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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2006 21:13    Onderwerp: 21 Maart Reageer met quote

March 21

1918 Germany begins major offensive on the Western Front

On March 21, 1918, near the Somme River in France, the German army launches its first major offensive on the Western Front in two years.

At the beginning of 1918, Germany’s position on the battlefields of Europe looked extremely strong. German armies occupied virtually all of Belgium and much of northern France. With Romania, Russia and Serbia out of the war by the end of 1917, conflict in the east was drawing to a close, leaving the Central Powers free to focus on combating the British and French in the west. Indeed, by March 21, 1918, Russia’s exit had allowed Germany to shift no fewer than 44 divisions of men to the Western Front.

German commander Erich Ludendorff saw this as a crucial opportunity to launch a new offensive--he hoped to strike a decisive blow to the Allies and convince them to negotiate for peace before fresh troops from the United States could arrive. In November, he submitted his plan for the offensive that what would become known as Kaiserschlacht, or “the kaiser’s battle”; Ludendorff code-named the opening operation “Michael.” Morale in the German army rose in reaction to the planned offensive. Many of the soldiers believed, along with their commanders, that the only way to go home was to push ahead.

“Michael” began in the early morning hours of March 21, 1918. The attack came as a relative surprise to the Allies, as the Germans had moved quietly into position just days before the bombardment began. From the beginning, it was more intense than anything yet seen on the Western Front. Ludendorff had worked with experts in artillery to create an innovative, lethal ground attack, featuring a quick, intense artillery bombardment followed by the use of various gases, first tear gas, then lethal phosgene and chlorine gases. He also coordinated with the German Air Service or Luftstreitkrafte, to maximize the force of the offensive.

Winston Churchill, at the front at the time as the British minister of munitions, wrote of his experience on March 21: “There was a rumble of artillery fire, mostly distant, and the thudding explosions of aeroplane raids. And then, exactly as a pianist runs his hands across a keyboard from treble to bass, there rose in less than one minute the most tremendous cannonade I shall ever hear. It swept around us in a wide curve of red flame…”

By the end of the first day, German troops had advanced more than four miles and inflicted almost 30,000 British casualties. As panic swept up and down the British lines of command over the next few days, the Germans gained even more territory. By the time the Allies hardened their defense at the end of the month, Ludendorff’s army had crossed the Somme River and broken through enemy lines near the juncture between the British and French trenches. By the time Ludendorff called off the first stage of the offensive in early April, German guns were trained on Paris, and their final, desperate attempt to win World War I was in full swing.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2006 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1918 Germany launches offensive along the Somme

Births
None for 21 March

Deaths
1 1918 Ernst StrohschneiderAustro-Hungarian Empire
2 1918 Jules CovinFrance
3 1918 Ludwig HansteinGermany

Claims
1 1916 Oswald BoelckeGermany #13
2 1916 Bruno LoerzerGermany #1
3 1916 Victor FedorovRussia #2
4 1917 Karl AllmenröderGermany #4
5 1917 Manfred von RichthofenGermany #29
6 1917 Alexander PishvanovRussia #1
7 1918 John GordonAustralia #1
8 1918 Frederick ArmstrongCanada #10
9 1918 Harry WatsonCanada #2
10 1918 Charles BartlettEngland #4
11 1918 Walter BealesEngland #1
12 1918 Ronald BerlynEngland #3
13 1918 John Bruce NortonEngland #3
14 1918 Percival ChambersEngland #1 #2
15 1918 William ChisamEngland #6
16 1918 Walter NaylorEngland #10
17 1918 Harry RobinsonEngland #3
18 1918 William WellsEngland #7
19 1918 Andre BarcatFrance #1
20 1918 Auguste BauxFrance #1
21 1918 Erik ThomasGermany #9
22 1918 Alfred HemmingSouth Africa #2
23 1918 Charles RobsonScotland #5 #6

Losses
1 1917 Hubert JonesWaleswounded in action; shot down near Roupy
2 1918 Ernst StrohschneiderAustro-Hungarian Empirekilled in crash
3 1918 Bernard BeanlandsCanadawounded in action
4 1918 Jules CovinFrancewounded in action; died
5 1918 Ludwig HansteinGermanykilled in action; shot down by Herbert SellarsEnglandand Charles RobsonEngland
6 1918 Otto KissenberthGermanywounded in action

http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/today.cgi
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 0:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Ultimate Imperator

Voyage History 1914
The modifications took until early March of 1914, and by 11 March, the Imperator was departing Cuxhaven for New York with 371 in First Class, 334 in Second Class, and 1,998 in Third and Steerage. By now, Commodore Ruser had left the bridge to take command of the SS Vaterland and Captain Theo Kier was in command. Upon arrival in New York on 19 March, Kier reported that stability had been greatly improved. It was during this voyage that an Atlantic storm stripped away four lifeboats and sheared the wings off the huge bronze eagle. And while some Imperator historians have maintained the loss of the eagle's wings occurred during the third voyage of 1913, photographs and postcards of the Imperator before her first voyage of 1914 clearly show her trimmed down funnels (part of her late 1913 early 1914 refit) but with the eagle still fully intact on the prow.

