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31 juli

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2006 5:51    Onderwerp: 31 juli Reageer met quote

1917 Third Battle of Ypres begins in Flanders

On July 31, 1917, the Allies launch a renewed assault on German lines in the Flanders region of Belgium, in the much-contested region near Ypres, during World War I. The attack begins more than three months of brutal fighting, known as the Third Battle of Ypres.

While the first and second battles at Ypres were attacks by the Germans against the Allied-controlled salient around Ypres—which crucially blocked any German advance to the English Channel—the third was spearheaded by the British commander in chief, Sir Douglas Haig. After the resounding failure of the Nivelle Offensive—named for its mastermind, the French commander Robert Nivelle—the previous May, followed by widespread mutinies within the French army, Haig insisted that the British should press ahead with another major offensive that summer. The aggressive and meticulously planned offensive, ostensibly aimed at destroying German submarine bases located on the north coast of Belgium, was in fact driven by Haig’s (mistaken) belief that the German army was on the verge of collapse, and would be broken completely by a major Allied victory.

After an opening barrage of some 3,000 guns, Haig ordered nine British divisions, led by Sir Hubert Gough’s 5th Army, to advance on the German lines near the Belgian village of Passchendaele on July 31; they were joined by six French divisions. In the first two days of the attacks, while suffering heavy casualties, the Allies made significant advances—in some sectors pushing the Germans back more than a mile and taking more than 5,000 German prisoners—if not as significant as Haig had envisioned. The offensive was renewed in mid-August, though heavy rains and thickening mud severely hampered the effectiveness of Allied infantry and artillery and prevented substantial gains over the majority of the summer and early fall.

Dissatisfied with his army’s gains by the end of August, Haig had replaced Gough with Herbert Plumer at the head of the attack; after several small gains in September, the British were able to establish control over the ridge of land east of Ypres. Encouraged, Haig pushed Plumer to continue the attacks towards the Passchendaele ridge, some 10 kilometers from Ypres.

Thus the Third Battle of Ypres—also known as Passchendaele, for the village, and the ridge surrounding it, that saw the heaviest fighting—continued into its third month, as the Allied attackers reached near-exhaustion, with few notable gains, and the Germans reinforced their positions in the region with reserve troops released from the Eastern Front, where Russia’s army was foundering amid internal turmoil. Unwilling to give up, Haig ordered a final three attacks on Passchendaele in late October. The eventual capture of the village, by Canadian and British troops, on November 6, 1917, allowed Haig to finally call off the offensive, claiming victory, despite some 310,000 British casualties, as opposed to 260,000 on the German side, and a failure to create any substantial breakthrough, or change of momentum, on the Western Front. Given its outcome, the Third Battle of Ypres remains one of the most costly and controversial offensives of World War I, representing—at least for the British—the epitome of the wasteful and futile nature of trench warfare.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The July 1914 Crisis: Chronology of Events

July 31 ....Sir E. Grey's further mediation attempt comes to nought

British memorandum to France and Germany requests assurances that Belgian neutrality would be respected. France gives an immediate unqualified assurance; Germany ignores the request

Noon. Germany receives word of the Russian mobilization, thus giving her the 'green light' (and justification before the German people) to move against Russia and her ally France in accordance with her long-held war plans.

1 p.m. Following the Russian mobilization, Germany proclaims a state of "threatening danger of war," preparatory to actual mobilization

Conversation between Grey and the French ambassador, Paul Cambon, in which the latter asked whether England would help France if she were attacked by Germany. Grey’s reply, indicative of his ‘wait-and-see’ attitude even at this late date, was: " . . . as far as things had gone at present . . . we could not undertake any definite engagement"[!]

7 p.m. Germany asks France to declare its intentions within 18 hours. France replies that she will "act in accordance with her interests" (It was later discovered that if France had opted for neutrality, Germany would have demanded the turning over to Germany of her vital frontier fortresses of Toul and Verdun, to be held as a pledge of French neutrality until the end of the war with Russia!!)

Midnight. Germany demands suspension of the Russian war measures within 12 hours; rejected by Russia the next day

Telegram of the German Chief of the General Staff, von Moltke, to his Austrian counterpart, Conrad: " . . . mobilize at once against Russia [which had mobilized on the previous day]. Germany will mobilize" [This is now in sharp contrast with the pacific stance of the politician Bethmann and that of the Emperor]

Austria orders general mobilization

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob16.html

Jul-1914: The July Crisis - The Month of the Plotters

Triggered by the Russian general mobilization, at 11:55 am Germany declares Kriegsgefahr Zustand. Danger of war - a state of pre-mobilization.

Germany issues an ultimatum to Russia: demobilize fully within 12 hours or Germany would begin mobilization and declare war on Russia.

Germany issues an ultimatum to France: declare neutrality within 18 hours and hand over the frontier forts at Liege and Namur in a show of good faith.

At 5:15 pm the French cabinet authorizes full mobilization.

http://www.worldwar1.com/tlplot.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Italian Declaration of Neutrality

The Marquis di San Giuliano referred to in the dispatches was Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1914. On May 23, 1915, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary and on August 27, 1916, against Germany.

The German Ambassador at Rome, Baron Ludwig von Flotow, to the German Foreign Office tx5940 Telegram 161

Rome, July 31, 1914

The local Government has discussed, at the Ministerial Council held today, the question of Italy's attitude in the war. Marquis San Giuliano told me that the Italian Government had considered the question thoroughly, and had again come to the conclusion that Austria's procedure against Serbia must be regarded as an act of aggression, and that consequently a casus foederis, according to the terms of the Triple Alliance treaty, did not exist. Therefore Italy would have to declare herself neutral. Upon my violently opposing this point of view, the Minister went on to state that since Italy had not been informed in advance of Austria's procedure against Serbia, she could with less reason be expected to take part in the war, as Italian interests were being directly injured by the Austrian proceeding. All that he could say to me now was that the local Government reserved the right to determine whether it might be possible for Italy to intervene later in behalf of the allies, if, at the time of doing so, Italian interests should be satisfactorily protected. The Minister, who was in a state of great excitement, said in explanation that the entire Ministerial Council, with the exception of himself, had shown a distinct dislike for Austria. It had been all the more difficult for him to contest this feeling, because Austria, as I myself knew, was continuing so persistently with a recognized injury to Italian interests, as to violate Article 7 of the Triple Alliance treaty, and because she was declining to give a guaranty for the independence and integrity of Serbia. He regretted that the Imperial Government had not done more to intervene in this connection to persuade Austria to a timely compliance. I have the impression that it is not yet necessary to give up all hope for the future here, if the Italians should be met halfway with regard to the demands mentioned above, or in other words, if compensation should be offered them. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that the attitude England has assumed has decidedly diminished prospects of Italian participation in our favor.

In the meanwhile, I pointed out to the Minister in the plainest manner possible the extremely regrettable impression which such an attitude would make on us, and then called to his attention the consequences which might develop for Italy in the future as a result.

