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17 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2006 8:46    Onderwerp: 17 April Reageer met quote

April 17

1917 Second Battle of Gaza

As the major Allied offensive masterminded by Robert Nivelle was failing miserably on the Western Front, British forces in Palestine make their second attempt to capture the city of Gaza from the Ottoman army on this day in 1917.

In the wake of the failed British assault on Gaza of March 26, 1917, Sir Archibald Murray, commander of British forces in the region, misrepresented the battle as a clear Allied victory, claiming Turkish losses to be triple what they actually were; in truth, at 2,400 they were significantly lower than the British total of 4,000. This led London’s War Office to believe their troops were on the verge of a significant breakthrough in Palestine and to order Murray to renew the attack immediately.

Though the previous assault had caught the Turks by surprise, the second one did not: the German general in charge of the troops at Gaza, Friedrich Kress von Kressenstein, was by now well aware of British intentions. By the time the British launched their second round of attacks on April 17, the Turks had accordingly strengthened their defenses and extended their forces along the road from Gaza to the nearby town of Beersheba.

Still, as in the First Battle of Gaza, British soldiers outnumbered Turkish troops by a ratio of two to one. Moreover, the British employed eight heavy Mark-1 tanks and 4,000 gas shells (used for the first time on the Palestine front) to ensure victory. The tanks proved unsuitable for the hot, dry desert conditions, however, and three of them were captured by Turkish forces, which again put up a blisteringly effective defense despite their inferior numbers. After three days and heavy losses—the British casualty figure, of 6,444 men, was three times that of the Turks—Murray’s subordinate commander, Sir Charles Dobell, was forced to call off the British attacks, ending the Second Battle of Gaza with the city still firmly in Turkish control.

As a result of this second failure to capture Gaza, the Allies called in reinforcements, including Italian and French troops, which arrived from Europe in time to join the third and final Battle of Gaza that fall. Under the new regional command of Sir Edward Allenby, the Allies finally broke through and gained control of Gaza in November 1917, leaving them free to move ahead toward Palestine’s capital city, Jerusalem, which fell into Allied hands on December 9.


http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2006 8:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 17 April

Births
1 1891 John TudhopeSouth Africa
2 1897 Harold DayWales
3 1898 Johannes JensenGermany

Deaths
1 1918 Rudolf MatthaeiGermany
2 1950 Jerry VasconcellsUSA
3 1959 Auguste LahoulleFrance

Claims
1 1915 Fernand JacquetBelgium #1
2 1916 Gottfried von BanfieldAustro-Hungarian Empire u/c u/c
3 1917 Stefan FejesAustro-Hungarian Empire #1
4 1917 Josef FriedrichAustro-Hungarian Empire #4
5 1917 Adolf HeyrowskyAustro-Hungarian Empire #8
6 1917 Josef PürerAustro-Hungarian Empire #4
7 1917 Raoul StojsavljevicAustro-Hungarian Empire #6
8 1917 Vladimir StrizheskyRussia #3
9 1917 Grigory SukRussia #2
10 1918 Raymond BrownellAustralia #11
11 1918 Julius ArigiAustro-Hungarian Empire #26
12 1918 Eugen BönschAustro-Hungarian Empire #8
13 1918 Godwin BrumowskiAustro-Hungarian Empire #31
14 1918 Stefan FejesAustro-Hungarian Empire #12
15 1918 Friedrich HeftyAustro-Hungarian Empire #3
16 1918 Johann RiszticsAustro-Hungarian Empire #6
17 1918 Franz RudorferAustro-Hungarian Empire #2
18 1918 William BarkerCanada #23
19 1918 Stanley StangerCanada #3
20 1918 Peter CarpenterEngland #15
21 1918 Pruett DennettEngland #6
22 1918 Frank GodfreyEngland #1 #2
23 1918 Christopher McEvoyEngland #3
24 1918 Thomas MiddletonEngland #8 #9
25 1918 James MitchellEngland #9
26 1918 Francis SymondsonEngland #5 #6
27 1918 Aloys von BrandensteinGermany #1
28 1918 Johannes JensenGermany #1
29 1918 Emil KochGermany #2
30 1918 Georg SchlenkerGermany #14
31 1918 Paul SträhleGermany #8 #9
32 1918 Flaminio AvetItaly #1 u/c u/c
33 1918 Aldo BoccheseItaly #1 #2 #3
34 1918 Leopoldo EleuteriItaly #1 #2 u/c
35 1918 Cosimo RennellaItaly u/c u/c
36 1918 Alessandro ReschItaly #2 #3 #4

Losses
1 1918 Rudolf MatthaeiGermanykilled in flying accident


http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 8:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

British take Hill 60 (St. Eloi).

Eastern Front

Austrian offensive towards Styrj (eastern Galicia).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Anglo-Indian cavalry occupy Nakaila.

Naval and Overseas Operations

French cruiser bombards Turkish camp south of Gaza.

British submarine E15 runs ashore near Kephez Point.

Turkish t.b. "Demir Hissar" forced by H.M.S. "Minerva" to run ashore at Chios.

Political, etc.

Herr Dernburg conducts a peace campaign in U.S.A.
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1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: Germans repulsed at Douaumont, but gain footing in Bois de Chaudfour salient.

Southern Front

Italians blow up Col di Lana and take west part of Monte Ancona (Dol.).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russians occupy Surmeneh and reach Assene Kalessi (Armenia).

British take Beit Aiessa (Mesopotamia).

Naval and Overseas Operations

Germans in force at Kondoa Irangi (German East Africa).

Political, etc.

Committee appointed to investigate recruiting.

Italy prohibits trading with Germany.
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1917
Western Front

German attacks near Hurtebise Farm (between Troyon and Craonne) and at Courcy (north of Reims) repulsed.

Battle of Moronvillers (east of Reims) begins.

