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General von Lettow-Vorbeck

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2005 21:41    Onderwerp: General von Lettow-Vorbeck Reageer met quote

Wie heeft er informatie over generaal Paul von Lettow Vorbeck 1870-1964) Hij was in China tijdens de Boxer-opstand, diende in west en oost Afrika en was een doorn in het vlees van de Britse troepen aldaa.
Mijn vraag; Weet iemand of er een biografie over deze Duitse generaal is geschreven en zo ja, door wie?
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2005 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Volgens mij heeft hij zelf zijn memoires/dagboek geschreven en staan deze bij mij in de kast:

Lettow-Vorbeck Meine Erinnerungen aus Ostfafrika.
Lettow-Vorbeck Heia Safari!
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2005 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ter info

http://www.lettow-vorbeck.de/literat.htm#afrika
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2005 23:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ook zeer lezenswaardig in dit verband is Battle for the Bundu. The First World War in East Africa van Charles Miller. Nairobi, Kenya 1974, Westland Sundries Ltd.
Op de omslag staat over Von Lettow-Vorbeck o.a.:
Quote:
The German commander was the legendary Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck, who was worshipped by his men and respected by his enemies. With good cause, for he led a handful of askaris - native soldiers - so superbly that they engaged the full attention of nearly 250.000 Allied troops for four years. 'Harass, kill, but don't get caught', he told his officers.


Pracht boek, zeer leesbaar geschreven. Maar waarschijnlijk behoorlijk zeldzaam door de plaats van uitgifte.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Nov 2005 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck (1870-1964) was remarkable among military commanders of the First World War in that he served for the entire period without ever having suffered defeat.

Often compared with the better-known T.E. Lawrence - Lawrence of Arabia - Lettow-Vorbeck similarly was a master of guerrilla warfare, this time in East Africa. With a force never great than 14,000 in total - comprised of 3,000 German and 11,000 Askari (native African) troops - Lettow-Vorbeck ran rings around Allied forces (for the most part British and South African) that were ten times larger than his own.

Lettow-Vorbeck realised quickly that the German campaign against Allied forces in East Africa needed to be conducted on his own terms, largely by seizing (and retaining) the initiative.

Prior to the war Lettow-Vorbeck had seen service during the Boxer Rebellion, and in German Southwest Africa (Namibia) during the Hottentot and Herero Rebellion of 1904-08, during which he was wounded and sent to South Africa to recuperate.

Six months before the the outbreak of war in 1914, Lettow-Vorbeck - then a Lieutenant-Colonel - was given command of Germany's forces in East Africa, which included twelve companies of Askari troops.

In August he began his war by attacking the British railway in Kenya. Three months later a large mixed British and Indian invasion force landed at Tanga Bay to conquer German East Africa; in numerical terms at least they outnumbered Lettow-Vorbeck's available force by some eight to one. Nevertheless, right from the start he demonstrated great tactical planning.

With the Allied landing a success, Lettow-Vorbeck pulled his forces some distance back, not in full retreat as seemed apparent, but simply in order to draw the British and Indian forces further inland, catching them in a crossfire and inflicting heavy casualties, quickly obliging a British retreat back to Tanga Bay to consolidate.

Over the next couple of years Lettow-Vorbeck launched raids into the British colonies of Kenya and Rhodesia, the aim being to destroy forts situated there, along with railway track and carriages. His Askari troops, trained in the Prussian manner, gained in confidence and experience with each successful raid.

Jan Smuts - himself an enemy of the British during the Boer War of 1899-1902, but now serving with them - was tasked in March 1916 with dealing with Lettow-Vorbeck, and in doing so launched an attack from South Africa with a force of 45,000 men. As with the British beforehand, Lettow-Vorbeck led Smuts a merry dance, although curiously this did not subsequently harm Smuts political career in any way.

In 1917 the Allies turned up the heat on Lettow-Vorbeck, with attacks launched from such disparate locations as Kenya, Rhodesia, Congo and Mozambique - the latter two spearheaded by Belgian and Portuguese forces, respectively.

With his forces running low on supplies - both ammunition and food - Lettow-Vorbeck was forced to live off the land, although a successful raid upon a Portuguese arms dump near the Mozambique border largely resolved his arms shortage.

Lettow-Vorbeck launched fresh raids against Rhodesian forts in 1918, tackling one after another. He was in the midst of planning further large raids when news of the 11 November Armistice reached him (from a British prisoner).

Far from beaten, and with a force of some 3,000 men available to him, Lettow-Vorbeck nonetheless decided to surrender to the British on 25 November at Mbaala, Zambia.

Returning to Germany as a national hero (and having been promoted general in the field), Lettow-Vorbeck was likewise admired by his former enemies as a courageous, tenacious and honourable fighter. Once in Germany he immediately joined the Freikorps, and at the head of a brigade successfully crushed Spartacist forces in Hamburg.

Lettow-Vorbeck was however obliged to resign from the army having declared his support for the right-wing Kapp Putsch in 1920.

His memoirs of his wartime experiences were subsequently published (in English translation) as My Reminiscences of East Africa. From May 1929 until July 1930 he served as a deputy in the Reichstag, later unsuccessfully trying to establish a conservative opposition to Hitler.