FLOTOW

Lees verder op http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_Italian_Declaration_of_Neutrality
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"A gray day, in keeping with my mood."

Czar Nicholas II's diary entry for 31-Jul-1914

http://www.worldwar1.com/tlplot.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Edward Grey's Indecisiveness

British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey to British Ambassador to France, Sir Francis Bertie.

Sir Edward Grey to Sir F. Bertie

Foreign Office, July 31, 1914

Sir, M. Cambon referred today to a telegram that had been shown to Sir Arthur Nicolson this morning from the French Ambassador in Berlin saying that it was the uncertainty with regard to whether we would intervene which was the encouraging element in Berlin, and that, if we would only declare definitely on the side of Russia and France, it would decide the German attitude in favor of peace.

I said that it was quite wrong to suppose that we had left Germany under the impression that we would not intervene. I had refused overtures to promise that we should remain neutral. I had not only definitely declined to say that we would remain neutral; I had even gone so far this morning as to say to the German Ambassador that, if France and Germany became involved in war, we should be drawn into it. That, of course, was not the same thing as taking an engagement to France, and I told M. Cambon of it only to show that we had not left Germany under the impression that we would stand aside.

M. Cambon then asked for my reply to what he had said yesterday.

I said that we had come to the conclusion, in the Cabinet today, that we could not give any pledge at the present time. The commercial and financial situation was exceedingly serious; there was danger of a complete collapse that would involve us and everyone else in ruin; and it was possible that our standing aside might be the only means of preventing a complete collapse of European credit, in which we should be involved. This might be a paramount consideration in deciding our attitude.

I went on to say to M. Cambon that though we should have to put our policy before Parliament, we could not pledge Parliament in advance. Up to the present moment, we did not feel, and public opinion did not feel, that any treaties or obligations of this country were involved. Further developments might alter this situation and cause the Government and Parliament to take the view that intervention was justified. The preservation of the neutrality of Belgium might be, I would not say a decisive, but an important factor, in determining our attitude. Whether we proposed to Parliament to intervene or not to intervene in a war, Parliament would wish to know how we stood with regard to the neutrality of Belgium, and it might be that I should ask both France and Germany whether each was prepared to undertake an engagement that she would not be the first to violate the neutrality of Belgium. M. Cambon expressed great disappointment at my reply. He repeated his question of whether we would help France if Germany made an attack on her.

I said that I could only adhere to the answer that, so far as things had gone at present, we could not take any engagement The latest news was that Russia had ordered a complete mobilisation of her fleet and army. This, it seemed to me, would precipitate a crisis, and would make it appear that German mobilisation was being forced by Russia.

M. Cambon urged that Germany had from the beginning rejected proposals that might have made for peace. It could not be to England's interest that France should be crushed by Germany. We should then be in a very diminished position with regard to Germany. In 1870, we had made a great mistake in allowing an enormous increase in German strength; and we should now be repeating the mistake. He asked me whether I could not submit his question to the Cabinet again.

I said that the Cabinet would certainly be summoned as soon as there was some new development, but at the present moment the only answer I could give was that we could not undertake any definite engagement.

I am, etc.

E. GREY

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Sir_Edward_Grey's_Indecisiveness
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Karl Abraham to Sigmund Freud, July 31, 1914

Brunshaupten
31 July 1914

Dear Professor,

I am replying straight away. We know nothing here. It is possible that we shall leave still today or tomorrow. Because there are strong indications that general mobilization will take place tomorrow or Sunday. It is out of the question to remain here if war breaks out. One cannot make any further plans. So we shall probably wait and see in Berlin. I must not be away if war comes, since I am liable for military hospital service. I have no other duties.

This place is already half empty; officers on the active list and men on leave have already been recalled. If you were to stop in Munich, it might not be impossible to meet, but who knows?

One tends to assume that none of the powers wants to start the war. All the same, things look very serious. The papers are only allowed to print half of what is going on.

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=ZBK.052.0267B
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From My Diary - July 1914

On 31 July 1914 Wilfred Owen arrived at the Villa Lorenzo, Bagneres de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees for a two-month stay as guest of the Leger family, Monsieur and Madame and young daughter Nenette. For both the budding poet and the future soldier it would be an important stage in his development and a delightful period of marking-time before the sterner times to come.

Fast-forward three years to Craiglockhart War Hospital Edinburgh where Owen is being treated for neurasthenia by Doctor Arthur Brock. Dominic Hibberd suggests that FROM MY DIARY was drafted at this time at Brock's behest as part of a programme of ergotherapy in which patients worked at their particular specialisms. What emerged in this case were an important exercise in pararhyme and a recapturing of past joys during the last days of peace and the beginning of war.

Lees verder op http://www.wilfredowen.org.uk/poetry/from-my-diary
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Irish National Volunteers
(Ballickmoyler, Co Laois)


Ballickmoyler Irish National Volunteers

31/7/14

Dear Sirs

The committee of the above has instructed me to ask your permission for the use of the gravel pit at Rossena where a suitable short rifle range can be fixed up and give the volunteer members some instruction in target practice on a couple of evenings each week.

Thanking you for a reply.

I am
Yours faithfully
J W Feehan
Hon. Sec.

http://www.igp-web.com/carlow/inv.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Liquid Fire Attack at Hooge - 30th and 31st July 1915

Edmund Blunden's poem 'Trench Raid Near Hooge' visualises false untimely "rosy-fingered" dawns with false thunders which are, in reality, caused by deadly gunfire, bombs, shells and the "long rosy fingers" of the German flammenwerfer.

Trench Raid near Hooge
At an hour before the rosy-fingered
Morning should come
To wonder again what meant these sties,
These wailing shots, these glaring eyes,
These moping mum,

Through the black reached strange long rosy fingers
All at one aim
Protending, and bending: down they swept,
Successions of similars after leapt
And bore red flame

To one small ground of the eastern distance,
And thunderous touched.
East then and west false dawns fan-flashed
And shut, and gaped; false thunders clashed.
Who stood and watched

Caught piercing horror from the desperate pit
Which with ten men
Was centre of this. The blood burnt, feeling
The fierce truth there and the last appealing,
"Us? Us? Again?"

Nor rosy dawn at last appearing
Through the icy shade
Might mark without trembling the new deforming
Of earth that had seemed past further storming.
Her fingers played,

One thought, with something of human pity
On six or seven
Whose looks were hard to understand,
But that they ceased to care what hand
Lit earth and heaven.

Poetica, Vol. [1], No 3, April 1925
Undertones of War, November 1928 (revised)


http://www.ramsdale.org/hooge.htm#Blunden
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Baron Von Forstner and the U28 sea serpent of July 1915

This much is beyond dispute: that on the afternoon of 31 July 1915, in the first year of the First World War, the British steamer Iberian was shelled, torpedoed and sunk off the coast of Ireland by the German submarine U28. This much is disputed: that when the Iberian went down, there was a large underwater disturbance – caused, it is supposed, by her boilers imploding. Quantities of wreckage were hurled into the air, and there, amid the debris, six members of the U-boat's crew beheld "a gigantic sea-animal, writhing and struggling wildly", which "shot out of the water to a height of 60 to 100 feet."

