced to make peace on these grounds, particularly since the constraints of fat, iron-ore, and wood scarcity--and the latters' impact on the munitions production-- would not come into effect. Furthermore, the psychological effects of panic and terror cannot be exploited. These effects, which can only be achieved by a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare are, in my view, an indispensable prerequisite for success. Just how important they are can be judged by the experiences made when we initiated submarine warfare in early 1915, or even during the brief period of the submarine campaign in March and April 1916, when the British believed that we were serious about it.
A further precondition [for success] is that the beginning and the declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare should coincide in a manner that leaves no room for negotiations, particularly between England and the neutrals. Only then will the effect of shock have the most profound impact on the enemy and the neutrals.

VI. Upon the declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare the United States government will once more be compelled to make a decision whether or not to take the consequences of its previous position vis-ŕ-vis the unrestricted submarine warfare. I am absolutely of the opinion that war with the United States is such a serious matter that everything has to be undertaken to avoid it. Fear of a diplomatic rupture however, should not lead us to recoil from the use of a weapon that promises victory for us.
At any rate, it is realistic to assume the worst case as the most probable one and to consider, which impact an American entry into the war on the side of our enemies would have on the course of the war. In respect to the merchant tonnage this impact is likely to be negligible. It cannot be expected that more than a fraction of the interned central power tonnage in American--and perhaps in other neutral ports--can be put into the trade with England at short notice. The overwhelming part of it can be rendered useless in a manner that it will be unable to sail during the first, critical months. All preparations in this respect have been made. Also, there would be no crews available in the initial stages. The American troops would be of equally little import, if only for the lack of bottoms to carry them over here in great numbers; the same applies to American money, which cannot compensate the lack of tonnage. The only question that remains would be how America would react to a peace, which Great Britain would be forced to accept. It is unlikely that it would decide to continue the war against us, since it has no means to strike at us decisively, whereas its sea borne commerce would suffer from our submarines. Indeed, it is to be expected that it will join England in making peace, in order to restore healthy economic conditions.
Therefore my conclusion is that a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare, launched in time to produce a peace before the harvest of the summer 1917--i.e. 1 August--has to accept the risk of American belligerence, because we have no other option. In spite of the diplomatic rupture with America, the unrestricted submarine warfare is nevertheless the right means to conclude this war victoriously. It is also the only means to this end.

VII. Since I have declared the time come to strike against England in autumn 1916 the situation has even improved tremendously in our favour. The crop failure, in conjunction with the impact of the war on England up to now, gives us the opportunity to force a decision before the next harvest. If we do not make use of what seems to be the last chance, then I see no other option than that of mutual exhaustion, without our succeeding to bring the war to an end on terms that will guarantee our future as a world power.

In order to achieve the required results, the unrestricted submarine warfare has to commence no later than 1 February. I request from your Excellency an indication, whether the military situation on the continent, particularly in regard to the remaining neutrals, would allow this schedule. The necessary preparations can be completed within three weeks time.

(Signed) von Holtzendorff

http://forum.stirpes.net/modern-contemporary/25020-von-holtzendorffs-memo-22-december-1916-a.html

von Holtzendorff's Memo, 22 December 1916

Dirk Steffen (DSteffen709@aol.com) has been kind enough to provide this translation of Admiral von Holtzendorff's final memorandum on unrestricted U-boat warfare, which follow the introduction Dirk has provided:

Notes on the memorandum by Admiral von Holtzendorff of 22 December 1916

regarding unrestricted U-boat warfare

by Dirk Steffen

Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff assumed the post of the Imperial German Navy's Chief of the Admiral Staff on 3 September 1915. Kaiser Wilhelm II had relieved Holtzendorff's predecessor, Admiral Gustav von Bachmann, and his deputy, Admiral Paul Behncke, of their posts over a dispute on the conduct of the U-boat war. In the wake of the Lustiania and Arabic incidents the Kaiser and his government had unequivocally adopted a moderate position that subordinated military considerations to political ones--primarily with a view to avoid American belligerence. Holtzendorff's appointment was intended to preserve the fiction of imperial control over naval policy, which had in fact largely passed to the State Secretary of the Imperial Naval Office, Grand-Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz. The State Secretary, however, quickly converted Holtzendorff to his view, and the appointment thus did nothing to bolster the Kaiser's standing within the naval leadership nor did it end the controversial and politically harmful public debate over the indiscriminate use of U-boats. (1)

