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19 augustus

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2006 5:37    Onderwerp: 19 augustus Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 19. August 1914


Des Kaisers Abschiedsworte an seine Garde

Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Bevor das Leibregiment der Hohenzollern, das Erste Garderegiment zu Fuß, seine Garnison Potsdam verließ, hat sich, wie die "Hamburger Nachrichten" melden, der Kaiser als Chef des Regiments von seinen Grenadieren mit einer Ansprache verabschiedet, die folgenden Wortlaut hatte:

"Die früheren Generationen und auch alle, die heute hier stehen, haben die Soldaten des Ersten Garderegiments und Meiner Garde an diesem Orte schon öfter versammelt gesehen. Sonst war es der Fahneneid, das Gelübde, das wir vor dem Herrn schwuren, das uns hier vereinte. Heute sind alle hier erschienen, den Segen für die Waffen zu erbitten, da es jetzt darauf ankommt, den Fahneneid zu bewegen bis zum letzten Blutstropfen. Das Schwert soll entscheiden, das Ich jahrzehntelang in der Scheide gelassen habe. Ich erwarte von Meinem Ersten Garderegiment zu Fuß und Meiner Garde, daß sie ihrer glorreichen Geschichte ein neues Ruhmesblatt hinzufügen werden. Die heutige Feier findet uns im Vertrauen auf den höchsten Gott und in Erinnerung an die glorreichen Tage von Leuthen, Chlum und St. Privat. Unser alter Ruhm ist ein Appell an das deutsche Volk und sein Schwert. Und das ganze deutsche Volk bis auf den letzten Mann hat Das Schwert ergriffen. Und so ziehe Ich denn das Schwert, das Ich mit Gottes Hilfe Jahrzehnte in der Scheide gelassen habe." Bei diesen Worten zog der Kaiser das Schwert aus der Scheide und hielt es hoch über seinem Haupte. "Das Schwert ist gezogen, das Ich, ohne siegreich zu sein, ohne Ehre nicht wieder einstecken kann. Und ihr alle sollt und werdet Mir dafür sorgen, daß es erst in Ehren wieder eingesteckt werden wird. Dafür bürgt ihr Mir, daß Ich den Frieden Meinen Feinden diktieren kann. Auf in den Kampf mit den Gegnern und nieder mit den Feinden Brandenburgs. Drei Hurras auf unser Heer!"

Der Regimentskommandeur erwiderte darauf:

"Eurer Majestät danke ich ganz untertänigst im Namen von fast siebentausend Grenadieren und Füsilieren für den überaus gnädigen Abschiedsgruß, den Eure Majestät uns zugerufen haben. Wir geloben hier auf dieser von der Tradition geheiligten Stätte, wo Jahrhunderte preußischen Ruhms auf uns herabsehen, den Grenadieren des großem Königs es gleich zu tun, die furchtlos einer Welt von Feinden entgegensahen, nur ihrem König und ihrer gerechten Sache vertrauend. So vertraut ein jeder von uns Eurer Majestät. Unser unbezwingbarer Wille zum Siege soll gleich sein dem, der die Stürmer von Chlum und St. Privat beseelt hat. Und jeder von uns, der in den beiden Regimentern in Reih und Glied steht, weiß, daß es nur eins gibt für uns: zu siegen oder zu sterben. Dies geloben wir, indem wir in den altpreußischen Schlachtruf einstimmen, mit dem wir heute unser Leben aufs neue bis zum letzten Blutstropfen Eurer Majestät weihen: Seine Majestät der Kaiser und König, unser geliebter Kriegsherr und Regimentschef, hurra!" 2)


Ein japanisches Ultimatum

Berlin, 19. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Nachdem durch das offiziöse Telegraphenbureau bekanntgegeben worden ist, was in politischen Kreisen schon seit mehreren Tagen besprochen wurde, daß Japan im Begriff stehe, ein Ultimatum wegen Kiautschou an Deutschland zu richten, besteht kaum ein Zweifel darüber, daß diese Absicht ausgeführt werden wird, oder schon ausgeführt ist. Auch der Inhalt des Ultimatums wird keine Überraschung sein. Japan verlangt einfach Kiautschou mit allem Zubehör. Ebenso wenig besteht ein Zweifel, wie Deutschlands Antwort auf dieses Ultimatum allein lauten kann. 2)


Das Ultimatum

Berlin, 19. Aug. (W. B.)
Der hiesige japanische Geschäftsträger hat im Auftrag seiner Regierung dem Auswärtigen Amt eine Note überreicht, worin unter Berufung auf das englisch-japanische Bündnis die sofortige Zurückziehung der deutschen Kriegsschiffe aus den japanischen und chinesischen Gewässern oder die Abrüstung dieser Schiffe, ferner bis zum 15. September die bedingungslose Übergabe des gesamten Pachtgebietes von Kiautschou an die japanischen Behörden und die unbedingte Annahme dieser Forderungen bis zum 23. August verlangt wird. 2)


Zur Einnahme von Schabatz

Wien, 19. Aug. (W. B.)
Ungarische Blätter erfahren Einzelheiten über die Einnahme von Schabatz, aus denen hervorgeht, daß Frauen und Kinder aus alten Karabinern schossen und Bomben warfen, ohne jedoch viel Unheil anzurichten. Serbische Soldaten schossen auf Abteilungen des Roten Kreuzes und auf Ärzte. Scharenweise schwammen serbische Soldaten in vollständiger Ausrüstung durch die Save, die Donau und die Drina zu den Österreichern herüber, so daß in kurzer Zeit 500 serbische Deserteure eingefangen wurden. Die Soldaten hoben hervor, wie glänzend sich die österreichischen Geschütze bewähren, welche eiserne Disziplin bei den Österreichern herrsche und wie sparsam sie mit der Munition umgingen. 2)


Vom serbischen Kriegsschauplatz

Wien, 19. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Wie die "Reichspost" meldet, haben die österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen auch bei Progar, 23 Kilometer westlich von Semlin, die Save überschritten und die serbische Stadt Obrenowatsch genommen. 2)


Vom westlichen Kriegsschauplatz

Berlin, 19. Aug. (W. B.)
Die französische 5. Kavalleriedivision wurde heute unter schweren Verlusten bei Perwez, (nördlich von Namur) von unserer Kavallerie zurückgeworfen.

Berlin, 19. Aug. (W. B.)
Bayerische und badische Truppen schlugen die bis Weiler (15 Kilometer nordwestlich
von Schlettstadt) vorgedrungene 55. Infanteriebrigade, brachten ihr große Verluste bei und warfen sie über die Vogesen zurück.

Köln, 19. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Angesichts der fortdauernden Lügen der ausländischen Presse stellt die "Kölnische Zeitung" fest, daß der Kommandant der Festung Lüttich, General Léman, heute im Automobil als Gefangener in Köln eingetroffen ist. 2)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2006 5:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

August 19

1919 President Wilson appears before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

On August 19, 1919, in a break with conventional practice, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson appears personally before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to argue in favor of its ratification of the Versailles Treaty, the peace settlement that ended the First World War.

The previous July 8, Wilson had returned from Paris, France, where the treaty’s terms had been worked out over a contentious six months. Two days later, he went before the U.S. Senate to present the Treaty of Versailles, including the covenant of the League of Nations, the international peace-keeping organization that Wilson had envisioned in his famous “Fourteen Points” speech of 1917 and had worked for so adamantly in Paris. “Dare we reject it?” he asked the senators, “and break the heart of the world?”

The 96 members of the Senate, for their part, were divided. The central concern with the treaty involved the League of Nations. A crucial article of the league covenant, around which much debate would center in the weeks to come, required all member states “to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League.” This principle of collective security was thought by many to be an obstruction to America’s much vaunted independence. At least six Republican senators, dubbed the “Irreconcilables,” were irrevocably opposed to the treaty, while nine more were “Mild Reservationists” whose most important concern about the treaty, and specifically the League of Nations, was that American sovereignty be protected. Some three dozen Republicans were uncommitted as of yet. While most Democrats publicly went along with Wilson, many privately thought more along the lines of the Mild Reservationists.

So things stood on July 31, when the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, headed by the Republican Senator (and Wilson’s nemesis) Henry Cabot Lodge, began six weeks of hearings on the Versailles Treaty. Lodge’s Republicans had a majority of only two in the Senate, and Wilson could conceivably have won over the moderates among them—the Mild Reservationists and those undecided—to his side, thus building a coalition in favor of ratification, by accepting some reservations. Wilson was absolutely unwilling, however, to accept any degree of change or compromise to the treaty or to his precious League of Nations. His mental and physical health already deteriorating over that summer, Wilson broke tradition to make a personal appearance before the committee on August 19, making it clear that he continued to stand firm on all points.

Four days later, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee voted on the first of many amendments to the treaty—the reversal of the award to Japan of the Shantung Peninsula, and its return to Chinese control. Furious, Wilson decided to take his case directly to the American people. On September 2, 1919, he began a whistle-stop tour across the country, sometimes making as many as three speeches in one day. The strain of the trip destroyed his health; suffering from exhaustion, he returned to Washington in late September, and the rest of the tour was canceled. On October 2, back at the White House, Wilson suffered a massive stroke that left him partially paralyzed; he would never effectively function as president again.

He continued to influence the proceedings on the treaty, however, all the way from his sickbed. The treaty made its way through the Senate all through October and part of November, as a total of 12 amendments were defeated by Democrats and moderate Republicans. Lodge marshaled most of the Republicans together, and their votes were enough to attach a number of reservations before assembling a vote on ratification—the most crucial was attached to Article X, saying the U.S. would not act to protect the territorial integrity of any League member unless Congress gave its approval. Wilson, on his sickbed, remained determined; when told of the reservation, he said “That cuts the very heart out of the treaty.” After Wilson expressed his vehement opposition to ratification on these terms, the Senate took a vote on Lodge’s motion. It was defeated by a combination of the majority of the Democrats, loyal to Wilson, and the Republican Irreconcilables, who opposed ratification in any form. A last-ditch effort by moderates to find a compromise came close to succeeding—against Wilson’s best efforts to block it—and when the Senate voted on March 19, 1920, on a new ratification resolution, 23 Democrats voted in favor, and the resolution passed. It failed to win the necessary two-thirds majority, however, and the Senate consequently refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.