WTF? Lees verder op http://blogs.forteana.org/node/93
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Historical Map of WWI: Mesopotamia January-July 1915

Illustrating the Situation on July 31, 1915

Courtesy of the United States Military Academy Department of History, http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/mesopotamia_1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31 July 1916 → Commons Sitting

GERMAN CONSULS.


HC Deb 31 July 1916 vol 84 c2076 2076

Sir E. CORNWALL asked the Home Secretary if he will state how many Consuls and Vice-Consuls represented Germany in this country at the start of the War; how many of them were of German birth and citizenship and how many were naturalised; how many were sent back to Germany; how many were interned; how many are now free; how long after 4th August, 1914, was it before Carl Theodore Menke, the German Vice-Consul in Birmingham, was interned; whether he is now at liberty; and, in that case, what were the reasons actuating the authorities in taking this step?

Mr. SAMUEL I would refer the hon. Member to an answer given to the hon. Member for the Kirkdale Division on the 9th March last by my right hon. Friend the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, who stated that before the War there were fifty-seven unsalaried German Consular officers in this country, of whom four were Germans and eight naturalised British subjects of enemy origin, the rest being, I understand, natural-born British subjects. I am informed that there were only two salaried German Consuls, both of whom returned to Germany at the beginning of the War. Of the four unsalaried Consuls of German nationality, three were sent back to Germany in exchange for British Consuls, and the fourth, Menke, is now in internment. Menke, who is sixty-three years old, was exempted from repatriation last summer on the recommendation of the Advisory Committee, in view of the fact that he had resided here for forty-three years, had two British-born children, and was well vouched for; but in December last it was decided to intern him and he is still interned.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/jul/31/german-consuls
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australians in The Great War in JULY 1914

31 July 1914 - Labor leader Andrew Fisher declares Australians will defend Britain ‘to our last man and our last shilling’.

http://fffaif.org.au/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Max Osborn, Official German Observer at Ypres, 31 July 1917

Never-ending howls and piercing screams are rending the air from the sea to the River Lys, while accessory noises like growls and blows seem to spring from everywhere on the Yser, in front of Dixmude and Langemarck, around Hollebeke and Warneton.

The whole of West Flanders is one large, steaming pot, in which death and devastation are brewing. With the sun smiling its brightest at us, terrific, never-ending thunderstorms are raging over the land. Amid noises such as the old earth never heard before, a crop of new battles and new wars between nations is growing to maturity.

What were the battles of the Somme, Arras, the Aisne, and Champagne against this earthquake of Flanders? Millions of capital are blown up in the air and explode in the ground. It is like a Cyclopean concert of unheard-of brutality, to celebrate with becoming fitness the end of the third years of universal madness.

The louder the desire of the nations for peace begins to express itself, the wilder the thunder of the guns at England's command to drown any cry of hope. Sometimes one thinks the end of the bloody intoxication is coming, but there are still graduations of description for which there are no words.

We thought we had got accustomed to the atrociousness of all this, and at home you may forget the monstrous events. At the front for days our senses and nerves must certainly have suffered from these awful three years. Spirit and feelings seek to escape the intolerable horror, but it is no use. Here, up against the worst form of slaughter, again these nameless noises bring it home to you with overpowering force.

This battle has lasted for days; now it is again that continuous roar that effaces, or rather, consumes, all individual noises, that makes even fierce explosions close by you indistinguishable. Everything disappears in one loud, rolling, threatening volume of sound. The air carries it a hundred miles distant, and tremblingly they listen, south and north, west and east, where they cannot see the horror of all this.

But if you come nearer, it is like the bowels of the earth exploding. Our soldiers sit in their dugouts, and cannot do anything but trust to luck. Just now the infantry must keep quiet; only the big guns are talking. The waiting infantry is, as it were, locked in prison. The men cannot get out, nor can anybody approach them. The way to them is fraught with fearful danger.

All around spatter steel splinters, shrapnel bullets, stones and earth. If you are hit you are dead or crippled. What shall one do? One smokes incessantly, until the air in the narrow shaft is heavy enough to cut. That is bad, but somehow it helps one to endure the horrors of the situation.

You live for days in the closest contact with your comrades in a contracted space. You cannot move, and are unable to think clearly. Never did I realize how difficult it can be to lead a human life. There is nameless agony in it.

Suddenly there is a terrible explosion quite near you. The earth is moving. Splinters drop from nowhere. Our works have been hit at an adjacent point, but thank Heaven! there are no wounded. Nobody was stationed there when the projectile struck.

There is still another explosion, this time the other side of us. Nine dugouts have been hit and have collapsed.

Then there is one of those rare lulls in the cannonade, and quite distinctly we make out some of our comrades struggling in the ruins of a wrecked dugout. We rush to their aid, heedless of the shells bursting around us. Another of those deadly beasts strikes almost at our feet, but it does not explode. We don't stop; we rush on; we shout to our friends, who are buried under the earth, stones, and timber, and we set to work digging them out.

"Nobody is seriously hurt," they cry joyously, when we drag them, covered with scratches and contusions, to daylight again. We do not always fare so well as this. Sometimes we dig them from cellars and earthworks as corpses, sometimes fearfully mutilated, or just in time to draw their last breath.

But after all, our losses are not so large - certainly not compared with the mass of munitions exploded. Our men have become masters in the art of dodging and using cover.

They certainly have had experience enough. But still too many sons of German mothers must yield up their young lives mutely without a chance of defending themselves.

But they all realize that only the Fatherland counts; that the individual cannot claim special attention here. The heavy twenty-four-centimetre projectiles of the enemy care not where they strike, be it human life, wire entanglements, or trench, and sometimes they hit our nerves though they strike many metres distant.

There is one consolation: Our artillery pays them back with interest, and the hellish noises at our rear are almost music to the ears of our men in our dugouts. Once upon a time infantrymen used to swear at artillery in battles; nowadays you hear nothing of the kind. Our infantry knows that those men behind their guns are having a hell of a time, while the infantryman is comparatively safe in his dugout.

But even the artillery needs our infantryman. He must carry munitions to positions that are inaccessible to horses and carts. The infantryman must watch the approaches to the artillery positions from all sides, and must be at his post when the sign is given for a general advance.

Is this the end of terror, or merely the lull before the attack? Fiercely your fist grips gun and hand grenade. The eyes of the men on guard pierce the dense darkness ahead. There rises a green fireball. Is it ours? Is it theirs? Nobody seems to know its meaning, but all of a sudden the English begin to rain steel again.

