Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

25 november

 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6249

BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Nov 2006 18:58    Onderwerp: 25 november Reageer met quote

1918 : German commander in East Africa surrenders

On this day in 1918, a full two weeks after an armistice ended World War I in Europe, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck of Germany finally surrenders his forces in German East Africa.


A master of guerrilla warfare known for his brave and honorable conduct, Lettow-Vorbeck emerged from the First World War as the only undefeated military commander on either side of the conflict. From the beginning, the colonel knew the British navy’s dominance of the seas meant that few reinforcements would be sent from his homeland and, as a result, that the German war effort in its African colonies would have to be carried out on his own initiative.


In classic Prussian fashion, Lettow-Vorbeck organized his African soldiers—called askaris—into independent field companies and trained them in the skills of bush fighting. With successful raids against the British colonies of Kenya and Rhodesia, the confidence of Lettow-Vorbeck’s troops only continued to rise. Meanwhile, on the British side, consistently confused command and lack of cooperation between army and navy forces—as well as a decision not to divert any resources from the Western Front for the campaign in Africa—contributed to a string of failed amphibious expeditions along the coast of East Africa, from Uganda to the Zambezi River.


With a force that never exceeded 14,000--including 3,000 German and 11,000 askari troops--Lettow-Vorbeck managed to consistently defeat Allied forces (mostly British and South African) of 10 times that number. In November 1918, when World War I ended, Lettow-Vorbeck was alive and well, with 3,000 soldiers at his command. He chose to surrender at Mbaala, Zambia, on November 25, 1918, returning to Germany, where he was greeted as a national hero.


Immediately following the war, Lettow-Vorbeck joined the Freikorps, the military police force, helping to squelch the radical socialist Spartacist uprising in early 1919. The following year, however, he was forced to resign from the army after supporting the failed right-wing Kapp Putsch against the Weimar government. After publishing his memoirs, called My Reminiscences of East Africa, he returned to public life, serving as a deputy in the German Reichstag from May 1929 until July 1930. During the subsequent years, Lettow-Vorbeck unsuccessfully attempted to establish a conservative opposition to Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party. By the end of World War II, the former hero was living in poverty. In a testament to his greatness, a group of former South African and British officers led by his former nemesis, the South African leader Jan Smuts, arranged for a small pension to be paid him until his death, on March 9, 1964.


www.history.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6249

BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Nov 2006 18:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zusammenbruch der russischen Gegenoffensive in Polen
Großes Hauptquartier, 25. November, vormittags.
Die englischen Schiffe wiederholten gestern ihre Unternehmungen gegen die Küste nicht. Die Lage auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatz ist unverändert; bei Arras machten wir kleine Fortschritte.
In Ostpreußen wiesen unsere Truppen sämtliche russischen Angriffe ab. Die Gegenoffensive der Russen aus der Richtung Warschau ist in der Gegend Lowicz-Strykow-Brzeziny gescheitert. Auch in der Gegend östlich Tschenstochau brachen sämtliche russischen Angriffe vor unserer Front zusammen.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
29000 Russen von den Österreichern und Ungarn in Polen gefangen
Wien, 25. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Das gewaltige Ringen in Russisch-Polen dauert fort. Bisher machten unsere Truppen in dieser Schlacht 29 000 Gefangene und erbeuteten 49 Maschinengewehre sowie viel sonstiges Kriegsmaterial.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Der Krieg im Orient
Konstantinopel, 25. November. (W. B.)
Amtlicher Bericht des Hauptquartiers:
Die Fortdauer des schlechten Wetters an der kaukasischen Grenze hält für den Augenblick unsere Bewegungen in den gebirgigen Gegenden auf. Auch die Russen halten ihre Grenzstellungen. - Unsere Truppen, die in die Gegend des Tschoruk eingedrungen waren, haben einen neuen Sieg davongetragen. Sie haben Morgul besetzt und den Tschoruk in der Nähe von Burtschika passiert. Wir haben diese Stellung erobert und während dieser Bewegung mehrere Schnellfeuergeschütze, eine Ambulanz mit allem Zubehör, zwei Automobile, hundert Zugpferde und Artilleriemunition sowie eine Menge Dynamit erbeutet.

Konstantinopel, 25. November. (W. B.)
Ein amtlicher Bericht des Hauptquartiers besagt:
Nach dem Kampfe an der Küste bei Bassorah am 19. November, der mit großen Verlusten an Toten und Verwundeten auf englischer Seite endete, erhielt der Feind Verstärkungen und rückte unter dem Schutz des Feuers seiner Kanonenboote langem den Fluß entlang vor. Unsere Truppen erwarten da den Feind in einer neuen Stellung, wo seine Kanonen und Schiffe ihm nicht beistehen können. 2)