French capture heights of the massif and 3,500 prisoners.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British on night 17-18 April force passage of Shatt-el-Adhaim (left tributary of Tigris below Samarra).

Second advance against Gaza begins.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British hospital ships "Donegal" and "Lanfranc" torpedoed in Channel.

Political, etc.

Measures of Senate (U.S.A.) to suppress export of food-stuffs, etc., to Germany.

Sixth German War Loan closed: �656,100,000.
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1918
Western Front

Intense bombardment, followed by infantry attack, on whole line from Nieppe Forest to Wytschaete.

Wytschaete and Meteren again lost.

North-west of Dixmude, Belgians take 700 prisoners and 42 machine guns.

French repulse attacks on Meuse and in Champagne.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Transcaucasia: Turks approach Kars, and claim 250 guns at Batum.

Naval and Overseas Operations

East Africa: War Office reports progress.

British monitors bombard Ostend.

Political, etc.

Canada: Government makes proposals for increase of manpower.

France: General Belin succeeds General Weygand on Supreme War Council.

Bolo is executed.

Austria: Baron Burian succeeds Count Czernin as Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Hungarian Cabinet (Wekerle) resigns.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 8:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Op 17 april 1915 werden zware mijnladingen onder de Duitse stellingen op Hill 60 tot ontploffing gebracht. Sinds de Duitse inname van de heuvel op 10 december 1914 groef de British Expeditionary Force, 24 ŕ 30 m onder de heuvel, gangen die ze vulden met zware mijnladingen en dieptebommen. Na de ontploffing bestormden Britse en Franse troepen de Duitsers en namen de heuvel opnieuw in. Na deze ontploffingen kwamen er eigenaardige gassen vrij en ontdekten de Britten eigenaardige cilinders. Ze konden deze echter niet thuisbrengen. Dit was echter de voorbode voor wat komen zou.


De Tweede Slag om Ieper kon beginnen.
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tweede_Slag_om_Ieper
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 8:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

geboren:
1916 - Helenio Herrera, Argentijns voetballer en voetbaltrainer (overleden 1997)
1918 - William Holden, Amerikaans acteur (overleden 1981)
1919 - Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado, Cubaans president (overleden 1983)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 april 1915
Zeeoorlog, Middellandse Zee
De Britse E17 is de eerste onderzeeër die de Turkse verdediging (forten, mijnen en netten) bij de Dardanellen doorbreekt in 1915. Andere zullen volgen en veel successen boeken tegen de Duitse en Turkse schepen op de Zwarte Zee.
De eerste wereldoorlog, dag na dag bekeken door Ian Westwell
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17 april 1917
Westfront, Frankrijk
Een dag na de opening van het Nivelle-offensief dat weinig zoden aan de dijk heeft gezet en voor veel slachtoffers heeft gezorgd, komen de troepen van het Franse 108ste regiment in opstand en verlaten ze hun loopgraven voor het oog van de vijand.
De muiterij breidt zich vrij snel uit tot 68 van de 112 Franse legerdivisies. Officieren rapporteren ongeveer 250 gevallen waarin troepen weigeren orders op te volgen. Ongeveer 35000 soldaten zijn betrokken bij de muiterij. Velen daarvan willen hun positie wel verdedigen, maar weigeren op te rukken tegen de vijand.
De eerste wereldoorlog, dag na dag bekeken door Ian Westwell
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 april 1918
Westfront, Frankrijk/ België
Britse en pas aangekomen Franse troepen die bij Ieper vechten roepen de Duitse opmars langs de Leie een halt toe. Hoewel er nog tot het einde van de maand aanvallen en tegenaanvallen zijn, is de Duitse poging om de Noord-Franse havens te bereiken mislukt. Beide partijen hebben ongeveer 100.000 manschappen verloren. Generaal Erich Ludendorff, de afgevaardigde chef van de Duitse generale staf, maakt echter al plannen voor een derde offensief.
De eerste wereldoorlog, dag na dag bekeken door Ian Westwell
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 9:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oorlogsdagboek Remy Duflou
Vlamertinge 1914-1918
17 april 1918
Verleden nacht hadden de nieuw geplaatste kanons zich tamelijk laten horen en het duurde niet lang vooraleer de vijand antwoorde! Reeds in de morgen werd het zuiderdeel van de Gemeente en in't bijzonder de omtrek van de Britse kanons erg beschoten, onder andere: rond de Kasselstraat, de hofsteden van Jules Delva, Jerome Lemahieu, August Monkerhey...
De Dorpsplaats van Westouter onderging heden morgen een erge beschieting en de inwoners vluchtten weg. Hier waren er verscheidene burgerlijke slachtoffers.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 20:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bomwerpers en mortieren van het Nederlandse leger 1914-1918: De laatste eigen ontwerpen

De bomwerper van 20 cm
Reeds ten tijde van de eerste aanmaak van de lichte bomwerper van 2,5 cm was in januari
1917 de behoefte aan een bomwerper met een groter kaliber voor het vuren op afstanden van
1000 ŕ 1200 meter gedefinieerd. De Minister van Oorlog stemde op 17 april 1917 in met het
voorstel van de Opperbevelhebber van Land- en Zeemacht om een dergelijk wapen te
beproeven. Aanvankelijk wilde men hiervoor een stalen mortier door de Artillerie
Inrichtingen doen ontwerpen. Hoewel een dergelijk ontwerp met een kaliber van 20 cm werd
uitgewerkt, bleek het onmogelijk het benodigde geschutstaal voor de produktie te verwerven.

Lees verder op http://www.collectie.legermuseum.nl/sites/strategion/contents/i004563/arma29%20bomwerpers%20en%20mortieren.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Second Battle of Ypres, Apr-1915
by Dave Love

Declaration of war by Canada in September 1914 led to the immediate raising of a first Canadian contingent consisting of the 1st Canadian Division. After a short three to four weeks training at Camp Valcartier in Quebec, they embarked to the United Kingdom and another several months of basic training. The majority of this training consisted of conditioning and basic military skills such as shooting - little instruction in trench warfare was done. After several months of this, the Canadians were considered ready to assume active operations.