When Smuts, his former opponent, in the aftermath of the Second World War, heard that Lettow-Vorbeck was living in destitution, he arranged (along with former South African and British officers) for a small pension to be paid to him until his death on 9 March 1964 at the age of 94.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/lettowvorbeck.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Nov 2005 9:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Quote:
Lettow-Vorbeck launched fresh raids against Rhodesian forts in 1918, tackling one after another. He was in the midst of planning further large raids when news of the 11 November Armistice reached him (from a British prisoner).

Far from beaten, and with a force of some 3,000 men available to him, Lettow-Vorbeck nonetheless decided to surrender to the British on 25 November at Mbaala, Zambia.


Weet iemand hier iets over?
Is hij de enige die zo lang doorging?
En hoe komt dat dan?
Was hij zoveel dagen reizen verwijderd van de dichts bijzijnde Britse post?
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Nov 2005 13:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lettow, the one-eyed, or to give him his full title, Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck, is the heart and soul of the German resistance in East Africa. Indomitable and ubiquitous, he has kept up the drooping spirits of his men by encouragement, by the example of great personal courage, and by threats that he can and will carry out. Wounded three times, he has never left his army, but has been carried about on a "machela" to prevent the half-resistance that leads to surrender. And now we hear he has had blackwater, and, recovering, has resumed his elusive journeys from one discouraged company to another all over the narrowing area of operations that alone is left to the Hun of his favourite colonial possessions. For to the fat shipping clerk of Tanga, whose soul lives only for beer and the leave that comes to reward two years of effort, the temptation to go sick or to get lost in the bush in front of our advancing armies is very great. He is not of the stuff that heroes are made of, and surrender is so safe and easy. A prison camp in Bombay is clearly preferable to this unending retreat. He has done enough for honour, he argues, he has proved his worth after two and a half years of resistance! This colony has put up the best fight of all, "and the Schwein Engländer holds the seas, so further resistance is hopeless." "We are not barbarians, are we Fritz?" But Fritz has ceased to care. "Ahmednagar for mine," says he, reverting to the language he learnt in the brewery at Milwaukee, in days that now seem to belong to some antenatal life. Soon he will look for some white face beneath the strange sun helmet the English wear, up will go his hands, and "Kamerad"—that magic word—will open the doors to sumptuous ease behind the prison bars.

But Lettow is going "all out." His black Askaris are not discouraged, and, in this war, the black man is keeping up the courage of the white. Had the native soldiers got their tails down the game was up as far as the Germans were concerned. But these faithful fellows see the "Bwona Kuba," as they call Lettow, here encouraging, everywhere inspiring them by his example, and they will stay with him until the end. Like many great soldiers, Lettow is singularly careless in his dress; and the tale is told at Moschi of a young German officer who stole a day's leave and discussed with a stranger at a shop window the chances of the ubiquitous Lettow arriving to spoil his afternoon. Nor did he know until he found the reprimand awaiting him in camp that he had been discussing the ethics of breaking out of camp with the "terror" himself.

A soldier of fortune is Lettow. His name is stained with the hideous massacres of the Hereros in South-West Africa. His was the order, transmitted through the German Governor's mouth, that thrust the Herero women and children into the deserts of Damaraland to die. Before the war in South Africa, rumour says, he was instructor to the "Staats Artillerie," which Kruger raised to stay the storm that he knew inevitably would overwhelm him. Serving, with Smuts and Botha themselves in the early months of the Boer war, he joined the inglorious procession of foreigners that fled across the bridge at Komati Poort after Pretoria fell, and left the Boer to fight it out unaided for two long and weary years more. No wonder that Lettow has sworn never to surrender to that "damned Dutchman Jan Smuts." Chary of giving praise for work well done, he yet is inexorable to failure. The tale is told that Lettow was furious when Fischer, the major in command at Moschi, was bluffed out of his impregnable position there by Vandeventer, evacuated the northern lines, and retired on Kahe, thus saving us the expense of taking a natural fortress that would have taxed all our energies. White with rage, he sent for Fischer and handed him one of his own revolvers. "Let me hear some interesting news about you in a day or two." And Fischer took the pistol and walked away to consider his death warrant. He looked at that grim message for two days before he could summon up his courage: then he shot himself, well below the heart, in a spot that he thought was fairly safe. But poor Fischer's knowledge of anatomy was as unsound as his strategy, for the bullet perforated his stomach. And it took him three days to die.

A tribe which has contributed largely to the German military forces is the Wanyamwezi. Of excellent physique, they long resisted German domination, but now they are entirely subdued. Hardy, brave and willing, they are the best fighters and porters, probably, in the whole of East Africa. Immigrant Wanyamwezi, enlisted in British East Africa into our King's African Rifles, do not hesitate to fight against their blood brothers. There is no stint to the faithful service they have given to the Germans. But for them our task would have been much easier. For drilling and parade the native mind shows great keenness and aptitude; little squads of men are drilled voluntarily by their own N.C.O.'s in their spare time; and often, just after an official drill is over, they drill one another again. Smart and well-disciplined they are most punctilious in all military services.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10362/10362-h/10362-h.htm#RULE4_2
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Nov 2005 15:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Yvonne schreef:
Quote:
Lettow-Vorbeck launched fresh raids against Rhodesian forts in 1918, tackling one after another. He was in the midst of planning further large raids when news of the 11 November Armistice reached him (from a British prisoner).

