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20 augustus

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Aug 2006 9:00    Onderwerp: 20 augustus Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 20. August 1914


Erfolge im Westen

Berlin, 20. Aug.
Unsere Truppen eroberten bei Tirlemont eine Feldbatterie, eine schwere Batterie und eine Fahne und machten 500 Gefangene. Unsere Kavallerie nahm dem Feind bei Perwez zwei Geschütze und zwei Maschinengewehre.


Das englisch-japanische Übereinkommen

Rotterdam, 20. Aug. (W. B.)
Der "Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant" veröffentlicht als amtliche englische Mitteilung folgendes:
Die englische und die japanische Regierung sind über die notwendigen Maßregeln zum Schutz ihrer Interessen im fernen Osten sowie auch betreffs der Integrität des chinesischen
Reiches übereingekommen. Japans Tätigkeit soll sich nicht über das Chinesische Meer hinaus erstrecken, außer wenn der Schutz der japanischen Schiffahrt dies erfordert; auch nicht auf die asiatischen Gewässer westlich des Chinesischen Meeres und zu Lande auf kein anderes als das von Deutschland besetzte Gebiet in Ostasien.


Die Führung der Regierungsgeschäfte

Berlin, 20. Aug. (W. B.)
Die "Nordd. Allgem. Ztg" schreibt: Seine Majestät der Kaiser wird auch vom Hauptquartier aus die Regierungsgeschäfte weiterführen. Nur für eine Anzahl minderwichtiger Angelegenheiten hat Seine Majestät bis auf weiteres die Entscheidung dem Reichskanzler, und dem Staatsministerium übergeben. Der Reichskanzler, der Seine Majestät, den Kaiser und König begleitet, behält auch während seiner Abwesenheit von Berlin die obere Leitung der Reichsverwaltung in seinen Händen, doch werden, um unnötige Zeitverluste zu vermeiden, Angelegenheiten, die keinen Aufschub dulden, durch den Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers, Staatssekretär des Innern Staatsminister Dr. Delbrück, der auch zum Vizepräsidenten des Staatsministeriums ernannt worden ist, erledigt werden.


Brüssel eingenommen

Amsterdam, 20. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
In Brüssel ließ der Bürgermeister in der vergangenen Nacht Proklamationen anschlagen, daß die Besetzung Brüssels durch die Deutschen bevorstehe. Er ermahnt zu vollkommener Ruhe. Die Stadtverwaltung bleibt auf dem Posten, die Bürgerwehr ist entwaffnet; die Waffen wurden nach Antwerpen gebracht.

Berlin. 20. Aug. (W. B.)
Die deutschen Truppen sind heute in Brüssel eingezogen.


Das belgische Hauptquartier nach Antwerpen verlegt

Amsterdam, 20. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
"Nieuwe Rotterdamsche" zufolge gab heute Nacht die belgische Regierung bekannt, daß das belgische Heer am Dienstag durch eine überlegene deutsche Streitmacht angegriffen wurde. Das belgische Hauptquartier und Heer wurde nach einem mörderischen Gefecht zuerst nach Mecheln und dann nach Antwerpen zurückgezogen.

Der 1. Weltkrieg im August 1914

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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Aug 2006 9:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

August 20

1932 German artist unveils monument honoring soldiers killed in World War I

On this day in 1932, in Flanders, Belgium, the German artist Kathe Kollwitz unveils the monument she created to memorialize her son, Peter, along with the hundreds of thousands of other soldiers killed on the battlefields of the Western Front during World War I.

Born in 1867 in Koningsberg, East Prussia, Kollwitz was schooled privately and sent to study art in Berlin, an unusually progressive education for a woman in the 1880s. Influenced by Realist artists and writers including Max Klinger and Emile Zola, as well as the works of Edvard Munch, Kollwitz became known for her drafting and printmaking skills, as well as for the dark subject matter of her work, which chronicled scenes from the poverty-ridden lives of working-class people in Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Her work before the beginning of World War I included drawings with such titles as Homeless, Waiting for the Drunkard and Unemployment.

Soon after the Great War began in the summer of 1914, Kollwitz’s 19-year-old son Peter enlisted voluntarily as a soldier in the German army. He was killed in battle on October 22, 1914, on the Western Front, at Diksmuide, Belgium. This personal tragedy in Kollwitz’s life was reflected in her art, along with her political ideology and strong social conscience—by 1910 she had become a committed socialist. Over the war years, Kollwitz produced a series of drawings exploring the war’s impact, with titles like Widows and Orphans, Killed in Action and The Survivors. In 1917, with World War I in full swing, Kollwitz celebrated her 50th birthday with an exhibition at the Berlin gallery owned by the internationally known art dealer Paul Cassirer.