Though Wilson, the newly anointed winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, bemoaned the rejection of the treaty, he never admitted any doubts about his resolute unwillingness to compromise. Though the United States later signed separate treaties with Germany, Austria and Hungary, it never joined the League of Nations, a circumstance that almost certainly contributed to that organization’s inefficacy in the decades to follow, up until the outbreak of the Second World War.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2006 8:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 19. August

1914
Des Kaisers Abschiedsworte an seine Garde
Ein japanisches Ultimatum
Zur Einnahme von Schabatz
Vom westlichen Kriegsschauplatz

1915
In den Vorstellungen von Brest-Litowsk
Ein englisches U-Boot durch ein deutsches Torpedoboot zerstört
Der große White-Star-Dampfer "Arabic" torpediert

1916
Schwere Kämpfe bei Maurepas und Guillemont
Die Magura-Höhe erstürmt

1917
Englischer Angriff bei Langemarck zurückgeworfen
Kriegserklärung Chinas
Beginn der elften Isonzo-Schlacht

1918
Wiederholte feindliche Anstürme südlich der Avre zusammengebrochen

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/#chronik
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2006 8:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1914 First RFC reconnaissance flight of the war is made from Maubeuge, Belgium
2 1915 German submarine U-24 sinks passenger liner Arabic

Births
1 1887 Pierre DelageFrance
2 1898 Edgar AmmSouth Africa

Deaths
1 1917 Carleton ClementCanada

Claims
1 1915 Oswald BoelckeGermany #2
2 1917 Godwin BrumowskiAustro-Hungarian Empire u/c u/c #15
3 1917 Benno Fiala von FernbruggAustro-Hungarian Empire #7
4 1917 Otto JägerAustro-Hungarian Empire #7
5 1917 Roderick McDonaldCanada #6
6 1917 Brian BakerEngland #6
7 1917 Richard HillEngland #1
8 1917 Thomas Le MesurierEngland #4
9 1917 James McCuddenEngland #9
10 1917 Richard MundayEngland #1
11 1917 Marcel DhomeFrance #2
12 1917 Heinrich GontermannGermany #31 #32 #33 #34 #35
13 1917 Ernst HessGermany #9
14 1917 Fritz JacobsenGermany #2
15 1917 Max von MüllerGermany #23 #24
16 1917 Fritz PütterGermany #3
17 1917 Emil ThuyGermany #7
18 1917 Francesco BaraccaItaly #17
19 1917 William JordanSouth Africa #5
20 1918 Adrian ColeAustralia #5 #6
21 1918 Edgar JohnstonAustralia #11
22 1918 Kenneth ConnCanada #8 #9
23 1918 Owen BaldwinEngland #9
24 1918 Walter CarlawEngland #6
25 1918 Benjamin Roxburgh-SmithEngland #12
26 1918 Guy WareingEngland #2
27 1918 Alec WilliamsonEngland #7
28 1918 Paul AueGermany #8
29 1918 Franz BüchnerGermany #18
30 1918 Alfred FleischerGermany #3
31 1918 Alois HeldmannGermany #11
32 1918 Arthur LaumannGermany #24
33 1918 Josef MaiGermany #21 #22 #23
34 1918 Thomas ProctorIreland #5
35 1918 Thomas HarriesScotland #9
36 1918 Hilbert BairUSA #2 #3
37 1918 Louis BennettUSA #4 #5 #6 #7
38 1918 Sydney BrownUSA #2
39 1918 Norman CooperUSA #3
40 1918 William LambertUSA #18
41 1918 Reed LandisUSA #11 #12
42 1918 Frederick LuffUSA #1
43 1918 Emile LussierUSA #5
44 1918 Harold ShoemakerUSA #3

Losses
1 1917 Carleton ClementCanadakilled in action
2 1917 Roger NevilleEnglandinjured

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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2006 8:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Es geschah am August 19....


Heute haben/hätten folgende Teilnehmer des Ersten Weltkrieges Geburtstag......

Ereignisse am heutigen Tag im Jahr...

1914 Ala es Sultaneh tritt als persischer Ministerpräsident zurück, und übernimmt das Amt des Aussenministers. Sein Nachfolger wird Mustaufi ul Mamalek.
1914 Die belgische Armee zieht sich auf die Festung Antwerpen zurück
1914 Erste indische Truppen, das 29. Punjab Regiment, werden nach Ost Afrika entsandt.
1914 Mülhausen von französischen Truppen eingenommen.
1915 U 27 westlich der Scilly Inseln von dem Q-Schiff "Baralong" versenkt. Keine Überlebende.

http://www.westfront.de/today/today.pl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2009 16:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 Augustus 1914

Ze zijn hier! Jammerlijke benden, velen in hun werkkleederen, zooals ze op bevel van hooger hand weg liepen: vrouwen met gekleurde doeken op het hoofd; schuwe blikken, ingedrongen gestalten; handen, die pakjes dragen; valiezen bij hen, wier kledij wat welstand aanduidt. Een vrouw houdt een onderweg gestorven kindje in den arm...
Waarheen, waarheen die menschenstroom in al zijn ellende?
Deuren ontsluiten zich, kloosters stellen hun poorten open. Het Stedelijk Nachtverblijf, 's winters ingericht voor haveloozen, neemt er op. Een priester deelt sigaren aan de mannen uit; een bakker geeft, zonder vergelding, milde grepen in de gretig opgestoken handen: brood, koeken, lekkernij, alles wat zijn winkel bevat. Vele bijzonderen nemen vluchtelingen in hun woning.


© http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1914-08-19.htm#d_1914-08-19entry1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Aug 2009 16:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 Augustus 1914

Ze zijn hier! Jammerlijke benden, velen in hun werkkleederen, zooals ze op bevel van hooger hand weg liepen: vrouwen met gekleurde doeken op het hoofd; schuwe blikken, ingedrongen gestalten; handen, die pakjes dragen; valiezen bij hen, wier kledij wat welstand aanduidt. Een vrouw houdt een onderweg gestorven kindje in den arm...
Waarheen, waarheen die menschenstroom in al zijn ellende?
Deuren ontsluiten zich, kloosters stellen hun poorten open. Het Stedelijk Nachtverblijf, 's winters ingericht voor haveloozen, neemt er op. Een priester deelt sigaren aan de mannen uit; een bakker geeft, zonder vergelding, milde grepen in de gretig opgestoken handen: brood, koeken, lekkernij, alles wat zijn winkel bevat. Vele bijzonderen nemen vluchtelingen in hun woning.


© http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1914-08-19.htm#d_1914-08-19entry1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 18:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 19 August 1914

Western Front
Belgium: Germans reach Dinant-Neufchateau line and occupy Louvain
Belgians, defeated at Aerschot, fall back towards Antwerp.
Alsace: French re-enter Mulhausen and push on in Lorraine.

Eastern Front
Poland: Austrians' advance checked near Kyeltsi.

Southern Front
End of Battle of the Jadar; defeat of Austrians.

Political, etc.
Kaiser's alleged order for the destruction of "General French's contemptible little army".

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_08_19.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S. Declaration of Neutrality, 19 August 1914

With Britain's entry declaration of war with Germany on 4 August 1914, a general European war - soon to become a world war - was underway.

On 19 August 1914 U.S. President Woodrow Wilson addressed Congress and made public the U.S. policy of neutrality. During his address he warned U.S. citizens against taking sides in the war for fear of endangering the wider U.S. policy.

President Wilson's Address to Congress

The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned.

The spirit of the nation in this critical matter will be determined largely by what individuals and society and those gathered in public meetings do and say, upon what newspapers and magazines contain, upon what ministers utter in their pulpits, and men proclaim as their opinions upon the street.

The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy and desire among them with regard to the issues and circumstances of the conflict.

Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle. It will be easy to excite passion and difficult to allay it. Those responsible for exciting it will assume a heavy responsibility, responsibility for no less a thing than that the people of the United States, whose love of their country and whose loyalty to its government should unite them as Americans all, bound in honour and affection to think first of her and her interests, may be divided in camps of hostile opinion, hot against each other, involved in the war itself in impulse and opinion if not in action.

Such divisions amongst us would be fatal to our peace of mind and might seriously stand in the way of the proper performance of our duty as the one great nation at peace, the one people holding itself ready to play a part of impartial mediation and speak the counsels of peace and accommodation, not as a partisan, but as a friend.

I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, to speak a solemn word of warning to you against that deepest, most subtle, most essential breach of neutrality which may spring out of partisanship, out of passionately taking sides.

The United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls. We must be impartial in thought, as well as action, must put a curb upon our sentiments, as well as upon every transaction that might be construed as a preference of one party to the struggle before another.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usneutrality.htm
Zie ook http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson%27s_Declaration_of_Neutrality
Zie ook http://www.gwpda.org/1914/wilsonneut.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"The Old Contemptibles"

On 19 August 1914, Kaiser Wilhelm allegedly issued an Order of the Day which read in part: "my soldiers to exterminate first the treacherous English; walk over Field Marshal French's contemptible little Army." This led to the British "Tommies" of the BEF proudly labelling themselves "The Old Contemptibles". However, no evidence of the famous Order of the Day was ever found in the German archives after the war, and the ex-Kaiser denied having given it. An investigation conducted by General Frederick Maurice traced the origins of the Order to the British GHQ, where it apparently had been concocted for propaganda purposes.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mons
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The First Moves on the Western Front, Aug.03-19.1914

AUGUST 19

The Belgian Front.
==Kluck’s 1st Army crosses the Gette but finds that the Belgian Army has escaped
==The Germans occupy Louvain
==In their first mass execution of civilians, the Germans shoot 150 hostages at Aerschot

The BEF.
==The Kaiser’s Order of the Day to the German 1st Army urges it to “destroy the contemptible little English Army”
==Kitchener warns John French that a massive German offensive through Belgium seems to be developing
==The Royal Flying Corps makes its first wartime reconnaissance, in western Belgium with two aircraft, both of which promptly get lost

The Northwestern Front.
==The German attack on the Belgian forts at Namur opens (or Aug.20) - Lanrezac receives a report that Namur will probably not hold out long [morning]
==Advance units of the French 5th Army reach the Sambre

The Central Front.
==The German Crown Prince’s 5th Army and Albrecht’s 4th Army begin a slow advance into the Ardennes

Lorraine.
==Joffre orders the formation of the Army of Lorraine under Maunoury, between the 2nd and 3rd Armies
==As part of the offensive by French 2nd Army, Foch’s XXth Corps easily advances to within sight of Morhange in Lorriane
==Dubail’s 1st Army meets growing German resistance as it nears the crest of the Vosges

Alsace.
==The French under Pau retake Mulhouse in Alsace, holding it till Aug.25, and briefly take Dornach

http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russia Invades East Prussia, August, 1914

On August 17, 1914, the Russian First Army, under General Rennenkampf, invaded East Prussia from the east. According to plan, on August 19, General Samsonov at the head of the Russian Second Army was to proceed from 'Warsaw northward into East Prussia. The two Russian armies would thus encircle the German forces in a giant pincers movement. At first, matters went Russia's way, with Rennenkampf winning in his first few encounters with German troops. At this point, however, the German high command became greatly concerned with Rennenkampf's successes and brought General Paul yon Hindenburg out of retirement to head the defense of East Prussia. With the entry of Hindenburg into the campaign, Russia's early successes were followed by massive defeats.

http://www.russia.by/russia.by/readme.php?subaction=showfull&id=1189693800&archive=&start_from=&ucat=7&category=7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 Aug 1914 - Battle and Destruction of Louvain (Leuven) Belgium

A brave stand was made in front of Louvain, on August 19, by the right wing of the Belgian army, acting as a rear guard, while the center fell back on Antwerp, but so superior in numbers and artillery were the Germans that a further retreat on Antwerp by way of Malines was ordered. Louvain was occupied the next day by an army of 50,000 Huns.