Far from beaten, and with a force of some 3,000 men available to him, Lettow-Vorbeck nonetheless decided to surrender to the British on 25 November at Mbaala, Zambia.


Weet iemand hier iets over?
Is hij de enige die zo lang doorging?
En hoe komt dat dan?
Was hij zoveel dagen reizen verwijderd van de dichts bijzijnde Britse post?


Zal eens kijken in zijn dagboeken.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Nov 2005 15:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nou, daar gaan we. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck verteld in Heia Safari. Helaas in het Duits.

Quote:
Am 13. november 1918 um die Mittagstunde war der Tagesmarsch beendet. Ich war mit dem Fahrrad vorausgefahren, hatte den Lagerplatz angesesst und erwartete die Truppen. Die ersten Kompagnien trafen gerade ein. Da kommt ein Radfahrer im schnellsten Tempo und scheucht alles beiseite. Hauptmann Müller ist es. "Ich melde, dat seit 11. November Waffenstillstand geschlossen ist!" Ein englischer Motorfahrer, der die Nachricht zu den englischen Truppen hatte bringen sollen, war versehentlich nach Kassama hineingefahren und dort von der Abteilung Köhl gefangen worden. Durch die englische Telephonleitung, an der wir marschierten, konnten wir uns leidlich verständigen. So haben wir die Nachricht vom Waffenstillstand erfahren. Das Telegramm des Generals van Deventer lautete:

12.11.18.

(zu senden über MB Cable und Nachrichten Reiter.)
Senden Sie nachfolgendes an General von Lettow-Vorbeck unter weisse flagge:
Der Premierminister von England hat angezeigt, dass am 11. November um 5 Uhr ein Waffenstillstand unterzeichnet worden ist, und das die Feindlichkeiten auf alle Fronten um 11 uhr die 11. November aufhörten. Ich befehle meinen Truppen, die Feindlichkeiten von nun ab einzustellen, ausgenommen, wenn sie angegriffen werden, und ich erwarte, das Sie dasselbe tun werden.
Die Bedingungen des Waffenstillstandes werden Ihnen sofort zugeteillt, wenn ich sie erhalten habe. Ich schlage vor, dass Sie in der Zwischenzeit in Ihrer sessiger Gegend bleiben, um die Verbindungen zu erleichtern.
General van Deventer.


Hij beschrijft verder dat deze berichten gewantrouwd werden aangezien zij vele valse berichten kregen. Als je het bericht van generaal van Deventer leest zie je tevens dat daarin niet staat of men nu de oorlog verloren had of niet. Von Lettow-Vorbeck geeft aan dat hij weinig kennis had van de situatie in Duitsland en niet uitging van een verloren oorlog maar van een gunstige uitslag voor Duitsland. Tevens geeft hij aan dat hij de Engelsen slechtere soldaten vond en dan kan ik me wel voorstellen dat het psychologish niet jouw eerste idee is dat je de oorlog verloren hebt.

Die nacht kwam er uitsluitsel.
Quote:
Um mitternacht erhielt ich das Telegramm des Generals van Deventer, das über Salisburh gekommen war. Nach diesem hatte Deutschland die bedingungslose übergabe unserer in Ost-Afrika operierenden Truppen unterzeichnet. Deventer fügte hinzu, das er die sofortige Befreiung der englischen Kriegsgefangenen und unserer Marsch nach Ubercorn verlangte. In Ubercorn wären alle Waffen und Munition abzulieferen.


Vervolgens geeft hij aan op de 25. aangekomen te zijn in Ubercorn.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Nov 2005 17:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Geweldige info dit!!!
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2005 17:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aanvulling uit Paul von Lettow Vorbeck's "Meine Erinnerungen aus Ostafrika".

Op 14 november rond 8 uur is er een Engelse militair de Zambesi overgevaren bij Kasama. Hij heeft deze man een telegram gegeven voor de keizer met daarin gemeld wat hij gehoord had in de telegrammen van van Deventer en de vraag wat te doen.

De Engelsman vertelde hem toen tevens dat de Duitse vloot in opstand was gekomen en de keizer volgens een onbevestigd bericht was afgetreden. Dat leek von Lettow Vorbeck allemaal "onwaarschijnlijk".

Overigens bestond de groep soldaten rond dit tijdstip nog uit:
- 155 Europeanen waarvan 30 officieren.
- 1168 Askari's
- ongeveer 3000 "andere kleurlingen".

Vervolgens was het dus wachten op een antwoord en heeft hij in de tussentijd via de Engelse en Duitse regeringen, voor zover die er toen was in Duitsland, getracht geld los te krijgen om zijn Askari en dragers de achterstallige soldij te betalen. Dat is echter niet gelukt waarna ze deze mensen per persoon een brief hebben gegeven maar daarin aangegeven wat zij nog tegoed hadden.

Hierboven plaatste ik al in het Duits het eerste telegram van van Deventer. Het tweede dat volgde staat in dit boek integraal in het Engels en begint met een zin die eindigt met: "... unconditional surrender of all German forces operating in East Africa within one month from Nov. 11 th."