On 21 March 1914, the Imperator steamed eastward with 2,980 passengers. Upon arrival on 27 March, the remains of the eagle were removed and replaced with decorative grillwork, but the Imperator's length was not adjusted. Even still, she remained the second largest ship in the world behind her sister liner, the Vaterland.(...)

On 28 July, with the Vaterland just two days outside New York, Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Immediately all transatlantic voyages for the Imperator and all Hapag ships were cancelled. For the Imperator, the cancelled roundtrip dates were 31 July/12 August; 26 August/5 September; 16 September/26 September. When the Vaterland docked in New York, she stayed there.(...)

For the remainder of the war the Imperator remained docked near Hamburg in the scenic Elbe River and cloaked in primitive camouflage. During this time she received little or no maintenance and her outer appearance suffered. The only real protection afforded to the great ship was a handful of anti-aircraft guns scattered about the dock that never saw any action.

http://www.freewebs.com/ultimateimperator/1914voyagehistory.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 0:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maurice Paléologue- An Ambassador's Memoirs

Sunday, March 21, 1915.
Feeling somewhat perturbed in mind as the result of my recent conversation with the Grand Duke Nicholas I have been to see General Bielaiev, Chief of the General Staff, and questioned him about the supply of ammunition for the Russian artillery. This is the gist of his reply:

(1) The daily output of field-gun ammunition is at most 20,000 rounds at the moment;

(2) If the orders placed abroad are executed by contract time, by the end of May the Russian artillery will have 65,000 rounds a day (of which 26,000 are expected from England and America). This figure will rise to 85,000 by the end of September.

(3) If the methods applied by the French munitions industry are adopted our output could be increased by 10,000 after July. But if that result is to be obtained the whole organization of Russian industry must be fundamentally changed.

I am making urgent representations to Paris for the despatch of a body of technical instructors.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/mpmemoirs/9.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 0:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ZEPPELINS DROP BOMBS ON PARIS

PARIS, March 21, 1915. -- Zeppelin airships raided Paris early this morning and dropped a dozen bombs, but the damage done was unimportant. Seven or eight persons were injured, but only one seriously. Four of the air craft started for the capital following the valley of the Olse, but only two reached their goal.

Lees het hele artikel: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9401E1D91238E633A25751C2A9659C946496D6CF
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 1:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The South African campaign in German South-West Africa, 1914-1915

In the third action of the day, the long outflanking movement by the left wing of the 2nd Mounted Brigade under Col W R Collins led to the cutting of the railway line just west of Jakkalswater and a brief skirmish with the German reserve. Forty-three men, whose horses had been killed by artillery fire, were taken prisoner. The victory at Pforte led directly to the German withdrawal from the Riet position but pursuit was out of the question owing to a lack of water and the spent condition of the South Africans’ horses. On 21 March 1915, the South Africans made a reconnaissance to Modderfontein. The result was the capture of the camp there together with a large quantity of supplies and, most significantly, documents showing that most of the German forces were in the north. Again, logistics prevented pursuit - the expected grass at Riet had failed to materialise and the mounted troops had to be withdrawn to Swakopmund so that the horses could be fed from the ships. The mining of water holes and other places frequented by soldiers added to the delay. An infantry garrison (DLI) replaced the mounted brigades and a commando was placed on reconnaissance duty.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=11032
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 1:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31st Bn - Tel-El-Kebir, Egypt - Medical Inoculations

By Battalion Adjutant on March 21, 1916

1st Parade on running training
2nd Parade Battalion drill in syllabus not carried out owing to inoculations and fatigues. Company training under OC companies
3rd Parade on company training under OC companies (trench construction).

"A" Company inoculated with second dose for typhoid and paratyphoid.

1500: Battalion suddenly called on to find Divisional Guards and duties owing to 30th Battalion being knocked out through inoculation; Battalion rose to the occasion and marched off to time.