Governor General von Arnim, after taking formal possession of the city, disarmed the citizens, ordered them to bed at 8 p. m. daily and admonished them to leave one lamp burning in each house at night. All doors were to be left unlocked.

A proclamation was issued threatening with immediate death any citizen found with a weapon in his possession or in his house. It was decreed that every house from which a shot was fired would be burned. The burgomaster and other city officials were secured as hostages, and were subsequently put to death.

The Huns were determined to destroy Louvain in reprisal for the brave resistance offered by the Belgians to the German invasion. Seeking a pretext for the reign of terror which they intended to inaugurate, they falsely alleged that German soldiers had been killed by citizens of Louvain.

Three hundred men and boys were seized and shot in the streets. The burgomaster, two magistrates, the rector of the university and all police officials had previously been put to death. The torch was then applied to the "convicted houses" from which it was alleged shots had been fired.

Beautiful Louvain soon became a roaring furnace. Whole districts were wiped out, and with them the architectural gems for which the town was famous. The Halles, the University with its priceless library, and St. Peter's Cathedral, were wholly or partially destroyed.

The quaintly beautiful Town Hall alone was spared among the historic edifices that fell before the Vandal's torch. Whole streets were left in blackened ruins. Women and girls were given over to the brutal uses of the Hun soldiers; priests and aged civilians were shot, and scores of innocent townsfolk, without regard to age or sex, were massacred. Finally, a war indemnity of $40,000,000 was assessed upon the ruined city.

http://timelines.com/perspectives/6b0547498545b6bacbac9f25c1de2063
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The myth of the “spirit of 1914”

De inleiding in pdf van The Spirit of 1914: Militarism, Myth, and Mobilization in Germany, door Jeffrey Verhey.

http://assets.cambridge.org/97805217/71375/excerpt/9780521771375_excerpt.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo, 1917

Launched on 19 August 1917 the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo was the final initiative along the Isonzo River to be launched by the Italians and their Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna.

Cadorna's eleventh attempt at breaking the deadlock along the Isonzo and so finally putting an end to the ongoing war of attrition saw him gather together 51 divisions and 5,200 guns. The target was, once again, to be the Carso and around the Italian bridgehead at Gorizia.

Having opened on the coastal zone Italian gains (under Duke Aosta's Third Army) were achieved as the Austro-Hungarian line was inexorably pushed back. In the north gains were particularly marked with some 10km of ground snatched from the Austro-Hungarians by Luigi Capello's Second Army.

Indeed the Italian advance was so successful (capturing the Bainsizza Plateau south-east of Tolmino) that the army outran its artillery and supply lines, thus preventing the further advance that may have finally succeeded in breaking the Austro-Hungarian army. However the Austro-Hungarian line ultimately held and the attack was abandoned on 12 September 1917.

No further attempts were made by the Italians along the Isonzo. All eleven Isonzo battles to date had been initiated by Cadorna; however a twelfth and final battle took place a month-and-a-half later. Cadorna, aware that the Germans were planning a joint offensive with the Austro-Hungarians ordered Capello's forces to withdraw his forward units to more readily defensible positions. Capello's decision to ignore Cadorna's orders (buoyed by his own recent success) contributed to the Italian disaster the following month.

In late October Austria-Hungary's ally, Germany, finally committed forces to a joint operation at Caporetto. While the Austro-Hungarians had often pleaded for German assistance on the Italian Front it was only now granted with the recognition that the Austro-Hungarian army had finally been stretched to breaking point, with the consequent - and very real - possibility that the Italians would soon achieve their long-sought breakthrough. Fortunately with hostilities on the Eastern Front ceasing along with Russia's withdrawal from the war, German resources could be (and were) transferred to the Isonzo.

Often referred to as the Battle of Caporetto, the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo was a spectacular success for the Central Powers and very nearly succeeded in knocking Italy out of the war.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/isonzo11.htm
Over de achtergronden van The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17, ga naar http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/isonzo.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rehearsals: The German Army in Belgium, August 1914 [Paperback]
Jeff Lipkes

"People screamed, cried, and groaned. Above the tumult I could distinguish the voices of small children. All this time the soldiers were singing. . . . Sometime after the first salvo, there was another round of fire and, once again, I was not hit. After this I heard fewer cries, save from time to time a small child calling its mother."--Félix Bourdon, survivor of a mass execution in Dinant, Belgium
In August 1914, without any legitimate pretext, German soldiers killed nearly 6,000 Belgian noncombatants, including women and children, and burned some 25,000 homes and other buildings. Rehearsals is the first book to provide a detailed narrative history of the German invasion of Belgium as it affected civilians. Based on extensive eyewitness testimony, the book chronicles events in and around the towns of Liège, Aarschot, Andenne, Tamines, Dinant, and Leuven, where the worst of the German depredations occurred. Accounts of the killing, looting, and arson have long been dismissed as "atrocity propaganda," particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. Rehearsals examines the campaign by revisionists that led to voluminous and compelling testimony about German war crimes being discredited.

Recently, the case has been made that the violence that came to a peak between August 19 and August 26, 1914, was the result of a spontaneous outbreak of German paranoia about civilian sharpshooters. In Rehearsals, Jeff Lipkes offers compelling evidence that the executions were in fact part of a deliberate campaign of terrorism ordered by military authorities. In his shocking account of events that have been largely overlooked by historians of World War I, Lipkes commemorates the heroism as well as the suffering of the Belgian victims of German aggression.

http://www.amazon.com/Rehearsals-German-Army-Belgium-August/dp/9058675963#_
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Posters: German-Occupied Belgium during the First World War

This important collection of propaganda posters provides an official version of everyday life in German-occupied Belgium during the First World War. Related materials provide a very different picture.

(...) German troops invaded and occupied the country, precipitating the carnage of the First World War. Situated between Liège and Brussels, the city of Louvain, with a population 42,000 people, fell to the German First Army on 19 August 1914. On 25 August 1914, German soldiers close to the city of Louvain were attacked by a Belgian force advancing from Antwerp. Fifty German soldiers were killed in the attack. At the Hôtel de Ville the son of the city’s mayor shot members of the German staff. German soldiers, fearing a civilian uprising or the possibility of more Allied attacks, retaliated. During a five day rampage they terrorized the population of Louvain, burning and looting the city. Like most of Belgium, Louvain remained under German control for the duration of the war. Belgium would become the major battleground of the Western Front, mired in trench warfare.

An excellent resource for the study and understanding of Louvain’s history for this painful period of German occupation during the World War I is a series of proof copies of 149 posters printed between July 1914 and August 1916 by E. Charpentier. Written in French, Flemish and occasionally in German, the posters are ordinances, proclamations, or warnings issued to the public by city officials, the police, or military authorities. Prior to the destruction of Louvain, the posters urge patriotism, restraint, calm, and the surrender of weapons. In September 1914, after the citizens are requested to return to the city by the provisional mayor, they take on a different tone – they contain harsh warnings, threatening severe punishment for any law breaking, prohibitions governing the sale and distribution of liquor, and the regulation of prices for bread, meat and other products. In an atmosphere of high tension, the courts, schools, churches, and markets re-opened; people attempted to reclaim their lives amid extraordinary circumstances of general unrest and fear. By the middle of 1915 the posters document that in spite of rationing, curfews, the intermittent closings of markets, bars, and cafés, stability was almost restored, although crowds, music, and noise were strictly forbidden.

In addition to the Louvain posters, the collections include a great variety of other documents about the plight of the Belgian people and soldiers during this period. There are several other Belgian posters, all of German origin. The earliest poster, issued by General von Emmich circa 4 August 1914, is an appeal to the Belgian people to make a clear path through Belgium for the German army marching towards France. The General assures the population that no harm will be done to anyone and that the army will even reimburse supplies taken from the population. In sharp contrast to these posters from the German authorities, there is a set of Bulletin de propagande patriotique entitled La Libre Belgique (there were 171 issues printed between February 1915 and 12 November 1918 plus supplements). A revealing indication of the true state of Belgian opinion during the war, this newssheet had a circulation élastique, de zéro à l’infini. The supplements, directed at German atrocities, are entitled J’accuse! par un Allemand. In addition to newspapers, maps, and aerial photographs found in a number of smaller archives, another source of Belgian related material is the Russell Markland fonds, primarily correspondence about an anthology of poetry entitled The Glory of Belgium (1915), published in support of the Belgian Repatriation Fund.

Lekker posters en kranten kijken! http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/case-study/louvain-posters-german-occupied-belgium-during-first-world-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Month in Australian Military History

19 August 1914 - Departure of the AN&MEF
The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force departed Sydney on 19 August 1914; its mission was to capture German possessions in the Western Pacific and in German New Guinea.

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Action of 19 August 1915

On August 19, 1915, about 100 miles south of Queenstown, Ireland, U-27, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Bernard Wegener, stopped the British steamer Nicosian in accordance with the rules laid down by the London Treaty. A boarding party of six men from the U-27 discovered the Nicosian was carrying munitions and 250 American mules intended for the use of the British Army in France. They ordered the freighter's crew and passengers into lifeboats, and prepared to sink the freighter.