Verder staan er nog wat condities in maar dit zijn de belangrijkste:
- Overgave aan Britse troepen waar ze het dichtste bij zijn.
- Zo snel mogelijk met de troepen optrekken naar Abercorn, omdat Abercorn de plaats is waar ze de Duitse troepen van voedsel kunnen voorzien.

En nog wat staaltjes van Engelse ridderlijkheid. De officieren en Europeanen mochten hun persoonlijke wapens houden omdat ze zo "galant" getreden hadden. Tevens werden de Duitse officieren tijdens hun terugtocht door de commandant van de 6th Kings African Rifles, Colonel Hawkins via Colonel Dickingson uitgenodigd voor een etentje waar echter geen tijd voor was bij de Duitsers. Een paar dagen later hebben Hawkins en von Lettow Vorbeck wel gesproken bij een kop koffie.

Luitenant der reserve Kempner was reeds met de fiets vooruit gestuurd naar Abercorn. Nadat deze terugwas werd von Lettow Vorbeck met een auto van de Engelse Generaal Edwards naar Abercorn gegaan. De groep soldaten kwam de 25e aan. Europeanen zijn in Dar es Salaam gebleven tot hun schop vertrok. De Askari en dragers langer, zij zijn anderhalve maand en langer geinterneerd geweest hetgeen langer was dan de bedoeling. Deze mensen zijn in Afrika gereparieerd.

De groep leverde het volgende in qua wapens:
- één Portugees stuk geschut
- 37 machinegeweren; 7 Duitse, 16 zware Engelse en 14 lichte Engelse
- 1071 Engelse en Portugese geweren
- 208 000 patronen
- 40 artilleriegranaten

Bij overgave bestond de groep uit:
- één goeverneur
- 20 officieren
- 5 medici "Sanitätsofficiere"
- één vrijwilliger als arts
- één hoofdveearts
- één hoofdapotheker
- één veldtelegraphist
- 125 Europeanen met een andere rang dan hierboven
- 1156 Askari
- 1598 dragers

Vanwege de hevige regen duurde het aantreden enkele uren. De plaats waar de Askari zich moesten opstellen was voorzien van een hek en werd streng bewaakt. Von Lettow Vorbeck heeft officieel protest aangetekend tegen deze behandeling als krijgsgevangenen.

Dat was het verhaal totaan hun overgave. Het terugkeren naar Duitsland laat ik maar even gaan.

Dus het is niet zo dat ze ineens de 25e uit de bossen kwamen en zich overgaven.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2005 18:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2005 18:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Even wat foto's dan maar.


Paul von Lettow Vorbeck.


Ziekenhuis in Dar es Salaam, schijnt er nog steeds ongeveer zo bij te staan.


Duitse soldaten in Oost-Afrika


Askari


Dragers.


Intocht Berlijn 1919.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2005 10:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En hier de yahoo groep

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/OstAfrika/

Rudi
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Jan 2006 11:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck

¶20. März 1870 in Saarlouis

V 09. März 1964 in Hamburg

m 1. Weltkrieg befehligte er eine relativ kleine Einheit in Deutsch-Ostafrika und zeichnete sich dabei als genialer Guerillaführer aus. Er hoffte, den Krieg in Europa durch das Binden einer unverhältnismäßig großen Anzahl alliierter Truppen in seinem Bereich zu beeinflussen.

Am 20.März 1870 in Saarlouis geboren.

Als 18jähriger Leutnant des 4. Garderegiments zu Fuß.

1900/1901 Teilnahme an der Niederschlagung des Boxeraufstandes im Ostasiatischen Expeditionskorps.

Lettow-Vorbeck diente bis 1914 in Deutsch-Südwest und nahm an die Niederschlagung der Aufstände von Herero und Hottentotten teil.

Ernannt zu Kommandanten der ostafrikanischen Schutztruppen, vereitelte er eine britische Landung bei Tanga, Deutsch-Ostafrika (heutiges Tansania) im November 1914. Vier Jahre mit einer Truppe, die nie 14.000 (3.000 Deutsche und 11.000 Askaris oder einheimische Afrikaner) überstieg, band er eine große Anzahl (geschätzte Zahl von 130.000 bis zu 300.000) britischer, belgischer und portugiesischer Truppen in Ostafrika. Gut vertraut mit der britischen Strategie durch Teilnahme am Krieg gegen die chinesischen Boxer (1900/1901) und geschult im Guerillakampf beim Einsatz gegen die Hereros in Deutsch-Südwestafrika (1904), verfolgte Lettow-Vorbeck eine Taktik der Nadelstiche gegen den weit überlegenen britischen Gegner.


Siegreiches Gefecht deutscher Schutztruppen Askaris bei Tanga (Ost Afrika), britisch-indische Regimenter machen einen vergeblichen Landungsversuch."



General von Lettow-Vorbeck - Unter den Linden in Berlin

Auf seiner Rückgabe in Deutschland im Januar 1919 wurde Lettow-Vorbeck als ein Held gefeiert.



Einzug der Ostafrika-Kämpfer in Berlin" (1919)

General von Lettow-Vorbeck und Gouverneur Schnee

Im Juli 1919 führte er ein Korps von rechtsorientierten Freiwilligen, die Hamburg einnahmen, um die Übernahme der linksgerichtete Spartakisten zu verhindern.