8th Brigade Order, No. 87 Part 2 (6): - Court of Inquiry appointed to inquire into loss of two rifles, 79 bayonets and scabbards lost by 31st Battalion during move from Serapeum to Tel-el-Kebir:
President - Major Robert Henry Beardsmore 30th Battalion
Members - Captain Frederick Street 30th Battalion
Captain Marmaduke Coats

Brigade Order No.85: - 2nd Lieutenants Alexander Donaldson Ellis, Harold Eric McLennan, George Alfred Still, Percy Charles Eckersley, Ernest William Spreadborough, Vaux Liddiard Morisset and James Rhys MacLeod promoted to 1st Lieutenants 21 March 1916.

http://aifhistory.org/1916/03/
Australian Imperial Forces - AIF History Project
History and War Diaries of the Anzac Australian Imperial Forces (AIF) during the Great War of World War I

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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 1:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 March 1917, Commons Sitting

FERTILISERS FOR HOLLAND.


HC Deb 21 March 1917 vol 91 c1882 1882

§ Major HUNT asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether they have lately released cargoes of fertilisers for Holland; and, if so, whether, in view of the fact that our farmers are much in want of fertilisers and do not send their potato flour to Germany, as is the case with Holland, he could see his way to stopping the supply of fertilisers to Holland?

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY to the MINISTRY of BLOCKADE (Commander Leverton Harris) Instructions have been given to allow certain cargoes of fertilisers which are consigned to the Netherlands Government from abroad, to proceed to their destination conditional upon guarantees being given regarding their distribution. Holland has imported fertilisers in quantities far below the normal figures of pre-war years. Thus 157,000 tons were imported in 1916, as against an average of 1,301,000 tons a year in the three years 1911-13, or 556,000 tons a year after allowing for all exports to other countries.

Mr. FABER May I inquire whether the time has not arrived when we cannot afford to export fertilisers to Holland or anyone else?

Commander HARRIS The fertilisers referred to are fertilisers from abroad.

Mr. FABER They have been imported into this country on the hypothesis that we need them: is not that so?

Commander HARRIS They are fertilisers from neutral countries for Holland.

§ Mr. WATT Is it not the case that there is an exceptional shortness of fertilisers in this country at present?

Commander HARRIS Of course there is.

§ Mr. WATT Then why do you export them?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/mar/21/fertilisers-for-holland
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 13:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vraag...

"Flanders, Republic of- The Flemish homeland of Flanders seceded from Belgium in November of 1917 under German protection. When the Germans surrendered in 1918, the Flemish government collapsed and its leaders were hung for treason."
I've never heard of this before - was it envisaged as a step on the way towards incorporating Flanders within the German Empire as a sovereign state (whilst to incorporate a republic in an empire seems odd, the Free Cities were more or less mini republics)
Or was it intended to keep Flanders as a vassal/ally ?
Or was there no long-term planning behind this, and it was just an administrative trick ?
Does anyone have any information on these Flemish leaders who were hanged ?
Would appreciate information on :-
- intention
- responsibilities
- leaders
- events
- etc
Thanks

En antwoord...

Here is all I could find out about the Independent State of Flanders, 1917-1918:
When Imperial Germany occupied all of Belgium in 1914, the country experienced an internal conflict and the kingdom was deeply split. Slightly less that half of the Belgians, living in the southern part of the country were Francophone Wallonians who also complied with French culture. But the majority were Dutch-speaking Flemish, who felt more appendant to Dutch culture. But since the Wallonians were dominant in politics for various reasons, French was the official language used in schools, universities, offices, etc. During the 19th century, a "Flemish Movement" slowly developed, representing the cause of the opressed Flemish majority. But they had only minor success, most of their claims had no chance of realization because the influential Wallonians blocked them. Nevertheless, the Flemish Movement grew as the anger of the Flemish increased.
One of the followers of the Flemish Movement was Dr. August Borms. (b. in Sint-Niklaas, 14 April 1878 - d. in Etterbeek, 12 April 1946). At the outbreak of World War I, Borms was still on the side of those Flemish who wanted to see Belgium united in its fight against the German invaders, with the goal to demand more rights for Flanders after the war. But over the war years, Borms' views became more radical. He became the co-leader of a new Flemish movement, the so-called "Activists". They saw nothing wrong in collaboration with the Germans, who were after all related closer to the Flemish than the Wallonians. Their goal was to get from the German occupants what the Belgium government would not grant them, and the Germans considered them useful for their politics. It was one of the German plans for the time after a victory in the West to split up Belgium: The southern third of the country, to the Maas River, was to be annexed directly to the German Empire, the rest should become the "Tribute-State Flanders-Wallonia". For such plans, a strong Flemish people that owed much to Germany, was regarded more than desirable. Borms and his Activists had some successes due to German assistance. For example, the important university of Gent was converted from French to Dutch as official language. In 1917, Dr. Borms co-founded the "Council of Flanders" together with Activists Pieter Tack (b. 1870 - d. 1943) and Willem de Vreese (b. 1869 - d. 1938), an institution that claimed to represent the Flemish population and operated with German aid.
After the Germans had already split Belgium in two administrative regions , Flanders and Wallonia, to prepare their post-war plans (21 March 1917), the Flemish Council declared Flemish independence on 22 December of the same year at Germany's urging, after a plebescite with only about 50,000 participants. This was planned long before: Borms and Pieter Tack have been in Berlin in early March 1917 and talked to the German Reich Chancellor Georg von Hertling about the issue of Flemish autonomy.
On 8 January 1918, Belgian police (Belgium's administration was still existing, though under German supervision) arrested August Borms for his activities. But before the trial actually began, he was released again on German orders. Borms became Commissioner of National Defense of Flanders. Pieter Tack became President of the Commission of Plenipotentiaries. President of the Council of Flanders and thus head of state was Willem de Vreese. A state, however, that had neither any real future perspective nor the smallest scope. In fact, it was rather non-existant. How powerless it was became obvious on 25 July 1918: On that day, the Germans occupation authorities simply terminated Flemish autonomy after it had proven less useful and more problematic than they had expected.