U-27 was lying off Nicosian's port quarter firing into it when the Baralong appeared on the scene, flying the ensign of the United States as a false flag. When she was half a mile away Baralong ran up a signal flag to the effect that she was going to rescue Nicosian's crew. Wegener acknowledged the signal, ordered his men to stop firing, and took U-27 along the port side of Nicosian to intercept the Baralong. As the submarine disappeared behind the steamship, Herbert steered Baralong on a parallel course along Nicosian's starboard side.

Before U-27 came round Nicosian's bow, Baralong hauled down the American flag,hoisted the Royal Navy White Ensign, and unmasked her guns. When U-27 came into view from behind Nicosian, Baralong opened fire with her three 12-pounder guns at a range of 600 yd (550 m), firing 34 rounds. U-27 rolled over and sank in less than a minute.

Twelve men survived the sinking of the submarine, the crews of her two deck guns and those who had been on the conning tower. They swam to the Nicosian and clambered up her hanging boat falls and pilot ladder. Herbert, worried that they might try to scuttle the steamer, ordered his men to open fire with small arms, killing all except six on the Nicosian. Wegener is described by some accounts as being shot while trying to swim to the Baralong.

Herbert sent a party of twelve Royal Marines to the steamer to hunt the German sailors down. They were discovered in the engine room and shot on sight, an action which may have been spurred by revenge. Earlier that same day, U-24 had sunk the White Star liner SS Arabic with the loss of 44 lives. The Baralong had been about 20 mi (32 km) from the scene, and had received a distress call from the ship. Her Royal Navy crew considered it as an atrocity equal to the sinking of the Lusitania.

An alternative account has the Germans who boarded the Nicosian being killed by the engine room staff; this apparently came from the officer in command of the muleteers. Doubt is cast on this by the fact that the crew had earlier been ordered into the lifeboats.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baralong_Incidents#Action_of_19_August_1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Arabic (1902)

The SS Arabic was an ocean liner which entered service in 1903 for the White Star Line. She was sunk on 19 August 1915 by the German submarine U-24, 50 mi (80 km) south of Kinsale. Her sinking caused a diplomatic incident. (...)

On 19 August 1915 U-24 sank the Arabic, outward bound for America, 50 mi (80 km) south of Kinsale. The Arabic was zigzagging at the time, and the commander of U-24 said that he thought she was trying to ram his submarine. He fired a single torpedo which struck the liner aft, and she sank within 10 minutes, with the loss of 44 passengers and crew, 3 of whom were American. On 22 August US President President Wilson's press officer issued a statement to the effect that the White House staff was speculating on what to do if the Arabic investigation indicated that there had been a deliberate German attack. If true, there was speculation that the US would sever relations with Germany, while if it was untrue, negotiations were possible.

At the same time, US Secretary of State Lansing approved Assistant Secretary Chandler Anderson's suggestion for a meeting with German Ambassador Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff to explain informally that if Germany abandoned submarine warfare, Britain would be the only violator of American neutral rights. Anderson met Bernstorff at the Ritz Carlton Hotel in New York and reported to Lansing that Bernstorff had immediately recognized the advantage of making Britain responsible for illegal acts unless Britain ended its war zone.

Following the Arabic incident, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg and Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow decided to tell the Americans about their secret orders of 1 June and 5 June, which instructed submarine commanders not to torpedo passenger ships without notice and provisions for the safety of passengers and crew, and on 25 August Bethmann-Hollweg informed US Ambassador James W. Gerard about the June orders.

Bethmann-Hollweg and von Jagow also sought the Kaiser's approval to spare all passenger ships from submarine attack. This proposal angered the German admiralty, Alfred von Tirpitz offering to resign his post as Naval Secretary. The Kaiser rejected Tirpitz's offer and supported Bethmann and on 28 August the Chancellor issued new orders to submarine commanders and relayed them to Washington. The new orders stated that until further notice, all passenger ships could only be sunk after warning and the saving of passengers and crews. In his note to Bernstorff, Bethmann instructed him to negotiate as follows:

1. Offer Hague arbitration for the Lusitania and Arabic incidents
2. Passenger liners to be sunk only after warning and saving of lives, provided they do not flee or resist
3. US to endeavor to reestablish free seas on the basis of the Declaration of London

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Arabic_(1902)


From the Stevens Point Daily Journal, Stevens Point, Wisconsin, Aug. 20, 1915:

BIG BRITISH LINER SUNK BY SUBMARINE;
26 AMERICANS SAFE

Arabic Reported Torpedoed Without Warning.

48 LIVES ARE BELIEVED LOST

Company Says 375 Survive and That Only Six Passengers Perished

Giant Craft Blown Up Near Scene of Lusitania Disaster.

London, Aug. 20 - The big White
Star line steamer Arabic, formerly a
favorite ship of the Liverpool-Boston
service, but which on its present trip
was on the way to New York, was torpedoed
and sunk by a German submarine
at 9:15 o'clock yesterday mornring
about forty miles south of the spot
where the Lusitania lies, which is 65
miles southeast of Fastnet rock and
55 miles south of Old Head of Kinsale.
The steamer, according to a statement
of the White Star line, was attacked
without warning and went down in 11 minutes.

Of the 423 parsons on board — 181
passengers and 242 members of the
crew — 32 are missing and are believed
to have perished. Most of those who
have not been accounted for belong to
the crew. Only six of the passengers
are reported missing.

All Americans on Board Saved.

Careful checking of the various lists
of survivors shows that all passengers
listed by the White Star line as Americans
had been saved. It is possible
that some Americans boarded the liner
as it was about to sail and were carried
in the list given out by the White
Star line as of other nationalities, but
this is not probable.

Whether any of those not accounted
for are Americans has not yet been
determined, but there were only 26
citizens of the United States on board,
22 being in the second cabin and four
in the steerage. The Arabic carried
no first class passengers, having lately
been turned into a two class liner.

Survivors Taken to Queenstown.

The survivors, who left the steamer
in the ship's boats and were picked up
later by passing vessels, arrived in
Queenstown. They are being accommodated
by the White Star line in hotels and
boarding houses in the city, which so
short a time ago cared for the survivors
and the dead of the Lusitania.

Second Steamship Torpedoed.

The British steamship Dunsley was
torpedoed, presumably by the same
submarine, in the same region off the
south coast of Ireland. She managed
to remain afloat, and immediately
began rescuing survivors of the
Arabic. Her accommodations were
ample for all who were aboard the
other vessel.

Capt. Will Finch, a lieutenant of
the royal navy reserve, was in command
of the Arabic, which flew the British
flag, and was outward bound from Liverpool
for Boston. He cabled the White Star
officials from Queenstown that the Arabic
was torpedoed without warning.

Raises Question for Wilson.

This fact is considered significant,
but whether It brings tho disaster
within the category of President Wilson's
announcement to Germany that a repetition
of the Lusitania incident would be regarded
as "an unfriendly act" is a question British
officials and the American embassy attaches
do not care to discuss. Chief attention
is being devoted to the question of the
maximum loss of life.

There is a rumor that the Arabic
carried a large amount of British gold
to pay for war supplies bought in
America, but this is unverified.

Many Take to Boats.

The Arabic, which left Liverpool
Wednesday, was torpedoed 9:15 a. m.
off Fastnet, an island about four
miles south o£ Cape Clear, south coast
of Ireland.

First reports were that all the passengers
and crew had been rescued by another steamer.
Subsequently, however, it was reported that
the Arabic had gone down in 11 minutes,
raising the question whether it would have
been possible to rescue all on board in that
brief time.

An early message to tho White Star company
said that fifteen or sixteen boatloads were
making for Queenstown. From this the company
inferred that most o£ the passengers and
crew were saved.

Picked Up by Sloop.

A late dispatch to Lloyd's from
Queenstown said that the crew and
passengers of the Arabic put off in 11
boats and were picked up by a sloop
which was proceeding to Queenstown.

The message added that the Arabic
was torpedoed without warning and
that she sank 11 minutes later.

When nine hours had elapsed after
the sinking of the steamship, the fate
of the persons on board was unknown in
London or Queenstown.

The word from Queenstown then was that it
was feared there had been great loss of life.
On the other hand dispatches received by two
news agencies in London said that apparently
tho, greater part of those on board had been
saved.

Hope Pinned on Dunsley.

Main hope was pinned on the report that a
steamship was proceeding to Queenstown with
about four hundred persons on board.

A report from the British steamer
Magnolia said the Dunsley had been
torpedoed, but that some time after
the Arabic went down she was still
afloat and was picking up survivors.

The Dunsley left Liverpool on
Wednesday for Boston. She is a vessel
of about 5,000 tons gross, and was
therefore of sufficient size to accommodate
the persons on the Arabic.

Company Makes Statement.

The White Star line, after announcing
there were 410 persons on the Arabic, gave
out a corrected statement giving the total
number as 423. There were 132 second-cabin
passengers, 48 in the steerage and 243 members
of the crew.

Following is the statement issued by the
company:

"The Arabic left Liverpool at two
o'clock Wednesday afternoon. She was
torpedoed Thursday morning at 9:15
o'clock in latitude 50.50 north, longitude
8.32 west.

"She had aboard 423 persons. As far
as can be ascertained there are 375
survivors.

"It is understood that only six passengers
are unaccounted for."

The White Star line said there were
only 423 persons on the Arabic, but if
the Queenstown figures as to survivors
landed are correct it would indicate
that there were 446 persons aboard.

Captain Finch, who was in command
of the Arabic, is a veteran skipper. He
sailed the Pacific for years out of San
Francisco.

Queenstown, Aug. 20. — Vessels have
landed here 396 persons rescued from
the steamship Arabic.

It is reported that 50 lives were lost
in the disaster.

Prior to the arrival of the survivors
hotels and boarding houses were notified
by the authorities to prepare to
receive all who might arrive.

A message received here said the
sea was calm when the Arabic was
torpedoed and that salvage steamers
picked up the lifeboats with the survivors
soon after the vessel sank.

List of American Survivors.

New York, Aug. 20. — The first list
o£ survivors of the Arabic was received
by the White Star line officers last night.
It contained the names of 14 American
survivors among cabin passengers, as follows:

James T. Rowley, Chicago;
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Burgess,
Mr. and Mrs. James Calmon,
Mr. and Mrs. P. W. A. Collins, Buffalo;
Christopher McTamney, Trenton, N. J.;
John Nolan, Trenton, N. J.;
Claude Roode, Schenectady, N. Y.;
Miss F. E. Shrimpton, Syracuse, N. Y.;
Louis Bruguiere, New York;
Mr. and Mrs. Zollah Covington, New York;
A. Hulme Nebker, Logan, Utah;
James Houlihan, Philadelphia;
Thomas Elmore, New York;
George A. McAllister, Chambersburg, Pa.;
John Olsen, San Francisco;
John Olschewski.