Der Heilige Krieg
Konstantinopel, 25. November. (W. B.)
Die Proklamation des Scheichs-ül-Islam ist ein längeres Schriftstück, in dem es heißt:
"Rußland, das sich bemüht, die Unabhängigkeit zu vernichten, die ein Geschenk der Vorsehung für die Nationen und Völker ist, und das, indem es die ganze Menschheit zu unterjochen sucht, seit Jahrhunderten der grausame Feind der menschlichen Wohlfahrt ist, war bis jetzt die Ursache des Unglücks im nahen und fernen Osten. Es vereinigte sich im gegenwärtigen europäischen Krieg mit England und Frankreich, die Millionen von Muselmanen unter ihrem Joch halten und die, um ihre ehrgeizigen Ziele zu erreichen, es darauf abgesehen haben, soviel wie möglich das Kalifat, den Stützpunkt des Islam und das einzige Zentrum der Beständigkeit des Islamismus, zu erschüttern und zu schwächen. Diese Gruppe von Usurpatoren, die sich Tripel-Entente nennt, hat während des letzten Jahrhunderts alle islamitischen Völker Indiens, Zentralasiens und des größten Teiles von Afrika ihrer Unabhängigkeit und Freiheit beraubt. Diese Länder waren seit einem Jahrhundert die Ursache des Verlustes sehr wertvoller Teile der Türkei und haben, indem sie unsere Nachbarn aufwiegelten, den Balkankrieg hervorgerufen. Sie verschuldeten so den Verlust von Hunderttausenden unschuldiger Muselmanen, die Vergewaltigung von Frauen und die Schändung islamitischer Tempel. Sie haben den gegenwärtigen Krieg hervorgerufen, dessen glühendste Funken sie gegen das Herz der mohammedanischen Nation schleudern, indem sie sich bemühen, mit ihren verruchten Plänen das erhabene göttliche Licht zu verlöschen."
Die Proklamation legt sodann dar, daß diejenigen, die eine Feindschaft gegen die Religion des Islam bekunden, früher oder später den Zorn Gottes erfahren werden und daß der Kalif, der Diener der heiligen Stätten Mekka und Medina, um mit Hilfe des Allmächtigen diese heiligen Stätten des Islam sowie die heiligen Orte Jerusalem, Nedschef und Kerbela, das Zentrum des Kalifats, kurz alle Orte, wo die Propheten und die heiligen Märtyrer begraben liegen, vor jedem Angriff zu schützen, es für seine Pflicht erachtet hat, gemäß
den Geboten der genannten Fatwa die Muselmanen zum Heiligen Kriege aufzufordern. Das Kalifat rief alle ottomanischen Untertanen von 20 bis 40 Jahren zu den Waffen. Heer und Flotte, die auf diese Art vorbereitet wurden, sowie die islamitischen Glaubenslehrer, alle Studierenden der Theologie, kurz alle Kinder des Vaterlandes werden nach und nach auf den verschiedenen Kriegsschauplätzen konzentriert, auf denen der Heilige Krieg geführt wird. Alle Gläubigen des Islam erhalten den Befehl, an dem großen Heiligen Krieg teilzunehmen, sei es, indem sie selbst dienen, sei es durch finanzielle Beihilfe. Daher müssen Muselmanen, die unter der tyrannischen Herrschaft der genannten Regierungen in der Krim, Kasan, Turkestan, Buchara, Chiwa, Indien, China, Afghanistan, Persien, Afrika und den anderen Kontinenten sich befinden, nach Maßgabe ihrer Kräfte mit den Osmanen am Heiligen Kriege teilnehmen.
Der Aufruf hebt weiter hervor, daß, um insbesondere der Tragödie ein Ende zu setzen, wie sie die Entsendung muselmanischer Untertanen der feindlichen Mächte auf die blutigen Kriegsschauplätze darstelle, auf denen sie gegen den Kalifen und dessen Verbündete Krieg führen sollen, die Muselmanen alle Opfer auf sich nehmen und Geduld haben müssen. Der Aufruf schließt mit einem glühenden Appell an alle Muselmanen, ihre Pflicht zu tun, wobei an die heiligen Worte erinnert wird, die den Überlebenden ein glückseliges Leben und denjenigen, die als Märtyrer auf dem Felde der Ehre fallen, die Wonnen des Paradieses versprechen. Der Aufruf drückt die Überzeugung aus, daß mit Gottes Hilfe die Feinde der Religion besiegt werden. 2)





Die Helden von Tsingtau
Berlin, 25. November. (W. B.)
Nach den bisher vorliegenden Nachrichten beträgt die Zahl der beim Falle von Tsingtau Gefangengenommenen etwa 4250 einschließlich 600 Verwundete. Die Zahl der Gefallenen soll etwa 170 betragen, darunter 6 Offiziere. Von dem österreichisch-ungarischen Kreuzer "Kaiserin Elisabeth" sind ein Leutnant und acht Mann verwundet, acht Mann tot. Die Behandlung der Gefangenen in Japan soll gut sein. Die japanische Regierung hat die baldige Übersendung namentlicher Listen der Toten, Verwundeten und Gefangenen in Aussicht gestellt. 2)





Das Ergebnis der ungarischen Kriegsanleihe
Budapest, 25. November. (W. B.)
Dem "Pester Lloyd" zufolge übersteigt das Endergebnis der Zeichnung auf die ungarische Kriegsanleihe unter Berücksichtigung der von den Zeichnungsstellen in der Provinz eingetroffenen Berichte eine Milliarde Kronen. 2)





Portugal mobilisiert
London, 25. November. (W. B.)
Das Reutersche Bureau meldet aus Lissabon vom 24. ds.: Nachdem der Ministerpräsident vor den Abgeordneten und Senatoren eine Erklärung abgegeben hatte, nahm der Kongreß einstimmig einen Gesetzentwurf an, durch welchen die Regierung ermächtigt wird, auf Grund des Bündnisses mit England in dem gegenwärtigen internationalen Konflikt in einer Weise zu intervenieren, welche ihr als die geeignetste erscheint. Die Regierung wird ferner ermächtigt, die hierzu erforderlichen Maßregeln zu ergreifen. Nach Mitteilungen der Presse wird ein Erlaß, durch welchen eine teilweise Mobilisierung verfügt wird, morgen oder übermorgen erscheinen. Zugleich wird der Kriegsminister einen Aufruf an das Land richten. 2)




www.stahlgewitter.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 15:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25 November 1914 → Commons Sitting

MR. ARMGAARD KARL GRAVES.