Holtzendorff became an ardent fighter for Tirpitz's cause once he was fully committed to it. He produced no less than half a dozen drafts, scattered over a period of one year, and one official paper (submitted on 27 August 1916) on U-boat warfare before he submitted his final memorandum on 22 December 1916, (2) which then became the pivotal document for Germany's declaration of unrestricted U-boat warfare in 1917. Holtzendorff's arguments in favour of the campaign revolved around two key issues: first, that progressive arming of merchantmen would offset any increase in efficiency and numbers of U-boat assets if they continued to adhere to cruiser rules, and second, that the failed crop of 1916 would offer a unique opportunity to starve Great Britain into submission quickly. The latter, very persuasive, argument was inspired by a study of Dr. Richard Fuss, the director of a renowned Magdeburg-based banking institute. In February 1916 Fuss postulated that if the U-boats sank enemy merchant tonnage at a rate of 630,000 tons per month, Britain would be compelled to sue for peace within 5 to 6 months, simply because there would not be sufficient merchant tonnage available in the trade with Great Britain in order to carry the necessary grain imports and sustain the war economy at the same time. The attraction of a swift and decisive victory at sea was irresistible and became an obsession with many German naval leaders who secretly deplored the navy's strategic passivity in the war. The study, which was first enclosed in Holtzendorff's memorandum on unrestricted U-boat warfare of 27 August 1916, was endorsed by a host of renowned German financial and economic experts. A rather salient point was the tacit assumption that, given the campaign's anticipated scope of time of no more than 6 months, U.S. belligerence would have no significant impact on the course of the war. (3)

In contrast to 27 August, however, when Holtzendorff's propositions had only received a lukewarm response, the situation in December 1916 proved to be infinitely more favourable for the drastic measures advocated by the admiral. Following the catastrophic losses sustained by the Central Powers' armies during the battles of 1916, the Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL), the German Army's supreme command, was much more amenable to an alternative concepts, provided they bore the promise of a quick victory that seemed no longer attainable on land. As early as October 1916 the generals had signalled their agreement in principle for Holtzendorff's scheme. (4) At the same time, the position of the Kaiser and the Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg--both of whom were firmly committed to a policy of moderation--was steadily eroding in the course of 1916. The public and the press were blasting the Kaiser for his weak-kneed stance on U-boat warfare, while an increasingly belligerent parliament took up the Chancellor on his remarks in favour of unrestricted U-boat war, which he had previously made in order to deflect criticism from the Kaiser and to assuage the heated tempers. Bethmann-Hollweg, a master of prevarication, however, was not easily put out. He was convinced that the OHL and the Kaiser would continue to back him against any domestic opposition and thus spare him a firm commitment to Holtzendorff's plans. Holtzendorff, on the other hand, could thus play both ends against the middle, having withheld the true extent of the OHL's conversion to his views from the Chancellor.

A day after Holtzendorff had submitted his final memorandum, Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg bluntly declared in a tersely worded telegram to Bethmann-Hollweg that "the situation will be favourable at the end of January [1917]" for the commencement of unrestricted U-boat warfare and urged a political decision. (5) The OHL's change of tack also increased the pressure on the Kaiser, who, in the past, had repeatedly turned down Holtzendorff's eloquent requests to sign a prepared imperial order for unrestricted U-boat warfare. Following the allied rejection of the German peace initiative in December 1916, Kaiser Wilhelm II too began to vacillate. On top of that Crown Prince Wilhelm and Empress Auguste Viktoria, as well as numerous other courtiers, railed publicly against defeatist elements that opposed a measure that was bound to bring certain victory and implored the Kaiser to give in to Holtzendorff's request for unrestricted U-boat warfare. (6)