We give them tit for tat. The artillery on each side seems to try to surpass that on the other. What has happened? Nothing particular, but since they were at it, they thought they might as well keep hammering, and that one long roar continues until the sun rises again on a new day as cruel as yesterday. Nobody will ever forget the horror of it.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/ypres3osborn.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 22:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Third Battle of Ypres, 1917

Whereas the first and second battles of Ypres were launched by the Germans in 1914 and 1915 respectively, Third Ypres was intended as Sir Douglas Haig's Allied forces breakthrough in Flanders in 1917.

Haig had long mulled the idea of launching a major offensive in Flanders. It was his preferred choice for 1916, although in the event the Battle of the Somme took precedence that summer.

Meticulously planned, Third Ypres was launched on 31 July 1917 and continued until the fall of Passchendaele village on 6 November. The offensive resulted in gains for the Allies but was by no means the breakthrough Haig intended, and such gains as were made came at great cost in human terms.

Today commonly referred to simply as ‘Passchendaele', the tactics employed at the Third Battle of Ypres are as controversial as those executed at the Battle of the Somme a little over a year earlier, and was the final great battle of attrition of the war.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ypres3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grandpa's World War I Service

In these letters, Harvey Ladew Williams II recounts his time as an ambulance driver in France and Italy during World War I.

He enrolled at Harvard University at sixteen years of age, in September, 1916, and took a leave the next spring to join the war effort. Too young for the American military services, he joined a fledgling organization called the American Field Service and set off to France as an ambulance driver.

He served two tours of duty: seven months in France and six months in Italy, separated by six months at home. On December 2, 1918, he sailed into New York Harbor after celebrating the Armistice in Paris.


July 31, 1917

Dear Ma:-

At post, as usual, and with lots of time on my hands, so I will narrate a few of the latest happenings. About six days ago, the town where we have our cantonment was shelled, but not much damage done. The Bosche used pretty big shells and tore up the earth pretty well, but they only destroyed very little - broke one rail of the railroad track. The Frenchmen said they were at least 240's (240 millimeters). They only fired about ten shots, but the military head of the village ordered all civilians to leave the town. Perhaps we would have gotten more, but I heard it said that a number of Bosche military orders have been captured lately, and they all emphasize the necessity for economy in shells.

The night before I came out here, I woke up and everyone was rushing to the windows. I stood up in a vacant one and saw half the sky all lit up. Someone said there had just been a big flash like a huge explosion, but just when we were beginning to think it might only be a village on fire, or a house, there was a tremendous rumble and the air pushed two of us right in to the rooms from the window sills. Then we went up on a hill near the cantonment, and saw that it was some sort of a munitions depot on fire about four miles away. We watched some little explosions, and saw the fire sort of rise and fall. Then all of a sudden, a huge cloud of smoke rose and grew like an enormous mushroom. From the base, we could see shells and things thrown up and exploding in the air like a Fourth of July mine. In some seconds, the sound arrived and the air had that same sort of pressure without wind. Then the fire got low and we went to bed.

I came out here on the 28th, and it happened that that night the Bosche and French had some fairly large patrolling parties out and they met. Eight Frenchmen were killed and 10 Bosche taken prisoners. Of course, some men were wounded, and it happened that they were brought to the posts de secours of this and one other poste de'evacuation. I made a trip at 10 and got back to bed about 12:15. The other car here made a trip at 12:30 and had to wait at post until 3:30 for the Blesses. I went out again at three and worked till six. That night Eckley (the other boy) and I surely did enjoy the coffee in the thermos, the bouillon cubes and a box of sardines. It happens that there is a little fireplace and a coffee pot here, so we can get hot water when we want it. Now I must go to lunch, but I will continue later.

- - - -

The staff car has just come around with mail, and I find two letters from you and one from Dad and Betty.

I thought I had written that every fifth week the French line misses a trip, as there are only four boats, and it takes five weeks for a round trip. However, if you mail them, they come automatically via England. We get a great deal of mail that way. I wouldn't send things via ambulance boys, as many of those packages never get to their destinations, it seems. We heard a rumor that the Chicago had been sunk. Is that so?

I was greatly amused when you said that you were sending soda mints for digestion, for two reasons. First, we are a sanitary section and medicines are always available; and, secondly, I have had what we all call "trots" (I can't remember the correct English name) for nine days, but am cured now with some Poilus medicine I took last night. A boy came out yesterday and found me cutting wood and doing odd jobs, and he said: "I should think you would be as weak as a puppy after nine days like that", but I am not. I am fine and merely subject to what all the Poilus and everyone eating army food get occasionally.

My funds are 0. K. - still have 400 and a few francs in the bank. I spend about 50 francs in four weeks out here only.

By the way, before I answer the next letter, I might say that Charley Bayly, the sous-chef, just came in the staff car and said that the medicine principal had telephoned congratulations to the section for the work that we did in the little fray that I mentioned in the first part of this note.

I am glad to hear that Brad is going into aviation. Lots of the boys here are contemplating it as soon as their term is up in the ambulance. Here the age limit is 16 years and the examinations aren't so rigid as in the States because there are far less men to choose from. Besides, the boys figure that the French have 3 years experience behind them, and also they have very good machines, officers, system of training and there is more opportunity of rising or getting transferred to the American Flying Corps with a commission.

The malted milk you sent has been wonderful. The boy who is here with me is Harvard '18, and we happened to be talking of Cambridge. It was about 9:30 last night and we were watching it rain and waiting for an expected call when he said: "What wouldn't I give for a malted milk at the college Pharmacy?" I didn't say anything, but poured a white powder in a cup and added some hot water from the fire and said: "there you are". That is only one instance, but I have had them in the afternoon, between 10 A. M. lunch and 5 -P. M. supper, and also about 9:30 at night, as all we get between those meals is a cup of coffee at 5 - 6 A. M., if we want to get up that early.

This morning I was lucky enough to get a couple of eggs, which I fried, and with coffee, malted milk, sugar and condensed milk (which by the way is supplied by the section) and bread with some jam that Shaw had, we made quite a meal.

Don't worry about me standing up against the roughness of it. I love it, but as a sergeant told me last night, every man in the French army is subject to disorders and gets them, too, when he eats certain army food the first time. I know, though, you will worry over my case, but please don't. Here everyone laughs at it. So do I, and why not? It's nothing serious. Now I am going to prepare afternoon tea. Many thanks for all the things.

Harvey.

http://www.hray.com/wwi/31jul17.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Imlach McIntosh VC – won 31 July 1917

Scotsman, Private George McIntosh VC aged 20 served in the 1/6th Battalion, The Gordon Highlanders.

On 31 July 1917 at Ypres, Belgium:

During the consolidation of a position, the company came under machine-gun fire at close range and Private Mclntosh immediately rushed forward under heavy fire and reaching the emplacement, threw a Mills grenade into it, killing two of the enemy and wounding a third.

Subsequently entering the dug-out he found two light machine-guns which he carried back with him.