HC Deb 25 November 1914 vol 68 cc1091-3 1091

Mr. KING asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether, in or about the autumn of 1912, or at any other time, Mr. Armgaard Karl Graves was entrusted by the Foreign Office with a mission to a foreign country?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for INDIA (Mr. Charles Roberts) I have nothing to add to the answer given to the hon. Member for Gravesend on 16th June, 1913. Neither the Foreign Office nor my right hon. Friend had anything to do with Mr. Armgaard Karl Graves before that answer was given, nor have we had anything to do with him since that answer was given.

Mr. KING Then it is quite untrue to say that he ever had any commission entrusted to him, directly or indirectly, by the Foreign Office?

Mr. C. ROBERTS That, I understand, is the grammatical sense of the answer which I have given.

Mr. JOHN WARD May we also take it for granted that no interview was ever held between the Foreign Office and this gentleman after his discharge from prison?

Mr. C. ROBERTS I cannot put any other interpretation upon the words which I have read.

Mr. KING asked the Secretary for Scotland if he can state present whereabouts of Armgaard Karl Graves, who was convicted of espionage at Edinburgh in 1912, and was released before completing the full sentence then passed upon him?

The SECRETARY for SCOTLAND (Mr. McKinnon Wood) The answer is in the negative.

Mr. KING Is there any information of the recent whereabouts of this gentleman up to, say, two years ago?

Mr. McKINNON WOOD I am afraid I do not know anything about it.

Mr. KING asked the Solicitor-General, whether he has taken into consideration a book, entitled "Secrets of the German War Office," purporting to be written by an ex-convict named Graves; whether he is aware that the book contains accusations of bad faith against three Cabinet Ministers; and whether, in view of the prominence given to these charges against Ministers, he intends to permit further circulation of these libels?

The SOLICITOR-GENERAL (Sir Stanley Buckmaster) I have looked at the book mentioned, although I have never considered it. I am unaware of the charges referred to, or that any prominence has ever been given to them.

Mr. KING In view of the fact that this book has imposed upon a great number of the loyal and dutiful subjects of His Majesty will the Solicitor-General read the book through carefully?

Sir S. BUCKMASTER That is a very good reason why I should not do so.

Mr. KEIR HARDIE Can the right hon. Gentleman say who is responsible for the difference of the editions of the book published in England as compared with the version published in America?

Sir S. BUCKMASTER I cannot conceive why hon. Members should think that I am an encyclopædia of knowledge. I have no knowledge whatever of the publication.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/nov/25/mr-armgaard-karl-graves

Armgaard Karl Graves

Armgaard Karl Graves, richtig wahrscheinlich Max Meincke (* 7. Mai 1882 in Berlin; † vmtl. in den USA) wirkte als Doppelagent für den deutschen Marinenachrichtendienst und den britischen MI5 vor Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges.

Graves verließ 1898 das deutsche Kaiserreich. Zweimal war er in New South Wales des Diebstahls sowie im Dezember 1910 der Belästigung einer Frau in Colombo angeklagt. Um 1911 kehrte er unter dem Titel 'A.K. Graves Dr med.' nach Deutschland zurück. Wenige Monate später wurde er in Wiesbaden wegen Betruges zu sechs Monate Gefängnis verurteilt, floh aber nach Stettin, wo er verhaftet wurde.

Während der Agadirkrise wurde Graves wahrscheinlich direkt aus dem Gefängnis für den Marinenachrichtendienst in dessen Berliner Zentrale in Gegenwart von Arthur Tapken, Georg Stammer und Gustav Steinhauer rekrutiert. Als 'W. Lewis' sollte er Bewegungen britischer Kriegsschiffe vor Schottland, speziell vor den Marinebasen Rosyth und Cromarty, beobachten, wofür er £15 monatlich erhielt.

Anfang 1912 erreichte er Edinburgh und ging bald darauf nach Glasgow. Durch Postüberwachung anderer Verdächtiger wurde er entdeckt und observiert. Seine Rückbeorderung nach Berlin nötigte die schottische Polizei, ihn am 14. April 1912 zu verhaften; drei Monate später verurteilte man ihn zu 8 Monaten Gefängnis. Am 18. Dezember wurde er mit Begründung eines schlechten Gesundheitszustandes heimlich entlassen, da er sich inzwischen Vernon Kell vom British Secret Service (MI5) für 2 £ monatlich angedient hatte.

Graves reiste nach Berlin, um für MI5 von Admiralstabssekretär Stammer eine Liste der Spione in Großbritannien zu erlangen. Von diesem wurde er allerdings in die Vereinigten Staaten entsandt. Im Februar und März 1913 erhielt er auf Anforderung jeweils Geld vom MI5, um von dort nach Großbritannien zurückzukehren, was er jedoch nicht tat. Graves präsentierte sich stattdessen als "Meisterspion" in der US-Presse und gab Informationen zu seinen beiden Arbeitgebern weiter. Am Vorabend des Krieges erschien seine Autobiografie und verkaufte sich 100.000 mal. 1915 erschien eine Fortsetzung des Buches sowie in verschiedenen Zeitungskolumnen seine Prognosen über den Kriegsausgang. Dem deutschen Botschafter in Washington, Graf Johann Heinrich Graf von Bernstorff, bot er im November 1916 gegen Geld erpresserisch einige Briefe an, die aus dessen Verkehr mit Deutschland über neutrale Schiffe stammten. Sein Ghostwriter Edward Lyell Fox hatte als Kurier fungiert. Bernstorff informierte jedoch, da er das Material für wertlos hielt, das US State Department und Graves wurde verhaftet. Das deutsche Reich lehnte die Zeugenaussage des Botschaftsmitarbeiters Graf Hatzfeldt-Trachenberg im Prozess ab und er wurde wieder entlassen. Wegen Aufsuchens einer Sperrzone für Ausländer in Kansas-City verhaftete man Graves 1917 und internierte ihn bis zum Kriegsende im November 1918.