The decision for the implementation of unrestricted U-boat warfare on the basis of Holtzendorff's memorandum was finally taken during a conference at Pless on 9 January 1917. A few minutes before the conference began, the Chief of the Naval Cabinet, Admiral Georg Alexander von Müller, informed Bethmann-Hollweg that the Kaiser had reneged on his position, although Bethmann-Hollweg might have guessed as much from the wording of the Kaiser's invitation to Pless. (7) The conference itself was a thinly disguised set up in which Hindenburg and Ludendorff contented themselves with pursuing the line of argument agreed upon with Holtzendorff and von Müller on the previous day.The officers had also privately agreed--with the Kaiser's consent--that they would rid themselves of the Chancellor, should he continue interfere with their plans. (8) The hapless Bethmann-Hollweg made a half-hearted attempt to stave off the inevitable but eventually yielded to the collective bullying with the words that "if the military authorities consider the unrestricted U-boat war a vital instrument then I am not in a position to contradict them." (9) That having been said, the Kaiser made a brief statement in favour of unrestricted U-boat warfare and immediately signed a prepared imperial order to the effect. Bethmann-Hollweg's later attempts in January 1917 to renegotiate his consent, or to explain it away, suggest that he may actually have been bent on extricating himself from an uncomfortable and embarrassing situation as quickly as possible, rather than having deliberately intended to forfeit the primacy of policy at Pless. Nevertheless, the Chancellor's lapse triggered the same sort of fateful, irreversible automatism of military preparations that had already launched Germany into the war in 1914.

Notes
1. For details of the German military and political decision making process regarding the prosecution of the U-boat war 1914-1918 see the exhaustive study by: Joachim Schröder, Die U-Boote des Kaisers: Die Geschichte des deutschen U-Boot-Krieges gegen Grossbritannien im ersten Weltkrieg (The Kaiser's U-boats: the History of the German U-boat War against Great Britain in World War One) (Lauf an der Pegnitz: Europaforum-Verlag, 2001).
2. See translation of the original document text below. From: NARA T-1022, roll 847, KdA, folder U.M. 5/II, Copy of memorandum by Admiral von Holtzendorff to Field-Marshal von Hindenburg (original delivered by hand to Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg), Berlin, 22 December 1916.
3. NARA T-1022, roll 847, KdA, folder U.M. 5/II, Die Schiffsraumfrage und die Versorgung Englands im Jahre 1916 (The Tonnage Issue and the British Supply Situation in 1916), enclosure to a memorandum by Admiral von Holtzendorff to Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg, Berlin, 27 August 1916.
4. NARA T-1022, roll 847, KdA, folder U.M. 5/I, Aufzeichnungen für eine Besprechung der Vorbereitungen, die vor Beginn des rücksichtslosen U-Bootkrieges noch notwendig sind (notes of a conference on measures required before commencement of unrestricted U-boat warfare), 5 October 1916.
5. See translation of the original document text below. NARA T-1022, roll 847, KdA, folder U.M. 5/I, telegram by the Chief of the General Staff to Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg, 23 December 1916.
6. Schröder, 270.
7. "Since My order to the Navy regarding the U-boat war has to go out no later than the day after tomorrow, I should be delighted to see you here tomorrow." Cited in: Schröder, 304.
8. Georg Alexander von Müller, Regierte der Kaiser? (War diaries, notes and correspondence of the Chief of the Naval Cabinet, Admiral Georg Alexander von Müller, 1914-1918) ed. by Walter Görlitz (Göttingen: Musterschmidt-Verlag, 1959), pp. 247-8.
9. Notes of a conference between the Chancellor, Field-Marshal von Hindenburg and General Ludendorff in Pless, 9 January 1917, in: Erich Ludendorff (ed.), Urkunden der Obersten Heeresleitung über ihre Tätigkeit 1916-18 (Documents of the Army Supreme Command 1916-1918) (Berlin: E.S. Mittler & Sohn, 1920), p. 323.


http://www.gwpda.org/naval/holtzendorffmemo.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Christmas 1916 - with the 4th Field Ambulance, A.I.F.

Private William Dalton Lycett, 2063, of the 4th Field Ambulance A.I.F. enlisted on 12th September 1914, he embarked on the 22nd December 1914 at Melbourne on the H.M.A.T. “Berrima”.

Friday 22nd December, 1916 - Up at 8.30 a.m. and had breakfast, getting very good tucker just now. Did few odd jobs this morning, very cold and raining, went out at 11 a.m. and had cup of coffee. On duty at 2 p.m., only ten patients in today, few dressings etc. Did some writing before tea and received three letters, one from home, two from Dais. Tea at 5 p.m. after which cleaned up and was busy writing till 8 p.m. when went off duty and then played bridge till 9 p.m. Cold again tonight and turned in 9.30 p.m.

http://outofbattle.blogspot.com/2009/12/christmas-1916-with-4th-field-ambulance.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Prevention of Corruption Act 1916 (Cap. 64)

The Prevention of Corruption Act 1916 (Cap. 64) of the United Kingdom was adopted on 22 December 1916.

The purpose of this Act is to amend the Law relating to the Prevention of Corruption.