http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=220162
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 13:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Romanovs

On this day (21 March) in 1917, the Romanov imperial family was arrested. It would lead to their execution the following year and Nicholas II became ever-known as the last tsar to rule Russia.

Even though the Romanovs brought many changes and reforms to their country during their 300-year dynasty, making Russia a powerful empire, by the time Nicholas II came to the throne some considered him to be unfit for his post as tsar. Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler. The difference in lifestyles of the wealthy royals to that of the poor peasants was great. Mostly peasants criticized and demonstrated against him, but those who opposed were shot. With Russia’s defeat in World War One and a civil war uprising from the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin, Nicholas was forced by the Provisioning Government to abdicate.

He and his family were soon placed under house arrest at the Alexander Palace. Later they were exiled, first to Tobolsk where they were still treated with respect and consideration. Many sympathized with the former tsar and still believed in his supremacy. But it was when they were moved to Yekaterinburg that conditions became harder. The house was fenced, large boards covered the windows and the Romanovs were constantly guarded by Bolshevik soldiers who humiliated and insulted them. Maria, Nicholas’ daughter, writes in her diary during their captivity: “Everyone who comes into the house inspects our rooms . . . It's difficult to write about anything cheerful, because there's all too little cheerfulness here. On the other hand, God doesn't abandon us. The sun shines, the birds sing, and this morning we heard the bells sounding matins . . .” About a month after moving there, the entire imperial family was executed by firing squad in the basement of the house they lived in.

http://rt.com/Russia_Now.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Loretta Perfectus Walsh

Loretta Perfectus Walsh (April 22, 1896–August 6, 1925) became the first American active-duty Navy woman, and the first woman allowed to serve as a woman, in any of the United States armed forces other than as a nurse, when she enlisted in the U.S. Naval Reserve on March 17, 1917. Walsh subsequently became the first woman Navy petty officer when she was sworn in as Chief Yeoman on March 21, 1917.

Walsh died on August 6, 1925 at the age of 29 in Olyphant, Pennsylvania. After her death she was buried in Olyphant's St. Patrick's Cemetery, under a monument that reads:

Loretta Perfectus Walsh
April 22, 1896–August 6, 1925
Woman and Patriot
First of those enrolled in the United Sates Naval Service
World War 1917–1919
Her comrades dedicate this monument
to keep alive forever
memories of the sacrifice and devotion of womanhood


To the credit of Walsh's memory and her bold action on March 21, 1917, the official history program of the Department of the Navy, the Naval Historical Center, identifies March 21, 1917 as a date in American naval history.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loretta_Perfectus_Walsh
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 13:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Ludendorff Offensives, 21 March-18 July 1918

21 March-5 April: Second battle of the Somme or the Kaiserschlacht (Michael)

When Operation “Michael” began, the Germans won a series of dramatic victories that pushed the British line back up to twenty miles and came dangerously close to achieving its main objectives. The battle began with a five hour artillery bombardment that was the most intense yet seen. The Germans had gathered together 6,473 artillery guns and 3,532 mortars. During the bombardment they fired over one million shells, filled with a mix of munitions that included a variety of different types of poisoned gas.

The British had only 28 divisions in the area that was attacked. Ludendorff had assembled 76 divisions to make the attack, 32 of which took part in the initial infantry assault, at 9.40am on 21 March. The British were forced out of their front line along most of the front, and the Germans even broke through the second line of defence, the battle zone, along a quarter of the fifty mile front attacked.

