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11 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Jun 2006 6:19    Onderwerp: 11 juni Reageer met quote

June 11

1918 Allies launch counterattack against Germans in France

After several months of an aggressive German offensive on the Western Front during the spring and early summer of 1918, the Allies begin their counterattack, including an assault on June 10, 1918, by four French and two American divisions on German lines near the town of Antheuil-Portes in central France, some 45 miles from Paris.

Code-breaking by French intelligence at the beginning of June 1918 had allowed the Allies to prepare for a German attack in France that was to begin at midnight on June 7. The French launched their own massive artillery bombardment some ten minutes earlier, catching the Germans while they were still preparing for the attack. The Germans countered with an even stronger assault, firing 250,000 rounds of poison gas—including mustard, phosgene and diphenyl-chlorarsine—into the French trenches, incapacitating some 4,000 French soldiers and killing 32.

After three days of battle, the Germans had forced the French back to Antheuil-Portes. Winston Churchill, in Paris at the time coordinating Allied munitions, wrote to his wife on June 10 that “If the French cannot hold [the Germans] back on this sector, it is not easy to see what the next step on our part should be.” The following day, four French and two American divisions launched a counterattack aided by significant air support as well as over 150 tanks. They successfully pushed the Germans back from Antheuil, taking more than a thousand German prisoners. A German attack west of Soissons on June 12 made negligible gains, and German Chief of Staff Erich Ludendorff called off the offensive that same day. The Allies continued their push, however, beginning a change of momentum that would gain force throughout the summer of 1918 and the final months of World War I.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Jun 2006 6:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Vorstoß in die russische Stellung bei Krewo

Großes Hauptquartier, 11. Juni.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Beiderseits der Maas heftige Artilleriekämpfe. Die gestern gemeldete Beute aus den Angriffen östlich des Flusses hat sich noch um drei Geschütze und sieben Maschinengewehre erhöht.
Westlich von Markirch machte eine deutsche Patrouille, die in die französischen Gräben eindrang, einen Offizier und sieben Mann zu Gefangenen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Südlich von Krewo stießen deutsche Erkundungsabteilungen in die russische Stellung vor. Sie zerstörten die feindlichen Anlagen und brachten über hundert Russen als Gefangene sowie ein Maschinengewehr zurück.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Erbitterte Kämpfe in der Bukowina

Wien, 11. Juni.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Östlich von Kolki hat der Feind vorgestern abend mit drei Regimentern das linke Styr-Ufer gewonnen. Er wurde gestern durch den umfassenden Gegenangriff österreichisch-ungarischer Truppen wieder über den Fluß geworfen, wobei acht russische Offiziere, 1500 Mann und 13 Maschinengewehre in unsere Hand fielen.
Nordwestlich von Tarnopol eroberten wir durch Gegenstoß eine vom Feinde unter großen Verlusten erkämpfte Höhe zurück.
Im Nordostteile der Bukowina wurde wieder überaus erbittert gekämpft.
Der Druck überlegener gegnerischer Kräfte, die mit einem auch bei diesem Feinde einzig dastehenden rücksichtslosen Verbrauch des Menschenmaterials angesetzt wurden, machte es notwendig, unsere Truppen dort vom Gegner loszulösen und zurückzunehmen.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Italiener erneuerten ihre Vorstöße gegen einzelne Frontstellen und wurden wieder überall rasch und blutig abgewiesen. Auf dem Monte Lemerle griffen unsere Truppen die feindlichen Abteilungen, die sich nahe dem Gipfel noch gehalten hatten, überraschend an, setzten sich in den vollen Besitz des Berges und machten über 500 Gefangene. Unsere Flieger bedachten den Bahnhof von Cividale mit Bomben.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts von Belang.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.

Ereignisse zur See:
Eines unserer Unterseeboote hat am 8. laufenden Monats abends den von mehreren italienischen Zerstörern begleiteten großen italienischen Hilfskreuzer "Principe Umberto" mit Truppen an Bord torpediert. Das Schiff sank binnen wenigen Minuten.

Flottenkommando. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 11. Juni. (W. B.)
Amtlicher Bericht vom 29. Mai türkischer Zeitrechnung:
An der Irak-Front im Abschnitt von Felahie bombardierte unsere Artillerie gestern verschiedene Punkte der feindlichen Stellung. Zwei feindliche Kanonenboote, die nicht entfliehen konnten, wurden durch die Explosion von Artilleriemunition, die sie an Bord hatten, in die Luft gesprengt. Drei große, von diesen Kanonenbooten gezogene Schlepper, die ebenfalls mit Artilleriemunition beladen waren, wurden versenkt. Außerdem wurde durch unsere Artillerie an Bord von vier mit Explosivstoffen beladenen Schleppkähnen ein Brand hervorgerufen. Die Kähne konnten sich nur dank der Strömung retten. Vier große Munitionsdepots, die sich am Ufer des Flusses befanden, wurden vollständig in die Luft gesprengt. Durch die Explosion der Geschosse, die sich dort befanden, entstand ein Brand in dem Lager eines feindlichen Bataillons, das vollkommen zerstört wurde. Bei einem Zusammentreffen mit dem Feinde in der Gegend von Schendinan wurde die feindliche Kavallerie in der Stärke von mehr als tausend Mann vollständig vernichtet. Nur einer ganz geringen Anzahl von Feinden gelang es sich zu retten. Viel Vieh, Telephonapparate und Ponton-Material, sowie eine Menge von Gewehren und Munition wurde von uns erbeutet. An der Kaukasusfront keine Veränderung. Ein feindlicher Flieger, der Fotscha im Abschnitt von Smyrna überflog, wurde durch unser Artilleriefeuer in die Flucht gejagt. Ein feindlicher Monitor schleuderte auf der Höhe von Fotscha gegen die Gewässer der Bai von Hadjiloe 20 Geschosse, ohne eine Wirkung zu erzielen.
Andere feindliche Kriegsfahrzeuge eröffneten ein wirkungsloses Feuer gegen die Höhen östlich der Insel Keusten. Am Nachmittag des 29. Mai (türkische Zeitrechnung) bombardierte ein feindliches Kriegsschiff den Hafen Kalamaki in dem Distrikt Kasch. Eine Christin wurde getötet, sonst aber kein Schaden angerichtet.