Together, the Prevention of Corruption Act 1916, the Prevention of Corruption Act 1906, and the Public Bodies Corrupt Practices Act 1889 are known as the Prevention of Corruption Acts 1889 to 1916.

http://www.assetrecovery.org/kc/node/02d99bca-cb2b-11dc-aba3-93aadd905c96.0;jsessionid=8DDEFA58B9FF3EC9B1EA995305669684
PDF: http://www.assetrecovery.org/kc/resources/org.apache.wicket.Application/repo?nid=938db0ec-cac8-11de-a09a-91fb21c08a69
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Antonio Gramsci, 1891-1937: "Newspapers and the Workers"
Source: Avanti! (Piedmont Edition) December 22, 1916

These are the days of subscription campaigns. The editors and administrators of bourgeois newspapers tidy up their display windows, paint some varnish on their shop signs and appeal for the attention of the passer-by (that is, the readers) to their wares. Their wares are newspapers of four or six pages that go out every day or evening in order to inject in the mind of the reader ways of feeling and judging the facts of current politics appropriate for the producers and sellers of the press.

We would like to discuss, with the workers especially, the importance and seriousness of this apparently innocent act, which consists in choosing the newspaper you subscribe to. It is a choice full of snares and dangers which must be made consciously, applying criteria and after mature reflection.

Above all, the worker must resolutely reject any solidarity with a bourgeois newspaper. And he must always, always, always remember that the bourgeois newspaper (whatever its hue) is an instrument of struggle motivated by ideas and interests that are contrary to his. Everything that is published is influenced by one idea: that of serving the dominant class, and which is ineluctably translated into a fact: that of combating the laboring class. And in fact, from the first to the last line the bourgeois newspaper smells of and reveals this preoccupation.

But the beautiful – that is the ugly – thing is this: that instead of asking for money from the bourgeois class to support it in its pitiless work in its favor, the bourgeois newspapers manage to be paid by...the same laboring classes that they always combat. And the laboring class pays; punctually, generously.

Hundreds of thousands of workers regularly and daily give their pennies to the bourgeois newspapers, thus assisting in creating their power. Why? If you were to ask this of the first worker you were to see on the tram or the street with a bourgeois paper spread before him you would hear: “Because I need to hear about what happening.” And it would never enter his head that the news and the ingredients with which it is cooked are exposed with an art that guides his ideas and influences his spirit in a given direction. And yet he knows that this newspaper is opportunist, and that one is for the rich, that the third, the fourth, the fifth is tied to political groups with interests diametrically opposed to his.

And so every day this same worker is able to personally see that the bourgeois newspapers tell even the simplest of facts in a way that favors the bourgeois class and damns the working class and its politics. Has a strike broken out? The workers are always wrong as far as the bourgeois newspapers are concerned. Is there a demonstration? The demonstrators are always wrong, solely because they are workers they are always hotheads, rioters, hoodlums. The government passes a law? It’s always good, useful and just, even if it’s...not. And if there’s an electoral, political or administrative struggle? The best programs and candidates are always those of the bourgeois parties.

And we’re aren’t even talking about all the facts that the bourgeois newspapers either keep quiet about, or travesty, or falsify in order to mislead, delude or maintain in ignorance the laboring public. Despite this, the culpable acquiescence of the worker to the bourgeois newspapers is limitless. We have to react against this and recall the worker to the correct evaluation of reality. We have to say and repeat that the pennies tossed there distractedly into the hands of the newsboy are projectiles granted to a bourgeois newspaper, which will hurl it, at the opportune moment, against the working masses.

If the workers were to be persuaded of this most elementary of truths they would learn to boycott the bourgeois press with the same unity and discipline that the bourgeoisie boycott the newspapers of the workers, that is, the Socialist press. Don’t give financial assistance to the bourgeois press, which is your adversary. This is what should be our battle cry in this moment that is characterized by the subscription campaigns of all the bourgeois newspapers. Boycott them, boycott them, boycott them!

http://www.marxists.org/archive/gramsci/1916/12/newspapers.htm, via http://www.marxists.org/archive/gramsci/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter T. E. Lawrence to C. E. Wilson

[Yenbo]

22.12.16

Dear Colonel Wilson

Many thanks for the supply note. I cannot suggest anything to add or subtract. I only hope they will accept it in Egypt and act on it. I am sure that the thing to avoid is multiplying the British Staff and activities in the Hedjaz.