The German attack hit the Fifth Army (General Hubert Gough) hardest. To the north the attack on the Third Army (General Julian Byng) made less progress, but did threaten to cut off the British troops in the salient left over after the battle of Cambrai. The Germans continued to make progress throughout March, but the crisis of the battle came early. On 24 March, as the British were being forced ever further west, a gap threatened to appear between the British and French armies. Pétain, commander of the French armies of the north, visited Haig to warn his that he expected to be attacked at Verdun, and could therefore spare no more reinforcements to help the British.

If this policy had been carried through, then it is hard to see how a German breakthrough could have been prevented. Early on the morning of 25 March, Haig communicated his fears to the War Office, and requested a high level delegation visit France. He also suggested placing General Foch in overall command of Allied operations.

The required conference took place at Doullens, near Amiens, on 26 March. The French delegation could not have been any more high powered – the President, Prime Minister Clemenceau and the Minister of Munitions were joined by Foch and Pétain. The British were represented by Lord Milner, the War Minister, Gerenarl Wilson, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff and General Haig. The most important outcome of the meeting was the appointment of General Foch to coordinate all Allied troops on the Western Front.

Foch’s appointment ended any danger of a rift between the allies. The German advance soon began to run out of steam, as the units involved became increasingly exhausted. Captured British supply dumps, far better provisioned than the blockaded Germans, slowed down the advance when troops settled in to forage for much needed supplies.

The German attack continued to the end of March, but progress began to slow down. The first three days of April were quiet, and when the fighting was renewed on 4 April both sides launched attacks. Finally, on 5 April Ludendorff recognised that the great offensive had failed, and cancelled any further attacks. The German army had lost between 200 and 300 thousand men without achieving their objectives.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ludendorff.html

The defence of Travecy Keep, 21 March 1918

Coverage - This is not an extract from a war diary but is an article describing the activities of the 2/2nd Battalion the London Regiment on 21 March 1918.

Background - On the 21st March 1918, the 2/2nd Battalion of the London Regiment, part of 173rd Brigade within the 58th (2/2nd London) Division, held the front line between the villages of La Fere and Travecy south of St Quentin, a frontage of some 5,000 yards.

The 58th Division were at the extreme, southerly end of the British held line at the junction with the French. The British Army was rapidly adopting the German method of "defence in depth", where there would no longer be continuous defensive lines but a succession of "zone"s, the forward of which comprised heavily defended strongpoints that could cover each other with fire. Four keeps or redoubts had been prepared in the Divisional area, one of which was in Travecy village at the extreme left of the line held by the 2/2 Londons and was in an isolated position.

Travecy Keep was held by A Company, numbering no more than 200 men and commanded by Captain Maurice Harper MC.

Lees beslist verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/incident-travecykeep.html

Regimental History of New Zealand Cyclist Corps in The Great War 1914-1918

Chapter XII. — Enemy Offensive of March, 1918


March 21st, when the enemy started his big push, found us still working at cable laying, and many conjectures flew around as to what our next job would be. The N.Z. Division hurriedly left our area and went south, where they finally added fresh glories to their record near Albert, and we regretted their leaving our special front.

Lees verder... http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1-Cycl-t1-body1-d12.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Mrt 2010 14:06, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 13:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1: Experiences of an English Soldier

This blog is made up of transcripts of Harry Lamin's letters from the first World War.

March 21st/1918
32507/9 Batt York and Lanc Regt
C. Company
12 Platoon L.G.S
I.E.F

Dear Kate
Just a line to let you know that I am going on alright and I am pleased that you are keeping well. I have had a letter from Jack and one from Ethel, they are all going on alright except for the food problem which bothers them a bit. the weather here is grand very hot during the day but very cold at night. Jack is sending Willie a present for is birthday which is saturday. I have sent him and Connie a card or two I hope they like them. I am pleased that you write often as I am always glad of a letter from you. I think I shall get a leave sometime this summer if I have good luck. I will write again soon.

With Love from
Harry

http://wwar1.blogspot.com/2008/03/letter-to-kate-thursday-21st-march-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 14:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 21 MARCH 1918

New Zealand Prisoners:
EVANS, Gunner C, Tank Corps, reported missing at the end of November; BISHOP, Private J, Welsh Regt, of Auckland, posted missing in July 1916, now officially stated to have died on that date.; ELLIS, Lieut S H, Northumberland Fusiliers & RFC, taken prisoner in September 1916, is now in London at Queen Alexandra’s Hospital for Officers, Milbank.; OXLEY, Private Hubert, 2nd, Auckland, Regt, who was taken prisoner early last year, has been repatriated. His right arm is badly hurt and will need a long course of treatment.; KEMP, Private Frederick W, Auckland, who has been repatriated to England, has had a foot amputated. He is in hospital at Bagthorpe.; MOUSLEY, Lieut E O, RFA, of Auckland, who was with General Townshend in Mesopotamia and taken prisoner in August 1916, is at Constantinople.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn21mar1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 15:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Haig's Last Despatch

21 March, 1919 - British Armies in France

From: J.H.Boraston (ed), Sir Douglas Haig's Despatches, Dent, 1919.