Graves verblieb nach dem Krieg in den USA. 1928 wurde er des Verbrennens einer Frau bei lebendigem Leib angeklagt, aber möglicherweise entlastet. Wegen Erschleichung von 1.500 $ verurteilte man ihn 1934 zu 3 Jahren Gefängnis. Nach seiner Entlassung 1937 sollte er abgeschoben werden, reklamierte aber, dass ihn die Nationalsozialisten sicher zum Tode verurteilen würden, so das 'eine Regierungsstelle' intervenierte und ihn von dem bereits seeklaren Schiff holte.

Graves starb vermutlich in den USA.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armgaard_Karl_Graves

The Secrets of the German War Office
door Armgaard Karl Graves

http://books.google.nl/books?id=tOMmMulhUkcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ARMGAARD+KARL+GRAVES&source=bl&ots=8DKG1ywCdE&sig=h_HVextSUg8WbnTqaB3FqeidAd8&hl=nl&ei=6SbtTPzBOMGVOvHzkYMB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
Zie ook http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=6948
Zie ook http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6948
Of gewoon kopen: http://www.bol.com/nl/s/boeken/zoekresultaten/Ntt/ARMGAARD+KARL+GRAVES/search/true/searchType/qck/N/8299/Ntk/books_all/index.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 18:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Bedumer - verslaggeving van de vluchtelingenopvang

'De Bedumer' was het orgaan van de Anti Revolutionaire Kiesvereniging te Bedum, Zuidwolde en Onderdendam tezamen vormend de gemeente Bedum.

In krant 48 van 25 november 1914 wordt onder 'Gemengd Nieuws' nog eenmaal aandacht besteed aan het verschil in behandeling tussen de Nederlandse soldaat en de vluchteling: …..Kapitein Geldermans van het 20e Regiment Infanterie schrijft in de Nieuwe Rotterdamse Courant een ingezonden stuk, waarin hij waarschuwt om bij al die oproepen van kleding en versnaperingen voor de vluchtelingen en de geïnterneerden toch vooral niet de eigen soldaten te vergeten. Sinds 11 augustus zijn wij hier in Brabant, schrijft de kapitein. Grote behoefte bestaat ook bij de troepen aan wollen onderkleding die in zeer onvoldoende mate aanwezig is. De mannen lopen weken lang met eenzelfde borstrok omdat een dubbel stel niet aanwezig is. Waar iedere vluchteling van kleding werd voorzien, behoorde toch in eerste plaats het Nederlandse hart open te gaan voor de Nederlandse soldaat; behoorde deze niet vergeten te worden. Niets is echter ooit aan de troepen toegezonden die aan de zuidgrens van ons land staan. Ontspanning voor de geïnterneerden wordt gevraagd! Ook al weer prachtig. Maar wij troepen aan de grenzen, ontvingen na drie maanden eindelijk als ontspanning: 1, zegge 1 dominospel per compagnie van plm. 250 manschappen. Verder niets. Zo’n zending is tegelijk ridicuul als bedroevend. Nog eens: liefdadigheid is goed, maar men vergete toch niet ter wille van de vreemdeling zijn eigen landzaat…

http://www.bedumer.nl/site/Historie/De-Bedumer-1914-1918-vluchtelingenopvang-in-Bedum.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 18:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLI, Issue 13546, 25 November 1914





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=PBH19141125.2.13.23
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 18:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WarChron - November 1914 - East Prussia - Poland

On 25 November, in Poland, the Russians nearly encircled three German Divisions at Lodz, who managed to escape due to a delay by the Russian 1st Army. Rennenkampf was severely shaken by events, abandoned his command and left for Kovno. He was replaced on 3 December by General A.I. Litvinov, with his Chief of Staff General I.Z. Odishalidze.

On the Southwest Front, Russian 8th Army cavalry units attempted to invade Hungary over the Carpathian Mountains. General Boroevic's Austro-Hungarian 3rd Army, with the XII, III, and VII Corps, attempted to hold back the Russians.

The Polish National Council in Warsaw issued a manifesto declaring the necessity for a total German defeat.

http://warchron.com/eastPrussiaPoland.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 18:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLI, Issue 13546, 25 November 1914






http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=PBH19141125.2.13.47
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 19:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mussolini

"DO NOT THINK THAT BY TAKING AWAY MY
MEMBERSHIP CARD YOU WILL TAKE AWAY
MY FAITH IN THE CAUSE"

Speech delivered on 25th November 1914, at Milan, before the
meeting of the Milanese Socialist Section, which had decreed
Mussolini's expulsion from the official Socialist Party.

In the fearless militarism of the dramatic speech with which this
volume begins, the Socialistic activity of Benito Mussolini ends —
of Benito Mussolini, who from the autumn of 19 14 could have been
considered the recognised and acclaimed leader of the Italian
Socialist Party. He had attained with giant strides the highest
rank in the party's hierarchy, namely the editorship of the Avanti,
the chief organ of the political and syndicalist movement. He had
been a clever and aggressive writer in a weekly provincial paper of
Forli, called La lotta di classe} and an ardent Sunday orator for
the "ville" of Romagna. He had revealed himself a "comrade" of
tremendous power at the Congress of Reggio Emilia, held in the
summer of 191 2, where he delivered a memorable speech bitterly
criticising the flaccid mentality of Reformism then dominating
the party.