I got your wire last night, that you will be here probably on the25th or 26th. I will arrange to meet you, but I hope, if there will be any profit in doing so, to run up first to Feisul and so put you au fait with his intentions.

The strategical centre of the Turk anti-Feisul operations is Bir Said. They threaten his rear and his base from it, and he cannot cut Wadi Safra or go for the Railway in any sort of security, until he has either contained or captured it. He has no troops capable of containing anything - so he must operate against it.

If he takes Bir Said the Turks at Hamra will, I think, have to draw back. On the other hand his troops are still quite unfit for work, and he estimates it will take him a week to get the Juheina and Northern Harb at work again. He is only going forward now because he is intensely nervous of a Turkish concentration against Ali.

I keep Captain Boyle up in all my information, and he will probably be able to explain what is happening here. The situation is to my mind hopeful, if the Turks have not got a strong force in Wadi Safra. If they have we will have a cataclysm shortly. Feisul says he cannot get spies into the Wadi, but I hope he will take some informative prisoners, and we may find out that way.

The information from the deserter enclosed would be of value to Cairo, (Arbur) if it can be got through to them soon. There is no ship in sight just yet, though. I have no copy but could reproduce the matter easily for my notes.

I am hoping great things from [8 words omitted*]. We sent him an elaborate list of points on which information is required.

As for money, I have Ł50 in gold, which I am using for my own expenses and for any intelligence needs. It will last me for months at the present rate!

I am glad you approve of the Egyptian volunteers. I was afraid I was rather exceeding my commission in countenancing it!

Will you please wire for

4 locks complete for
Gun Maxim Converted Mark II

To be sent to Yenbo? The guns are out of order (two of them) and there are no spare locks in hand. The two British armourers are invaluable.

The Hardinge has got the feed block of one of the E[gyptian] A[rmy] German Maxims which is going down to Rabegh today. They took it off for repair.

I have asked for telegrams after today to be sent up in ship's cipher, as I may be inland, and if the news is of importance Abd el Kader will send it after me.

Yours sincerely

T.E. Lawrence

* The omitted words identify a spy.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1916/161222_c_e_wilson.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sopwith Camel



The Sopwith Camel was a British World War I single-seat biplane fighter introduced on the Western Front in 1917. Manufactured by Sopwith Aviation Company, it had a combination of a short-coupled fuselage, heavy, powerful rotary engine and concentrated fire from twin synchronized machine guns. The Camel was credited with shooting down 1,294 enemy aircraft, more than any other Allied fighter in the First World War. (...)

Intended as a replacement for the Sopwith Pup, the Camel prototype first flew on 22 December 1916, powered by a 110 hp Clerget 9Z. Known as the "Big Pup" early on in its development, the biplane design was evolutionary more than revolutionary, featuring a box-like fuselage structure, an aluminium engine cowling, plywood-covered panels around the cockpit, and fabric-covered fuselage, wings and tail. Two .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns were mounted directly in front of the cockpit, firing forward through the propeller disc with synchronisation gear. A metal fairing over the gun breeches created a "hump" that led to the name Camel. The bottom wing had dihedral but not the top, so that the gap between the wings was less at the tips than at the roots. Approximately 5,490 units were ultimately produced.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Camel
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DECLARATION MADE BY JOFFE FOR THE RUSSIAN DELEGATION AT THE FIRST PLENARY SESSION OF THE BREST-LITOVSK PEACE CONFERENCE

22 December 1917

The Russian delegation takes its stand on the clearly expressed desire of the people of revolutionary Russia to achieve the speediest possible conclusion of a general, democratic peace. The delegation considers that the only principles of such a peace, which would be equally acceptable to all, are those enunciated in the decree on peace unanimously passed at the All-Russian Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, and confirmed at the All-Russian Peasants' Congress....

Taking its stand upon these principles the Russian delegation proposes the following six points as the basis for peace negotiations:

1. Not to allow any forcible annexation of territory seized during the war. Troops occupying these territories to be withdrawn in the shortest possible time.

2. To restore in full the political independence of those nations deprived of their independence during the present war.

3. National groups not enjoying political independence before the war to be guaranteed an opportunity to decide freely by means of a referendum whether to adhere to any given State or to be an independent State. This referendum to be so organized as to guarantee complete freedom of voting for the entire population of the given territory, not excluding emigrants and refugees.

4. In regard to territories inhabited by several nationalities, the right of minorities to be protected by special laws, guaranteeing them cultural national independence, and, as far as is practicable, administrative autonomy.