A SINGLE GREAT BATTLE

In this my final Despatch, I think it desirable to comment briefly upon certain general features which concern the whole series of operations carried out under my command. I am urged thereto by the conviction that neither the course of the war itself nor the military lessons to be drawn therefrom can properly be comprehended, unless the long succession of battles commenced on the Somme in 1916 and ended in November of last year on the Sambre are viewed as forming part of one great and continuous engagement.

To direct attention to any single phase of that stupendous and incessant struggle and seek in it the explanation of our success, to the exclusion or neglect of other phases possibly less striking in their immediate or obvious consequences, is in my opinion to risk the formation of unsound doctrines regarding the character and requirements of modern war.

If the operations of the past four and half years are regarded as a single continuous campaign, there can be recognised in them the same general features and the same necessary stages which between forces of approximately equal strength have marked all the conclusive battles of history. There is in the first instance the preliminary stage of the campaign in which the opposing forces seek to deploy and manoeuvre for position, endeavouring while doing so to gain some early advantage which might be pushed home to quick decision. This phase came to an end in the present war with the creation of continuous trench lines from the Swiss frontier to the sea.

Battle having been joined, there follows the period of real struggle in which the main forces of the two belligerent armies are pitted against each other in close and costly combat. Each commander seeks to wear down the power of resistance of his opponent and to pin him to his position, while preserving or accumulating in his own hands a powerful reserve force which he can manoeuvre, and, when signs of the enemy becoming morally and physically weakened are observed, deliver the decisive attack. The greatest possible pressure against the enemy's whole front must be maintained, especially when the crisis of the battle approaches. Then every man, horse and gun is required to co-operate, so as to complete the enemy's overthrow and exploit success.

In every stage of the wearing-out struggle losses will necessarily be heavy on both sides, for in it the price of victory is paid. If the opposing forces are approximately equal in numbers, in courage, in moral and in equipment, there is no way of avoiding payment of the price or of eliminating this phase of the struggle.

In former battles this stage of the conflict has rarely lasted more than a few days, and has often been completed in a few hours. When armies of millions are engaged, with the resources of great Empires behind them, it will inevitably be long. It will include violent crises of fighting which, when viewed separately and apart from the general perspective, will appear individually as great indecisive battles. To this stage belong the great engagements of 1916 and 1917 which wore down the strength of the German Armies.

Finally, whether from the superior fighting ability and leadership of one of the belligerents, as the result of greater resources or tenacity, or by reason of higher moral, or from a combination of all these causes, the time will come when the other side will begin to weaken and the climax of the battle is reached. Then the commander of the weaker side must choose whether he will break off the engagement , if he can, while there is yet time, or stake on a supreme effort what reserves remain to him. The launching and destruction of Napoleon's last reserves at Waterloo was a matter of minutes. In this World War the great sortie of the beleaguered German Armies, commenced on March 21, 1918, lasted for four months, yet it represents a corresponding stage in a single colossal battle.

The breaking down of such a supreme effort will be the signal for the commander of the successful side to develop his greatest strength, and seek to turn to immediate account the loss in material and moral which their failure must inevitably produce among his opponent's troops. In a battle joined and decided in the course of a few days or hours, there is no risk that the lay observer will seek to distinguish the culminating operations by which victory is seized and exploited from the preceding stages by w hich it has been made possible and determined. If the whole operations of the present war are regarded in correct perspective, the victories of the summer and autumn of 1918 will be seen to be directly dependant upon the two years of stubborn fighting that preceded them.

THE LENGTH OF THE WAR

If the causes which determined the length of the recent contest are examined in the light of the accepted principles of war, it will be seen that the duration of the struggle was governed by and bore a direct relation to certain definite factors which are enumerated below.

In the first place, we were unprepared for war, or at any rate for a war of such magnitude. We were deficient in both trained men and military material, and, what was more important, had no machinery ready by which either men or material could be produced in anything approaching the requisite quantities. The consequences were twofold. Firstly, the necessary machinery had to be improvised hurriedly, and improvisation is never economical and seldom satisfactory. In this case the high-water mark of our fighting strength in infantry was only reached after two and a half years of conflict, by which time heavy casualties had already been incurred. In consequence, the full man-power of the Empire was never developed in the field at any period of the war.