Kollwitz’s memorial to her son Peter was dedicated on August 20, 1932, at the German military cemetery near Vladslo in Flanders, Belgium. The grieving Kollwitz had worked for years to create the monument, struggling to reconcile her hatred for the war and mistrust of its leadership with the desire to honor her son’s sacrifice for the cause. Entitled The Parents, the statue depicts an elderly couple kneeling before the grave of their son. It bears no date or signature.

Kollwitz continued her support of German and international socialism in the post-war years, and was eventually punished for her outspoken political beliefs. She became the first woman elected to the Prussian Academy of Arts but was forced to resign after Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist (Nazi) Party rose to power in 1933. Three years later the Nazis classified Kollwitz’s art—like that of so many others during that period—as “degenerate,” and barred her from exhibiting her work. Kollwitz’s husband Karl died in 1940; in 1942, her grandson, also named Peter, was killed at the Russian front during World War II. Her own home, and much of her work, was destroyed by Allied bombs the following year, and Kollwitz was evacuated from Berlin to Moritzburg, near Dresden.

“In days to come people will hardly understand this age,” Kollwitz wrote during her time in Moritzburg. “What a difference between now and 1914...People have been transformed so that they have this capacity for endurance....Worst of all is that every war already carries within the war which will answer it. Every war is answered by a new war, until everything, everything is smashed.” She died on April 22, 1945, just two weeks before World War II ended. As she wrote in her final letter: “War accompanies me to the end.”


www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Aug 2006 10:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1917 Second Battle of Verdun begins

Births
1 1895 John MilneEngland
2 1896 Anthony ArnoldEngland
3 1899 George SmithEngland

Deaths
None for 20 August

Claims
1 1916 Heinrich KostrbaAustro-Hungarian Empire #8
2 1917 Arthur DrinkwaterAustralia #2
3 1917 Godwin BrumowskiAustro-Hungarian Empire #16 #17 #18
4 1917 William AlexanderCanada #10
5 1917 Leonard BarlowEngland #11 #12
6 1917 Ralph CurtisEngland #8
7 1917 Bruno De RoeperEngland #5
8 1917 Norman MacGregorEngland #3
9 1917 James McCuddenEngland #10 #11
10 1917 John MilneEngland #4 #5
11 1917 Frederick SowreyEngland #7
12 1917 Pierre de Cazenove de PradinesFrance #2
13 1917 Andre HerbelinFrance #5
14 1917 Albert DietlenGermany #2
15 1917 Heinrich GeiglGermany #6
16 1917 Ludwig HansteinGermany #7
17 1917 Robert HeibertGermany #1
18 1917 Josef JacobsGermany #6
19 1917 Willi KampeGermany #2
20 1917 Josef MaiGermany #1
21 1917 Forde LeathleyIreland #8
22 1917 Standish O'GradyIreland #7
23 1917 Maxwell FindlayScotland #2
24 1917 William MacLanachanScotland #3
25 1918 Benno Fiala von FernbruggAustro-Hungarian Empire #28
26 1918 Franz PeterAustro-Hungarian Empire #4
27 1918 Jack CottleEngland #6 #7
28 1918 Ernest MastersEngland #7
29 1918 Robert DelannoyFrance #6 #7
30 1918 Fritz AndersGermany #3 #4
31 1918 Franz BüchnerGermany #19 #20
32 1918 Christian DonhauserGermany #2
33 1918 Albert HaussmannGermany #10
34 1918 Georg von HenglGermany u/c
35 1918 Fritz HöhnGermany #7
36 1918 Alfred LindenbergerGermany #7
37 1918 Friedrich NolteniusGermany #2
38 1918 Alvaro LeonardiItaly #8
39 1918 Ronald BannermanNew Zealand #2

Losses
None for 20 August

http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/today.cgi
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Aug 2006 10:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Es geschah am August 20....


Heute haben/hätten folgende Teilnehmer des Ersten Weltkrieges Geburtstag......

Ereignisse am heutigen Tag im Jahr...