It was within two months of his success at Reggio Emilia that
the revolutionary leaders, feeling the need of strong men, entrusted
to Benito Mussolini the editorship of the Avanti, which was the
most powerful weapon of the party.

The following speech was delivered before a furious crowd of not
less than three thousand holders of membership cards, who hastened
from other centres adjacent to Milan, amid a diabolical tumult in
an atmosphere of organised hostility, which was the more violent
by contrast with the fanatical devotion which Benito Mussolini had
evoked during the two years in which he had been the undisputed
mouthpiece of the party.

This atmosphere of intolerance and hatred had been fostered by
the neutralist adversaries who had succeeded to the management
of the Avanti after the present head of the Italian Government had
left the party.

As is known, the excited meeting held in the spacious hall of the
Casa del Popolo closed with a resolution for the expulsion of the
new heretic, which was passed, except by a negligible minority
of about fifty supporters, who afterwards stood by Mussolini in the
victorious campaign for intervention.

My fate is decided, and it seems as if the sentence
were to be executed with a certain solemnity. (Voices:
"Louder! Louder!")

You are severer than ordinary judges who allow the
fullest and most exhaustive defence even after the sentence,
since they give ten days for the production of the motives
of appeal. If, then, it is decided, and you still think that
I am unworthy of fighting any longer for your cause —
("Yes! yes!" is shouted by some of the most excited
among the audience.) — then expel me. But I have a right
to exact a legal act of accusation, and in this meeting the
public prosecutor has not yet intervened with regard either
to the political or to the moral issues. I shall, therefore, be
condemned by an " order of the day " which means nothing.
In a case like this, I ought to have been told that I was
unworthy to belong any longer to the party for definite
reasons, in which case I should have accepted my fate.
This, however, has not been said, and a great many of
you — if not all — will leave this room with an uneasy
conscience. (Deaf ening voices : "No! no!")

With reference to the moral question, I repeat once more
that I am ready to submit my case to any Committee
which cares to make investigations and to issue a report.

As regards the question of discipline, I should say that
this has not been examined, because there are just and
fitting precedents for my changed attitude, and if I do
not quote them it is because I feel myself to be secure
and have an easy conscience.

You think to sign my death-warrant, but you are mistaken.
To-day you hate me, because in your heart of hearts you
still love me, because . . . (Applause and hisses interrupt
the speaker.)

But you have not seen the last of me! Twelve years of
my party life are, or ought to be, a sufficient guarantee of
my faith in Socialism. Socialism is something which takes
root in the heart. What divides me from you now is not a
small dispute, but a great question over which the whole
of Socialism is divided. Amilcare Cipriani can no longer
be your candidate because he declared, both by word of
mouth and in writing, that if his seventy-five years allowed
him, he would be in the trenches fighting the European
lilitary reaction which was stifling revolution.
Time will prove who is right and who is wrong in the f or-
idable question which now confronts Socialism, and which
has never had to face before in the history of humanity,
ice never before has there been such a conflagration as
to-day, in which millions of the proletariat are pitted
against the other. This war, which has much in common
with those of the Napoleonic period, is not an everyday
event. Waterloo was fought in 1814; perhaps 19 14 will see
some other principles fall to the ground, will see the salva-
tion of liberty, and the beginning of a new era in the world's
history — (Loud applause greets this fitting historical
comparison.) — and especially in the history of the pro-
letariat, which at all critical moments has found me here
with you in this same spot, just as it found me in the street.
But I tell you that from now onwards I shall never
forgive nor have pity on anyone who in this momentous
hour does not speak his mind for fear of being hissed or
shouted down. (This cutting allusion to the many promi-
nent absentees is understood and warmly applauded by
the meeting.)

I shall neither forgive nor have pity on those who are
purposely reticent, those who show themselves hypocrites
and cowards. And you will find me still on your side. You
must not think that the middle classes are enthusiastic
about our intervention. They snarl and accuse us of temerity,
and fear that the proletariat, once armed with bayonets,
will use them for their own ends. (Mingled applause, and
cries of "No! no!")

^ Do not think that in taking away my membership card
you will be taking away my faith in the cause, or that you
will prevent my still working for Socialism and revolution.
(Hearty applause follows these last words of Mussolini,
uttered with great energy and profound conviction. He
descends from the platform and makes his way down the
great hall.)

http://www.archive.org/stream/mussoliniasrevea00mussuoft/mussoliniasrevea00mussuoft_djvu.txt
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 22:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Features: Dining Out in Times of War: Jerusalem 1914-1918

Antonio de la Cierva y Lewita, Conde de Ballobar, served as consul in Jerusalem from 1914 to 1918 leaving behind a diary which has proved to an invaluable source of information on war-time Jerusalem, its population, Ottoman and British administrations.