Upon their landing in Flanders, the 1st Canadian Division was assigned a sector in front of the Belgium city of Ypres, a place where the Allied line had pushed a bulge-like incursion into German-held territory - the Ypres Salient. Arriving on April 17, 1915 and lacking, as mentioned, any first-hand trench experience, the Canadians immediately moved into the front lines. While this sector had seen the severest fighting of the war the previous autumn, it was quiet on the Canadians’ arrival. Little did they realize, though, that within five days they would be involved in what turned out to be the greatest defensive battle ever fought by Canadian troops - the Second Battle of Ypres.

Lees verder op http://www.worldwar1.com/sf2ypres.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 20:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Events in the Gallipoli Campaign: April - May 1915

17 April 1915 = The British submarine E15 was driven ashore by a strong current while trying to pass through the Dardanelles. A Turkish shell penetrated her conning tower, killing the captain and six of the crew. On 19 April, a small British picket boat torpedoed and destroyed the E15.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/april-may-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 April 1915 - German justification for using poisonous gas

Reports About the Allies' Use of Gas
With regard to the Declaration by the Hague Convention forbidding the use of poisonous or asphyxiating gas in warfare, the Germans continued to maintain that it was the French who first broke the rules of the Hague Convention. Indeed, the German Official Military History, 'Der Weltkrieg', states that already at the outbreak of war the French had a 26mm shell with a filling of Bromessigesterfullung, which they were planning to use in a siege or trench warfare situation. (1)

From the end of February 1915 'Der Weltkrieg' stated that German troops on the Western Front had reported the use of gas by the Allies. During the week prior to the German 22 April gas attack the daily reports of the German General Staff mention the use of asphyxiating gas by French troops three times and British troops on one occasion:

13 April: The report stated that German troops were fired on by French artillery shells containing asphyxiating gas during fighting in the Champagne region at Suippes.

14 April: North-west of Verdun the French fired on the German front line with minenwerfer shells emitting thick, yellow smoke and suffocating gas.

16 April: Between the river Meuse (Maas) and river Moselle (Mosel) rivers the Germans reported an increase in the deployment by the French of asphyxiating gas. It was being carried in bombs dropped on German lines and bullets fired by the infantry.

17 April: The daily report stated that on the previous day the British had used bombs and shells containing an asphyxiating gas on the German line to the east of Ypres.

These official reports were apparently enough proof to convince German Supreme Command that the Allies had already been using gas against German troops on the Western Front for a few months.

French Handgrenades and Bullets Containing Gas
According to 'Der Völkerkrieg', published in 1915, the desire for retaliation formed the basis of the justification by the Germans to use gas against the Allies from April 1915. As further verification of the French deployment of gas, a communication from the French War Ministry, dated 21 February 1915, was published in the German translation by the 1915 historical publication 'Der Völkerkrieg'.

The communication contains details about the make-up of French handgenades and bullets which carried a liquid gas; after the shells or bullets exploded the gas seeped out and irritated the eyes, nose and throat of those who come into contact with it. It was stressed that the gas was not deadly, and the duration of its effectiveness in the air after it had been released from the shell was dependent on the strength of the wind. From the report 'Der Völkerkrieg' maintained that the French had obviously been developing and producing this gas for some months. It is not stated, however, at what date this French report became known to German High Command. (2)

The Justification for the German Use of Gas
Regarding the German development of gas weapons and the prohibited use of them by the Hague Convention the exact meaning of the words of the Declaration was loose enough for the Germans to argue their case for the permissible deployment of asphyxiating gas.

It was claimed that the German T-Shell gas weapon was not used for the sole purpose of spreading gas because it also had a detonating explosive charge. In the case of the gas cloud weapon it was argued that, although the gas cloud did have the sole purpose of spreading the gas amongst the enemy, it did not directly contravene the rules of the Declaration. This was because the gas used in the cloud was developed by German industry (i.e. the chemical dye industry) and not by the military. In addition, this gas did not go against the laws of human rights because the casualties caused by explosive artillery shells were far higher than those expected from the use of this gas. It was considered that casualties wounded by the effect of gas could mostly be healed.

Interestingly, the fact that gas was used by the German 4th Army in the Battle for Ypres in April 1915 is often omitted in German accounts of the battle written during the Great War or in the twenty years after it.

Acknowledgements
(1) Der Weltkrieg 1914-1918: Sommer und Herbst 1915, 8. Band
(2) Der Völkerkrieg, V. Band

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/gasjust.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Medal of Honor Recipients - Interim Awards, 1915-1916

CRILLEY, FRANK WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 September 1883, Trenton, N.J. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (19 November 1928). Citation: For display of extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession above and beyond the call of duty during the diving operations in connection with the sinking in a depth of water 304 feet, of the U.S.S. F-4 with all on board, as a result of loss of depth control, which occurred off Honolulu, T.H., on 25 March 1915. On 17 April 1915, William F. Loughman, chief gunner's mate, U.S. Navy, who had descended to the wreck and had examined one of the wire hawsers attached to it, upon starting his ascent, and when at a depth of 250 feet beneath the surface of the water, had his lifeline and air hose so badly fouled by this hawser that he was unable to free himself; he could neither ascend nor descend. On account of the length of time that Loughman had already been subjected to the great pressure due to the depth of water, and of the uncertainty of the additional time he would have to be subjected to this pressure before he could be brought to the surface, it was imperative that steps be taken at once to clear him. Instantly, realizing the desperate case of his comrade, Crilley volunteered to go to his aid, immediately donned a diving suit and descended. After a lapse of time of 2 hours and 11 minutes, Crilley was brought to the surface, having by a superb exhibition of skill, coolness, endurance and fortitude, untangled the snarl of lines and cleared his imperiled comrade, so that he was brought, still alive, to the surface.

http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/interim1915-16.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Edward Percy Cox
Gallipoli Diary


Saturday 17/4/15 - Lemnos Bay.