1914 Brüssel von deutschen Truppen eingenommen.
Kämpfe bei Morhange und Saarburg beendet
1917 UC 72 von dem Q-Schiff (U-Bootfalle) "Action" im Golf von Biscaya versenkt. Alle 31 Besatzungsmitglieder, einschliesslich der Kommandant Kapitänleutnant E. Voigt, kommen dabei ums Leben.

http://www.westfront.de/today/today.pl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Aug 2006 10:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 20. August

1914
Erfolge im Westen
Das englisch-japanische Übereinkommen
Die Führung der Regierungsgeschäfte
Brüssel eingenommen
Das belgische Hauptquartier nach Antwerpen verlegt

1915
Erstürmung von Nowo-Georgiewsk
Die Kapitulationsbedingungen von Nowo-Georgiewsk
Weitere Vorfeldstellungen von Brest-Litows genommen
Vaterländische Kundgebung vor dem Reichskanzlerpalais
Bewilligung des dritten Zehnmilliardenkredits im Reichstag
Erhöhung der Brotrationen

1916
Fortschritte der Offensive in Westmazedonien
Neue Erfolge in den Karpathen
Zwei englische Kriegsschiffe durch ein U-Boot versenkt

1917
Heftige Infanterieschlacht vor Verdun
811000 Tonnen U-Boot-Beute im Juli
Zurückweichen der Italiener bei Asiago und aus dem Suganatal
Alle Angriffe am Isonzo abgewiesen

1918
Der feindliche Mißerfolg zwischen Beuvreignes und der Oise
Neuer französischer Durchbruchsversuch gescheitert
Die Versenkung des Panzerkreuzers "Dupetit-Thouars"
Neue englische Angriffe in Palästina

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/#chronik
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2009 16:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20 augustus 1914
Opwijk en Mazenzele anno 1914

http://www.heemkringopwijk.be/wo-1/c01.pdf
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Gumbinnen, 20 August 1914 (East Prussia)

Battle of the First World War. After a short delay caused by defeat at Stalluponen, Rennenkampf's Russian First Army renewed its attack. General Francois managed to persuade the German command to launch a counterattack, and his own attack, in the centre of the Russian line, drove the Russians back over five miles, but his success was exceptional. The battle was a draw, but the failure to inflict a defeat on the Russians caused a panic at the German headquarters which resulted in the replacement of General Prittwitz with the team of Hindenburg and Ludendorff.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_gumbinnen.html
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/gumbinnen.htm
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Gumbinnen
Zie ook http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gumbinnen.png (kaartje)
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Aug 2010 11:43, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Ardennes, 20-25 August 1914

The Battle of the Ardennes, 20-25 August 1914 (First World War) was part of the larger Battle of the Frontiers of France. It was fought between two French and two German armies of roughly equal size – both sides committed eight Corps to the battle.

The two German armies (Fourth, under the Duke of Württemberg and Fifth under Prince Frederick William) formed the hinge of the great movement through Belgium. During the first few weeks of the war, these armies had remained largely in place, while the Fifth Army attacked the French frontier fortresses of Montmédy and Longwy. To the north the German First, Second and Third armies took part in the great advance across Belgium.

The French had two armies facing the Ardennes – the Third under General Pierre de Ruffey and the Fourth under General Fernande de Langle de Cary. Faced with the German advance through Belgium, General Joffre ordered these armies to advance north east through the Ardennes. The French did not expect to face any serious opposition during their advance. A prolonged cavalry sweep of the Ardennes (6-15 August), performed by Sordet’s Cavalry Corps, had found no Germans. In contrast, German aircraft had noticed French troops moving north and although these troops were actually from the French Fifth Army, the Germans had come to the conclusion that the French were about to advance into the Ardennes.

On 22 August the French advance ran unto the Germans. The advance guard of the Third Army was hit by a German artillery bombardment and shattered. The Third Army, with a gap in its centre, was forced to stop and fight just to maintain its position.

The Fourth Army also suffered heavy losses on 22 August. This army contained the Colonial Corps, the main regular element of the French army. These professional troops advanced ahead of their support until they were fighting alone. They then made a series of determined attacks on German positions that cost them dear. On 22 August the 3rd Colonial Division lost 11,000 of its 15,000 men.