Konstantinopel 11. Juni. (W. B.)
Das Hauptquartier teilt mit:
Nach einem Kampf, der mit der Niederlage und dem Rückzuge der Russen vor Chanikin endete, nahmen unsere Abteilungen die Verfolgung auf, schlugen starke feindliche Kosakenabteilungen zurück und drangen in der Nacht zum 9. Juni in Kasri Schirin ein. 2)


Kriegsrat in London

Paris, 11. Juni. (Priv. Tel.)
Havas meldet aus London:
Der Ministerpräsident Briand und General Joffre trafen mit dem General Roques, dem Handelsminister Clementel und dem Blockademinister Denys Cochin in London ein. Sie wurden im Buckinghampalast vom König und der Königin empfangen. Briand, General Roques und General Joffre wohnten einem Kriegsrat bei, der von Asquith geleitet wurde und dem ferner Balfour, Mac Kenna, Bonar Law, Lloyd George, Lord Crewe, General Robertson und Sir Douglas Haigh beiwohnten. Die beiden Regierungen stellten ihre völlige Einigkeit in den verschiedenen besprochenen Fragen fest. Die französischen Minister kehrten am Samstag nachts 11 Uhr nach Paris zurück. 2)
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Countdown to the Battles of the Isonzo

As soon as war was announced Cadorna initiated his surprise offensive, called "the First Jump" (Primo Sbalzo). Launched in distinct areas at points along the Italian Front (and not just along the Isonzo river) the series of attacks were designed to boost the Italian army's position from the first.

Thus, in the north-east the Italians advanced across the Italian-Austrian border to the banks of the Isonzo. Italian General Frugoni rapidly captured Caporetto - later the scene of a spectacular combined German-Austro-Hungarian assault.

Somewhat further south Duke Aosta attempted to advance on Gorizia but was repulsed by prepared Austro-Hungarian forces massed around the city and surrounding mountains.

In the south itself the Italians were unable to make much progress on account of seasonal flooding around Monfalcone (which ought to have been foreseen by Cadorna). Similarly, Italian attacks upon the Tolmino bridgehead, at Mte Krn, failed owing to a lack of planning and sufficient artillery support.

Notwithstanding this Cadorna ordered a concerted attempt to create an Italian bridgehead between Gorizia and Tolmino in an unsuccessful attack which ran from 11-17 June 1915. This was to be the final attack ahead of the First Battle of the Isonzo which began less than a week later on 23 June, the first of four Italian Isonzo assaults throughout the remainder of 1915.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/isonzo1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Verdun

(...) the departure of General Pétain from his Verdun command on 1 June 1916 and his replacement by General Nivelle had a negative impact on the soldiers' morale. Only ten days after Nivelle had replaced Pétain at the helm, two French lieutenants, Henri Herduin and Pierre Millant were summarily executed by firing squad, on 11 June 1916, in Fleury-devant-Douaumont. The executions were illegal since they had been carried out without proper court martial judgement but only with Nivelle's consent. Herduin and Millant had walked back from their positions, together with the few survivors of their company, as their relief was long overdue and they had run out of ammunition. Ten years later, in 1926, and after an inquiry that became a "cause célčbre", the late Lieutenant Herduin and Lieutenant Millant were totally exonerated, and their official military records expunged.

http://www.answers.com/topic/battle-of-verdun#June.E2.80.93July_1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Percy

France
June 11th, 1916

Dear Old Dad,

Just a line or two to wish you many happy and healthy returns of your birthday. You’ll get this a bit late, but the wishes are just as sincere never the less. Rather hard luck for Clytie wasn’t it? Met Viv recently and he told me about it. Am getting Viv to put in a claim to have me transferred to his battalion. It will be better for us to be together. Heard that Vernies brigade is over here somewhere. Hope it’s true, anyway. Best of love, and hoping you are well and happy, your loving son, Percy.

http://smythe.id.au/letters/p_9.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Carman Stothers account of a trench raid with the 75th Battalion on June 11th, 1917.

This was discovered in a binder of his letters and was probably written in the 1960's...

June 1917

We were in the line June 11th, my birthday. It was a hot day the gallon gasoline tins brought up by a working party, presumably the new draft were about half full to be divided among the Lewis Gun Crew of six men. Cocking hands Joe, or No. 1 was Jack Rowe of Bowmanville, Spare Pats man, No.2 was Carman, Nos. 3 & 4 were English born – one elderly and one a home-boy. Nos. 5 & 6 were French Canadian named Grenier.

I was thirsty and had a block of Sterno form a parcel so at a quiet hour in the PM, I crawled out of the front-line trench to get some water. In the first shell-hole was a dead German soldier with rifle and bombs immersed to the neck. In the second the water was scummy and not a good colour. In the next the water was clear so I filled my mess tin. I got back with it half full. Then in the funk-hole I had gouged out of the forward side of the trench, I set my water to boil over my one sterno cube. When it had boiled ten minutes, the Sterno flickered out, so I had to decide whether to drink it or not. I had some cocoa powder and stirred some in and drank it saving some to eat with my slice of bread and my part of a bully beef can.

Things were quiet until about 7 o’clock. Then Fritz sent over a bombardment probably on general principles. There were some casualties on our left and about 8 o’clock they were carried out. Among them was Bill (W.P.) Buchanan, #681365 with whom I went to Upper School in Wingham; whose marriage I had had to arrange by telephone; and who had lived with us at 8 Willard Apartments during his teaching career from Sept. 1915 until Feb 28th 1916 at Carlton school in Toronto. He came from Westfield, a posh office in East Wawonosh a few miles east of Dungannon. He was in bad shape with a bullet in his head and both legs broken so he probably felt nothing. I was reminded of sharing one of his parcels with him on our previous line duty when we each promised to visit the parents and loved ones of the other when we got home.