His quick grasp of the situation and the rapidity with which he acted undoubtedly saved many of his comrades and enabled the consolidation to proceed unhindered by machine-gun fire.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Gordon Highlanders Museum, Aberdeen.

http://ypres.get-started-with.com/2010/04/27/george-imlach-mcintosh-vc-won-31-july-1917/
Foto: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Imlach_McIntosh
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Pilckem Ridge 31 July - 2 August, 1917.

Three Irish Guardsmen wearing German body-armour, examining a captured German machine-gun.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/item/3534?CISOBOX=1&REC=5
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The sinking of Ypres, 31 July 1917

The small Gibraltar-ship Ypres (former Swedish steamer Roma), owned by Mattias Murto, was sunk by U 39 outside Cape Trafalgar in July 1917.

Was sunk 12.45h, 3 miles West of Cabo Roche (36°15'N-06°14'W) with gunfire, while on voyage Cadiz - Gibraltar with 280 tons general cargo.

The 13 crew, incl. Capt. Silva, were rescued by spanish torpedoboat 6, one of them wounded.

http://www.uboat.net/forums/read.php?23,75587,75587#msg-75587 & http://www.uboat.net/forums/read.php?23,75587,75590
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harold Ackroyd

Harold Ackroyd VC, MC (1877 - 1917) was a British recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Biography - Ackroyd was born on 18 July 1877 to Edward Ackroyd of Southport. He was educated at Mintholme College, Southport, then Shrewsbury School and finally Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.[1] He was married, to Mabel.

War action - He was 40 years old, and a Temporary Captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps, British Army, attached to 6th Battalion, The Royal Berkshire Regiment (Princess Charlotte of Wales's) during the First World War. His actions between 31 July and 1 August 1917 at Ypres, Belgium earned him a Victoria Cross.

For most conspicuous bravery. During recent operations Capt. Ackroyd displayed the greatest gallantry and devotion to duty. Utterly regardless of danger, he worked continuously for many hours up and down and in front of the line tending the wounded and saving the lives of officers and men. In so doing he had to move across the open under heavy machine-gun, rifle and shell fire. He carried a wounded officer to a place of safety under very heavy fire. On another occasion he went some way in front of our advanced line and brought in a wounded man under continuous sniping and machine-gun fire. His heroism was the means of saving many lives, and provided a magnificent example of courage, cheerfulness, and determination to the fighting men in whose midst he was carrying out his splendid work. This gallant officer has since been killed in action.

He was killed in action at Glencorse Wood, Ypres, on 11 August 1917, and was enterred at Burr Cross Roads Cemetery.

The medal - VC medal returned to family from Army Services Medical Museum in 1994, and was sold to private buyer in 2004. The money from the sale has been used to endow four scholarships and an annual memorial lecture at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge at which Ackroyd received his medical training.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Ackroyd
Zie ook http://www.victoriacross.org.uk/ggbeatog.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexander Edwards VC – won 31 July 1917

Scotsman, Sergeant Alexander Edwards VC aged 32 served in the 1/6th (Morayshire) Battalion, the Seaforth Highlanders, 51st Highland Division.

On 31 July 1917 Pilckem Ridge, Ypres, Belgium:

For most conspicuous bravery in attack, when, having located a hostile machine gun in a wood, he, with great dash and courage, led some men against it, killed all the team and captured the gun.

Later, when a sniper was causing casualties, he crawled out to stalk him, and although badly wounded in the arm, went on and killed him.

One officer only was now left with the company, and, realising that the success of the operation depended on the capture of the furthest objective, Serjt. Edwards, regardless of his wound, led his men on till this objective was captured. He subsequently showed great skill in consolidating his position, and very great daring in personal reconnaissance.

Although again twice wounded on the following day, this very gallant N.C.O. maintained throughout a complete disregard for personal safety, and his high example of coolness and determination engendered a fine fighting spirit in his men. Killed in action

On 24 March 1918 he was killed and missing in action and is remembered at Bay 8, Arras Cemetery Memorial.

http://ypres.get-started-with.com/2010/04/27/alexander-edwards-vc-won-31-july-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Francis Ledwidge Memorial

Francis Edward Ledwidge was killed aged 29 on the battlefield at Boesinghe on 31st July 1917, the first day of the Third Battle of Ypres (Battle of Passchendaele). He was serving with the 1st Battalion of the Irish Regiment the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

Francis Ledwidge was a poet. He enlisted in October 1914 and served in Gallipoli in the April 1915 campaign. After the evacuation of British troops from the Gallipoli penninsular he went to Serbia where he was taken ill with rheumatism and an inflamed back from the cold, wet weather. He returned to duty in time to serve in the Battle of Arras in April 1917, following which he moved to Belgium to take part in the preparations for the planned Third Battle of Ypres (Battle of Passchendaele) in late July 1917.

On the day that the battle started Lance Corporal Ledwidge was in a party of men from the 1st Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers carrying out repairs to the Boesinghe-Pilkem road at Rose Cross Roads. The attacking British troops had moved across this area in an easterly direction during the day. Damage caused to the Boesinghe-Pilkem road from enemy artillery shells firing on the attacking British force would have to be mended quickly. It was essential to make repairs to keep the road open for supplying the rear of the advancing fighting line. The ground in the area was low-lying, liable to flood and it was vital to keep good quality roads for crossing this ground during and following an attack. The road would be busy with soldiers moving eastwards and horse-drawn wagons loaded with equipment and munitions. (...)

As Francis and his comrades were working on the road repairs a German artillery shell exploded near them. Ledwidge was killed as were several other men. The records listing Soldiers Died in the Great War list 5 soldiers of 1st Battalion Royal Irish Inniskilling Fusiliers being killed on that day: Lance Corporal Ledwidge aged 29 (no. 1638), Lance Serjeant John Harte (no. 4049), Private Henry P Evans (no. 41376), Private Frank Mattingley aged 29 (no. 41108) and Private Robert Sharman (no. 41312).

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/ypres-salient/memorial-francis-ledwidge.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Liberty Defense Union, Conference Announcement, ca. 31 July 1918

This letter from the Liberty Defense Union, an organization created to free wartime activists jailed under the Espionage and Sedition Acts, announces the organization's formation. The Union anticipated O'Hare's work for amnesty for political prisoners after her release. Many promient activists, including Roger Baldwin, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Amos Pinchot, Max Eastman, and Eugene V. Debs, were leaders of this national organization devoted to assisting imprisoned political activists. During Kate O'Hare's imprisonment, Frank P. O'Hare railed at the leadership of the Socialist Party for not working hard enough to secure her release.

LIBERTY DEFENSE UNION

To organize popular support in behalf of per-
sons prosecuted for the exercise of their con-
stitutional rights of free speech and free press.
___________

138 WEST 13TH STREET
NEW YORK CITY

To the Secretary:

Several hundred men and women, chiefly of the working class, are now on trial, on their way to jail, or serving sentences for having spoken or written matter held to be in violation of existing statutes. The cases of Eugene V. Debs, Rose Pastor Stokes, Kate Richards O'Hare, and Scott Nearing are known to everybody. But there are hundreds besides them- men like Anton Fedotov of New Jersey, Hulet M. Wells of Washington, H. E. Kirchner of West Virginia, Ralphy W. Tillotson of Pennsylvania, and Jean Jacques Coronel of Connecticut- who have likewise been prosecuted for exercising their constitutional rights of free speech and free press.