As regards material, it was not until midsummer 1916 that the artillery situation became even approximately adequate to the conduct of major operations. Throughout the Somme battle the expenditure of artillery ammunition had to be watched with the greates t care. During the battles of 1917, ammunition was plentiful, but the gun situation was a source of constant anxiety. Only in 1918 was it possible to conduct artillery operations independently of any limiting considerations other than that of transport.

The second consequence of our unpreparedness was that our armies were unable to intervene, either at the outset of the war or until nearly two years had elapsed, in sufficient strength adequately to assist our Allies. The enemy was able to gain a notable initial advantage by establishing himself in Belgium and Northern France, and throughout the early stages of the war was free to concentrate an undue proportion of his effectives against France and Russia. The excessive burden thrown upon the gallant Army of France during this period caused them losses the effect of which has been felt all through the war and directly influenced its length. Just as at no time were we as an Empire able to put our full strength into the field, so at no time were the Allies as a whole able completely to develop and obtain the full effect from their greatly superior man-power. What might have been the effect of British intervention on a larger scale in the e arlier stages of the war is shown by what was actually achieved by our original Expeditionary Force.

It is interesting to note that in previous campaigns the side which has been fully prepared for war has almost invariably gained a rapid and complete success over its less well prepared opponent. In 1866 and 1870, Austria and then France were overwhelmed at the outset by means of superior preparation. The initial advantage derived therefrom were followed up by such vigourous and ruthless action, regardless of loss, that there was no time to recover from the first stunning blows. The German plan of campaign in the present war was undoubtedly based on similar principles. The margin by which the German onrush in 1914 was stemmed was so narrow, and the subsequent struggle so severe, that the word 'miraculous' is hardly too strong a term to describe the recovery and ultimate victory of the Allies.

A further cause adversely influencing the duration of the war on the Western Front during its later stages, and one following indirectly from that just stated, was the situation in other theatres. The military strength of Russia broke down in 1917 at a critical period when, had she been able to carry out her military engagements, the war might have been shortened by a year. At a later date, the military situation in Italy in the autumn of 1917 necessitated the transfer of five British divisions from France to Italy at a time when their presence in France might have had far reaching effects.

Thirdly, the Allies were handicapped in their task and the war thereby lengthened by the inherent difficulties always associated with the combined action of armies of separate nationalities, differing in speech and temperament, and, not least important, in military organisation, equipment and supply.

Finally, as indicated in the opening paragraph of this part of my Despatch, the huge numbers of men engaged on either side, whereby a continuous battle front was rapidly established from Switzerland to the sea, outflanking was made impossible and manoeuvre very difficult, necessitated the delivery of frontal attacks. This factor. combined with the strength of the defensive under modern conditions, rendered a protracted wearing-out battle unavoidable before the enemy's power of resistance could be overcome. So long as the opposing forces are at the outset approximately equal in numbers and moral and there are no flanks to turn, a long struggle for supremacy is inevitable.

THE EXTENT OF OUR CASUALTIES

Obviously, the greater the length of a war the higher is likely to be the number of casualties in it on either side. The same causes, therefore, which served to protract the recent struggle are largely responsible for the extent of our casualties. There can be no question that to our general unpreparedness must be attributed the loss of many thousands of brave men whose sacrifice we deeply deplore, while we regard their splendid gallantry and self-devotion with unstinted admiration and gratitude.

Given, however, the military situation existing in August 1914, our total losses in the war have been no larger than were to be expected. Neither do they compare unfavourably with those of any other of the belligerent nations, so far as figures are availa ble from which comparison can be made. The total British casualties in all theatres of war- killed, wounded, missing and prisoners, including native troops- are approximately three millions (3,076,388). Of this total, some two and a half millions (2,568,388) were incurred on the Western Front. The total French losses -- killed, missing and prisoners, but exclusive of wounded -- have been given as approximately 1,831,000. If an estimate for wounded is added, the total can scarcely be less than 4,800,000, and of this total it is fair to assume that over four millions were incurred on the Western Front. The published figures for Italy -- killed and wounded only, exclusive of prisoners -- amounted to 1,400,000 of which practically the whole were incurred in the western theatre of war.

Figures have also been published for Germany and Austria. The total German casualties- killed, wounded, missing and prisoners -- are given at approximately six and a half millions (6,485,000), of which the vastly greater proportion must have been incurred on the Western Front, where the bulk of the German forces were concentrated and the hardest fighting took place. In view of the fact, however, that the number of German prisoners is definitely known to be considerably understated, these figures must be accepted with reserve. The losses of Austria-Hungary in killed, missing and prisoners are given as approximately two and three-quarter millions (2,772,000). An estimate of wounded would give us a total of over four and a half millions.