5. None of the belligerent countries to be bound to pay other countries so-called 'war costs'; indemnities already paid to be returned. Private individuals who have incurred losses owing to the war to be compensated from a special fund, raised by proportional levies on all the belligerent countries.

6. Colonial questions to be decided on the lines laid down in points 1,2,3, and 4.

As a supplement to these points the Russian delegation proposes that the contracting parties should condemn the attempts of strong nations to restrict the freedom of weaker nations by such indirect methods as economic boycotts, economic subjection of one country to another by means of compulsory commercial agreements, separate customs agreements, restricting the freedom to trade with third countries, naval blockade without direct military purpose, etc. These are the fundamental principles, acceptable to all, without the recognition of which the delegation of the Russian Republic cannot conceive of the possibility of concluding a general peace.

http://www.marxistsfr.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1917/December/22.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cousin Reginald Under the Mistletoe by Norman Rockwell
December 22, 1917 Issue of The Country Gentleman




In this painting, we see Reginald Claude Fitzhugh, the city cousin, being pushed under the mistletoe. The pusher in this case is his country cousin Rusty Doolittle.

Reginald looks quite shy and sheepish. Is this real? Or is he just pretending, hoping to endear himself to the pretty young girl under the mistletoe?

Both Reginald and Rusty are decked out in their Sunday best. Obviously, the events pictured take place at a Christmas party.

The pretty young girl is wearing her party dress as well. Rockwell shows her puckered nicely, just waiting for Reginald to get his nerve up. The girl also appears in several other paintings in the series.

We never actually find out whether or not the young girl gets her Christmas kiss from Cousin Reginald. That much is left to our imagination. Let's hope, for both their sakes, that he did follow through.

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-country-gentleman-cover-1917-12-22-cousin-reginald-mistletoe.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pacific Rural Press, Volume 94, Number 25, 22 December 1917

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cdnc/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=PRP19171222&e=-------en-logical-20--1-----all---
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 december 1917: De Raad van Vlaanderen roept de politieke zelfstandigheid van Vlaanderen uit.

August Borms overrompelt de Raad door plotseling, zonder voorafgaand overleg, een motie voor Vlaamse onafhankelijkheid in te dienen. Zijn voorstel wordt in chaotische omstandigheden goedgekeurd. De bedoeling is om naar het voorbeeld van Polen de Duitse regering tot erkenning te dwingen. Dit opzet mislukt echter volledig, de samenwerking met de bezetter evolueert zelfs ongunstig. Mede op bevel van de Duitsers beslist de Raad zich te ontbinden en volksraadplegingen uit te schrijven. Deze zogenaamde verkiezingen vinden plaats van januari tot begin maart 1918 en verlopen niet democratisch. Er wordt een tweede Raad van Vlaanderen opgericht, maar de debatten over de staatkundige structuur van Vlaanderen getuigen opnieuw van weinig realiteitszin.

http://users.telenet.be/frankie.schram/tijd/feit/tekst/19/1/7/1917.12.22.html

Aanplakbrief van de Raad van Vlaanderen waarin hij de onafhankelijkheid van Vlaanderen uitroept.



De tekst luidt:

"RAAD VAN VLAANDEREN

Overeenkomstig de doeleinden aangegeven in zijn eerste Manifest, één jaar geleden verschenen, heeft de Raad van Vlaanderen in zijn algemeene vergadering van 22 december 1917, plechtig en éénparig Vlaanderens volledige zelfstandigheid besloten.

Ingevolge deze verklaring legt de Raad van Vlaanderen het mandaat neder, hem door den Vlaamschen Landdag van 4 februari 1917 toevertrouwd, en zal zich aan een nieuwe Volksraadpleging onderwerpen, die het Vlaamsche Volk gelegenheid moet verschaffen, zijn wil nopens dit besluit van den Raad uit te drukken."


http://users.telenet.be/frankie.schram/tijd/feit/afbtxt/19/1/7/1917-12-22b.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leslie's Weekly, 22 December 1917



An early Norman Rockwell cover, showing Pvt. Sammy Smith, serving in the American Army somewhere in France, receiving socks like the ones being knitted on the cover for Dec. 1. Not to mention a couple of books, a pack of cigarettes, boxing gloves, a blanket, and what looks like a tin of chocolates.

http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/massweeklies/lesliesweekly/LesliesWeekly1917-12-22.jpg.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Calderdale Companion - Events in the 1900s