1920 wegen Teilnahme am Kapp-Putsch vom aktive Militärdienst verabschiedet.

Er war von Mai 1929 bis Juli 1930 Abgeordneter der Deutschnationalen (DNVP) im Reichstag. Obwohl ein Mitglied des rechten Flügel, war er kein Nazi und versuchte erfolglos, einen konservativen Widerstand gegen Hitler zu organisieren.

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck starb am 9.März 1964 fasst 94 jährig in Hamburg.

"The Times" schrieb in ihrem Nachruf vom 14. März 1964: "Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, der am Montag im Alter von 93 Jahren starb, gewann verdientermaßen ein hohes Ansehen als Befehlshaber in Ostafrika während des Ersten Weltkrieges. Seine Landsleute sahen in ihm einen ihrer größten Nationalhelden, und bei seinen Gegnern, sowohl Briten wie Buren, galt er als ein geschickter, großherziger und ritterlicher Soldat."

Am 14. März 1964 wurde er in Pronstorf bei Bad Segeberg beigesetzt. Neben Vertretern der Bundesregierung und der Bundeswehr nahmen auch ehemalige Askaris an der Beisetzung teil.

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck ist Ehrenbürger der Stadt Saarlouis.

Grabstein Martha und Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck - 2003

© Foto mit freundlicher Genehmigung von Nikolaus Bernhardt
http://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/lettow-vorbeck.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Jan 2006 15:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lettow-Vorbecks Guerillakrieg

Erbitterte Kämpfe in
Deutsch-Ostafrika


Die Deutschen haben den Kampf um ihre Kolonien in China und in der Südsee verloren. Auch Südwestafrika konnten sie nicht verteidigen. Im Gegensatz zu diesen Niederlagen verläuft der Krieg in ihrer größten Kolonie Deutsch-Ostafrika ganz anders. Obwohl die Engländer bereits die Funkstation in Daressalam angegriffen haben, sind die deutsche Truppen noch siegessicher.

Eine gewaltige englische Streitmacht nähert sich der Küstenstadt Tanga im heutigen Tansania. In der Nacht auf den 4. November 1914 erkundet Oberstleutnant Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck die Lage persönlich mit dem Fahrrad. Dabei findet er heraus, dass am Landungsplatz vor Tanga bereits der erste feindliche Kreuzer liegt. Bei Tagesanbruch erfolgt die Landung des britischen Korps, Lettow-Vorbeck schätzt ihre Stärke auf rund 60.000 Mann.

Hoffnungsvolles Telegramm
Den britischen Truppen stehen 15.000 Soldaten entgegen, darunter 11.000 afrikanische Söldner, die Askari. Die Lage erscheint zunächst hoffnungslos, denn die Deutschen besitzen keine einzige Kanone. Dennoch gelingt es Lettow-Vorbeck, die englische Offensive zurückzuschlagen. Per Funk wird die Erfolgsmeldung nach Berlin übermittelt: 650 britische Soldaten sind in der Schlacht gefallen, fast 300 konnten gefangen genommen werden.

Kaiser Wilhelm II. ist von dieser Nachricht erfreut und schreibt zurück, er hoffe, dass Lettow-Vorbeck möglichst viele feindliche Truppen in Afrika binden könne. Doch genau das gelingt ihm nicht, denn die in Afrika eingesetzten britischen Truppen waren im Vergleich zu den Massenheeren Europas viel zu klein. Trotz der Unterlegenheit seiner Truppen gelingt es Lettow-Vorbeck, vier Jahre lang unbesiegt Krieg zu führen, nicht zuletzt weil die Deutschen Felder plündern und Zehntausende für sich schuften lassen.


Quote:
Prof. Dr. Kapwepwe Tambila, Universität Daressalam
"Die Deutschen hatten rund 175.000 Träger. Die Briten wohl noch mehr, bis zu 300.000. Man spricht immer vom Krieg der Deutschen gegen die Briten. Aber in Wirklichkeit wurde dieser Krieg auf dem Rücken der Afrikaner ausgetragen."


Langwieriger Stellungskrieg
Der wohl größte Trumpf der Verteidiger aber sind ihre afrikanischen Hilfstruppen, die Askari. Ihre legendäre Treue hatte handfeste Gründe: Zum einen wurden sie sehr gut bezahlt, zum anderen hatten sie die Aussicht auf eine Rente und sogar die Chance, zum Offizier aufzusteigen. Mittlerweile treffen in Berlin Nachrichten über den Kampf in Afrika ein, die ihn als Geplänkel erscheinen lassen, verglichen mit den blutigen Schlachten an der europäischen Westfront. Die Siegessicherheit der Deutschen ist verflogen, denn der geplante Blitzkrieg hat sich längst in einen grausamen Stellungskrieg verwandelt.