This evening Blitz by Fritz could hardly have been put on in anticipation of the midnight raid we were to put on that day. Friends who had been there told us after the war that this raid was put on for some visiting brass but this I found hard to believe then or now. We knew days ahead that one of these nights during our tour that we had to go over the top. Midnight came and at 12.15 we went over behind a barrage designed to make mincemeat of the German front line. There was answering fire but we walked on right up to Fritzes front-line trench. I jumped in and was met by a German coming from my left. We got busy with bayonets and then something hit me and him. We were by that time non-combatants. Then I was conscious of wetness in my right shoulder. I put my hand in and was reassured to find that I could see blood on my hand. It was reassuring that in the light of the yellow flare I could that it must be more then sweat and therefore red instead of yellow. My bayonet was broken and the stock of the Enfield rifle below the grip was shattered and missing. Then Herdsman came along and picked me up, saying that he would carry me on his shoulder. After we got out of the trench, the return fire of mostly machine-gun bullets were too close, so I begged to be put down on my own legs. So Herdsman shuffled along till we got to our own trench and continued down it to the dressing station.

There Dr. Hutchinson V.C. (the only one in our battalion) tended me on a stretcher. I told him about my shoulder and said "I’m tired of walking and I hope I can lie here". His scissors cut my pants on both legs which he bandaged. Next he bandaged my hip and last my shoulder. Then he said "your going out on a stretcher", which was music to my ears. Some time later I was carried to the light railway from which I was transferred to an ambulance which took me to the First Casualty Clearing Depot. There a Medical full-Colonel operated on me and found in the bandage on my hip one last shrapnel bullet. He said, "We have no anesthetics but this will take only a moment". He was relying on the influence of a blonde nurse who in the Canadian Nurses uniform was something of a goddess to one who had not seen the like of for about seven months. Even then I felt the two deep snips of the scissors to widen the aperture and the tweezers used to extract another lead shrapnel ball. The indignity to my person released most, if not all, the cuss-words I had learned in the army. The Colonel was used to being cursed out by a private under these conditions.

Next they sent me to Calais to a Canadian hospital in tents. There they had sent New Zealanders and Australians as well as Canadians. Because my ticket showed the 75th Battalion, I was of special interest to another blonde Canadian nurse. She was engaged to a Captain Harding who had command of our company at Vimy. She gave me special treatment. For days I was the only one who got the curtains drawn around his bed. This was noted by most of the other patients who complained. My last view of Captain Harding had shown him "hors de combat" and one member of his company relieving him of his revolver. I have never heard that he was revived. That was the sad news I had to tell the nurse.

Within a few days we were evacuated to Dover. It seems that were taken to an inner harbour with white rock walls. Such is my memory. Having returned from France twice since 1917, this observation has not been confirmed. The St. John ambulance men transferred us to a hospital car. The first stop was London. There were a few stops but we reached Hereford where several of us were transferred to the top floor of the Hereford General Hospital which was close to Hereford Cathedral.

Carman Edmund Stothers

http://www.stothers.com/momex/NavCode/letters1917/WritingID/55.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 21:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harry's letters about Battle of Messines Ridge, June 11th /1917

…. Dear Jack
I was very pleased to hear from you and that you are going on all right I have been to the place you mentioned in your letter we went there for our bath about a fortnight ago. The part of the line and we are in is straight forward so you will know where I am. We have had another terrible time this week the men here say it was worst than the Somme advance last July. We lost a lot of men but we got where we were asked to take. It was awful I am alright got buried and knocked about but quite well now and hope to remain so. We were praised by the general and all, everybody said we had done well, quite a success. I will tell you more when I see you. Mention the name of the place you think I am in and I will tell you whether you are right but I think you will know one of the worst fronts on the line but I think we are having a change of place. When you receive this letter write back and let me know all news you can. It is a rum job waiting for the time to come to go over the top without any rum too. The C.O. got killed and our captain, marvellous how we escaped. The biggest part of our company are scotch man from the Scottish Borderers. I can’t tell what they say they are not like Yorkshire men and we were the fifth wave over. I am glad they are alright at home and getting on well. The little book you sent is very nice it will come in useful I will read it. Glad you have wrote to Kate. My address is the same Y & L. I will write againAnd soon and let you know how I am getting on.

With best love from Harry

could you send me a small tin of salts or lemon something to put to water only a small tin, anything that will not take up much room.


June 11th /1917

Dear Kate
I was very pleased to receive your packet everything came in a very useful. I was very pleased to hear you are going on all right did you receive my letter. We have had some very rough times up here lately especially the last time we were in the trenches you see we had to go over the top. its a rotten time waiting for the order. we had to go over at three in the morning. the bombardment was awful lucky to get out but I’m very pleased to say I am alright and hope to remain so. There was a parcel waiting for me from Ethel and Annie when I came out, it was nice to have some cake and tea. we never had anything but water for about a week, biscuits and bully a bit of Jam but never mind I got over it. I am very pleased Connie is going to school I do hope she gets on alright-I think they all keep well at home. The weather here is very hot I wish it was a bit cooler. Do not be long before you write. My address is 32507 ninth York and Lancs Batt C Company L. G. section B.E.F. France. There is nobody in my company from our way not that I know of you see a mix them up now there is a lot of scotch men with us you can hardly tell what they say. I have been a with the Lewis gunners the last month but I don’t know for how long. It was only three of us came back out of our section after the last fight. I think this is all just now, I will write again soon and tell you more.
With love from
Harry.

http://wwar1.blogspot.com/2007/06/battle-of-messines-ridge_12.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 - Edward Packe's diary of World War I

June 11th. - Nothing doing.

http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/diaries/diary1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CHATEAU-THIERRY - THE BATTLE FOR BELLEAU WOOD

11 June 1918 - The assault following the bombardment succeeds in capturing two-thirds of Belleau Wood, but again with heavy casualties. A battalion commander, Lt. Col. Frederick Wise erroneously reports his men were in control of the woods, but has misread his maps and position. Brigade Commander James Harbord requests relief for his men reporting their near physical exhaustion. Another Navy medical officer Lt Orlando Petty received the Medal of Honor for his service this day.

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/ct_bw.htm

Orlando Henderson Petty

Orlando Henderson Petty (February 20, 1874 – June 2, 1932) was an American physician and naval officer. As a surgeon in the United States Navy, he received the Medal of Honor for his actions during World War I. (...)

Petty's official Medal of Honor citation reads:

For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in France during the attack in the Bois de Belleau, 11 June 1918. While under heavy fire of high explosive and gas shells in the town of Lucy, where his dressing station was located, Lt. Petty attended to and evacuated the wounded under most trying conditions. Having been knocked to the ground by an exploding gas shell which tore his mask, Lt. Petty discarded the mask and courageously continued his work. His dressing station being hit and demolished, he personally helped carry Capt. Williams, wounded, through the shellfire to a place of safety.