Names of Missing Americans.

Miss Josephine L. Bruguiere, New York;
Leopold P. Moore,
W. E. Ransdell.
Edmund Woods,
William Hughes,
J. Kellett.

http://www.genealogybuff.com/misc/misc-arabic-shipwreck.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

19 August 1915 - The first units of the Australian 2nd Division — the 17th (New South Wales) and 18th (New South Wales) Battalions — arrived at Anzac. Seeing these strong and healthy new arrivals one Australian wrote of them: Great big cheery fellows, whom it did your heart good to see.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Correspondence and works by T. E. Lawrence

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Military Intelligence Office
Cairo

19.8.15

This is only a scribble. I've just got back, and there is a post going. Athens was very hot, and glare of sun very bad. Otherwise not dull. I was in office there from 9a.m. (when shops opened) till 7p.m. (when shops shut): so I bought nothing, and saw nothing:- except the Acropolis from the window. Letter by next post: I have a great lot to do today.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/150819_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The British Submarine E.13 off Saltholm (1915): A deadly morning off Copenhagen in August, 1915

The people of Copenhagen woke up in the morning on August 19, 1915, unaware of the bloody incident happening at sea, just outside their capital.
An incident that cost the lives of 15 British submariners.
The survivors of the crew were interned in Denmark, until the end of The Great War
By Johnny E. Balsved

During the night of August 19, 1915 the British submarines E.8 and E.13 attempted to pass through the narrow waters of the Sound, between Denmark and Sweden.

The submarines were on passage to reinforce the British submarine forces already operating in the Baltic area.



Danish and Swedish Naval vessels were patrolling the Sound, protecting the neutrality of these two countries during the Great War.

In combination with heavy mining in the waters, this short passage could quickly turn into a night-mare.

The British submarine E.8, commanded by Lieutenant Commander Francis Goodhart succeeded the passage without being spotted.

The CO had chosen a route close to the Danish coast, leading him to the west of the small Danish island, Saltholm.

E.13, commanded by Lieutenant Commander Geoffrey Layton made a course close to the Swedish coast, leading the sub east of Saltholm.

However, the E.13 ran out of luck.

Apparently due to a compass failure, the E.13 ran aground in shoal waters, somewhat to the southeast of Saltholm.

The grounding took place inside Danish territorial waters.

Danish Guard Vessel Observe the Grounding

At dawn the grounding was observed by a Danish naval vessel on patrol in the Sound.

The nationality of the submarine was at this moment unclear to the Danes.

The Danish guard ship, the old gun boat FALSTER, under the command of Commander N. Chr. Bay Schmith, was anchored just to the west off Saltholm.

The Danish Navy Chief of Staff immediately issued instructions to the Danish ships, ordering:

"If the submarine is German, and other German ships are trying to assist, you shall deliver an official protest.
No other means are allowed.
If the submarine is English, you must forestall any attempt to seize or attack the submarine.
First you should signal an official protest, and if no respect is shown to the protest, you are allowed to use all necessary means available."


These orders were confirmed by the Chief of the Navy, Vice Admiral O. Kofoed-Hansen at 8 o'clock in the morning of August 19th, 1915.

First Danish Torpedo Boat at the Scene

The Chief in Command (C-in-C) of the Naval Floating Defense Squadron at Copenhagen, Rear Admiral Evers, immediately ordered one of the torpedo boats under his direct command, the NARHVALEN (The Narwhal) to investi-gate and protect the Danish neutrality.

Around 5 a.m. the Danish torpedo boat NARHVALEN, under the command of Lieutenant J. A. Thiele, was the first ship at the scene and could make a positive identification of the grounded submarine, as a British E-class submarine.

Upon arrival, the Danish torpedo boat NARHVALEN immediately went along-side the grounded British submarine and informed E.13's commanding officer (CO), Lieutenant Commander Geoffrey Layton, that the E.13 in accordance with the Danish neutrality and International rules, was required to depart from Danish territorial water within 24 hours.

Lt.Cdr. Layton requested that one of his officers should be transported to the Danish guard ship. This request was granted and would be carried out, as soon as more Danish ships had arrived at the scene.

In view of these time deadlines, if the E.13 was not afloat and out of Danish territorial waters within 24 hours, both the E.13 and its crew would be interned.

Danish Reinforcements are Underway

By direct command from Denmark's Department of the Navy, the 1st Danish Coastal Defense Squadron, under the command of Captain T. V. Garde, was ordered from its anchorage off Skovshoved, just north of Copenhagen, and to proceed to join the other Danish vessels in the vicinity of the E.13.

This squadron included the Command ship, the Coast Defense Ship PEDER SKRAM, under the command of Captain C. V. Carstensen, and the Light Cruiser GEJSER, under the command of Commander T. A. Topsøe-Jensen.

The squadron also included the Danish 1st Torpedo Boat Flotilla, under the command of Commander Eduard Haack.

The Torpedo Boats SØULVEN (The Sea Wolff), commanded by the Flotilla commander, and TUMLEREN (The Porpoise), under the command of Commander G. Hansen, of the Danish 1st Torpedo Boat


Flotilla, were ordered to the area where the E.13 was aground.

The two torpedo boats were made to the disposal of the C-in-C, Admiral Evers.

Also the torpedo boat of the Naval Floating Defense Squadron at Copenha-gen, the Torpedo Boat STØREN (The Sturgeon), under the command of Lieutenant Erik Garde, was ordered to the area, to release the NARHVALEN.

Around 8.45 a.m. the 3 Danish torpedo boats arrived at the scene.

The Germans Observe the Grounding as Well

Somewhat later, pursuant to the request from Lt.Cdr. Layton, the Torpedo Boat NARHVALEN came alongside the E.13 and transferred one of the British officers, Lieutenant Paul Eddis, to the Danish guard ship, the FALSTER, situated on just the other side of Saltholm.

German naval vessels on patrol just to the south of Saltholm, in the northern part of Koege Bay, had also observed E.13' predicament.

The Danish Torpedo Boat STØREN reported that, at around 6 o'clock, a German torpedo boat passed close by the stranded E.13.

Initially, the German torpedo boat


did nothing other than to keep the E.13 under observation.

Further south, there was intensive German radio transmissions, which probably communicated the E.13 predicament, and requested further instructions from the headquarter.

The Battle Begins

At 10.28 a.m. the CO of the SØULVEN, Commander Haack, was reporting that he observed two German torpedo boats approaching from the south at full speed.

The German torpedo boats G132, under the command of Leutnant zur See, Graf von Montgelas, and G134 approached the E.13 from the south.

An attack on the British submarine E.13 was doubtlessly being initialized. On the mast of the G132, one could observe the signal "Abandon ship" being communicated to the E.13.

Immediately upon coming within firing range, the G132 fired a torpedo aimed at the E.13.

However, the torpedo missed its target and exploded upon striking the sea floor bottom close to the E.13.

The German torpedo boat immediately thereafter employed its deck gun against the defenseless British submarine.

Within a short while the sub was was hit several times and fire broke out onboard. The electrical batteries on the sub had been hid and poisonous chlorine gas was spreading inside the sub.

After a short time, the sub's CO, Lt.Cdr. Geoffrey Layton, ordered his crew to abandon the burning submarine - There was nothing else they could do in the situation.

The attack on the E.13 lasted no more than 3 minutes.

Where Were the Danes?

The Danish Torpedo Boats, standing by close to the British submarine, did not directly interfere in the German attack.

Even the 1st Squadron, with the Coast Defense Ship PEDER SKRAM and the Light Cruiser GEJSER, was just keeping the situation under close observa-tion just 5 nautical miles to the north.

At 10.35 a.m. they observed an explosion close to the vicinity of the stranded submarine.

The guns on the Danish ships were manned, but never used.

The Danish ships' inaction occurred despite direct orders from the Danish Navy Chief of Staff, issued early that morning, to protect the stranded British submarine, if necessary by the use of force.

The Danes are Aroused

Immediately after the British CO had ordered his crew to abandon ship and British submariners were attempting to swim the few hundred meters to firm ground, the Danish torpedo boats finally intervened.

The Torpedo Boat SØULVEN, who was anchored close to the British submarine, slipped her anchor and immediately turned to full speed.

At the same time the SØULVEN launched one of her lifeboats trying to rescue some of the surviving submariners.

SØULVEN then sailed in between the British submarine and the German torpedo boats, approaching the German torpedo boats at full speed, to protest against this violation of the Danish neutrality.

At the same time, the Torpedo Boat STØREN also sailed in between the E.13 and the German torpedo boats,


and began rescuing the surviving British submariners swimming around in the water.

However, immediately following the Danish intervention, the G132 and G134 aborted their violent attack and were proceeding southward at full speed.

Result - 15 Dead British Submariners

The surviving British submariners, 14 in total, including the CO, Lt.Cdr. Layton, were later brought to Holmen Naval Base in Copenhagen by the Danish Torpedo Boat STØREN.

On the very same day, the Royal Danish Navy retrieved the bodies of 14 dead British submariners, all drowned.

A few days later, the body of the 15th and last submariner was retrieved. All the dead submariners were brought to Holmen.

During the whole episode the English Naval Ensign was flying from the short mast of the E.13.

War is Over for Interned Submariners

The 14 surviving submariners could now face the fact that, for them, their participation in the Great War was over.

They would be interned in Denmark, and would only be released at the conclusion of hostilities. For most of them, this is what happened.

As a mark of respect, the dead submariners were repatriated to England for burial on board the S/S Vidar, accompanied by Captain Rørd Hammer of the Royal Danish Navy, and escorted by three Danish torpedo boats.

However, the CO, Lt.Cdr Geoffrey, and his his 1st Officer had another view to the situation. They just simply escaped from internment.

The wreckage of the E.13 was later on salvaged by the Danes, and brought to the Naval Dock Yard in Copenhagen. After the end of the Great War the wreckage was sold for scrap to a Danish firm.

http://www.navalhistory.dk/english/history/1914_1918/E13_%20incident.htm

Read the Report by Lt.Cdr. Layton to Vice Admiral W. F. Oliver, Chief of the War Staff, Admiralty: http://www.navalhistory.dk/english/history/1914_1918/E13_Layton_report.htm

Lt.Cdr. Geoffrey Layton and his 1st Officer Escapes Internment: http://www.navalhistory.dk/english/history/1914_1918/E13_Escape.htm
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Garrett War Diary - AUGUST 1915

Enough rain last night to send us all under canvas.