Nach drei Jahren Guerillakrieg werden Munition, Lebensmittel und Medikamente für die Truppen von Lettow-Vorbeck knapp. Deshalb startet das deutsche Luftschiff L 59 im November 1917 von Jamboli in Bulgarien zum längsten Flug der Welt, um die Schutztruppe in Ostafrika mit Nachschub zu versorgen. Der Zeppelin ist so konstruiert, dass alles an ihm verwendbar ist: Die Außenhaut für Zelte, die Gaszellen als Schlafsäcke, das Gerippe als Baumaterial. Das Luftschiff wird Afrika aber nie erreichen: Aufgrund einer Falschmeldung von Lettow-Vorbecks Niederlage kehrt es nach Deutschland um. Ein Jahr später ist der Krieg zu Ende.
http://www.zdf.de/ZDFde/inhalt/10/0,1872,2397258,00.html
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 29 Jan 2007 11:23, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Mrt 2006 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Richard @ 08 Mrt 2005 23:25 schreef:
Ook zeer lezenswaardig in dit verband is Battle for the Bundu. The First World War in East Africa van Charles Miller. Nairobi, Kenya 1974, Westland Sundries Ltd.
Op de omslag staat over Von Lettow-Vorbeck o.a.:
Quote:
The German commander was the legendary Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck, who was worshipped by his men and respected by his enemies. With good cause, for he led a handful of askaris - native soldiers - so superbly that they engaged the full attention of nearly 250.000 Allied troops for four years. 'Harass, kill, but don't get caught', he told his officers.


Pracht boek, zeer leesbaar geschreven. Maar waarschijnlijk behoorlijk zeldzaam door de plaats van uitgifte.


Tweedehands is dit boek via Amazon.com nog te verkrijgen.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2007 11:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Kaiser's jihad


Nigel Fountain is engrossed by Edward Paice's account of western empires clashing in early 20th-century Africa, Tip & Run

Saturday January 27, 2007
The Guardian
Tip & Run: The Untold Tragedy of the Great War in Africa
by Edward Paice 488pp, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, £25



For Major-General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck the armistice of November 11 1918, which concluded the first world war, did not come as a surprise. It did not come as anything at all, since von Lettow-Vorbeck, a man who, unlike pretty well any other commander, had succeeded in getting through that bloodbath undefeated, didn't believe the news. If the war was over, he reasoned, then the result would have been favourable to Germany. When told by one Hector Croad, a British district officer in what was then Northern Rhodesia and is now Zambia, that the Kaiser had fled to Holland and Germany was a republic, the "Hindenburg of Africa" dismissed these as clearly outlandish propositions.


Article continues
But then von Lettow-Vorbeck, the commander of the German army in east Africa, was, even by the standards of the Prussian officer caste, a very special case, a man who went on believing, in an era when eternal verities, empires and Germany's African colonies were to fly out of the window. In 1914 he had been invading British East Africa (today's Kenya) from German East Africa (Tanzania). The Royal Navy dominated the Indian Ocean, and while the numbers of combatants deployed on the continent were minuscule compared to those waging European war, the forces of the British Empire (let alone those of colonial Belgium and Portugal) were vastly superior in numbers to the Kaiser's force in Africa. But von Lettow-Vorbeck's German and African soldiers kept moving, striking out of nowhere.

From March 1916 to August 1918, von Lettow-Vorbeck marched his spectacularly efficient band - plus African porters, who Paice calls "military carriers" - a distance equivalent to that between Paris and St Petersburg. The troops took in German East Africa, Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique), marched back to German East Africa and then lunged into Northern Rhodesia, eluding the forces of the British Empire - British, Kenyan, Indian, Nigerian, South African et al - en route. But there were other enemies, shared by friend and foe, black, white and brown: typhus, blackwater fever, malaria, cerebro-spinal meningitis, dysentery, smallpox ...

Paice quotes a South African, happy to be heading home in 1917 after fruitlessly chasing another German commander. There were "a handful of Germans hidden in thousands of square miles of bush," he wrote, "[but] the real enemy were the deadly climate, the wild regions, and the swamps and forests and scrub." He could have thrown in, depending on the location, terrifying insects, hippos, crocodiles, lions - with sharks menacing seaplanes hunting the Königsberg. The last German cruiser operating outside Europe was, by 1915, holed up in the Rufiji delta and awaiting destruction at the hands of the Royal Navy, rather than by Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn's African Queen.

Faced with threats from African nature the Germans proved, as usual, to be splendid improvisers, in medical science as in military arts, with far more doctors on hand than the British - at least until mid-1917. They even made their own quinine, "Lettow Schnapps", from the bark of the cinchona tree.

The personality of von Lettow-Vorbeck is almost as elusive in Tip & Run as the soldier was to his pursuers. Yet it is the major-general who dominates Paice's engrossing, if at times over-detailed narrative, just as that campaign in central and east Africa (west Africa was a comparative walk-over) provides the book's central theme. Von Lettow-Vorbeck's relentlessness, dedication and fanaticism are the stuff of a Conrad novel, but the conclusion of the war, a fortnight after the armistice, hints at the surreal. Paice points out that there were still 34,000 British troops, supported by 71,000 carriers, in the field in east Africa. At Abercorn, in Northern Rhodesia, under rain-filled skies, there were just 155 Germans for von Lettow-Vorbeck to surrender. But then much of this lost world now seems entirely surreal, the Germans encouraging pig-breeding to fend off Islam, while stoking holy war against the British with rumours that the Kaiser had gone over to Mecca.