Fine day. water perfectly
calm. I visited divisional H.Q.
ship the “Lutzow”, on duty, & also
the “Achaia”. Afternoon rowed to
the Queen Elizabeth & had a look
round. She is absolutely the
last word in naval construction
very plain & trim in appearance
and quite devoid of the gear
& outwardly visible paraphernalia
of many warships, but purely
& simply a fighting machine.

Several of our transports are
“prize” ships – late of the N.D. Lloyd
line. These are very fine ships
and are being used to good purpose.

Reports today state that the
Turks again attacked Suez Canal
& were repulsed:– the N.Z.M.R
are said to have taken part &
were railed from Cairo without
horses for that purpose.

Yesterday a British transport
was overhauled by a Turkish
torpedo boat off Asia Minor and
was fired on with torpedoes
three times. The first two are
said to have missed & the third
failed to explode
by this time — in response to
a wireless call H M S Minerva
and a French cruiser hove in
sight & the Torpedo boat made
off, only to run ashore during
her flight. It is reported that
a number of soldiers were
drowned off the transport.

It appears also that the cruiser
were searching for the Turk when they
received the call as they
had reason to believe she
was in the neighborhood.

Official report states that
British forces defeated the Turks
in Mesopatamia inland from
the Persian Gulf. There are
today about 60 transports &
27 warships (exclusive of destroyers
& small craft) & numerous
colliers in harbour with others
arriving daily. Several warships
are also at the Dardanelles

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d7.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 21:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 April 1917, Commons Sitting

EAST LONDON EXPLOSION.


HC Deb 17 April 1917 vol 92 cc1503-4 1503

Colonel YATE asked the Minister of Munitions when the Report of the Expert Committee appointed to investigate the recent explosion in the East of London will be published?

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY to the MINISTRY of MUNITIONS (Sir Worthington Evans) The Committee appointed by the Home Secretary to inquire into the cause of the explosion in EastLondon have presented their Report, but as this deals with many matters connected with the manufacture of explosives which would furnish information to the enemy, it has been decided not to publish it. A summary of the conclusions of the Committee has already been published.

Mr. PEMBERTON BILLING Are we to understand that the Government are now satisfied that this is not the work of German agents?

Sir W. EVANS The hon. Member must not ask me for information beyond that which is published: I would refer him to that.

Mr. BIRD Will the hon. Gentleman afford an opportunity to the hon. and gallant Gentleman whose question this is to see the Report in private?

Sir W. EVANS The hon. and gallant Gentleman must first see what has been published; then, if he will communicate with me, I will see what can be done.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/apr/17/east-london-explosion
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2010 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1: American Soldier's Letters Home

This blog is derived from letters home from Paul Hills during the first World War. They begin in April 1917, just after the United States declared war, when he joined a volunteer ambulance unit attached to the French army.

Letter dated April 17, 1917

FIRST LETTER, SPECIAL DELIVERY, ADDRESSED TO HIS MOTHER, FROM PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY, WHERE PAUL HILLS WAS A SENIOR AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. THE U.S. HAD FORMALLY DECLARED WAR WITH GERMANY ON APRIL, 1917.

Dear Mother -

I am as usual very sorry not to have written before but this time I have the excuse of really having been doing something worthwhile. In fact I have been playing a large game and seem to have won. You remember I perhaps have told you about Hunt Talmage, the possessor of two million in his own. He is going abroad to work in the Harjes Ambulance
and wants me to come along. I first went and saw the Dean who said much to my surprise that it was perfectly fine that I was going and of course I could have my diploma. Then I saw the military authorities at Governors Island who said that it was a good thing to go over especially to learn the ways of the country and I would be worth much more to my own country when the time came for us to send troops over there and incidentally could get a higher commission.

Moreover, the whole business is paid for with the exception of spending money. That is, passage over and back, subsistence while at work, board and room while on furlough in Paris, uniform, all these free. Added to these advantages Hunt’s aunt is a countess at whose chateau we are going to live before we begin work. The danger is absolutely nil as not one person has been killed in the history of this unit. The whole thing is endowed by J.P. Morgan and Harjes, his Paris agent who takes an active and personal interest in the work. (The Morgan bank, through its Paris office, Morgan Harjes, sponsored and financed a volunteer ambulance service serving the French Army in the period before the United States entered the war. Many young men from American colleges served in this and other similar ambulance services in the same period. –Ed.) This I know from Bill Armour who just came back and had the most wonderful time of his life. Mother, it is a chance that I will never get again and like which there will never be another and which, unless you are more averse than words can express, and will not help me at all, I am going to take.

Please don’t delay answering this immediately as I want to sail if possible with several more boys from here who are going to Salonika on May 5. That necessitates some quick work. The stay is for six months which will bring me home just before Christmas. Please, mother, don’t stand in the way on this as I am more keen about it than I ever have been about anything and you can manage it for me very easily by a few carefully chosen, rightly directed words. It will not be expensive at all (not nearly so much so as having me at home) and it is something that can’t be missed. Moreover, I don’t think I could stand staying here much longer. Bill Hump (Bill Humphreys, from Pittsburgh, was a close friend, college roommate and hockey teammate through school and college years.-Ed) has finally left to join the aviation corps and besides being alone in my house there are only three of us out of 22 at the club.

I am enclosing a form for a birth affidavit which I have to have as soon as possible to get my passport – fill it out and send it back quickly.

Good bye now.