Officer, I think is Colonel HAWKER, rode up this morning, flash, red plume in helmet. KYLE, an Australian Artilleryman, was on sentry guard, without a jacket, socks or puttees and did not give the "present". So the Colonel complained to our Corporal that, "the man was half naked and did not know how to salute". He said little to KYLE, however, bar asking him whether he was an Australian. The answer, "Yes", covers a multitude of sins.

Our cookie begrimed with grease and soot and wearing a felt which was minus a band and had been used pretty frequently as a pad to lift pots off the fire, and looking a trick generally, was on guard when two Lt. Colonels "passed". IRISH, a 'Dublin Fusilier' and a regular went through the motions like clock work but Cookie with equal zeal hit his heel on a stone bringing his foot back and nearly overbalanced. The officer gave a grin and turning to the other remarked, "How thoroughly Australian"

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/aug1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

East Africa WWI as at August 1915

New York Times "Current History" The European War, Volume 2 No. 5 August 1915.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:East_Africa_WWI_as_at_August_1915.png
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maurice Paléologue- An Ambassador's Memoirs

Thursday, August 19, 1915.

This morning Sazonov has the fevered look and pallid hue of bad times:

"Come and listen to what I've just heard from Sofia," he said. "Not that I'm the least bit surprised."

He read me a telegram from Savinsky telling him that, judging by a confidential report which could be relied on, the Bulgarian Government is henceforth determined to support the Teutonic powers and attack Serbia.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/mpmemoirs/2_1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of My Trip Abroad 1915-19
538 Cpl. Ivor Alexander Williams - 21st Battalion - Australia Imperial Forces


August 12th to August 26th 1915. During a few of these days a couple of us chaps took unofficial leave and visited some of the places further in land, such as Karnak, Phylae, Thebes all on the lower Nile. The ruins here are just simply gorgeous. You will gather some idea from the cards I am sending. I am unable to write a full diary of these as it would give the show away. I was supposed to be away at a school during this period.

http://www.nashos.org.au/15diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arthur MacManus: The Third Anniversary
Source: The Communist, August 19, 1920.
Publisher: Communist Party of Great Britain


This week is the third anniversary of the Russian Revolution, and the occasion has a special interest for the Communist Party. It sees in the Revolution the circumstances which caused its coming into being, and in observing the progress made since that time it can, to a certain extent at least, visualise the paths that lie ahead of it, and the difficulties which it will have to overcome. The history of the events of the Revolution contain for us not only the lessons derived from the actions of the masses, but the experiences undergone and the tactics pursued by the Communist Party in Russia, hold many lessons which we in this country would be foolish to ignore.

The destructive character of such a revolution may be said to be determined according to the impulse of the revolutionary surge, but its constructive character and extent are in the main determined by the mental clarity in both vision and tactics of the minority in its vanguard. As a Communist Party, this latter has for us more that is of ultimate value and importance than even the former may be said to contain, as innumerable causes may lead to the initial steps of the revolution, but only the clear-sightedness of the Communist Party can ensure that it will consummate in a successful social revolution. In so far, therefore, as the Russian Communist Party was the advance guard of the revolution, and the only organisation to be found in Russia capable either in policy or courage to stand at the head of the greatest event in history, the Socialist Movement internationally will fail in its most onerous duty if it neglects to profit from the experiences of that country. The acid test of a political party is not its theoretical correctness when subjected to abstract logical examination, but the extent to which its political theories, can be harnessed and adapted to such rapidly changing economic conditions as generally mark periods of social revolution. In the past we in this country have been victims to the grave error in historic reasoning, of first shaping out in terms of principles the goal we were aiming at, and then endeavouring to construct the machinery of the new order in terms of these principles, instead of according to the nature of the social conditions of the period. This of course does not mean the period previous to, or even the first outbreak of the destructive side of the revolution, as some of our schools of political thought in this country would assume, but the period when the first protective step of the revolution is called for. A study of the circumstances of the Russian Revolution reveals that the most essential equipment of any revolutionary party is a policy which will guide and co-ordinate the forces of the mass during the task of destroying the vital threads and sinews of capitalism, and which will enable the taking of such protective measures by the mass as will ward off the forces of counter-revolution, while setting about the work of reconstruction. It is the aggregate social conditions existing during this period of transition which should, and will, determine the character of the constructive machinery, in accordance with, of course, the goal in mind. In forcibly bringing this lesson home to the Socialist vanguard of the working class the world over, and in insisting upon its appreciation before affiliation to the Third International will be accepted, the Communist Party of Russia has done more to ensure the ultimate success of the world revolution than those at present snarling at that Party have the wit to perceive. The working class itself, when it awakens to the realities of the long and arduous march to emancipation will not fail to give full recognition and place to the Communist Party, of Russia for its contribution to the consummation of an International Working-Class Republic.

Greetings and Salutations to the Communist Party of Russia, is not the least obligation of the movement of this country in commemoration of the Revolution.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/mcmanus/articles/1920/11/04.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Apparition of 19 August 1917

Under the pretext of providing his personal automobile, so that the children could travel safely through the crowds pressing around their homes, the civil Administrator or Mayor of the district in which Fátima was located, arrived in Aljustrel on the morning of August 13th. A previous attempt on August 11th to obtain the "truth" from the children having been unsuccessful, Artur Santos, an apostate Catholic and high Mason, had devised a scheme by which he would take them into custody and force them to reveal all. With a show of good will he now offered to take the three and their parents to see the parish priest, whom he claimed wished to see them, and then to the Cova. At the parish house he abandoned this ruse, and the parents, taking the children alone from there to the district headquarters in Vila Nova de Ourem, some 9 miles away. Here he tried bribes, threats of death and locking them in a cell with other "criminals" in order to get them to recant their story. It was to no avail. Despite their ages, their belief in the Lady and their courage was unshakeable.

Meanwhile, in the Cova at noon on the 13th the characteristic external signs of the Apparition appeared for the benefit of the crowd, the greatest crowd to that time. After they ended the crowd dispersed, as yet unaware of the trickery of the government.

The "trial" of the children, however, continued for two days, to the consternation of their families. Finally, on the Feast of the Assumption, August 15, the Administrator had them driven back to Fátima and deposited on the steps of the rectory. Here they were seen as the people, who had just come from Mass, were trying to determined from Ti Marto where the children were. Their anger was poured out on the driver, and on the Mayor when he arrived a little later, both of whom were no doubt glad to be rid of their little charges and to escape unscathed. It would effectively be the only serious effort of the civil authorities to interfere with the Lady of Fátima.

As it was the Lady's plans were delayed slightly. On Sunday the 19th Lucia, her brother John, and Francisco, were grazing the sheep at a place known as Valinhos. It was located on the side of the same hillock opposite Aljustrel where the angel appeared twice, though a little farther north. At apout 4 o'clock, sensing that Our Lady was about to appear, Lucia tried unsuccessfully to get John to fetch Jacinta, until she offered him a couple pennies for the errand. As she and Francisco waited they saw the characteristic light. The moment Jacinta arrived the Lady appeared.

"What do you want of me?"

Come again to the Cova da Iria on the thirteenth of next month, my child, and continue to say the Rosary every day. In the last month I will perform a miracle so that all may believe.

"What are we to do with the offerings of money that people leave at the Cova da Iria?"

I want you to have two ardors [litters to carry statues] made, for the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary. I want you and Jacinta to carry one of them with two other girls. You will both dress in white. And then I want Francisco, with three boys helping him, to carry the other one. The boys, too, will be dressed in white. What is left over will help towards the construction of a chapel that is to be built here.

Lucia then asked for the cure of some sick people.

Some I will cure during the year."

(looking sadly at them) Pray, pray very much. Make sacrifices for sinners. Many souls go to hell, because no one is willing to help them with sacrifice.

Having said that she departed as she had on the other occasions.

http://www.ewtn.com/fatima/apparitions/August.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great Fire in Salonica

Images of the Great Fire 18-19 August 1917 which destroyed a large part of the city of Salonica (Thessaloniki), especially the Jewish center of the town. In 32 hours 9500 houses were destroyed.which left more than 70000 people homeless.

Venizelos forbade the reconstruction of the town center until a full modern city plan was prepared. This was accomplished a few years later by the French architect and archeologist Ernest Hebrard. The Hebrard plan swept away the Oriental features of Thessaloníki and transformed it to a European style city.

One consequence of the fire saw close to half the city's Jewish population, their homes and livelihoods destroyed, emigrate. Many went to Palestine. Some stepped onto the Orient Express to Paris. Still others found their way to America. Their numbers were quickly replaced by refugees from another disaster a few years after the war, when huge numbers of ethnic Greeks were expelled from Turkey in 1922 following the Greco-Turkish War.

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greece/History/GreatFireInSalonica1917.html
Zie ook http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/C3.1.3.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 21:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Execution of the day

19 August 1919 – Boonpeng Heep Lek

Boonpeng Heep Lek - The last public beheading in Thailand took place on this day in 1919 and it was reserved for Boonpeng Heep Lek.

Thailand operated a particularly barbaric method, where the prisoner had to sit down fastened to a wooden cross. Clay was then poured into both the ears and mouth and a line of clay would mark the point on the neck where the executioner had to aim.

The calming properties of a sharp sword - The execution would be carried out by two people, with the assistant dancing around the prisoner waving his sword to ‘calm’ the prisoner. The main executioner would then cut off the prisoner’s head from behind.

Bird food - In order to remove the leg chains from the corpse, the feet would be lopped off, then the body would be chopped up and thrown out for the birds to feast on. All that is, except the head, which would stuck on a spike as an example to all.

As for Boonpeng Heep Lek’s crime…well that’s not been confirmed yet. But we’re working on it.

http://eotd.wordpress.com/2008/08/19/19-august-1919-boonpeng-heep-lek/
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Herbert Hoover on Polish Reconstruction, 19 August 1919

With Germany defeated in November 1918 the path was cleared for a newly constructed Polish republic to be established with Allied backing; this was duly declared on 10 February 1919. This was however by no means the end of uncertainty for Poland, with the ultimate makeup of Europe yet to be agreed at the Paris Peace Conference, and with military disagreements with Russia, the Ukraine and Czechoslovakia rumbling on.