Tip & Run is a chronicle of so many what-ifs, alternative histories that still shadow that continent now. (What if, for instance, the Germans had been allowed to create a vast colony made up of former Belgian and Portuguese possessions, as the French and British apparently contemplated?) But most of all it is a story of the nightmare shaped by European imperial fantasies and lethally visited on African societies. The warring troops were accompanied by hundreds of thousands of carriers, pressed into servitude. They carried their loads across a terrain where, lurking in the pre-first world war past, there were horrors that would take one more generation to be unleashed on Europe: King Leopold's Congolese holocaust, mass murder in Portuguese slave states and German genocide in South-West Africa. In Paice's account, the British emerge as marginally, just marginally, less awful.

This world was populated with characters out of Rider Haggard and John Buchan: music hall artistes enrolled in the "Legion of Frontiersmen"; adventurers disgracing themselves in the "lowest haunts in Elizabethville"; an intriguing, fleeting reference to two of the few women to get a mention, "Calamity Kate" and "Hellfire Jane", the resident nurses in Zomba, the capital of Nyasaland (now Malawi). There was bush rat pie and ration biscuits smeared with monkey brains as mess fare for the starving and swamped Nigerian Brigade. And then there was Zeppelin L59, sent in 1917 on a doomed German mission to von Lettow-Vorbeck, and ending up 4,340 miles later in Jamboli, Bulgaria, with its crew fevered, frozen and oxygen-starved.

There are no words from the carriers in Paice's book - "the jackal and vulture devour them," wrote a British officer in rain-sodden Nyasaland in November 1917, "each one a hero, though unknown to them". But Paice's numbers do the job. The British official military death toll in east Africa was 11,189; the official figure for carriers who died was 95,000.

Paice estimates that at least 650,000 carriers and civilians died in German Ruanda-Urundi and German East Africa. By 1917-18, with manpower drained from east Africa's land and no rain, famine ensued. Then came the "disease of the wind", the Spanish flu epidemic, and between 1.5 and 2 million died in sub-Saharan Africa.

Meanwhile, von Lettow-Vorbeck ended the war admired as a decent chap by (white) South African and British officers. He sailed back to a different Germany, and got stuck in again. The Spartacists, offering a glimpse of another might-have-been, a revolutionary Germany, had risen up in 1919, and von Lettow-Vorbeck, leading a group of far-right freikorps, crushed them in Hamburg. The following year he took part in the proto-fascist Kapp putsch against the Social Democrats. Paice doesn't speculate, but I suspect von Lettow-Vorbeck was more reactionary conservative than Nazi, though he did keep campaigning for Germany to get its colonies back. And, unlike east Africans in 1918, he just wouldn't die. Von Lettow-Vorbeck was born as the Prussians besieged Paris in 1870, and, outliving JFK, died in 1964, three years after Tanzanian independence, and when the Beatles, rather than the freikorps, preoccupied Hamburg.

· Nigel Fountain's World War II: The People's Story is published by Michael O'Mara/ Readers Digest

http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/history/0,,1999511,00.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Aug 2007 16:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De krant "NRC-Handelsblad " bespreekt vandaag het boek ' Tip and Run ', geschreven door Edward Paice.

De ww1 in Oost-Afrika is minder besproken.

Dit artikel geeft ook enige informatie over ' von Lettow-Vorbeck '
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Aug 2008 17:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Military History and Warfare: World War I: Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck: Germany’s colonial guerrilla warrior?


On 2nd March 1919 the Germans who had returned from East Africa marched through the Brandenburg gate to be greeted by members of Germany’s new post war government. A victory parade was held in their honour and their commander, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck was awarded the ‘pour le merite’. Unlike the rest of the German army, von Lettow and his ‘Schutztruppen’ had avoided defeat and only surrendered when news of the armistice finally arrived from Europe on the 25th November 1918. When the First World War broke out in 1914, the German army in East Africa numbered only 218 Europeans and 2,542 askaris, divided into fourteen field companies. Cut off from Germany, von Lettow was almost entirely reliant on what he could get from within the colony. The German commander never had more than 15,000 soldiers whereas the Allies eventually fielded a force of 160,000 men in an effort to pin down and destroy the German presence in East Africa. Beyond his own country, von Lettow came to be venerated as a master of guerrilla warfare. The origins of this interpretation lie with the South Africans who had fought him in 1916. The Boers among them, sensitive to their own performance in the Boer war fifteen years earlier, were happy to accept the notion that they had influenced von Lettow’s strategic outlook. As a result of these ideas as well as the protracted length of the campaign, East Africa has received more attention than the other sub-Saharan theatres of World War I.


From the outset, the British had the military advantage with control of the sea and larger military forces. However, they received a severe blow when a British and Indian force failed to capture the port of Tanga in November 1914. There was serious fighting in the Kilomanjaro region and German flying columns damaged the Uganda railway. However, by early 1916, the Germans had been forced to retreat south towards the central railway line. Von Lettow managed to stage a tactical retreat into southern Tanganyika, always one step ahead of Allied attempts to trap his forces. Although outright victory was never a possibility for the dwindling German forces, von Lettow hoped to force the British to commit disproportionate forces to pursue him and thereby keep those forces away from other fronts in the war.