With their offensive stalled and key elements of both armies badly mauled the French were forced to withdraw. On 24 August both armies pulled back to the line of the Meuse. The Third Army took up positions around Verdun, while the Fourth moved to Stenay and Sedan, before eventually being forced to pull back further south in a retreat that would only end with the Battle of the Marne.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ardennes_1914.html
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ardennes.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20 - 21 August, 1914: The Fall of Brussels

The entrance of the German army into Brussels has lost the human quality. It was lost as soon as the three soldiers who led the army bicycled into the Boulevard du Régent and asked the way to the Gare du Nord. When they passed, the human note passed with them. What came after them, and twenty-four hours later is still coming, is not men marching, but a force of nature like a tidal wave, an avalanche or a river flooding its banks. At this minute it is rolling through Brussels as the swollen waters of the Conemaugh Valley swept through Johnstown.

At the sight of the first few regiments of the enemy we were thrilled with interest. After they had passed for three hours in one unbroken steel-gray column were bored. But when hour after hour passed and there was no halt, no breathing time, no open spaces in the ranks, the thing became uncanny, inhuman. You returned to watch it, fascinated. It held the mystery and menace of fog rolling toward you across the sea.

The gray of the uniforms worn by both officers and men helped this air of mystery. Only the sharpest eye could detect among the thousands that passed the slightest difference. All moved under a cloak of in visibility. Only after the most numerous and severe tests, with all materials and combinations of color that give forth no color, could this gray have been discovered. That it was selected to clothe and disguise the German when he fights is typical of the German Staff in striving for efficiency to leave nothing to chance, to neglect no detail.

After you have seen this service uniform under conditions entirely opposite you are convinced that for the German soldier it is his strongest weapon. Even the most expert marksman cannot hit the target unless he can see. It is a gray-green, not the blue-gray of our Confederates. It is the gray of the hour just before daybreak, the gray of unpolished steel, of mist among green trees.

I saw it first in the Grand Place in front of the Hotel de Ville. It was impossible to tell if in that noble square there was a regiment or a brigade. You saw only a fog that melted into the stones, blended with the ancient house fronts, that shifted and drifted, but left you nothing at which you could point.

Later, as the army passed below my window, under the trees of the Botanical Park, it merged and was lost against the green leaves. It is no exaggeration to say that at a hundred yards you can see the horses on which the Uhlans ride, but cannot see the men who ride them.

If I appear to overemphasize this disguising uniform it is because of all the details of the German out fit it appealed to me as one of the most remarkable. The other day, when I was with the rear guard of the French Dragoons and Cuirassiers and they threw out pickets, we could distinguish them against the yellow wheat or green gorse at half a mile, while these men passing in the street, when they have reached the next crossing, become merged into the gray of the paving stones and the earth swallows them. In comparison the yellow khaki of our own American Army is about as invisible as the flag of Spain.

Yesterday Major General von Jarotsky, the German Military Governor of Brussels, assured Burgomaster Max that the German army would not occupy the city, but would pass through it. It is still passing. I have followed in campaigns six armies, but excepting not even our own, the Japanese or the British, 1 have not seen one so thoroughly equipped. I am not speaking of the fighting qualities of any army, only of the equipment and organization. The German army moved into this city as smoothly and as compactly as an Empire State Express. There were no halts, no open place, no stragglers.

This army has been on active service three weeks, and so far there is not apparently a chin-strap or a horseshoe missing. It came in with the smoke pouring from cookstoves on wheels, and in an hour had set up post office wagons, from which mounted messengers galloped along the line of column distributing letters and at which soldiers posted picture post-cards.

The infantry came in in files of five, two hundred men to each company; the lancers in columns of four, with not a pennant missing. The quick-firing guns and field pieces were one hour at a time in passing, each gun with its caisson and ammunition wagon taking twenty seconds in which to pass.

The men of the infantry sang "Fatherland, My Fatherland." Between each line of song they took three steps. At times two thousand men were singing together in absolute rhythm and beat. When the, melody gave way the silence was broken only by the stamp of ironshod boots, and then again the song rose. When the singing ceased the bands played marches. They were followed by the rumbles of siege guns, the creaking of wheels and of chains clanking against the cobble-stones and the sharp bell-like voices of the bugles.

For seven hours the army passed in such solid column that not once might a taxicab or trolley car pass through the city. Like a river of steel it flowed, gray and ghostlike. Then, as dusk came and a thousands of horses' hoofs and thousands of iron boots continued to tramp forward, they struck tiny sparks from the stones, but the horses and men who beat out the sparks were invisible.

At midnight pack wagons and siege guns were still passing. At seven this morning I was awakened by the tramp of men and bands playing jauntily. Whether they marched all day or not I do not know; but for twenty six hours the gray army rumbled with the mystery of fog and the pertinacity of a steam roller.