Later years and death
After his military service, Petty returned to Philadelphia and resumed teaching medicine. From 1923 until shortly before his death, he was a professor of metabolic diseases at the University of Pennsylvania. He was also the personal physician of Philadelphia mayor Harry A. Mackey. In 1931, Mackey appointed him as the head of the city's public health department.

On June 2, 1932, Petty's family found him dead in the bedroom of his Philadelphia home. He had been shot through the heart, apparently with his Army service pistol, which was found nearby. His family noted that he had been in poor health for some time; his death was ruled a suicide.[2] He is buried at Saint Timothy's Episcopal Church Cemetery in Philadelphia's Roxborough neighborhood.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlando_Henderson_Petty
Zie ook http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/awd/us-indiv/petty/o-petty.htm voor o.a. foto's
Zie ook http://www.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=2481
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 21:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11 June 1918, Commons Sitting

OFFICERS ESCAPED FROM GERMANY.


HC Deb 11 June 1918 vol 106 c2016 2016

Colonel FABER asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether all officers who have escaped from Germany have recovered their original place in the Army List; and, if not, how many are awaiting promotion, and why?

Mr. MACPHERSON The conditions under which officers shall be promoted on ceasing to be prisoners of war is at present under consideration. There are several cases awaiting disposal, and I hope a decision will shortly be reached.

Brigadier-General McCALMONT Will my right hon. Friend see that the cases of officers interned in Switzerland, which are blocking the promotion of other officers in this country, receive consideration?

Mr. MACPHERSON Most certainly.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jun/11/officers-escaped-from-germany
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2010 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Race Riots of 1919

Wednesday 11th June had been the hottest day of 1919 thus far. A temperature of nearly 80°F had been recorded in the shade. Now, towards late evening, a large crowd of young White men and girls were confronting a large crowd of Blacks. The two groups, some 70 or 100 yards apart, threatened each other and taunted each other to attack:

"Among the whites were a number of young soldiers in khaki and many ex-soldiers. The coloured men were concealed in the darkness of a large railway arch, and cries of 'Charge! charge!' came from the soldiers. There was a wild rush for the bridge, and revolver shots rang out from the ranks of the negroes. A soldier was wounded in the thigh with a revolver bullet. When the coloured men saw the determined character of their opponents' charge and that the revolver shots would not stop it they ran into the maze of narrow streets abutting on the canal, an area known to Cardiff people as 'Nigger Town'."1

Invaded by racial aliens

For four wasted years British soldiers had endured the mud, blood and spattered guts of Flanders. While they were butchering and being butchered by their fellow White men, some of Britain's major cities were being invaded by racial aliens who had been imported by the Government to aid the war effort.

The war ended in November 1918. Those Britons who survived the ordeal of criminal insanity which wrecked and exhausted Europe were supposed to come home to a 'Land Fit For Heroes.' In fact, they came home to encounter unemployment, poverty and Coloured immigrant populations interbreeding with White women.

The young men of that era had not been steeped in liberal-minority propaganda by the media, but had been schooled in the horrors of trench warfare. The stage was set for an explosion of racial violence, and it came as surely as the summer.

"Check against pollution"

The Coloured Immigrant population was concentrated in Liverpool, South Wales and London, in what a Liverpool newspaper described as "distinct foreign colonies," and which it viewed as "partly a check against the pollution of a healthy community by undesirables."2

The same paper said that the Negro population of Liverpool had grown by "leaps and bounds" during the war, and estimated it at 4,000 to 5,000.3 The Times said that the Blacks were "largely West Indians" and put their number at about 5,000.4 The Daily Express put their number at 2,000.5 The South Wales Echo estimated that there were in Cardiff 1,200 unemployed Coloured seamen, including Arabs, Somalis, West African and West Indians.6

In Barry, according to the Liverpool Echo, there was a population of "some hundreds of Brazilian negroes, many of whom have been living on unemployment benefit."7

London's Immigrant population seems to have been mainly Chinese. A report in a national newspaper described London's Chinatown:

"Turn down Burdett Road into the West India Dock Road. That is the way to the narrow, dirty streets where San Sing squats on the pavement of a night, smoking his long pipe and blinking up at the moon through its smoke." The report referred to "evil-smelling dens where Chinamen sleep in four tiers of bunks," and to the general "squalor," "dirt" and "smell" of the area. It concluded: "Chinatown is growing. There are more Chinese in the purlieus of Rock Street and Pennyfields than ever before. The shop signs are creeping west."8

Liverpool

The rioting first broke out in Liverpool on Thursday 5th June. It began in a pub when a Coloured man picked up a glass of beer and threw it at a group of Scandinavians at another table: "The Scandinavians left the premises and in the street were assaulted by the coloured men with sticks, knives, razors and pieces of iron torn from lampposts."9

The Blacks then went on a general rampage, assaulting three old men and a policeman. A crowd of about 2,000 Whites gathered, but were dispersed by the police. The Blacks were not grateful for their rescue, however, and showed their resentment of police interference by shooting one policeman in the mouth and slashing another across the face with a razor.

Rioting broke out again on Sunday 8th June. An account of subsequent court proceedings said that a Coloured man had been running along the street waving an iron bar and shouting "Down with the white race."10 The account continued: "White men appear determined to clear out the blacks, who have been advised to remain indoors. This counsel many of them disregard, and late on Sunday a large body of police had to be requisitioned to prevent serious consequences. Whenever a negro was seen he was chased and, if caught, severely beaten..."