Paul

http://wwar1letters.blogspot.com/2008/03/april-17-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2010 7:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1920

17 april 1920 - Het blijkt nog steeds voor te komen, dat trampassagiers hun hond achter de tram aan laten hollen, hoewel de conducteurs al vijftien jaar instructie hebben om passagiers te wijzen op het gevaar daarvan voor zowel de hond als het verkeer.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1920.htm
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Price of Glory



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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 17:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

pifilsofimos schreef :

17 april 1915
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"All Wars Arise For The Possesion Of Wealth" (Plato)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag om Merkem

De Slag om Merkem (ook wel de Slag bij De Kippe) was een veldslag uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog, gestreden nabij het Belgische dorp Merkem. De veldslag werd geleverd tussen Belgische en Duitse troepen op 17 april 1918, na vier jaar oorlog. Inzet voor de slag was een Duitse poging om het dorp te heroveren op de Belgen, die de aanval echter wisten af te slaan. Hoewel de verhoudingen aan het eind van de dag ongewijzigd waren ten opzichte van daarvoor, vormde het succes bij Merkem een belangrijke morele overwinning voor de Belgische troepen.

Lees verder op https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_om_Merkem
Zie ook hier http://www.ablhistoryforum.be/viewtopic.php?t=296
Zie ook hier https://www.tracesofwar.nl/sights/51138/Naamsteen-18-De-Kippe---Slag-van-17-April-1918.htm
Zie ook hier http://www.wo1.be/nl/db-items/naamsteen-de-kippe-slag-van-17-april-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kraj Oerjanchaj

Kraj Oerjanchaj was de Russische benaming voor het Russische protectoraat dat tussen 1914 en 1921 werd gevestigd over het gebied dat overeenkomt met de huidige Russische autonome republiek Toeva. Tot 1912 stond het gebied onder de naam Tannu Uriankhai onder het bestuur van de Qing-dynastie van China. Na de Xinhai-revolutie in 1911 wendden de nojonen (onder andere ambyn-nojon Komboe-Dorzjoe, de Tsjamzy Chamby-lama en nojon Daa-chosjoena Boejan-Badyrgy) zich enkele malen tot de tsaristische overheid met het verzoek het gebied op te nemen als protectoraat van het Russische Rijk. Op 17 april 1914 tekende tsaar Nicolaas II daarop een oekaze waarmee dit protectoraat werd gevestigd. Het gebied werd tot onderdeel van het gouvernement Jenisej gemaakt, maar de politieke en bestuurlijke verantwoordelijkheden werden gelegd bij het bestuur van het gouvernement-generaal Irkoetsk.

(...) In 1921, tijdens de Russische Burgeroorlog, werd de Volksrepubliek Toeva (Tannoe-Toeva) uitgeroepen op het gebied van de kraj, die vanaf 1926 de naam Republiek Toeva droeg. In 1944 werd Toeva als autonome oblast opgenomen in de Russische SFSR. In 1961 werd ze hernoemd tot de Toevaanse ASSR. Met de val van de Sovjet-Unie veranderde de naam wederom naar (autonome) Republiek Toeva en sinds 1993 heet het gebied officieel Republiek Tyva (in het Nederlands wordt vaak de oude naam Toeva gebruikt).

De Russische soevereiniteit over het gebied wordt niet erkend door de Republiek China.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kraj_Oerjanchaj
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German desire for revenge - 17 April 1915

In a letter published by the German newspaper, ‘Die Kölnishe Zeitung’, a German soldier in a regiment opposite the French to the north of Ypres gave his reasons as to why German troops were keen to carry out an attack on the French:

“We had been lying opposite one another for months. No amount of pushing and pulling could loosen the steel ring held by the enemy around Ypres. Every attack we made collapsed in furious rifle and artillery fire, as did the attacks made by our enemy. The tenacity and stubbornness of both sides reduced the possibility of either side in the near future managing to win the upper hand by means of a large-scale offensive.

But the enemy then introduced a new factor into the equation: chemical warfare. When the French artillery shells exploded they gave off gaseous fumes, which the British artillery helped to disperse by firing into the same zone. Our German Supreme Command mildly called the fumes “betäubende Dämpfe” - translated as “knock-out vapours or stun fumes”. The use of these gases by the enemy, in rifle bullets as well as artillery shells, brought the anger of our troops to boiling point. With grins on their faces our men began to spread a rumour that the hour of revenge was drawing near.

And then the news we had been waiting for arrived. It is impossible to describe the mood of our troops at that time. Every soldier wanted to be the first to get to the enemy trench. Whole companies volunteered to be in the first wave of the attack. Those who were selected for the role could hardly restrain themselves.” (1)

Victory or Death

A second German account suggests that the soldiers in the front line in the Ypres sector were eager for a confrontation with the enemy.

“Over to our right [in the direction of Dixmuide] we heard the continuous thundering of artillery and from its intensity it sounded as though there was a great battle raging there. In our sector it was very quiet except that the pioneers were busier than usual; pontoon bridging equipment began to appear in our front line sector and girders, beams and planks were brought forward and piled up close behind the front line trenches. As the numerous pioneer officers bustled past us in the trenches we suspected from the secretive look on their faces that something special was being prepared.