On the evenings of Wednesday, July 31st, and Thursday, August 1st, a Conference of Trade Unions, Branches of the Workmen's Circle, and other Progressive Labor Organizations of Greater New York, will be held in Webster Hall, 119 East 11th Street, for the purpose of organizing the workers into a permanent central body for aiding all persons prosecuted who are in need of help, and of arousing public opinion against the further suppression of constitutional rights and liberties.

The Conference will be held under the auspices of the Liberty Defense Union, and has been endorsed by the United Hebrews Trades and the National Executive Committee of the Workmen's Circle.

Among the speakers who will address the Conference are Max Pine, Abraham Epstein, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Scott Nearing, Alderman B. Charney Vladeck, Rose Pastor Stokes, Roger N. Baldwin and Charles W. Ervin.

Your organization is cordially invited to send two delegates to the Conference. Enclosed you will find a registration card. Please return it at your earliest convenience.

Fraternally yours,

(Signed)

LOUIS P. LOCHNER, Director Liberty Defense Union
ROGER N. BALDWIN, Director National Civil Liberties Bureau
MAX PINE, General Secretary United Hebrew Trades
FREDERICK A. BLOSSOM, Treasurer Liberty Defense Union
JOSEPH SCHLOSSBERG, General Secretary Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
ABRAHAM EPSTEIN, President Workmen's Circle
CHARLES W. ERVIN, Socialist Candidate for Governor
ABRAHAM I. SHIPLACOFF, Assemblyman
B. CHARNEY VLADECK, Alderman

http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/kro/doc005.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jul 2010 23:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31 July 1918 → Commons Sitting

GAS MASK ILLNESS.


HC Deb 31 July 1918 vol 109 c402 402

Mr. SWIFT MacNEILL asked the Under-Secretary of State for War if he will furnish a complete Return showing the number of officers and men in the Army who have suffered or are suffering from trench gums, a complaint alleged to be due to the combination of a noseclip and mouthpiece, especially the latter, of the small box respirator attached to the gas mask at present in use in the field?

Mr. MACPHERSON I regret that the figures asked for are not readily available, and the preparation of such a Return would involve an undue amount of time and labour. A special investigation, of which this subject will form a part, has recently been commenced at the Royal Army Medical College, and it is hoped that this will result in valuable information being obtained upon the prevalence and prevention of this condition.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jul/31/gas-mask-illness
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2010 8:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jean Jaurès

31 juli 1914 - In Parijs wordt socialistisch leider Jean Jaurès vermoord door de nationalist Raoul Villain. Als pacifist wilde Jaurès de Eerste Wereldoorlog voorkomen door een Frans-Duits bondgenootschap.

http://www.beleven.org/vandaag/31_juli

Als pacifist wilde hij de Eerste Wereldoorlog via diplomatie voorkomen onder meer door een Frans-Duits bondgenootschap. Hij werd vermoord in een Parijs café door Raoul Villain, een jonge Franse nationalist die juist oorlog met Duitsland wilde, op 31 juli 1914, een dag voor de mobilisaties waarmee de oorlog begon. Villain zat vijf jaar in voorarrest en de ironie wil dat hij na de oorlog werd vrijgesproken omdat "hij de natie een grote dienst had bewezen". "Zonder zijn moordaanslag had Frankrijk nooit de oorlog kunnen winnen", stond in het vonnis.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Jaur%C3%A8s
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2010 8:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mobilisatie 1914 in Belgie

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=20268&sid=9d03a6ae91cb011ae8ef137bb592678d
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2010 8:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mobilisatie 1914 in Nederland

Tijdens de Frans-Duitse oorlog mobileerde Nederland op 15 juli 1870. Het beroepsleger van 5000 man werd daardoor aangevuld met 55.000 militie en de schutterij. Men bereidde zich voor op weerstand in Holland en Utrecht, maar in de Grebbelinie werden geen troepen gestationeerd. Nederland bleef buiten schot.

Op 31 juli 1914 mobiliseerde het neutrale Nederland zijn land- en zeemacht, omdat men ernstig rekening hield met een oorlog tussen Duitsland en Rusland. Het veldleger groeide in die periode tot 95.000 man. Verder waren er 70.000 bezettingstroepen, 10.000 man grensbewaking en 20.000 depottroepen. De Grebbelinie werd niet bezet door troepen. Ook deze periode overschreden de Duitse legers de Nederlandse grens niet.

http://www.grebbelinie.nl/page/mobilisatie

Dankzij de gedegen voorbereiding verliep de mobilisatie zonder veel problemen. Bij het departement van Oorlog in Den Haag kwamen zelfs gepensioneerden vrijwillig hun diensten aanbieden.

http://www.geschiedenisvanzuidholland.nl/verhalen/verhaal/176/het-begin-van-de-eerste-wereldoorlog
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2010 8:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mobilisatie 1914

In 1914 zakte mijn vader voor zijn eindexamen HBS, maar dat hielp hem niet om uit de verplichte dienst te blijven, de zogenaamde Mobilisatie. Wat hij beleefde op zijn eerste dienstplichtdag verwerkte hij in een opstel dat bewaard is gebleven. Justine Swaving.

Arnhem 31 Juli 1914
Wie in Nederland herinnert zich deze datum niet. Het was de dag, waarop bekend werd dat alle dienstplichtigen moesten opkomen om hun diensten te bewijzen voor het heil en welzijn van het Vaderland.
Hoevelen van onze jongens hadden niet veel liever willen genieten van het heerlijke zomerweer na de inspannende tijd van de verschillende examens
Een schoolkameraad en ik kregen de 31 ste Juli om drie uur het bericht dat we moesten opkomen. We gingen naar het stadhuis waar we zagen dat Gouda mijn oorlogsstandplaats was.
Het was voor mijn kameraad beroerder dan voor mij, want hij had een reisje willen maken naar zijn ouders in Indi‰. Na enig gemopper gingen we er op uit om inkopen te doen, want wat konden we er verder aan veranderen. De volgende morgen - heel vroeg - vertrokken we naar het station en na een uur wachten namen we afscheid, want mijn kameraad moest een andere richting uit.
De reis tot Utrecht was vrij leuk want ik ontmoette weer andere schoolkameraden die ook naar Gouda moesten. We zaten in een coup‚ tweede Klasse met twee wachtmeesters en twee landweersoldaten. We spraken gezellig met elkaar en ‚‚n van de wachtmeesters liet zijn vlijmscherp geslepen sabel zien. We rilden er van. Zelfs de wachtmeesters , toch allen militairen van beroep, vonden de oorlog ook een verschrikkelijke toestand.
Als je in je hart geen soldaat bent en je bent bovendien tegen het militairisme dan begrijp je echt niet waarom zoïn wrede oorlog gevoerd moet worden. Ik denk dat er individueel nog te weinig mensen zijn die vinden dat oorlog niet mag bestaan.