Thousands on the street

The pattern was repeated late on the night of Monday 9th June. Another account of court proceedings read: "Evidence was given to the effect that the district was in uproar and every coloured man seen was followed by large hostile crowds. In two instances the negroes, on being attacked, pulled out knives and razors and attempted to stab some of the crowd. On was heard to shout, 'Come on, you English dogs, I will do for you.'"11

Fresh disturbances in the early hours of Wednesday 11th June were also reported. A correspondent telephoning from Liverpool at one o'clock in the morning said that "the streets were filled with thousands of excited people."12

Newport

Rioting broke out at Newport on Friday 6th June and was said to have been caused by a Coloured man accosting a white girl. A soldier intervened and knocked the Coloured man to the ground: "Partisans gathered, and for two hours distrubances ensued. A Chinese laundry, refreshment houses, and lodging houses were wrecked and the furniture was taken into the street and burned."13 Another report said that "The coloured men defended themselves with revolvers, pokers and sticks."14

The rioting culminated the next day in an affray that was only quelled by a police baton charge: "Stones and iron bolts were thrown, and towards midnight the crowd had increased to several thousands. No blacks were to be seen in the streets."15

Cardiff

According to the Head Constable's report on the Cardiff riots, the confrontation described in our opening paragraphs had begun "when a brake containing a number of coloured men and white women, apparently returning from an excursion, attracted a mixed crowd."16

"About 10 o'clock a wordy argument between blacks and whites ended in the blacks, who were in superior numbers, setting upon one of the white men, who was thrown to the ground and brutally kicked."17 The White man was rescued by a policeman "and the blacks, seeing that the anger of the whites had now been roused, bolted precipitately."18

"Nigger Town"

After this minor skirmish came the major confrontation, the White charge, and the Black retreat into "Nigger Town." This area contained a large colony of Negroes, many of whom had married White women. "The whites followed the blacks into their retreat and pandemonium ensued."19

A Black flourishing a razor was knocked down, and the razor kicked from his hand. More shots were fired, and a group of Blacks was seen rushing into a shop. The Whites smashed the door and windows, rushed into the shop, and hustled out two Blacks, who were beaten with sticks and frying-pans.

In another street a house occupied by Blacks was attacked: "The door was battered to splinters. The screams of a woman were heard and revolver shots again rang out. A fleeing negro was sighted and, giving chase, the whites overhauled him and brought him down. A revolver was wrested from his hand, and he was belaboured with sticks, kicked and struck."20

Another house where Negroes lived was set on fire, but the fire brigade extinguished the flames: "A young white woman was rescued from the premises, and the police, who escorted her away, had some difficulty in protecting her from other white women."21

White man's throat cut

A group of Whites led by a soldier were confronted, when entering one house, by four white girls in night attire: "We are British girls," one of them said. "Thank God there are others!" was the answer from one of the leaders, meaning that there were white girls who would not consort with black men. The four girls were hastily brushed aside and the house searched for coloured men."22

Elsewhere in the city "a young man named Harold Smart walked up to a constable and complained that a coloured man had cut his throat. The constable promptly took him to King Edward's Hospital in a taxicab, but the man died almost immediately after his arrival."23

Smart was a 20 year-old ex-soldier who had been discharged from the army after being wounded in the left arm. He was described in a local paper as "a very quiet lad."24 When he was buried on the 17th June the streets in his area were lined with people: "The coffin was covered with the Union Jack, and a party of men from the 1st Welsh Regiment acted as bearers, while the 'Last Post' was sounded by a lance corporal."25

By the following evening the authorities had become sufficiently alarmed to keep a magistrate on hand to read the Riot Act and a company of the Welsh Regiment on hand to enforce it.26

Irishman shot by Negro

Two men were killed that evening, an unidentified Negro and an Irishman, John Donovan, who was shot through the heart with a revolver bullet fired by a Negro:

"It was late at night when the trouble was renewed, and some two or three hours elapsed before the police were able to quell the riot... As trouble was anticipated extra police had been drafted into 'Nigger Town,' but the tone of the crowd of whites became more and more angry. They assembled in front of a house where eight negroes were known to reside, and challenges were issued to them to come out. Several colonial soldiers constituted themselves the ringleaders of the besieging party, which was largely made up of discharged soldiers. Some of the latter asked:- "Why should these coloured men be able to get work when it is refused us?" The relations of coloured men with white women were also referred to angrily.

"The door of the house was burst in, and the assailants crowded into the narrow passage, and began to ascend the stairs. Then a revolver shot rang out, and an exclamation was heard, "My God, I am hit." It came from Donovan. Two colonial soldiers who led the attackers fell flat to avoid further bullets, but quickly arose, and headed in a rush into a room where the negroes were gathered. A desperate fight ensued, but eventually the coloured men were overcome, not, however, before one of the attackers had been severely cut on the head with a razor... The authorities are being urged to import an armed military force."27

The "colonial soldiers" were, apparently, Australians.28

Barry

On the same day that the Cardiff riots began (Wednesday 11th June), Fred Longman, a dock labourer, was stabbed to death in Barry by a Negro sailor: "The black waylaid him, seized him by the throat, pinned him against a wall, and stabbed him under the heart."29

Another account relates: "The news spread like wildfire, and thousands of people, many being women, raided the negroes' quarters."30 The assailant turned out to be a native of the French West Indies.31

London

The troubles in London were more sporadic. On Saturday 14th June there was an incident at a coffee shop in Cable Street, East London, where two Negroes were "roughly handled."32 The Daily Mail reported that "a coffee shop kept by an Arab was stormed and the furniture wrecked; two revolver shots were fired at the crowd by Negroes who were found in the house... The riot arose on a report being spread that some white girls had been seen to enter the house. Soon a crowd of about 3,000 people assembled, and the place was attacked."33

There were further riots on the evening of Monday 16th June when "the attention of the white people" was "first turned against Chinese inhabitants," while later in the evening "a quarrel between white and black men broke out..."34 The anti-Chinese riot took the form of "an act of incendiarism at premises occupied by L. Sing, at Northumberland Street, Poplar."35

References
1. The Times, 13 June 1919.
2. Liverpool Echo, 6 June 1919.
3. Ibid.
4. The Times, 10 June 1919.
5. Daily Express, 12 June 1919.
6. South Wales Echo, 10 July 1919.
7. Liverpool Echo, 12 June 1919.
8. Daily Express, 18 June 1919.
9. Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury, 19 June 1919.
10. The Times, 10 June 1919.
11. The Times, 11 June 1919.
12. Ibid.
13. The Times, 9 June 1919.
14. Morning Post, 9 June 1919.
15. Ibid.
16. South Wales Echo, 10 July 1919.
17. South Wales Echo, 12 June 1919.
18. Ibid.
19. The Times, 19 June 1919.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
24. South Wales Echo, 10 July 1919.
25. South Wales Echo, 18 June 1919.
26. South Wales Echo, 13 June 1919.
27. The Times, 14 June 1919.
28. South Wales Echo, 13 June 1919.
29. Morning Post, 13 June 1919.
30. Liverpool Echo, 12 June 1919.
31. South Wales Echo, 12 June 1919.
32. Daily Express, 16 June 1919.
33. Daily Mail, 16 June 1919.
34. Daily Express, 17 June 1919.
35. Morning Post, 18 June 1919.