Then we learned about the coming attack. I must say that the news was greeted enthusiastically by the men, who were not thinking about the horrors which might be in store during the coming battle. We all busied ourselves eagerly with the preparations for the offensive and could hardly wait for the hour of the attack to come. It would bring with it either victory or death.” (2)

Acknowledgements
(1) Der Völkerkrieg, Band V, p. 163
(2) Der Völkerkrieg, Band V, p. 163


http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/german-revenge.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 april 1918 - Een krantenberichtje: Moeder en zoon

https://geheugenvanoost.amsterdam/page/2735/17-april-1918
Zie ook hier https://www.vriendenvanwatergraafsmeer.nl/krantenartikel-17-april-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Loss of the Col di Lana Peak - 17 April 1916

Introduction The following article is the story of just one day of a bitterly fought action between the Austro-Hungarian and Italian armies which commenced in May 1915 and continued until October 1917 nearly two and a half years later. Since the beginning of hostilities with Italy on the 23rd May 1915, the Austrians had held the 2462m high peak of the Col di Lana just to the Southwest of Cortina in the Dolomite Mountains. Initially held by assorted Standschützen and Landsturm formations and then by the famous German Alpenkorps during the Summer of 1915, the peak was to be lost after the explosion of a massive mine on the 17th of April 1916 while being held by the 6th company of the 2nd Tyrolean Kaiserjäger regiment. Subsequent to the loss of the peak itself, the Austrians were able to again stabilise their line about half a kilometre to the rear of the lost position on Monte Sief which was held until October 1917 when the Italians were compelled to withdraw to the line of the Piave River after the battle of Caporetto. The mountain was well named by the troops of both sides: "Blood Mountain" or "Calvary Mountain".

The War in the Alps Prior to the outbreak of the Great War, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy had made provision for the defence of its Southern border by the raising of specialised mountain formations. These were the Landesschützen of the Austrian Landwehr and also the four regiments of Tyrolean Kaiserjäger. Ironically when Italy declared war on the 23rd of May 1915, the very formations that would assure the defence of Austria's Southern border were bleeding to death in Galicia. At the outbreak of hostilities therefore, the newly mobilised Standschützen formations from the Tyrol and Voralberg were rushed to the Alpine front. These battalion and company sized formations were formed from the traditional rifle associations of the Tyrol and Voralberg and consisted of either the rather aged or the very young who were not already fighting at the front. The officers and non-commissioned officers were selected by a vote of the personnel of the individual unit and usually a common army or Landwehr officer was attached as an advisor. In many cases these formations were fighting in the vicinity of their own villages. The total forces immediately available on the Austrian side for employment on the Tyrolean front were 26 infantry battalions, 46 Standschützen detachments, 12 Landesschützenbesatzungsdetachements (the garrisons of the border fortifications drawn from the three landesschützen regiments), 37 Fortress artillery and three sapper companies; in total 35,000 men with 146 mobile and 539 fortress artillery pieces. Opposing the Austro-Hungarians on the 350km front were the 1st and 4th Italian armies (Lieutenant Generals Roberto Brusati and Luigi Nava respectively) with 12 infantry divisions and 3 Alpini groups. The Austrians voluntarily withdrew to a more defensible line in the South Tyrol and in some cases 15 to 20km behind the border at the beginning of the conflict. The whole of the Tyrol was divided into five defence zones known as Rayons which were numbered I through V. These in turn were divided into "Grenzabschnittkommandos" or border sector commands and then into "Grenzunterabschnitte" or sub-sectors. The Col di Lana position was the forward most point and anchor of Rayon V which stretched from the area East of the Marmolata and then generally in a North-Easterly direction to the Carinthian border. Rayon V was divided into Grenzabschnitte 9 and 10. The Col di Lana itself was in Unterabschnitt 9a. At the outbreak of hostilities until the 5th of June 1915 Rayon 5 was the responsibility of 56.Gebirgs-Brigade and from then on Division Pustertal (named after the major valley to the rear of the Rayon) under Feldmarschalleutnant Ludwig Goiginger. Under command Division Pustertal were the 51.Gebirgs-Brigade with responsibility for Abschnitt 9 under Oberst Edler von Sparber and 56.Gebirgs-Brigade under Generalmajor Bankowski with responsibility for Abschnitt 10. On the 25th May 1915, the former commander of 1.Armee, General der Kavallerie Viktor Dankl assumed command of the Tyrol's defences.

The Col di Lana besides affording unequalled artillery observation of the Italian hinterland was also a major obstacle to the strategically important Puster Valley with its lateral railway from Lienz to Brixen and thence to Bozen and Innsbruck. It was therefore an important objective of General Nava's 4th Italian army and in particular the 17th and 18th divisions of Lieutenant General Marini's IX Corps. When on the 4th June 1915, the Italians mounted their first offensive in the Tyrol, the forces available in the Col di Lana sector amounted to only a part of Landsturmbataillon 165 and the Standschützen from Enneberg and Silz as well as a few Gendarmerie personnel and customs officials. Fortunately for the Austrians, however this initial thrust was not in the immediate sector of the Col di Lana. During the first days of the war patrol activity and the fortifying of the mountain positions had been the order of the day with only a few casualties. On the Col di Lana itself and on its forward and flanking slopes a number of positions were constructed, the most important of these being the actual position on the peak - the "Gipfelstellung", the "Infanteriestellung" and the "Felsenwache" or rock position both on the Southern (forward) slope and point 2250 just to the East. Additionally, a connected line of "Feldwache" or piquet posts were maintained below the peak along the Western side of the mountain generally running in a North Westerly direction. As a welcome and most urgent addition to the Austro-Hungarian defence, the German high command had dispatched the Alpenkorps to the South Tyrol under the command of the Bavarian Generalleutnant Konrad Krafft von Delmensingen; the first trains leaving the camp at Lechfeld on the 24th of May. After some familiarisation training, Major Hugo Bauernschmitt's 2.bayerische Jäger-Bataillon of the königlische bayerische Jäger-Regiment Nr.1 was assigned to the Col di Lana sector where it would remain until the 24th of September when it was relieved by the Prussian Reserve Jäger-Bataillon 10. The fighting for the Col di Lana position started in earnest with the mounting of the 2nd offensive commencing on the 4th of July 1915 with repeated attacks against the Bavarians in the Infanteriestellung and point 2250 over the following two weeks and with further heavy offensive action in the first week of August. Casualties were heavy, particularly for the attacking Italians. Losses for the Italians on the day and night of the 4th/5th of August being 4 dead and 8 wounded officers and 120 dead and missing NCOs and soldiers with a further 360 wounded. The garrison on the Col di Lana lost at the same time 45 dead, 7 missing and 60 wounded. Further fighting and heavy artillery exchanges continued for the rest of the Summer and into October when at last the men of the Alpenkorps on the Col di Lana were relieved by Oberst Maximilian Bauer's 3rd Tyrolean Kaiserjäger regiment during the second week of that month. Throughout the Autumn and Winter the bloody slog continued, casualties mounted on both sides with a succession of Austro-Hungarian units being relieved in place on the mountain. The Italians gallantly nibbled away at the position and with a combination of artillery fire and persistent infantry attacks gradually pushed the Austrians back up the mountain. Point 2250 was lost on the 22nd October, followed by the Felsenwache on the 26th. This made the continuing possession of the Infanteriestellung further to South and down the mountain increasingly untenable and this was lost on the 29th of October. On the 7th of November the 3rd battalion of the Italian 60th infantry regiment succeeded in storming the summit and capturing the the re-enforced platoon of Kaiserschützen-Regiment III holding the peak position. A counter-attack delivered the same evening under the command of Hauptmann Valentini and supported by heavy artillery support succeeded in retaking the lost position. The new year brought a new phase in the fighting with the introduction of mine warfare which would culminate in the detonation of a huge Italian mine beneath the peak position on the 17th April. Since the 6th of February 1916, individual companies of the 2nd battalion of the 2nd Tyrolean Kaiserjäger regiment had been holding the "Gipfelstellung" or peak position. In the meantime, the Italian engineers under the command of Lieutenant Don Gelasio Caetani, Prince of Sermoneta had constructed a tunnel 52 metres beneath the mountain which had inclined up the mountain at a slope of 15 degrees. Started on the 13th of January from the area of the Rothschanze to the South West of the peak, the tunnel was completed and the 5020 kg of explosive was in place and ready for electrical detonation on the 17th of April.