Statement by Herbert Hoover on Polish Infrastructure, 19 August 1919

As a result of seven invasions by different armies the country has largely been denuded of buildings. The estates of the larger landowners have been destroyed, and while the peasants are cultivating approximately enough foodstuffs for their own supplies, these regions, which in normal times export large quantities of food, mostly from the large estates. are four-fifths uncultivated.

In normal times the town populations exist by exchanging manufactured goods to the peasants and landowners for food.

There has been virtually no import of manufactured goods for years, and the supplies of foodstuffs having vanished, the town populations are left entirely without support or employment.

As there have been no manufactured goods to exchange, and as the currency no longer has any purchasing value in goods and the peasants do not care to exchange foodstuffs for it, there has been a total breakdown of the economic cycle.

In addition to the destruction and robbery which accompanied the repeated invasion of rival armies, these areas have been, of course, through a cauldron of Bolshevist revolution and the intellectual classes either fled from the country or to a considerable extent were imprisoned.

Some were executed. The Ruthenian peasants have been stirred up against the great landowners, which accounts for the destruction of the equipment of the large landed properties.

It appears to us that it will require years for this region to recover, for animals must be provided, agricultural implements imported and the whole agricultural production restarted.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/poland_hoover.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Aug 2010 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sèvres Treaty

19 August 1920 - The ones who had signed the Sèvres treaty and who had voted in favour of it at the Sovereignty Council were declared as traitors by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.

http://www.kultur.gov.tr/AR/Genel/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D3130239EEA0FCDF038B7865257CB2BC6B19
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Priester Jozef De Vroey - Aarschot 19 augustus 1914

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.eu/viewtopic.php?p=284559
Zie ook http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Belgique_Recits/Recits_10.htm
Zie ook http://www.petach.be/museum/index.php?&page=devroey
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Aug 2010 11:23, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Inval van de Duitse legers te Lubbeek op 19 augustus 1914
(Uit het dagboek van Burgemeester Alfons Halflants)


19 augustus 1914 - 's Morgens geen Belgische soldaten meer te zien; uitgezonderd achterblijvers die hier en daar nog schieten, meer bepaald in een loopgracht gisteren inderhaast gegraven in de boomgaard van Frederik Mertens met uitzicht op het Patrijzeveld. In feite gevaarlijk voor de burgerbevolking, want de vijand kan veronderstellen met vrijschutters te doen te hebben. Ik geef aan die soldaten de raad achteruit te trekken in de richting van Leuven om hun eenheid te vervoegen.
Vele vluchtelingen uit de dorpen van het Hageland staan in 't goed (Gellenberg) met kar en gespan. Op 18 augustus is te Houtem bij Tienen een grote slag geleverd door de terugtrekkende Bel­gische legers, hetgeen de bevolking op de loop gezet heeft.
Rond 9 uur in de voormiddag gaan twee kanonschoten af, waarschijnlijk gericht naar de soldaten die zich nog verschansen boven de Gellenberg in de loopgracht. Een van die obussen treft een vrouw op de Hertswinkel in een bietenveld.

Rond 10 uur worden Duitse ruiters gemeld, het zijn Uhlanen met lange lansen. Zij staan in de Gellenbergstraat voor mijn ingangspoort. Ik ga er naar toe, om in hoedanigheid van burgemeester te vragen dat zij de bevolking zouden willen sparen. Zij zijn hoffelijk en stellen mij gerust, maar zij houden staande dat burgers op hen geschoten hebben tijdens hun tocht door België. Ik weerleg dat ten stelligste tenminste voor wat ons dorp betreft. Ik wist toen niet dat er enige uren daarna zich een heel drama in het dorp zou afspelen, De Uhlanen vragen de weg naar Pellenberg en vertrekken in de richting van het dorp.
De Duitse legers trekken nu al door op de staatsbaan, die doortocht zal duren tot Is avonds 9 uur.
Later heb ik vernomen dat er ook een stroom was van Binkom door het dorp in de richting van Pellenberg.

-Rond 12 u.30 komt in mijn bureel een Duitse officier vergezeld van een soldaat, bajonnet op het geweer. Hij verklaart dat in het dorp op de doortrekkende troepen geschoten is uit de geneeskundige dienst die in het klooster is gevestigd. Hij stelt mij als burgemeester verantwoordelijk voor die feiten. Hij verzoekt mij hem te volgen naar hét dorp, om het geval ter plaatse te gaan onderzoeken. Wij gaan te voet, mijn vrouw en de kinderen lopen mee. Wij worden geleid naar het goed van het kasteel de 't Serclaes. Daar is al op een weide aan de vijver een grote troep verzameld; de gehele hulppost met dokters, verplegers, zieken en gekwetsten,nogal brutaal naar hier uit het klooster overgebracht.
Daar zijn ongeveer 60 personen verzameld, met deken Vandevelde, onderpastoor Raspoet, Monseigneur de 't Serclaes. Zij zijn min of meer mishandeld, Mgr. de 't Serclaes zijn kleed is gescheurd. Daarrond staan Duitse soldaten op de wacht met de geweren schietens gereed,
De Duitse legers trekken onophoudelijk door, meestal voetvolk, zij bedreigen ons met hun geweer (sie haben geschossen).
Dan komt er een krijgsraad met krijgsauditeur, die mij, de deken en andere vooraanstaande personen ondervraagt. Zij houden staande dat er op de doortrekkende Duitse soldaten in het dorp vanuit de ziekenpost geschoten is.

Wij ontkennen zulks natuurlijk, zeggende dat de bevolking vreedzaam is, niet gewapend en hoegenaamd niet georganiseerd om zulke daden te stellen. De krijgsauditeur laat weten dat hij een onderzoek ter plaatse zal doen en aldaar getuigen verhoren om vast te stellen of er ja of neen geschoten is.
Wij hebben gelukkig te doen met een eerlijk en gewetensvol officier die zeker geen terechtstelling zou laten plaatshebben zonder degelijke bewijzen van de aangeklaagde feiten. Wij brengen in die weide een paar bange uren door tijdens het onderzoek in het klooster.
Het weer is uitstekend, schoon en warm, zodat wij en de leden van de hulppost in het gras kunnen zitten en wat rusten, hetgeen toch een zekere opluchting betekent.
Eindelijk zal ons lot beslecht worden: de officieren komen terug, vergezeld door de deken en Mgr. de 't Serclaes. Van ver al maakt de deken met een geruststellend gebaar ons diets dat alles goed afgelopen is,. De krijgsauditeur laat ons met een vriendelijke glimlach weten dat wij, burgers, vrij zijn er. naar huis mogen gaan; hij deelt tussen de kinderen wat chocolade rond. Achteraf heb ik vernomen dat wij en de burgerlijke overheden ons leven te danken hebben aan een gewetensvol onderzoek om te beginnen, maar bijzonder aan de degelijke getuigenissen van de kloosterzusters, de algemeen priorin en ook, wat doorslaggevend geweest is, van de Duitse zusters, zodat de rechter tot de overtuiging kwam dat er hoegenaamd niet geschoten was. Het was voor ons nog een geluk dat er Duitse landgenoten in het klooster aanwezig waren.
Maanden daarna is wel gezegd dat een onverantwoordelijke Belgische soldaat vanuit de ziekenpost geschoten zou hebben, hetgeen paniek verwekt heeft bij de doortrekkende soldaten die dan de hulppost overrompeld hebben. Maar dit is ook nooit bewezen en niemand weet hoe de schietpartij begonnen is.
Hetzelfde heeft zich te St.-Bernard voorgedaan, zonder dat ooit aan het licht gekomen is hoe dit alles begonnen was.

De Duitse officier gelast mij te zorgen voor het vervoer van de gekwetsten van de ziekenpost. Ik ga naar het centrum dat volledig stil en verlaten is, iedereen is lopen gegaan. Met veel moeite en aandringen vind ik een kar bij Roelants en een bij Van Hellemont. Op het gemeentehuis verneem ik van postmeester Lontie dat de Duitsers ingebroken en de gelden van het postkantoor gestolen hebben en de vlaggen van het gemeentehuis en de kerktoren afgerukt hebben.
Terug naar huis gaande tegen 8 uur, zie ik zware rookwolken boven St.-Bernard waar de meeste huizen in brand staan.
Ik zal pas morgen de omvang vernemen van het drama dat zich te St.-Bernard afgespeeld heeft.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=14002
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Reportage, verscheen in Panorama van 19 augustus 1914

Oorlogsindrukken - 12 Augustus 1914
Reportage van Theo Moussault - verslaggever Panorama

Geradbraakt, na vele uren sporens, bereikte ik ten slotte Maastricht. Daar sprak ieder over oorlog. De woorden ‘kanongebulder’, ‘gewonden’ en ‘Luik’ lagen op ieders lippen. Somber was de stemming die hier heerschte, somberder dan ik die ergens anders vond.

Wonder boven wonder kon ik hier een rijtuig krijgen dat mij met mijn fototoestellen en enkele dozijnen platen naar Eijsden bracht. Hier aangekomen sloeg ik met mijn zware bagage den landweg links in en beklom den Meschberg, vanwaar ik een gezicht had over de gehele streek. (De Meschberg is de scheiding tusschen Holland en België).

De Hollandsche huisjes waren hier getooid met de Nederlandsche driekleur. De bewoners wisten dat deze vlag hun have en goed zou beschermen. Nooit heb ik zoo’n waarde aan dat rood, wit en blauw gehecht als toen. De boerenmeisjes die hun koeien melkten, hadden een klein Hollandsch vlaggetje bij zich dat zij onder het melken naast zich in den grond plantten.

Voor mij lag Visé, rookend en smeulend, terwijl meer op den achtergrond een der forten zichtbaar was. Links in de diepte ver toonden zich zeer klein de Duitsche legers, die voorttrokken in onafgebroken rijen, terwijl auto's hen voorbij snorden. 't Geheel deed me denken aan mijn kinderjaren, toen ik speelde met kleine looden soldaatjes. Ik had ook tenten en kanonnen, en schoot met erwten; enkel had ik niet zooveel soldaatjes en had ik ook geen auto's. Onschuldig kinderspel! Nooit had ik gedacht dat spel in werkelijkheid mede te zullen maken.