From Heritage and Destiny, issue 5, Summer 1982, pp. 6-8. , http://www.heretical.com/British/riot1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Jun 2010 9:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

H.J. Elias, Vijfentwintig jaar Vlaamse Beweging.

De opvattingen van Van de Perre over het aktivisme en zijn samenwerking met de Duitsers zijn intussen niet veranderd. In het elfde-julinummer van De Belgische Standaard (1917) had hij nogmaals al zijn bezwaren samengevat; zijn redenering mag als gemeengoed beschouwd worden van alle flaminganten die de Duitse hulp afwezen. Ze komt hierop neer: onszelf zijn met onze eigen Vlaamse beschaving onder Duitse invloed is iets dat vloekt als water en vuur. Wij zouden ekonomisch opgeslorpt en zelfs koelies worden: zie naar het voorbeeld van de Polen. Ekonomische inlijving brengt politieke afhankelijkheid mede en de beide talen zijn zo verwant dat na twintig jaar die van ons zou verdwenen zijn. Dit was de motivering ingeroepen door een man waarvan niets in zijn leven getuigt dat hij zou gedreven geworden zijn door persoonlijke politieke ambities, door geldzucht of door een zwak voor eerbewijzen, gekocht door dubbelzinnig geschipper. In zijn bekommering om de toekomst, doorzag hij ook zeer juist de bedoelingen van de Duitse politiek: bij een vrede door vergelijk het behoud vragen van de bestuurlijke scheiding. Deze eis - zo schreef hij aan minister Poullet (nov. 1917) - zal ongetwijfeld steun vinden bij een niet onaanzienlijk gedeelte van ons volk zelf, zodra er geen gevaar meer aan verbonden is voor Duitse overheersing. Waarom - vroeg hij - spreekt dan de Belgische regering het woord niet uit, dat aan de vijand definitief het Vlaamse wapen uit de hand zou slaan? Wij weten, dat de regering niet sprak en niet eens openlijk durfde zeggen waarom ze dit niet kon.

Dr. Van de Perre werkte intussen aan een andere taak die hij op zich genomen had: het buitenland voorlichten. Op 11 juni 1918 ontving hij eindelijk het eerste exemplaar van zijn boek The language question in Belgium, een stevige studie van 238 blz. Dieper en dieper werkte op Dr. Van de Perre de tragiek in van de Vlaamse Beweging tijdens deze oorlog. Hij werd daarbij sterk getroffen door de politiek van de geallieerden tegenover de Tsjechen en de manier waarop die aan het publiek werd voorgesteld. In zijn bekende veertien punten had president Wilson aan de Slavische minderheden in Oostenrijk-Hongarije autonomie beloofd, geen zelfstandigheid. Toen tot de verbrokkeling van de Donaumonarchie besloten werd, verklaarde in juni 1918 de regering van de u.s.a. dat ze zich inzette voor de volledige onafhankelijkheid van alle Slavische volkeren in Duitsland en in de Donaumonarchie. Als gevolg hiervan werd in september de revolutionaire Tsjechische Raad door President Wilson als oorlogvoerende regering erkend. De Franse regering was hierop reeds vooruitgelopen en had Tsjechische regimenten ingezet op het front. Zij werden op 30 juni door de president van de Franse Republiek toegesproken als ‘helden’. Omstreeks deze tijd was het dat de socialistische, Belgische journalist L. Piérard schreef over ‘les sublimes déserteurs’, een woord dat door de Vlaamse nationalisten na de oorlog opgeraapt werd om de Vlaamse overlopers te verheerlijken. Dr. Van de Perre schreef, in de dagen of weken die volgden op deze toespraak, een memorandum La conscience flamande et la guerre, waarvan wij de geadresseerde niet kennen, maar dat getuigt van zijn diepe verscheurdheid. De woorden van de Franse president - zo schreef hij - ‘ont jeté le trouble dans mon âme’. Helden hier, verraders in Oostenrijk-Hongarije!

Zeker verder lezen op http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/elia002vijf01_01/elia002vijf01_01_0025.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GREEK RESIDENTS HARRASSED. 90,000 REFUGEES AT SALONIKA
The Advertiser, Adelaide, South Australia, 11 June 1914

Constantinople, June 11. A strict censorship has been imposed on all telegrams. The Turks are harrassing Greek residents in the Dardanelles and on the Anatolian coast. Thousands of Greeks have fled, and much of their property has been sold at a sacrifice or destroyed. Moslems broached and destroyed the wines and spirits in a Greek village on the Dardanelles. It is reported that 90,000 refugees have reeached Salonika from Thrace.

http://may19.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=160&Itemid=43
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 19:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tornado in Greensburg Kansas June 11, 1915

http://www.flickr.com/photos/moderns-r-us/524193990/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 19:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Bellevue Times, 11 juni 1915

http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/BVT/1915/06/11/3/Ar00315.html
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Aletta Jacobs, Verslag van de rondreis lang de regeringsleiders van de oorlogvoerende landen in 1915

Donderdagmorgen 11 juni [1915] kwamen wij om 7 uur te Parijs aan. Hotel Continental.
Na ons verfrist en omgekleed te hebben direct naar de gezant Ridder de Stuers. Wij wensten een
onderhoud met de minister-president Viviani en minister Delcassé. Het was echter Monsieur Longuet,
M.P., de kleinzoon van Karl Marx, die ons het onderhoud bij beiden verschafte.
Zaterdagmiddag 13 juni spraken wij met Delcassé. Voor het eerst ontmoetten wij nu een
regeringspersoon, die het woord vrede niet wilde horen. Zelfs onder de gunstigste voorwaarden zou
Frankrijk nu geen vrede aanvaarden willen. Tientallen jaren was Frankrijk gebukt gegaan onder de last
van Duitsland’s bedreigingen en oorlogsplannen en nu het land eenmaal tot oorlog was overgegaan,
nu wilde het vechten totdat Duitsland geheel gebroken was en men Duitsland zo’n oorlogsschatting
kon opleggen, dat het in geen eeuw aan een nieuwe oorlog kon denken. Al onze redeneringen, dat
het toch eenmaal moest komen tot vrede, dat Duitsland niet zo gemakkelijk te breken viel enz, maakte
hem maar heftiger in zijn afweer van vredesbemiddelingen.

http://www.iiav.nl/nl/databases/onderwijs/Aletta_verslag-1915-regeringen.pdf
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Rik Wouters (kunstschilder en beeldhouwer)

Hendrik Emil (Rik) Wouters (Mechelen, 21 augustus 1882 – Amsterdam, 11 juli 1916) was een Belgisch kunstschilder en beeldhouwer.