Saturday, 22nd December 1917 - There was an explosion at the Sharp & Mallen munitions factory at Wakefield Road, Copley and North Dean. Annis Pearson [4] was killed by falling masonry, and two other people were injured.

http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~calderdalecompanion/c813-1900.html#i-18271
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Variations on a theme of Corelli, Op. 42 — Sergei Rachmaninov (1873–1943)

On 22 December 1917 Rachmaninov, deprived of his estate, fled St. Petersburg with his wife and two daughters on an open sled, heading for the United States where, from the necessity of earning money, he largely abandoned composition and set himself to carve out a new career as a concert pianist. Opus 42, composed in 1931, was his only composition for solo piano composed after leaving Russia, and represent a drier, less romantic, style (followed in 1934 by his popular Paganini Variations). The theme is not in fact by Corelli but is an old Portuguese melody called "La Folia" used by many composers (including Corelli, Geminiani, Scarlatti, Vivaldi, and many others) as the basis for sets of variations.

http://occidentis.blogspot.com/2010/11/programme-notes.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ARMOR-CAVALRY: Regular Army and Army Reserve/Tanks in World War I

During the fall of 1917, General Pershing approved plans for an overseas tank corps, based upon an army to be composed of 20 combat divisions. As originally planned, the tank corps was to consist of a headquarters and 5 heavy and 20 light tank battalions. Later plans increased the heavy battalions to 10. On 22 December 1917 Col. Samuel D. Rockenbach was appointed Chief of the Tank Corps, AEF. Plans developed for this organization called for a general headquarters, 3 tank centers (for training and replacement of personnel), 2 army tank headquarters, and 10 brigades. Assembly of the Tank Corps, with an authorized strength of 14,827, began on 26 January 1918, and Colonel Rockenbach was soon placed on the staff of the Commander in Chief, AEF, as an adviser on all tank matters.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/ARMOR-CAVALRY:_Part_1;_Regular_Army_and_Army_Reserve/Tanks_in_World_War_I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Short History of the Finnish Jewry

The struggle for equal rights for Jews was taken up in the Finnish Diet in 1872. The press debate on Jewish emancipation that started about that time continued during the 1870s and 1880s. There was not, however, yet to be any change for the better in the status of the Jews in Finland. By the end of the 1880s there were about a thousand Jews resident in Finland. It was not until 1917, when Finland became independent, that the Jews received civil rights. On 22 December 1917, Parliament approved an Act concerning "Mosaic Confessors," and on 12 January 1918 the Act was promulgated. Under the Act, Jews could for the first time become Finnish nationals, and Jews not possessing Finnish nationality were henceforth in all respects to be treated as foreigners in general.

http://www.jchelsinki.fi/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46:a-short-history-of-the-finnish-jewry-&catid=35:community
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 20:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Walter Lippmann



Walter Lippmann (1889-1974), the noted liberal journalist, was among the first moderate liberals to sign-up to President Wilson's policy of 'limited preparedness' in 1916, and was influential in encouraging support from similar quarters. (...)

In 1917 Lippmann accepted an appointment as assistant to Newton Baker, Wilson's Secretary of War.

Wilson established a wartime 'Inquiry' body, in effect a secret investigation into world affairs with the aim of producing a programme for world peace. Boasting some 125 researchers, Lippmann acted as its co-ordinator. Its final report, The War Aims and Peace Terms It Suggests, sent to Congress on 22 December 1917, formed the basis for Wilson's subsequent Fourteen Points declaration of January 1918.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/lippmann.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Corporal Alfred Lee MM

Corporal Alfred Lee MM from Kempsey in Worcestershire joined the army in April 1916 and went to France in September of that year as part of the Royal Tank Corps, then in its early stages of development. He was awarded the military medal for his service at Passchaendale, and later that year was wounded in the Battle of Cambrai. Despite recovering from these wounds he returned to his unit, only to be wounded again on 22 December 1917 and evacuated to England, where he saw out the remainder of the war.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/08aug2007.pdf

Military Medal



The Military Medal (MM) was (until 1993) a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land.

The medal was established on 25 March 1916. It was the other ranks' equivalent to the Military Cross, which was awarded to commissioned officers and Warrant Officers (although WOs could also be awarded the MC), although it took precedence below that decoration as well as the Distinguished Conduct Medal, also awarded to non-commissioned members of the Army. Recipients of the Military Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "MM".