In Utrecht moesten we overstappen en de reis naar Gouda was verschrikkelijk! We stonden in een benauwd hokje, tussen ruwe vloekende en spuwende mensen in en het was bepaald een verlichting toen we in Gouda konden uitstappen.
We ontmoetten op weg naar de kazerne meer lotgenoten . Gezamenlijk meldden we ons aan en de eerste woorden die we te horen kregen waren: "Donder maar op, we kunnen jullie voorlopig nog niet gebruiken."
We konden dus afmarcheren en na een tijdje gewandeld te hebben, kwamen we in een park, dat voor Gouda werkelijk heel aardig was. Tot tegen twaalf bleven we daar zitten en toen gingen we een caf‚ binnen want de honger deed zich goed voelen.
Veel was er niet te krijgen, maar we stelden ons tevreden met wat er geboden werd en het smaakte ons best dank zij de honger. Na een poosje gebiljart te hebben gingen we het maar weer eens proberen en tegen drie uur liepen we kazernewaarts , waar we tot onze grote blijdschap een troepje reservisten troffen , bijna allemaal jongelui uit Arnhem. Ook zij wachtten op nadere bevelen.
Eindelijk , om vier uur mochten we de kazerne in waar we gelukkig allemaal bij elkaar bleven in een grote zaal
De kribben werden ons aangewezen en daar er natuurlijk niet voor eten gezorgd was mochten we naar buiten om zelf ergens ons middagmaal te zoeken.
In het caf‚ nuttigden we dit allemaal gezamenlijk en de stemming was nogal goed.
Zoals ons gezegd was, waren we om zeven uur weer in de kazerne terug.en daar deze eerste dag niet geheel onbenut gelaten mocht worden , kregen we les in het model opmaken van de kribben
Nu, dit was niet moeilijk en dadelijk al hadden we het kunstje aangeleerd.
"En nu uitkleden en onder de wol!" riep de Sergeant die voor ons moest zorgen. Binnen niet al te lange tijd lagen we er onder, maar slapen konden we niet. Van alle kanten hoorde je: Zeg, lui, hebben jullie ook zo last van jeuk?"- Ja! - was het antwoord en we ontdekten gauw genoeg dat van slapen niets zou komen daar de beestjes ons geen ogenblik met rust lieten.
Eerst tegen de morgen vielen de meesten van vermoeienis in slaap. Ik bleef wakker tot de Sergeant ons wekte om ongeveer een uur of acht.
Het waslokaal was primitief ingericht , maar het frisse water gaf ons moed voor al het nieuwe dat ons wachtte.
Als ontbijt kregen we een heel brood, een beetje boter, een kom koude melk en een stuk kaas.
Om een uur of elf begon het voor ons menens te worden. Het was Zondag, een mooie Augustusdag en daar moesten we waarachtig sjouwen, trap op , trap af, met bossen stro. We moesten de bossen uit elkaar halen en uitspreiden voor de manschappen die v¢¢r de nacht zouden aankomen uit Arnhem.
Gelukkig was de Sergeant nogal goedig en zo nu en dan stond hij ons toe om wat te rusten.
Niettegenstaande hebben we toch hard gewerkt die dag en om vijf uur ïs middags was alles klaar.
We wilden naar buiten gaan om te eten, maar de poort was op slot. We moesten nu maar geduldig wachten op wat ging komen.
Geduld moesten we werkelijk hebben want eerst om zeven uur werden we geroepen.
Nu kwam echter de moeilijkheid! Borden ,vorken, lepels en messen waren er niet en hoe we ook zochten er was niets te vinden waarmee we konden eten. En zo werden we gedwongen om met zijn allen met de handen uit ‚‚n grote pot te eten, wat we gedwee deden
Het kon immers niet anders? Het was eenvoudige kost, maar zoals het me toen smaakte, heeft het mij nooit meer gesmaakt in de kazerne.
Dit hadden velen met mij gemeen want we waren letterlijk uitgehongerd.!! Zo eindigde dan mijn eerste dag in de kazerne .

Jan Justus Swaving, 1914

http://www.blimbing.nl/archief/mobilisatie.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2010 8:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Generaal Snijders

C. (Cornelis) J. (Jacobus) Snijders werd geboren in het Zuid-Hollandse Nieuwe-Tonge op 29 september 1852. Hij groeide op in een huisartsengezin en na een onvoltooide HBS-opleiding in Middelburg begon Snijders met de genieopleiding tot genieofficier aan de Koninklijke Militaire Academie te Breda. Zoals veel militairen in die tijd werd hij vervolgens in 1873 uitgezonden naar Nederlands-Indië. In 1874 nam hij als jong officier van het Koninklijk Nederlands Indië Leger deel aan de tweede expeditie naar Atjeh. Hij onderscheidde zich bij de gevechten dusdanig dat hij de Militaire Willemsorde ontving. In 1875 keerde hij terug naar Nederland waarna hij carrière maakte als genieofficier en in 1908 uiteindelijk bij de Generale Staf belandde. Op 31 juli 1914 (op 62-jarige leeftijd) werd hij benoemd tot opperbevelhebber van de van de gemobiliseerde Nederlandse strijdkrachten tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Snijders was een nationaal bekend militair en stond in hoog aanzien bij koningin Wilhelmina. Hij werd in 1918 ontslagen; wegens een conflict met het kabinet. Op 13 november 1919 werd Snijders benoemd tot Ridder-Grootkruis in de Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, en Grootkruis in de Huisorde van de Gouden Leeuw van Nassau. Na 1918 ontplooide hij politieke activiteiten en wierp zich op als pleitbezorger van de Militaire Luchtvaart, vooral in Nederlands-Indië. In 1933 werd Snijders als lijsttrekker verkozen tot de Tweede Kamer voor het Verbond voor Nationaal Herstel. Hij stond zijn zetel echter af aan William Westerman vanwege het omstreden politieke karakter van die partij. C.J. Snijders overleed op 26 mei 1939 te Hilversum. In 1939 ontving hij postuum, het Kruis van Verdienste van de Nationale Bond ‘Het Mobilisatiekruis 1914-1918’.

http://www.nimh.nl/nl/images/462%20Generaal%20Snijders_tcm5-8424.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2010 8:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Isla Raffinaderij

Op 31 juli 1914 ontdekte men olie in het meer van Maracaibo in Venezuela. De Koninklijke Oliemaatschappij, de Shell, koos Curaçao als basis. De belangrijkste reden voor die keuze was de grote en diepe, natuurlijke haven. Tussen 1918 en 1924 werd op Curaçao een raffinaderij gebouwd met eigen werven in het Schottegat. Olie werd de motor waar de Curaçaose economie op draaide. In 1914 werd het Panama Kanaal geopend. Curaçao maakte zich klaar voor een toevloed van handel. Maar de verwachtingen kwamen niet uit. Het was niet zozeer het Panama Kanaal als wel de olie-industrie die de economie van Curaçao drijvende hield.

http://www.curacaomaritime.com/home/index.php/geschiedenis
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2010 9:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hedd Wyn
The Bard of the black chair Eisteddfod.