16/17 April 1916 The 2nd Battalion of the 2nd Tyrolean Kaiserjäger regiment was commanded by Hauptmann Erich von Gasteiger, whose 6th company under Oberleutnant Anton Tschurtschenthaler von Helmheim relieved the 5th under Hauptman Adelbert Homa on the Col di Lana peak during the night of the 16th/17th April. The relief went smoothly and the night passed quietly. At about five in the morning in contrast to their usual practice, the Italian artillery began firing on the position. Initially the fire was not very accurate and many of the incoming rounds were blinds. However at about 7.30 am the first heavy (21cm) shell exploded in the centre of von Tschurtschenthaler's position and was immediately followed by many more. The company commander immediately initiated the evacuation of the more exposed shelters. All the personnel not on duty were assembled in the big cavern beneath the position. The fire increased in violence and at almost regular intervals 21cm fire was hitting the position mixed with grenades and shrapnel of all calibres. As the morning wore on the position was subjected to a level of fire of such an intensity as to be described by the Austrians as "Trommelfeuer" or drumfire - a very heavy bombardment. In fact the whole of the artillery of the Italian 17th and 18th divisions, some 111 small calibre and 28 medium calibre guns including six 149mm, four 194mm cannon and ten 210mm howitzers were concentrating on the Col di Lana peak. The exposed posts were reduced to minimal manning and the remainder of the garrison was held ready in the cavern with weapons and grenades to meet the expected enemy advance. At about 9 am an heavy grenade exploded just in front of the officer's bunker. At about 10 am a direct hit destroyed the stairs of the most important access to the fire trenches followed by a hit on the entrance to the cavern at about 11 am which completely blocked the entrance with boulders and beams. Although the entrance was soon cleared the resulting influx of cordite fumes from succeeding explosions soon made breathing within the cavern almost impossible and demanded the partial clearance of the overfull cavern (100 men) because of men losing consciousness through lack of oxygen. And although men were therefore moved to other small bunkers these were not especially safe from the heavy gunfire.

Inside the cavern, in order to ensure a continual supply of relatively fresh air, men were put to work wafting large tarpaulin sheets, a laborious task that had to be continued into the night due to the continuing enemy artillery fire. Hardly had the garrison of the cavern sorted themselves out when a further direct hit on the cavern entrance created the the same blockage as before. Throughout the morning casualties rose, with men being killed, wounded and buried alive and at about 2 pm a direct hit crashed into the large wooden barracks which normally accommodated the garrison just to the rear of the peak. The Italian artillery fire continued throughout the whole afternoon and evening in ever increasing intensity causing further loss of life and wounds on the beleaguered garrison.

At five past nine the fire stopped...The fire trenches had all been destroyed, the access points to the position were for the most part buried. Oberleutnant von Tschurtschenthaler had the company under the supervision of engineer Feldwebel Schmelzer start to repair the damage as best they could in order to provide at least some provision for the expected attack during the night. The field telephone line to the sub sector command post had been cut all day and any communication to the rear had been impossible during the barrage. Von Tschurtschenthaler sent a report back to Hauptmann von Gasteiger with some lightly wounded troops in which he described the events of the day, losses and described the condition of his company. In a further message he requested reinforcements and if at all possible support for the rebuilding of the position. At 10 pm telephone communications were restored and von Tschurtschenthaler was able to reiterate his requests to the battalion commander.