(...) Perusing the diary of Ballobar I have selected a number of entries dealing with meals and other social gatherings in order to show the thriving social setting of wartime Jerusalem and to underline the historical relevance of the diary of Ballobar in reconstructing several aspects of late Ottoman Palestine and Jerusalem. On 25th November 1914 Ballobar dined at his residence with the civil governor Macid Bey. Ballobar indulged in the description of the dinner and he praised his Arab chef who prepared excellent stuffed courgettes.9 Ballobar was interested in getting better acquainted with the local establishment. They did not discuss particular topics, or at least none were reported, suggesting that the Spanish Consul was mainly interested in becoming familiar with the governor and gathering more information on the ongoing process of mobilisation in preparation for a possible war that started in Jerusalem in August 1914 with the proclamation of martial law.10 This event indeed reveals a particular system of communication, whether intentional or not is debatable, put in place through food consumption. (...)

http://www.jerusalemquarterly.org/ViewArticle.aspx?id=338
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

59 Field Company 1900 - 1914

25th November 1914 - Dranoutre
The Company moved back to Dranoutre and worked on the defences of the 13th Brigade line at Lindenhook.
Tasks included Trenching, Wire, Tunneling, Road works, Infantry assistance, Water Supply and pumping.

http://59sqnhistoryoutline.blogspot.com/2009/10/59-field-company-1900-1914.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 22:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extracts from the H.M.S. Carnarvon's Night Order Books, (1914-1916)

25 November 1914, Abrolhos Rocks, anxiously awaiting reinforcements
"Call me if any strange vessels are sighted approaching anchorage. Battle cruisers should be in sight to southward by daylight."

http://www.vlib.us/medical/hanks/nob.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 22:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wereldoorlog I en Russische Burgeroorlog (1914 - 1922)

Op 25 november 1914 is Nicolaas per trein op weg naar de Kaukasus en schrijft over een schilderachtig Kozakkenland, prachtige hoge bergen, steppen en boomgaarden. Hij ziet op de stations perrons vol mensen, voornamelijk kinderen die er alleraardigst uit zien met hun papacha’s (bontmutsjes). Het zien van de welvaart in de Koebanregio vervult hem met vreugde.

http://home.kpn.nl/kozakken/kozakkengeschiedenis_1914_tot_1922.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 22:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 25 NOVEMBER 1915

AUSTRALIAN CASUALTIES - New Zealanders serving with Australian troops
BROUGHTON, Pte T – dangerously ill; CULPAN, Pte B E – hospital London; DAWE, Pte J – sent to Birmingham; DECK, L/Cpl R W – embarked for England; FRASER, Cpl G – hospital Birmingham; GOULD, Pte G – hospital Birmingham; KNOWLES, Pte W E – disembarked Malta; MARTIN, Bugler H D – died of illness; McCONCHIE, Pte D – progressing favourably; MOLLARD, Pte O L – embarked for England; OSBORNE, Pte B – sent to Heliopolis; RUSSELL, Pte E W – disembarked Malta; SALEK, Spr L – disembarked Malta; TEMPLER, Pte F D – died of wounds; WILSON, Pte J – hospital London; WOOD, Pte L C – hospital London; YOUNG, Pte B F – hospital London.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn25nov1915.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Romanovs

Bij het begin van het uitbreken van de Tweede Wereld Oorlog in 1914 begonnen de moeilijkheden die voor de Romanovs op de loer lagen, langzaam door te dringen in hun beschermde leventjes. In antwoord op het lijden van hun volk en in een poging een beeld van patriottisme en betrokkenheid te scheppen, stortten Alexandra en haar twee oudste dochters zich vol overgave in een verpleegstersopleiding en werden de paleizen omgevormd tot noodziekenhuizen om het alsmaar toenemende aantal gewonden te kunnen verzorgen. De Tsaar bracht meer en meer tijd door aan het front met zijn legers. Alexandra schreef haar echtgenoot aan het front dagelijks:

25 november 1915: "Tijdens een operatie is een soldaat gestorven. Olga en Tatiana hielden zich goed, geen van beiden verloor het hoofd en de meisjes waren dapper. Zij hadden de dood nog niet eerder gezien. Maar hij stierf binnen een minuut. Hoe dichtbij is de dood altijd".

http://www.mieks.com/faberge/eieren/1915-Red-Cross-Portraits-Egg.htm
Zie ook http://andrejkoymasky.com/liv/fab/54/fab54.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

American compressed air locomotive used in boring the Rove Tunnel, Scientific American 1916-11-25



http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:American_compressed_air_locomotive_used_in_boring_the_Rove_Tunnel_Scientific_American_1916-11-25.jpg
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed-air_vehicle
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Austro-Hungarian Field Marshals 1848-1918

Notwithstanding His Majesty Kaiser Karl Josef and his successor in 1916, Kaiser Karl and various other royal heads of state so honoured, the Dual Monarchy promoted nine serving general officers to the rank of field marshal during the course of World War One. Besides the Kaiser, the most senior rank held by a serving officer prior to the outbreak of the war had been that of General der Infanterie/Kavallerie or Feldzeugmeister in the case of generals from the artillery branch. Included in the following article are biographical details and portraits of the nine individuals who earned the rank of Feldmarschall starting with Archduke Friedrich appointed in December 1914 to Archduke Josef appointed in October 1918. Of the nine, three were princely members of the royal household, the two Archdukes named above plus Archduke Eugen. Of the remaining six, some were descended surprisingly from much humbler forbears.

Erzherzog Friedrich - 8 December 1914
Erzherzog Eugen - 23 November 1916
Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf - 25 November 1916
Hermann Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza - 5 August 1917
Alexander Freiherr von Krobatin - 5 November 1917
Franz Freiherr Rohr von Denta - 30 January 1918
Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli - 31 January 1918
Svetozar Boroević von Bojna - 1 February 1918
Erzherzog Josef - 24 October 1918

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/marshals.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major General Sir John Gellibrand KCB



(...) The 6th Brigade sailed for the Western Front just a few days later, on 18 March 1916, and entered the line there on 10 April. On 31 May, Gellibrand was wounded by a German shell that landed close to his headquarters, and evacuated to England, returning on 28 June. The brigade fought at Pozieres, where it performed well in the attack on 4 August 1916. Gellibrand was criticised for having his headquarters in Sausage Valley, some 3 km behind the front.