Killed 31 July 1917 at Iron Cross, Pilkem.

Born:
1887
Place of Birth:
Trawsfynydd
"Heavy weather, heavy soul, heavy heart. That is an uncomfortable Trinity, isn't it. I never saw a land more beautiful in spite of the curse that has landed upon it. The trees are as beautiful as the dreams of old kings". Hedd Wyn's description of Belgium Hedd Wyn
Biography:
The story of Hedd Wyn was brought to the world's attention by the 1992 Oscar-nominated film of his life.
Hedd Wyn was the bardic name of Ellis Humphrey Evans, a Trawsfynydd shepherd and gifted poet. Following success in local competitions and a second place for the chair in the National Eisteddfod at Aberystwyth, Ellis set his sights on the chair at the Birkenhead Eisteddfod of 1917. Such compositions take great flair and precision, as the poem must be written within the strict rules of the cynghanedd.
Meanwhile, as World War I continued, pressure was brought to bear on local farmers to send their sons to the battlefront, as only two were deemed necessary to help farm the land. As the oldest of the sons still at home, Ellis joined up, despite his misgivings about war and killing. He joined the 15th battalion of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers and was sent to serve on the Western Front.
Yet, despite the terrible conditions of the trenches and the scepticism of the English officers, he continued with his composition, this time submitting it under the bardic name Fleur-de-Lis. He drew upon his experiences of war to compose Yr Arwr (The Hero), which describes the realities of war for both the soldiers and their families back home.
Back in Birkenhead, as the judges called out the name of the victorious bard, there was silence in the auditorium. Hedd Wyn had been killed six weeks earlier on July 31, 1917, during the battle for Pilckem Ridge, Ypres. As the Western Mail reported: "Instead of the usual chairing ceremony the chair was draped in a black pall amidst death-like silence, and the bards came forward in long procession to place their muse-tribute of englyn or couplet on the draped chair in memory of the dead bard hero."
After the war, a petition was submitted to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, and it was granted that his grave in Belgium did not read simply E H Ellis, but Y Prifardd Hedd Wyn (The Principle Bard, Hedd Wyn). There is also a bronze statue of him dressed as a shepherd in the centre of Trawsfynydd, unveiled by his mother in 1923 and bearing an inscription which Hedd Wyn had written in memory of a friend who lost his life in the Trenches.
Ei aberth nid a heibio - ei wyneb Annwyl nid a'n ango Er i'r Almaen ystaenio Ei dwrn dur yn ei waed o (Neither his sacrifice nor his dear countenance are forgotten, though the Hun has stained his fist of steel in his blood).

http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/northwest/halloffame/arts/heddwyn.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2012 11:14    Onderwerp: On This Day - 31 July 1914 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 31 July 1914

Countdown to War

Russia still complaisant, but as Austria is not responsive she announces her general mobilisation.

Austria also announces general mobilisation.

Germany declares Kriegsgefahrsustand (i.e. imminent-danger-of-war situation), and tells Russia (definite threat not delivered till midnight) that she proposes to mobilise unless Russia stops all military measures within 12 hours. She also informs France of her intention towards Russia, and demands to know within 18 hours whether France will remain neutral. (In that case she would have demanded the temporary cession of Toul and Verdun. M. Viviani, however, merely replied that France would act according to her interests.)

France notifies her Ambassadors that Germany, whilst protesting peaceful intentions, has throughout by her dilatory or negative attitude caused all attempts at agreement to fail.

Sir Edward Grey goes to the furthest possible limit in endeavouring to persuade Germany to assist him in squaring matters between Austria and Serbia. Asks France and Germany whether they intend to respect Belgian neutrality; France says, "certainly", Germany refuses to reply. British Cabinet not yet prepared to give France definite pledge of assistance.

Financial crisis in London. Stock Exchange closed.

Belgian mobilisation decreed for following day.

M. Jaures (Socialist leader) assassinated in Paris.

Mobilisation commenced in Turkey.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_07_31.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2012 11:16    Onderwerp: On This Day - 31 July 1915 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 31 July 1915

Western Front

End of big movement lasting ten days, of German troops from Eastern to Western front.

Eastern Front

Germans cross the Aa (Riga), after tow days' fighting.

Desperate fighting and German advance on Kamienka front (Vistula).

Russians ejected from positions near Kurow (Lyublin).

Kholm occupied by Germans.

Southern Front

Riva (and Garda) bombarded by seaplanes, Austrian positions there taken.

Political, etc.

French Note on German outrages at Roubaix published.

M. Radoslavov declares Bulgaria has no intention of joining Central Powers or of attacking Serbia.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2012 11:17    Onderwerp: On This Day - 31 July 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 31 July 1916


Western Front

Zeppelin raid on east and south-east counties; about 60 bombs dropped. No damage.

Eastern Front

Russian advance on the Stokhod towards Kovel. Heavy engagements.

Russians north of Dniester have crossed Koropyets River.

Southern Front

In the Astico Valley (Trentino) Austrian attack on positions of Monte Cimone repulsed.

South-west of Castelletto, Austrian attack repulsed by Italians.

In the Travignolo valley, Italians occupy Paneveggio.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

The pursuit of the Turks from Erzingan (Armenia) continues in the face of a stubborn defence.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British occupy Saranda and Kilimatinde (Central Railway, East Africa).

Political, etc.

Prime Minister in House of Commons denounces murder of Captain Fryatt; immediate action contemplated by Government.

Mr. H. E. Duke becomes Chief Secretary for Ireland.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_07_31.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2012 11:18    Onderwerp: On This Day - 31 July 1917 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 31 July 1917

Western Front

Third Battle of Ypres begins. British and French attack on 15-mile front in Flanders; take 12 villages and claim 5,000 prisoners.

French make successful attack south of La Royere, west of the Chevregny Ridge (Aisne).

Eastern Front

Enemy extends his hold on Galician front and stands on west bank of Zbrucz on front of over 30 miles.

Russians retiring in Czernovitz region.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jul 2012 11:19    Onderwerp: On This Day - 31 July 1918 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 31 July 1918

Western Front

Severe fighting round Seringes (north-east of Fere-en-Tardenois); finally left to Americans.

Political, etc.

Lord R. Cecil accepts recommendations of Royal Commission on Foreign Office reforms.

Lord Lansdowne's letter re: conditions of Peace discussions.

Speech of Mr. Lloyd George to Manufacturers.

Sir Charles W. Fielding appointed Director-General of Food Production.


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