Eenige Hollandsche soldaten, die op den Meschberg post gevat hadden, zochten becherming tegen de hevige regenbui in een schildwachthuis, gemaakt van korenschoven, waar de dikke regendroppels echter spoedig doordrongen. Al het koren is gemaaid en staat in schoven. Er zijn echter geen handen, die het zullen opstapelen in de schuren, daar de werkzame arbeiders zijn opgeroepen om hun plicht te vervullen. Na enkele dagen zullen de goud-gele halmen als waardeloos onkruid op den akker liggen.

In de verte hoor ik het kanongebulder; elk schot maakt wie weet hoeveel dooden. Dan weer hoor ik het knetteren der mitrailleurs. Dit zijn wel de meest geraffineerde moordwerktuigen die het menschelijk vernuft heeft kunnen uitdenken. Zij spuwen dood en verderf overal waar zij heen gericht worden. Hun kogels gaan door zes rijen soldaten en duizenden dapperen worden in enkele minuten weggemaaid.

Plotseling hoor je het snorren van een motor. Heel hoog en heel ver vertoont zich een vliegmachine, dan zie je er twee, drie, zes..... Het gaat als bij de sterren 's avonds als het donker gaat worden: hoe langer je kijkt, hoe meer je er ziet. Ten slotte telde ik 12 machines. Sommige gingen in de richting Luik, andere in de richting Aken. Je weet niet of het Fransche, Belgische of wel Duitsche machines zijn.

Dit is echter zeker, dat de inzittenden onverschrokken kerels zijn, want moeten zij een noodlanding maken op vijandelijk terrein, dan worden zij zonder genade gefusilleerd!

Ik daalde den berg af en passeerde de Hollandsche grenswachters en met veel moeite kwam ik ook voorbij de Duitsche soldaten, die eenige stappen verder op post stonden. Weldra kwam ik in het Duitsche legerkamp. Zoo iets grootsch zag ik nog nooit. Onafgebroken rijen van paarden, duizenden en nogmaals. duizenden stonden er. De lansen der soldaten waren in den grond gestoken en onderling door touwen verbonden. Aan deze touwen waren de paarden weer vastgemaakt. Het geheel deed denken aan een reusachtige paardenmarkt.

De soldaten zelf lagen in het stroo, lachend en schertsend, niettegenstaande ook zij ieder oogenblik het commando konden krijgen ‘oprukken’ het vuur in....

Intusschen had ik reeds enkele opnamen gemaakt van paarden- en soldatengroepen, toen een officier mij verzocht een foto van hem met zijn broer te maken om deze aan ‘moeder’ in Berlijn te zenden. Arme kerels, arme moeder...

Dan waren er soldaten die mij vroegen brieven en kaarten voor hen te posten, deze voor een moeder, gene voor een vrouw of verloofde, die sedert hun vertrek niets meer van hen hadden vernomen. Natuurlijk deed ik dit gaarne en had spoedig circa 200 stuks bijeen, die ik zorgvuldig in mijn tasch borg.

Een officier verbood mij het fotografeeren en deed de opmerking dat een verblijf in het kamp levensgevaarlijk was met het oog op verdwaalde kogels. Ik borg mijn toestel op, trok verder en haalde mijn apparaat weer spoedig voor den dag. Een der Uhlanen verzocht mij een kiekje te maken van hem met zijn krijgsgevangene. Ik stemde toe en volgde hem naar een huifkar, waar de krijgsgevangene was. Ik meende een of anderen Belgischen krijger aan te treffen doch vond een klein hondje, dat uit den wagen sprong en vroolijk om ons heen liep.

De strijder wilde mij het dier geven als herinnering aan den oorlog. Ik vond dit aardig en beloofde hem het diertje op mijn terugweg te komen halen. Intusschen presenteerde ik overal sigaretten, die dadelijk werden opgestoken. In minder dan geen tijd waren al mijn sigaretten omgezet in rook, die zich hoog in de lucht vereenigde met de zwarte rook van de brandende dorpen en den kruitdamp van de forten van Luik.

De weg langs het kamp was door de Dultscbers verbreed tot een groote baan, waarlangs straks het geheele verdere leger met paarden en kanonnen, vrachtauto's en manschappen naar Luik zal optrekken.

Voortgaande kwam ik aan het dorpje Mouland, geheel in brand geschoten; puinhoopen en zwart gebrande muren was het eenige wat nog stond. Vijf magere katten kwamen mauwend en klagend naar mij toe als om hulp vragend. Een paard dwaalde door de puinhoopen, kippen en varkens liepen er los rond. De straten waren als bezaaid met kogels en hier en daar lag een vertrapte helm of een gebroken sabel.

Het eens zoo schilderachtige dorpje bood nu een beeld van jammerlijke ellende en verlatenheid. Ik ben een der 'n weinig gespaarde huisjes binnengegaan ten einde van de bovenverdieping een foto van de verwoesting te maken en kreeg daar den indruk of de bewoners plotseling waren opgeschrikt en in allerijl het huis hadden verlaten. Op tafel stonden vijf bordjes, waarop de in vieren gesneden boterhammen nog lagen, verder de koffiepot en half-volle kopjes. De bedden waren nog onafgehaald.

Een Madonnabeeld waarbij nog versche bloemen, stond op de kast. Toen ik het verliet kwamen eenige angstige vrouwen, die toestemming hadden verkregen hun meubeltjes te halen, het oude steenen bruggetje over; ze vonden alles echter verwoest terug en verlieten schreiend het dorpje. Dit was het meest trieste tooneel, dat ik ooit aanschouwde....

Toen ben ik weggegaan, terug naar het kamp. Ik miste den moed om verder door te gaan naar Visé. Plotseling werd ik opgeschrikt door de stem van een Duitschen luitenant, die waarschijnlijk een spion in mij zag. ‘Sie sind arrestiert’ klonk het zeer gewichtig. Ik borg mijn toestel op, klopte de asch uit mijn pijp en volgde hem op zijn commando.

Twee soldaten van top tot teen gewapend, kregen bevel mij naar het hoofdkwartier te brengen, Na een half uur gaans, kwamen wij bij ‘Herr Hauptmann’ aan. Mijn beide begeleiders bogen als knipmessen, sloegen aan en gingen in de houding staan teneinde rapport over den gevangene uit te brengen.

Het bleek echter dat dit laatste niet meer noodig was, daar ‘Herr Hauptmann’ reeds volledig telefonisch was ingelicht. Na zijn speech, hoofdzakelijk bestaande uit de woorden ‘einsperren’, ‘untersagt’ en ‘spionieren’, toonde ik ter verdediging mijn paspoort, waarna hij met een bulderende stem het vonnis velde: ‘Also, wir sind Freunde, aber scheren Sie sich sogleich fort nach den Grenzen’.

Ik maakte een buiging en werd door de soldaten naar de grenzen getransporteerd, waar ik langzaam van den schrik bekwam, die zoo groot geweest was, dat ik zelfs vergeten had te vragen of ‘Herr Hauptmann’ voor mij wilde poseeren.

Het hondje blijft krijgsgevangene en trekt nu mee verder.

Theo Moussault.
Maastricht, 12 Augustus 1914.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/ooggetuigen-eerste-wereldoorlog/moussault-oorlogsindrukken.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mars na Drinu

Ter ere van de slag bij de berg Cer van 16 augustus tot en met 19 augustus 1914 (de eerste geallieerde overwinning tijdens de Eerste Weereldoorlog) is dit Servische lied gecomponeerd door Stanislav Binički.

Mars na Drinu

U boj, krenite junaci svi
Kren'te i ne zal'te zivot svoj
Cer da čuje tvoj, Cer nek vidi boj
A reka Drina slavu hrabrost
I junačku ruku oca, sina.

Poj, poj Drino, vodo hladna ti
Pamti, pričaj kad su padali
Pamti hrabri stroj
Koji je pun ognja, silne snage
Proterao tudjina sa reke naše drage.

Poj, poj Drino, pričaj rodu mi
Kako smo se hrabro borili
Pevao je stroj, vojev'o se boj
Kraj hladne vode
Krv je tekla
Krv je lila
Drinom zbog slobode.

Text (translated)

To battle, go forth you heroes,
Go on and don't regret your lifes
Let Cer see the front, let Cer hear the battle
and river Drina glory, courage and heroic hand of father and son!

Sing, sing, Drina, of cold water,
Remeber, and tell of the ones that fell,
Remember the brave front,
which is full of fire, force, power
Kicking out the foreigner from our dear river!

Sing, sing, Drina, tell the generations, how
We were fighting brave,
The front sang as the battle was fought near cold water
The blood was floating, blood was spilled on Drina because of freedom!

http://forum.fok.nl/topic/514094/6/25
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Bedumer - verslaggeving van de vluchtelingenopvang

'De Bedumer' was het orgaan van de Anti Revolutionaire Kiesvereniging te Bedum, Zuidwolde en Onderdendam tezamen vormend de gemeente Bedum. De krant van 27 juli 1914 vermeldt voor het eerst iets over de oorlogsdreiging: Europese oorlog? Zal God de Heere Europa met zijn geselroede bezoeken? En in de krant van 5 augustus 1914 schrijft men naar aanleiding van het uitbreken van de oorlog: Europese oorlog! Gelukkig kent ons land vele mensen die kunnen bidden voor vrede.....

In krant 34 van 19 augustus 1914 wordt voor het eerst iets geschreven over vluchtelingen. Hierbij wordt aandacht besteed aan de in België woonachtige Duitsers die te maken kregen met de vijandige houding van de Belgen na de Duitse inval van 4 augustus. Onder de titel 'Limburgse gastvrijheid' werd geschreven: …..De uit België gevluchte Duitsers roemen eenstemmig de uiterst liefderijke en humane behandeling die zij op Nederlandse bodem ondervonden hebben. Zij zeggen de Nederlandse bevolking hartelijk dank. Allen bevestigen, dat de beschrijvingen der bladen over de Belgische gruweldaden tegen weerloze Duitsers en voornamelijk tegen vrouwen en meisjes bij lange na niet in overeenstemming is met de werkelijkheid…..

http://www.bedumer.nl/site/Historie/De-Bedumer-1914-1918-vluchtelingenopvang-in-Bedum.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Aug 2010 11:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Beelden van een Verwoeste Stad

Openluchttentoonstelling in de Leuvense binnenstad naar aanleiding
van de herdenking van de negentigste verjaardag van het einde
van de Eerste Wereldoorlog


Mooie pdf... http://yakske.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/beelden-van-een-verwoeste-stad.pdf
Zie ook http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/programmas/2899536/afleveringen/2868080/items/2874055/
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