Gellibrand went to England on leave on 25 November 1916. While there he had to have four teeth extracted and did not return until December. He was evacuated again on 13 December 1916 with influenza, returning on 30 January 1917. In the meantime he was promoted to brevet major in the British Army's Reserve of Officer's List. (...)

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-leaders/ww1/gellibrand.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Loyalty and German-Americans

Reproduced below is the speech recorded by the former U.S. Ambassador to Germany James W. Gerard in 1917 entitled Loyalty and German-Americans.

In spite of his pre-war diplomatic service in Germany Gerard was by no means an activist in campaigning for a rapprochement with the Central Powers. To the contrary he was outspoken in demanding absolute commitment to the cause of crushing the German Army, and with it the Kaiser, Wilhelm II.

In November 1917 Gerard gave a notorious speech to the Ladies Aid Society in which he effectively questioned the loyalty of German-Americans residing in the U.S. He suggested that firm action should be taken against such people were they to in any way question America's commitment to beating Germany.

Use the player to listen to a recording of Gerard's speech from 25 November 1917 to the Ladies Aid Society.

Loyalty and German-Americans

I know that it is hard for Americans to realize the magnitude of the war in which we are involved. We have problems in this war no other nations have. Fortunately, the great majority of American citizens of German descent have, in this great crisis of our history, shown themselves splendidly loyal to our flag.

Everyone had a right to sympathize with any warring nation. But now that we are in the war there are only two sides, and the time has come when every citizen must declare himself American - or traitor!

We must disappoint the Germans who have always believed that the German-Americans here would risk their property, their children's future, and their own neck, and take up arms for the Kaiser. The Foreign Minister of Germany once said to me "your country does not dare do anything against Germany, because we have in your country 500,000 German reservists who will rise in arms against your government if you dare to make a move against Germany."

Well, I told him that that might be so, but that we had 500,001 lamp posts in this country, and that that was where the reservists would be hanging the day after they tried to rise. And if there are any German-Americans here who are so ungrateful for all the benefits they have received that they are still for the Kaiser, there is only one thing to do with them. And that is to hog-tie them, give them back the wooden shoes and the rags they landed in, and ship them back to the Fatherland.

I have travelled this year over all the United States. Through the Alleghenies, the White Mountains, and the Catskills, the Rockies and the Bitterroot Mountains, the Cascades, the Coast Range, and the Sierras. And in all these mountains, there is no animal that bites and kicks and squeals and scratches, that would bite and squeal and scratch equal to a fat German-American, if you commenced to tie him up and told him that he was on his way back to the Kaiser.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/loyalty.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck

Lettow-Vorbeck (...) began a forced withdrawal to the south, with his troops at half rations and the British in pursuit. On 25 November 1917 his advance column waded across the river Rovuma into Portuguese Mozambique. In essence he cut his own supply lines and the Schutztruppe caravan became a nomadic tribe. On their first day across the river they attacked the newly replenished Portuguese garrison of Ngomano and solved all their supply issues for the foreseeable future. When they captured a river steamer with a load of medical supplies, including quinine, at least some of their medical problems were no more. For almost an entire year they had now lived off the land, but mainly with provisions captured from the British and Portuguese; they had replaced their old rifles with new equipment and acquired machine guns and mortars after capturing Namakura (Nhamacurra in modern Mozambique) in July 1918. At the end they had more ammunition than they could carry.

http://www.answers.com/topic/paul-emil-von-lettow-vorbeck
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zeppelin L 59 (LZ 104)



Das Luftschiff L 59 unternahm vom 21. bis 25. November 1917 eine Fahrt von Jamboli in Bulgarien in Richtung Ostafrika, um den dortigen Truppen Munition und Medikamente zu bringen. Als sich das Luftschiff auf der Höhe von Karthum befand, erreichte es ein fingierter Funkspruch, so das es wieder umkehrte. Nach der Landung im Jamboli nach 95 Stunden Flugzeit, hatte das Luftschiff eine Strecke von nonstop 6756 km zurückgelegt. Diese Fernfahrt wurde erst nach Ende des ersten Weltkrieges bekannt und gilt als eine der herausragensten Fahrleistungen der Zeppeline.

http://www.pilotundluftschiff.de/Afrikafahrt.htm
Zie ook http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/duitsoostafrika/luchtschip.html
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 16026
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2010 23:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht, Klara Zetkin and Franz Mehring: "A Call to the Workers of the World"
First Published: Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag), November 25, 1918.

PROLETARIANS! Men and Women of Labor! Comrades!

The revolution in Germany has come! The masses of the soldiers who for years were driven to slaughter for the sake of capitalistic profits; the masses of workers, who for four years were exploited, crushed, and starved, have revolted. Prussian militarism, that fearful tool of oppression, that scourge of humanity – lies broken on the ground. Its most noticeable representatives, and therewith the most noticeable of those guilty of this war, the Kaiser and the Crown Prince, have fled from the country. Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils have been formed everywhere.

Workers of all countries, we do not say that in Germany all power actually lies in the hands of the working people, that the complete triumph of the proletarian revolution has already been attained. There still sit in the government all those Socialists who in August, 1914, abandoned our most precious possession, the International, who for four years betrayed the German working class and the International.