(...) In 1914 breekt het oorlogsdrama los. Eerst krijgt hij nog zijn eerste individuele expo in de Giroux-zaal. Zijn naderende ziekte manifesteert zich dan al wanneer hij klaagt over regelmatig hevige hoofdpijn, die hem belet dagenlang te werken. De kunstenaar wordt opgeroepen als soldaat en wordt ingezet bij de verdediging van Luik. Daar wordt hij krijgsgevangen, maar ontsnapt. Nabij Antwerpen wordt zijn groep ingesloten en hij deserteert, om terecht te komen in een kamp te Zeist, in Nederland.

In 1915 zijn de symptomen van zijn fatale ziekte duidelijk: kaakbeenkanker. Reeds in 1912 had hij geklaagd over steeds vaker voorkomende hoofdpijn. Nel komt bij hem en hij wordt vrijgesteld. Samen gaan ze in Amsterdam wonen in een appartement aan de Derde Kostverlorenkade nr 37, derde verdieping. Hij krijgt er een eerste expositie en toont er het wrange "Rik met zwart oogverband". Kort opeenvolgende operaties brengen geen oplossing voor zijn kanker aan de bovenkaak. Hij ondergaat intensieve röntgen- en radiumbestraling die geen soelaas bieden. Datzelfde jaar schildert hij zijn Zelfportret met ooglap.

Men organiseerde nog een tweede tentoonstelling in Amsterdam in 1916. Nel getuigt over Riks laatste winter als volgt: De sombere winter van 1915-1916 hangt over Amsterdam als een lijkwade van ijzel en sneeuw. Het was tijdens een van die treurige dagen dat de kwaal herbegon. Zijn stem klinkt hol en het is pijnlijk hem te zien eten. Hij kan alleen vloeibare dingen naar binnen krijgen, en dan nog slechts, zoals zijn dagelijks verband, door de opening van zijn gebroken kaakbeen. Dit verband achter in zijn mond stinkt en dat vloeibare voedsel doet hem walgen. Het vooruitzicht van de lange slapeloze nachten, in een wanhopige strijd tegen de pijn, maakt hem radeloos. Hij kan niet blijven liggen, wandelde in een kring rond als een gek. Niet eens 34 jaar oud, sterft Rik Wouters na een pijnlijke oogkanker te Amsterdam. Zijn vrouw Nel bleef na Wouters' dood nog tot 1919 in Amsterdam, waarna ze naar België terugkeerde. (...)

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rik_Wouters_(kunstschilder_en_beeldhouwer)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extract from a Nurse's diary, Fri 11th June 1915

http://www.flickr.com/photos/lightcliff/4398366189/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE EXECUTION OF GEORGE ERNEST ROE (1896 – 1915)

Nationality: United Kingdom
Rank: Private
Regiment: King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
Unit Text: 2nd Battalion.
Age: 19
Date of Death: 11/06/1915
Service No: 3/1433
Additional information: Son of Mrs. Mary Roe, of 24, Brough Street, Sheffield, Yorkshire
Casualty Type: Commonwealth War Dead
Grave/Memorial Reference: V1 K 20
Cemetery: PERTH CEMETERY (CHINA WALL)

He was executed for desertion. His battalion - 2nd King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry was heavily engaged in the spring of 1915 in what was known as the Second Battle of Ypres. More specifically their involvement was in the storming of Hill 60 which resulted in heavy fighting and high casualty rates. Was it the ferocity of the fighting that led to George deserting?

http://www.chrishobbs.com/georgeroe1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Count Ladislaus von Szögyény-Marich

Ladislaus Freiherr (from 1910, Graf) von Szögyény-Marich von Magyar-Szögyén und Szolgaegyháza (Hungarian: László gróf de Szögyény-Marich de Magyar-Szögyén et Szolgaegyháza) (12 November 1841 – 11 June 1916), was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat of Hungarian origin who was a long serving Ambassador at Berlin. (...)

In the summer of 1914, he was still Ambassador at Berlin despite his advanced age and being partly deaf.[4] In order to bypass him, Foreign Minister Count von Berchtold dispatched his chef de cabinet Count von Hoyos on 4 July as a special envoy to Berlin to request support from the Kaiser for the Austro-Hungarian plans for action against Serbia.[5] Count von Hoyos arrived the following day from Vienna and reviewed the documents with Count von Szögyény-Marich before the latter met with the Kaiser at Potsdam for lunch. In the evening he cabled Count von Berchtold that he had received "full German backing" in any action that Vienna decided to take, even if "serious European complications" resulted, requesting only that it would be done speedily. The Kaiser's pledge was confirmed the following day by Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg and Zimmermann, the Under Secretary of State. Austria-Hungary had received the so-called 'blank check' promising German support for an Austro-Hungarian attack on Serbia. Count von Szögyény-Marich's action during this critical month has been much debated by historians, some arguing that he did not fully grasp all the intrinsic details in the conversations he entertained with German leaders, in particular that he exaggerated the German support, and that his reports to Vienna therefore were misleading.

Strained by the burdens of the July Crisis, Count von Szögyény-Marich was succeeded as Ambassador by Prince von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst on 4 August, his replacement having been discussed long before the advent of war but blocked by his alleged refusal to make a graceful exit.

Count von Szögyény-Marich retired to his estate in Csór where he died two years later on 11 June 1916.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_Ladislaus_von_Sz%C3%B6gy%C3%A9ny-Marich
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1 War Dairy 6 (Pioneer) Battalion Welsh Regiment - 1916 June - 1916 Aug.