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_Medal
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Washington Post, Dec 22, 1918: "Dinner For Horses. Free Feed at Haymarket on Day Before Christmas"



Arrangements have been completed for the Christmas dinner for horses to be given by the Washington Animal Rescue League at Twelfth and Little B streets northwest on Tuesday, the day before Christmas. The Haymarket space has been devoted to the equine holiday, and there will be a tree loaded with such delicacies as hay, corn, carrots, and apples. Each horse will get a substantial feed of oats. The drivers will be served with free hot coffee, and there will be music.

The Christmas dinner for horses originated in Washington four years ago, and is now a feature of the holiday in several American cities. The Animal Rescue League works solely for the welfare of animals and has been very successful in enlisting the sympathy of horse owners and drivers in the work of relieving unnecessary suffering.

Tuesday has been fixed for the horses dinner because of the fact that on Christmas day they have done their work and resting in the stable. The league, therefore, has chosen a busy day to reward the horses that have been active in delivering holiday packages. Every driver is invited to get a cup of coffee while his horse is feasting.

http://www.shorpy.com/node/7324
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Candid Comment on The American Soldier of 1917-1918"

Leuk lesvoer! http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/army/wwi-soldiers.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 20:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 December 1919 → Commons Sitting

EX-GERMAN MERCHANT SHIPS (FIRES).


HC Deb 22 December 1919 vol 123 cc971-2 971

Rear-Admiral ADAIR asked the President of the Board of Trade whether he is aware that there have been several cases of destructive fires in ex-German merchant ships, such as the "Boonah," now in the Royal Albert Dock; and whether any special investigation as to the cause of these fires has been or is to be made?

Mr. LEONARD LYLE asked the President of the Board of Trade whether his attention has been called to the number of fires on ex-German ships; and whether inquiries show that the causes are all accidental?

Sir A. GEDDES Attention has for some time past been directed to the number of fires which have occurred on merchant ships, including those referred to in the question, and special arrangements have been made for investigating them. It is not yet possible to state the result.

Commander Viscount CURZON Is there any suspicion of foul play in connection with these fires?

Sir A. GEDDES That suggestion has been put forward and I have had preliminary investigation made. It seems much more probable—I will not go further than that—that the fires in some cases have arisen through old bunkers not being cleared out.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/dec/22/ex-german-merchant-ships-fires
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Maandag 22 December 1919.

Valkenswaard. In eene Zaterdagavond gehouden vergadering van de Vereeniging "Het Groene Kruis" is besloten, de vereeniging te ontbinden.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19192.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Dec 2010 20:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NZ Herald, 22 December 1919

AVONDALE SOLDIERS WELCOMED HOME.

The returned soldiers of Avondale township received a heart welcome home at the local town hall on Friday evening, the function being arranged by the Avondale Women’s Patriotic League. Dancing was indulged in until midnight. During intervals Miss Merson and Mr. Spencer contributed vocal solos, and Mr. McDermott recited, all items being highly appreciated.

Mr. C. J. Parr, M.P., was present, and on behalf of the ladies warmly welcomed the soldiers home again after their strenuous work in the battlefields.

Mr. H. Walker briefly responded on behalf of the guests, expressing their thanks for the way the ladies had looked after them while they were away.

MEMORIAL UNVEILED – AVONDALE PUBLIC SCHOOL

A representative gathering of Avondale citizens assembled at the public school on Saturday afternoon to witness the unveiling of a memorial tablet in honour of the 33 old scholars of the school who had made the supreme sacrifice in the war. Among those present were Mrs. Bollard, sen., who had taken take in various school functions for a period of upwards of 50 years in conjunction with her husband, the late Mr. John Bollard; and Mr. J. L. Scott, who a quarter of a century ago was headmaster of the school.

Mr. H. A. V. Bollard, chairman of the School Committee, who presided, expressed the deep sense of gratitude which the townspeople felt to the donor of the tablet, Mr. James Binsted. Other speakers were Messrs. R. B. Nesbitt, chair of the Avondale Road Board, J. L. Scott, J. A. Darrow, headmaster of the school, and H. W. King, a member of the Education Board.

Mrs. Binsted performed the unveiling ceremony while the children sang “Abide With Me.”

The tablet, a slab of marble, suitable mounted on polished rimu, has been erected at the entrance to the main porch, alongside the brass memorial to the late Mr. Bollard.


http://timespanner.blogspot.com/2010/09/avondale-rsa-memorial-garden.html
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