But, workers of all countries, now the German proletarian himself speaks to you. We believe we have the right to appear before your forum in his name. From the first day of this war we endeavored to do our international duty by fighting that criminal government with all our power and branding it as the one really guilty of the war.

Now at this moment we are justified before history, before the International and before the German proletariat. The masses agree with us enthusiastically, constantly widening circles of the proletariat share the conviction that the hour has struck for a settlement with capitalistic class rule.

But this great task cannot be accomplished by the German proletariat alone; it can only fight and triumph by appealing to the solidarity of the proletarians of the whole world.

Comrades of the belligerent countries, we are aware of your situation. We know full well that your governments, now that they have won the victory, are dazzling the eyes of many strata of the people with the external brilliancy of their triumph. We know that they thus succeed through the success of the murdering in making its causes and aims forgotten.

But we also know that in your countries the proletariat made the most fearful sacrifices of flesh and blood, that it is weary of the dreadful butchery, that the proletarian is now returning to his home, and is finding want and misery there, while fortunes amounting to billions are heaped up in the hands of a few capitalists. He has recognized, and will continue to recognize, that your governments, too, have carried on the war for the sake of the big money bags. And he will further perceive that your governments, when they spoke of “justice and civilization” and of the “protection of small nations,” meant capitalist profits as surely as did ours when it talked about the “defence of home”; and that the peace of “justice” and of the “League of Nations” are but a part of the same base brigand that produced the peace of Brest-Litovsk. Here as well as there the same shameless lust for spammer, the same desire for oppression, the same determination to exploit to the limit the brutal preponderance of murderous steel.

The Imperialism of all countries knows no “understanding,” it knows only one right – capital’s profits: it knows only one language – the sword: it knows only one method – violence. And if it is now talking in all countries, in yours as well ours, about the “League of Nations,” “disarmament,” “rights of small nations,” “self-determination of the peoples,” it is merely using the customary lying phrases of the rulers for the purpose of lulling to sleep the watchfulness of the proletariat.

Proletarians of all countries! This must be the last war! We owe that to the twelve million murdered victims, we owe that to our children, we owe that to humanity.

Europe has been ruined by this damnable slaughter. Twelve million bodies cover the grewsome scenes of this imperialistic crime. The flower of youth and the best man power of the peoples have been mowed down. Uncounted productive forces have been annihilated. Humanity is almost ready to bleed to death from the unexampled blood-letting of history. Victors and vanquished stand at the edge of the abyss. Humanity is threatened with famine, a stoppage of the entire mechanism of production, plagues, and degeneration.

The great criminals of this fearful anarchy, of this unchained chaos – the ruling classes – are not able to control their own creation. The beast of capital that conjured up the hell of the world war is incapable of banishing it, of restoring real order, of insuring bread and work, peace and civilization, justice and liberty, to tortured humanity.

What is being prepared by the ruling classes as peace and justice is only a new work of brutal force from which the hydra of oppression, hatred and fresh bloody wars raises its thousand heads.

Socialism alone is in a position to complete the great work of permanent peace, to heal the thousand wounds from which humanity is bleeding, to transform the plains of Europe, trampled down by the passage of the apocryphal horseman of war, into blossoming gardens, to conjure up ten productive forces for every one destroyed, to awaken all the physical and moral energies of humanity, and to replace hatred and dissension with internal solidarity, harmony, and respect for every human being.

If representatives of the proletarians of all countries could but clasp hands under the banner of Socialism for the purpose of making peace, then peace would be concluded in a few hours. Then there will be no disputed questions about the left bank of the Rhine, Mesopotamia, Egypt or colonies. Then there will be only one people: the toiling human beings of all races and tongues. Then there will be only one right: the equality of all men. Then there will be only one aim: prosperity and progress for everybody.

Humanity is facing the alternative: Dissolution and downfall in capitalist anarchy, or regeneration through the social revolution. The hour of fate has struck. If you believe in Socialism, it is now time to show it by deeds. If you are Socialists, now is the time to act.

Proletarians of all countries, if we now summon you for a common struggle it is not done for the sake of the German capitalists who, under the label of “German nation,” are trying to escape the consequences of their own crimes: it is being done for your sake as well as for ours. Remember that your victorious capitalists stand ready to suppress in blood our revolution, which they fear as they do their own. You yourselves have not become any freer through the “victory,” you have only become still more enslaved. If your ruling classes succeed in throttling the proletarian revolution in Germany, and in Russia, then they will turn against you with redoubled violence. Your capitalists hope that victory over us and over revolutionary Russia will give them the power to scourge you with a whip of scorpions.

Therefore the proletariat of Germany looks toward you in this hour. Germany is pregnant with the social revolution, but Socialism can only be realized by the proletariat of the world.

And therefore, we call to you: “Arise for the struggle! Arise for action! The time for empty manifestos, platonic resolutions, and high-sounding words is gone! The hour of action has struck for the International!” We ask you to elect Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils everywhere that will seize political power, and together with us, will restore peace.

Not Lloyd George and Poincare, not Sonnino, Wilson, and Ersberger or Scheidemann, must be allowed to make peace. Peace most he concluded under the waving banner of the Socialist world revolution.

Proletarians of all countries! We call upon you to complete the work of Socialist liberation, to give a human aspect to the disfigured world and to make true those words with which we often greeted each other in the old days and which we sang as we parted: “And the Internationale shall be the human race”.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/11/25.htm
_________________

“Stop whining.”
– A. Schwarzenegger
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Pagina 1 van 1

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group