Despite how he is remembered, arguably von Lettow was never really a practitioner of guerrilla warfare in mindset nor tactics. Had he truly adopted the tactics of the guerrilla, considerably more could have been achieved in disrupting the Allied colonies in East Africa. From the outset of war, von Lettow’s own operational priorities remained those of the classic German military doctrine in which he had been trained. Professor Hew Strachan argues that von Lettow’s memoirs contain no theory relevant to the guerrilla. Instead they illustrate his desire for ‘envelopment, encirclement and the decisive battle’. His own instinct was to give battle rather than shy away from it. This he did on several occasions. However, it should be remembered that fighting for fighting’s sake both depleted his ammunition and endangered the lives of the irreplaceable European officer and non-commissioned officers that formed the core of von Lettow’s army.

Von Lettow himself was critical of those subordinate commanders who did exercise a form of guerrilla warfare. In January 1917, Max Wintgens led his column across the Allied lines of communications, and up to the central railway near Tabora. Wintgens sick with typhus, surrendered on 21 May, but Heinrich Naumann, his successor, held out until 2nd September. This was a classic guerrilla operation. Naumann’s men marched 3,200km between February and September. They had operated behind Allied line and drawn up to 6000 men away from the main battle. Von Lettow criticised the operation for undermining the principle of concentration of forces. Such independence smacked of insubordination rather than initiative.

It was only with von Lettow’s entry into Portuguese territory that his style of operations began to conform with that that of a guerrilla leader. His supply position had forced him onto the defensive. He fought to feed his troops and subsequently, the war in East Africa became one of movement as the Germans searched for fresh sources of supply with the British in hot pursuit. At Ngomano on 25th November 1917, the Germans surprised 1,200 Portuguese troops and captured 600 rifles and 250,000 rounds of ammunition. Three more forts were taken in December, and the Schutztruppen were able to keep themselves supplied. Von-Lettow and his column were successfully able to exploit the weakness of Portugal’s colonial administration and poor military organisation.

Nevertheless, this incursion into Portuguese territory could be viewed as a lost opportunity to wage a much larger war against the Allies than von Lettow and his forces could have waged on their own with the limited resources available. Portugal’s major concern was with the internal order of its colony. The northern regions had never properly been pacified, and in the south the Makombe in Zambezia rose in revolt in March 1917. The Portuguese turned Ngoni auxiliaries onto the Makombe and suppressed the rising by the end of 1917. The Portuguese condoned inter-tribal fighting and slavery as a means to retain control of the region. However, von Lettow did not fan these flames for his own ends. Whilst marching through the area he paid for goods with worthless paper currency and German doctors attended to the sick. But he continued to regard Africa and Africans as neutral bystanders in a wider conflict.

Von Lettow justified his entire campaign in terms of the number of Entente soldiers committed to the East Africa theatre. Almost 160,000 British and Belgian troops, including naval forces were engaged during the course of the war against the Schutztruppen. However, few of these if any would have been available for the western front. British policy was that by and large, Africans should take the burden for fighting the land campaign in the African colonies. Von Lettow’s real diversionary achievement was to be measured in the maritime, rather than land effects. In 1917/18, with U-boat warfare at its height, the length of the voyage round the Cape to Dar es Salaam tied up merchant vessels on long-haul voyages where they were desperately needed elsewhere. The need for more ships, rather than to defeat von Lettow, underpinned British war policy against the remaining the remaining German African colonies.

When von Lettow and his men finally surrendered at Abercorn at the end of November 1918, he still had a fighting force of 155 Europeans and 1,156 African askaris armed with thirty-seven machine guns, 1,071 British and Portuguese rifles and 208,000 rounds. The real restraint on what could have been achieved by those forces lay not in the possible efforts of the Allies, but in von Lettow’s own reluctance to embrace a more revolutionary strategy. Had von Lettow considered using local political difficulties to his advantage than perhaps the war in East Africa might have been a much larger headache for the Allies. Instead it turned into a case of chasing the Germans across the continent after the German colony itself was overrun in November 1917. Nonetheless, Von Lettow was without doubt an officer of resource and determination. His Schutztruppen were the embodiment of the German army’s own notion of invincibility, leadership and determination against all the odds. However, he remained an old-school soldier trained in the manner of the German General staff. His attitude and tactics clearly demonstrate that von Lettow was no guerrilla fighter.


Hew Strachan, The First World War’ (London, 2003)

Hew Strachan, The First World War in Africa (Oxford, 2004)

Edward Paige, Tip and Run’ (London, 2007)

Michael S. Neiberg, Fighting the Great War: A Global history (Harvard, 2006)

David Killingray, ‘The War in Africa’ in the Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War ed. Hew Strachan (Oxford, 1998)
© http://historyofwarfare.blogspot.com/2008/03/colonel-paul-von-lettow-vorbeck.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Aug 2010 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kolonialheld für Kaiser und Führer: General Lettow-Vorbeck - Mythos und ...
Wirklichkeit

Door Uwe Schulte-Varendorff

http://books.google.de/books?id=dlI5uclSKfsC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA1&ots=DEOBAlIwq1&dq=G+nther+Voigt,+Deutschlands+Heere+bis+1918,+Ursprung+und+Entwicklung+der+einzelnen+Formationen&hl=nl#v=onepage&q&f=false

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