10/06/1916 - Wet. 2 Lieuts J.H. Morris & E.G. Morris joined unit from Reserve Battalion. Continuation of work. Nothing of importance happened.

http://yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk/index.php?title=WW1_War_Dairy_6_(Pioneer)_Battalion_Welsh_Regiment_-_1916_June_-_1916_Aug.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New York Times, 11 June 1916

http://www.migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/exhibition/enemyathome/holsworthy-gallery-black-hand/attachment/nyt-black-hand/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Krater Trench 122

Start of the works : 15/02/1916
Completed : 11/06/1916

All measures in metres
Depth of load : 22,9
Lenght of gallery : 430
Diameter : 69,5
Depth of crater : 8,5
Width of the craterlipps : 19,5
Total diameter : 108,5

http://www.wo1.be/eng/database/dbDetail.asp?TypeID=15&SubTypeID=32&ItemID=5744
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ein einem englischen Graben im Ploegsteert-Wald (Flandern). Aufnahme vom 11. Juni 1917

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_06_11.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary - Lawrence Earl Johns

Monday, June 11th, 1917 - Rained all forenoon hut leaked badly. A short parade called at 1:30 P.M. inspected and dismissed again. Sports rest of day. out at night drilling from 6 P.M. untill 11 P.M. learning patrole work.

http://www.canadianletters.ca/letters.php?letterid=11881&warid=&docid=2&collectionid=441
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het hondefretterspad

(...) Ook de stad Brussel maakte melding aan het Boomse gemeentebestuur"dat er alle zondagen op de hondenmarkt te Brussel oude trekhonden werden opgekocht door personen van Boom, en dat die honden dienden om afgemaakt te worden tot verbruik van levensmiddelen-voortbrengselen"! De bezettende overheid, die te Boom verbleef in de "Kommandantur", een herenhuis gelegen nabij het gemeentehuis in het nummer 68 (nu parking Superpost), was zo verstandig om van de nood een deugd te maken. Op 6 augustus 1917 werd het politiereglement op het slachten van honden in de gemeenteraad goedgekeurd.

In afwachting van de beslissing van de gemeenteraad was op 11 juni 1917 een hondenslachterij in werking getreden in de gebouwen van de paardenslachterij van Dhr. Miller. Opgericht in 1904 was deze, gezien de omstandigheden, niet meer in werking. Volgens het kadasterplan, afgedrukt in het boek "Van een Boom aan De Rupel", was de plaats van het gebouw in de Antwerpsestraat, 320 (thans verdwenen in de open tunnel), op 120 tot 140 m. afstand van de hoek van de 's Herenbaan in de richting van Antwerpen. (...)

http://www.tenboome.webruimtehosting.net/IIZludr/jaarboeken/1994-1995/het_hondefretterspad
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French Aces of WW1 - Georges Marie Ludovic Jules Guynemer

Officier de la Légion d'Honneur - "Officer of the elite, a fighting pilot as skilful as he is audacious, he has rendered brilliant service to his country, as much by the number of his victories, as by his daily keenness and ever-growing mastery. Heedless of danger he has become for the enemy, by the sureness of his methods and by the precision of his maneuvers, the most redoubtable adversary of all. On May 25, 1917, he accomplished one of his most brilliant exploits in downing, in one minute, two enemy planes and reporting in the same day two other victories. By all his exploits he contributes to the excitement, courage and enthusiasm of those who, in the trenches, are witnesses to his triumphs. Forty five planes shot down, twenty citations, two wounds."
Officier de la Légion d'Honneur citation, June 11, 1917

http://www.wwiaviation.com/aces/ace_Guynemer.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 21:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Corporal Marshall - Australian Machine Gun Corps - 1918

He was wounded in action on the 26.5.1918, and again evacuated to England. He died in the Thorpe War Hospital on the 11th June 1918 at 5.30am. Cause of death are listed as 1) Gas Poisoning (Shell), 2)Pneumonia \ Nephritis.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/43688219@N00/4123301428/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tageseinträge für 11. Juni 1918

11.6.1918 Eine 150 Mann starke Gruppe US-amerikanischer Marinesoldaten wird in Murmansk an Land gesetzt. Erstmals seit Kriegsbeginn befinden sich damit US-Soldaten auf russischem Staatsgebiet.

11.6.1918 Der Rat der Volkskommissare in Moskau verabschiedet das Dekret über die Organisation der "Dorfarmut"-Komitees. Zur Beseitigung der katastrophalen Versorgungslage sollen die Komitees die Lieferung von Getreide, landwirtschaftlichen Geräten und anderen lebensnotwendigen Dingen in die Dörfer überwachen.

11.6.1918 In Düsseldorf beginnt die diesjährige große Kunstausstellung des Vereins Berliner Künstler. Die Berliner Ausstellungshallen werden zur Zeit als Lazarett benutzt.

http://www.chroniknet.de/daly_de.0.html?datum=11.6.1918&year=1918&month=6&day=11
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tocht naar het Uddelermeer, 11 tot 13 juni 1919

Fotoalbum met de titel ''1 C.W.'' [1e Compagnie Wielrijders]

http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl/?/nl/items/LEMU01:00106572-020 & http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl/?/nl/items/LEMU01:00106572-019
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jun 2011 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919: The Winnipeg General Strike

http://1919winnipeggeneralstrike.blogspot.com/2009/06/wedneaday-11-june-1919-proclamation.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Jun 2018 9:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

11 June 1918 - New Military Service Act raises conscription age limit

In a subdued session this week, the States agreed to adopt a new Military Service Act. Under its provisions, men up to 51-years-old are liable for military service and face conscription into the armed forces.

The change follows a request in April for Jersey to send more men to aid Britain’s war effort. Subsequently, the UK Government introduced a new Military Service Act, which increased the maximum conscription age from 41 to 51. Jersey has now followed this lead, with unanimous agreement in the States Chamber.

well as extending the conscription age limit, the new act effectively removes any exemptions from military service issued by the island’s tribunal system since March 1917. Some groups will continue to receive automatic exemption, such as the clergy and those men already disabled through war, but all others will have to reapply if they wish to avoid military service. The tribunals will continue, although with emphasis on passing men as suitable for military service rather than exempting, regardless of circumstances. In the case of certain professions, any claim will be automatically dismissed.

The new act comes into force in as short a time as possible.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/11-june-1918-
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