Neue Preussische Zeitung, August 22, 1914.

The coming of the German troops was kept a secret from the people of Brussels until the last minute. The proclamation of the mayor hit the people like a clap of thunder. The mayor went out to meet the troops and upon their appearance had a white flag held aloft. He talked then with a German officer and received from the latter the assurance that nothing would happen to the people if they would give up all acts of violence towards the Germans. The entry of the Germans led to scenes of panicky fright among the people in the villages near Brussels. Brussels itself is like a dead city; in the environs the people are in great fear that they will be held responsible and punished energetically because of the destruction of German business houses in Brussels.

The bad conscience of the people of Brussels is indicated by the fact that in the last few days they have hurriedly removed the barricades and barbed-wire defenses, for the understandable order came that it was useless to defend the open city.

Brussels is completely cut off from the outer world. The citizens are in deathly fear, which is heightened through continually misleading newspaper reports. Until the last day the newspapers stated that the Germans were reluctant to fight. Even noble families have begun to flee from their castles, and they sat, just like the poor folks, on their baggage in the North Station, in order to escape via Ostend to England. Railway service was soon halted; moreover, it became impossible to obtain automobiles.

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/brussfall.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of the Frontiers, Aug.20-24.1914

AUGUST 20

The Belgian Front.
==The Belgian Army reaches its Antwerp lines; Kluck detaches two corps from the German 1st Army to cover it
==The German Army occupies Brussels: 320,000 troops of Kluck’s 1st Army march through the city by Aug.23; Germany demands a $10 million fine from Brussels, and $90 million from the province of Brabant
==German 1st Army’s supply systems are already running into trouble
==(to Aug.21) The German 2nd Army executes 211 civilians at Andenne and 50 at Seilles, east of Namur; General Bülow later publicizes the massacres in an attempt to overawe the Belgians - ~increasingly, German forces are taking and executing hostages

The Western Front (general).
==(to Aug.24) THE BATTLE OF THE FRONTIERS: Allied and German armies collide from Belgium to Lorraine

The BEF.
==The Germans first learn of the BEF’s arrival in France
==The BEF is fully assembled around Maubeuge
==Early British and French reconnaisance reports indicate that the forces on the German right are strong enough to seriously threaten the Allied left

The Northwestern Front.
==Approaching German infantry is reported to be within 20 kilometers of the Sambre [early]
==Most of Lanrezac’s 5th Army reaches the Sambre after tough marches [afternoon]
==Moltke orders the German 2nd Army to besiege Namur and, with 3rd Army, to attack the French forces on the Sambre [evening]
==GQG finally allows Lanrezac to align his 5th Army northwards, and orders him to launch an attack over the Sambre [night]

The Central Front.
==Joffre confidently orders de Langle’s 4th Army to open the Ardennes offensive against the German center [900.PM]

Lorraine.
==Rupprecht’s 6th Army launches a powerful German counteroffensive in Lorraine [dawn], colliding with French attacks at Morhange and Sarrebourg - Castelnau’s French 2nd Army is forced to retreat with heavy losses [afternoon], pulling back Dubail’s hard-pressed 1st Army in turn
==GQG receives the first reports of the French defeats in Lorraine [400.PM], but Joffre remains optimistic

Alsace.
==French General Pau is ordered to retreat in Alsace
==Bavarian troops destroy Nomeny and kill fifty civilians

German Headquarters (OHL).
==The Master of the Horse shoots himself at OHL in Coblenz [700.AM] as tension mounts

http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne03.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 12:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Modern Popes (1800 to present)

His Holiness Pope Pius X died on 20 August 1914 in Rome, in the 12th year of his pontificate, at the age of 79-years. He was buried on 23 August in the Grottoes of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica. The diocesan process for his canonization was initiated on 12 February 1943 by the Ven. Pope Pius XII, and his heroic virtues were proclaimed on 3 September 1950, he was beatified on 3 June 1951, and canonized on 29 May 1954 by the same Roman Pontiff. His mortal remains were transferred on 17 February 1952 to the altar of the Chapel of the Presentation of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica. His feast was originally kept on 3 September, and was created a III Class feast in the universal calendar on 25 July 1960 by Bl. Pope John XXIII. The feast was transferred to 21 August as an obligatory Memorial in the universal calendar on 14 February 1969 by the Servant of God Pope Paul VI, and is in the Vatican kept as a Feast.

http://catholicsites.org/popes/modern.html
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