At 10:30 pm a non commissioned officer sounded the alarm. The Italians were observed crawling forward. The position was immediately manned. For the Jägers in position behind the rubble and earth of the peak position the tension of the long day of waiting under fire was released at last. Oberleutnant von Tschurtschenthaler informed the battalion commander of the situation who in turn had the sector artillery placed on standby at von Tschurtschenthaler's call. After this last call to the sub sector commander he moved back into the cavern where he also had the telephone moved. He left two officers to supervise the fire trenches. About ten minutes later the Italians detonated the huge mine. The occupants of the cavern were thrown from their seats by the blast and concussion of the extremely powerful explosion. Once again the occupants were trapped inside the cavern. Through the remaining small opening that remained they could hear the racket and crashing of the stones and debris still rolling down the mountain. The drum fire commenced again. The trapped men in the cavern could hear the cries and moans of the wounded men including those who had been thrown through the force of the explosion into the Sief Gorge. Within five minutes the Italians had stormed the peak and overcame what little resistance could be offered by the stunned survivors. Meanwhile after some initial disorder within the cavern, Oberleutnant von Tschurtschenthaler restored calm and had the entrance to the cavern manned. His order: "No Italians in here, we'll hold as long as possible!"
However, with the Italians at a tunnel entrance to the cavern and as in the morning before, breathing becoming ever more difficult in the oxygen starved cavern, this was really not a viable option. It was now a matter of either suffocating or surrendering. Oberleutnant von Tschurtschenthaler sent his senior non-commissioned officer, Oberjäger Galvanini to parley with the Italians. Shortly thereafter the cavern garrison after shaking hands together surrendered to the Italian infantry. The entire position was a scene of the utmost devastation, just a field of rubble. Only a crater remained where the garrison of the peak position had stood in wait.

The record is unable to determine exactly how many men were garrisoning the Col di Lane peak on the 16th/17th April 1916, but it was somewhere in the area of 250 men: 6./2 TJR. had 5 officers and officer-cadets and 140 NCOs and Jäger. The crew of a 7cm mountain gun was 1 officer and 10 and an artillery FOO party was a further 1 plus 6. In addition there was a sapper detachment of 1 officer and 60 NCOs and sappers plus the personnel of 4 machine guns and two trench mortars. In total 9 officers and 238 NCOs and soldiers. It is thought that about 100 men died in the explosion, the remainder including the 60 in the cavern being taken prisoner.

Aftermath The Italians were unable to follow up on their success at the Col di Lana and further attempts to take Mte. Sief immediately to the North were not successful. By the same token, the Austro-Hungarians were not to retake the Col di Lana peak until the Italians were compelled to withdraw their entire alpine line in October 1917 following the 12th battle of the Isonzo. Not withstanding the year-long effort and huge loss of life, the Italian IX corps were only about 500 metres nearer to the Puster Valley and their tactical situation had not significantly improved. The Austrians had a more easily defensible line which they held on that part of the sector until the general advance to the Piave in October 1917.

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/battles/coldilan.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 Easter Rising: The Proclamation

The drafting of the Proclamation was one of the final steps taken by the Irish Republican Brotherhood Military Council who planned the Rising. Its flowing phrases suggest that it was composed mainly by Patrick Pearse, probably aided by the others, particularly James Connolly. Certainly all seven Council members approved it on 17th April 1916 and later signed it; in doing so, they were virtually guaranteeing that they would face the firing squad should the insurrection fail.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/insurrection/in04.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Das Lazarettschiff "La France" - Versenkt durch eine deutsche Seemine am 17. April 1916

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_04_17.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Apr 2011 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LAFAYETTE ESCADRILLE...

... a squadron of volunteer American aviators who fought for France before the United States entered World War I. Formed on 17 April 1916, it changed its name, originally Escadrille Américaine, after German protest to Washington. A total of 267 men enlisted, of whom 224 qualified and 180 saw combat. Since only 12 to 15 pilots formed each squadron, many flew with French units. They wore French uniforms and most had noncommissioned officer rank. On 18 February 1918 the squadron was incorporated into the U.S. Air Service as the 103d Pursuit Squadron. The volunteers—credited with downing 199 German planes—suffered 19 wounded, 15 captured, 11 dead of illness or accident, and 51 killed in action.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Lafayette_Escadrille.aspx
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Tandorini



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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2011 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Indienstelling van het Watervliegkamp Schellingwoude van de Marine Luchtvaartdienst (MLD), bestaande uit geinterneerde Britse en Duitse watervliegtuigen, die in de loop van de Eerste Wereldoorlog werden aangekocht. Het vliegkamp staat onder commando van de luitenant-ter-zee A.S. Thomson, de eerste marineofficier met een in 1915 behaald militair vliegbrevet.

Bron: M.A. van Alphen: 'Kroniek der Zeemacht' (2003)
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2018 8:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 april 1918 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Albert Stubbe is op 13 juli 1892 geboren in Middelkerke. De ongehuwde zoon van Désiré en Eugenie Maďs verdient de kost als vleeshouwer. Hij is 1,80 meter groot en en heeft kastanjebruin haar. Op 21 maart 1915 treedt hij als oorlogsvrijwilliger in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

Op 17 april 1918 om 12.30 ligt het kantonnement bij de herberg In den bombardon langs de weg van Lo naar Nieuwkapelle (Kruisstraat) onder vijandelijk vuur. Op hetzelfde tijdstip wordt ook het kantonnement 'De Kousseboom' in Lo bestookt.

Albert wordt over het ganse lichaam door obusscherven verwond. Hij overlijdt ter plekke. Het slachtoffer wordt op 20 april 1918 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Hoogstade, oorspronkelijk onder het grafnummer 933. Nu rust hij daar onder het grafnummer 532.

Andere slachtoffers van het 24° Linieregiment zijn: Henri Cappelle, Eugčne De Cooman, Antoine Degueldre. Alphonse De Spiegelaere. Twee militairen van het 24° Linieregiment, Corneel Baetes en Albert Leveugle overlijden 's anderendaags op 18 april 1918 aan hun verwondingen in het veldhospitaal van Hoogstade.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/17-april-1918-1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2018 8:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WWI Document Archive - Letters of Jean Hurpin - 17 April 1918

Online te lezen... https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Jean_Hurpin_Letter_of_17_April_1918,_p._1 & https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Jean_Hurpin_Letter_of_17_April_1918,_p._2
... en de envelop: https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Jean_Hurpin_Envelope_of_17_April_1918
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