The extent of our casualties, like the duration of the war, was dependant on certain definite factors which can be stated shortly.

In the first place, the military situation compelled us, particularly during the first portion of the war, to make great efforts before we had developed our full strength in the field or properly equipped and trained our armies. These efforts were wasteful of men, but in the circumstances they could not be avoided. The only alternative was to do nothing and see our French Allies overwhelmed by the enemy's superior numbers.

During the second half of the war, and that part embracing the critical and costly period of the wearing-out battle, the losses previously suffered by our Allies laid upon the British Armies in France an increasing share in the burden of attack. From the opening of the Somme battle in 1916 to the termination of hostilities the British Armies were subjected to a strain of the utmost severity which never ceased, and consequently had litt le or no opportunity for the rest and training they so greatly needed.

In addition to these particular considerations, certain general factors peculiar to modern war made for the inflation of losses. The great strength of modern field defences and the power and precision of modern weapons, the multiplication of machine guns, trench mortars, and artillery of all natures, the employment of gas and the rapid development of the aeroplane as a formidable agent of destruction against both men and material, all combined to increase the price to be paid for victory.

If only for these reasons, no comparisons can usefully be made between the relative losses incurred in this war and any previous war. There is, however, the further consideration that the issues involved in this stupendous struggle were far greater than those concerned in any other war in recent history. Our existence as Empire and civilisation itself, as it is understood by free Western nations, were at stake. Men fought as they have never fought before in masses.

Despite our own particular handicaps and the foregoing general considerations, it is satisfactory to note that, as the result of the courage and determination of our troops, and the high level of leadership generally maintained, our losses even in attack over the whole period of the battle compare favourably with those inflicted on our opponents. The approximate total of our battle casualties in all arms, and including Overseas troops, from the commencement of the Somme battle in 1916 to the conclusion of the Armistice is 2,140,000. The calculation of German losses is obviously a matter of great difficulty. It is estimated, however, that the number of casualties inflicted on the enemy by British troops during the above period exceeds two and a half millions. It is of interest, moreover, in the light of the paragraph next following, that more than half the total casualties incurred by us in the fighting of 1918 were occasioned during the five months March-July, when our armies were on the defensive.

WHY WE ATTACKED WHENEVER POSSIBLE

Closely connected with the question of casualties is that of the relative values of attack and defence. It is a view often expressed that the attack is more expensive than defence. This is only a half statement of the truth. Unquestionably, unsuccessful a ttack is generally more expensive than defence, particularly if the attack is pressed home with courage and resolution. On the other hand, attack so pressed home, if skilfully conducted, is rarely unsuccessful, whereas, in its later stages especially, uns uccessful defence is far more costly than attack.

Moreover, the object of all war is victory, and a purely defensive attitude can never bring about a successful decision, either in a battle or in a campaign. The idea that a war can be won by standing on the defensive and waiting for the enemy to attack is a dangerous fallacy, which owes its inception to the desire to evade the price of victory. It is axiom that decisive success in battle can be gained only by a vigourous offensive. The principle here stated had long been recognised as being fundamental, and is based on the universal teaching of military history in all ages. The course of the present war has proved it to be correct.

To pass for a moment from the general to the particular, and consider in the light of the present war the facts upon which this axiom is based.

A defensive role sooner or later brings about a distinct lowering of the moral of the troops, who imagine that the enemy must be the better man, or at least more numerous, better equipped with and better served by artillery and other mechanical aids to victory. Once the mass of the defending infantry become possessed of such ideas, the battle is as good as lost. An army fighting on enemy soil, especially if its standard of discipl ine is high, may maintain a successful defence for a protracted period, in the hope that victory may be gained elsewhere or that the enemy may tire or weaken in his resolution and accept a compromise. The resistance of the German Armies was undoubtedly prolonged in this fashion, but in the end the persistence of our troops had its natural effect.

Further, a defensive policy involves the loss of the initiative, with all the consequent disadvantages to the defender. The enemy is able to choose at his own convenience the time and place of his attacks. Not being influenced himself by the threat of attack from his opponent, he can afford to take risks, and by greatly weakening his front in some places can concentrate an overwhelming force elsewhere with which to attack. The defender, on the other hand, becomes almost entirely ignorant of the dispositions and plans of his opponent, who is thus in a position to effect a surprise. This was clearly exemplified during the fighting of 1918. As long as the enemy was attacking, he obtained fairly full information regarding our dispositions. Captured documents show that, as soon as he was thrown once more on the defensive and the initiative returned to the Allies, h e was kept in comparative ignorance of our plans and dispositions. The consequence was that the Allies were able to effect many surprises, both strategic and tactical.

As a further effect of the loss of the initiative and ignorance of his opponent's intentions, the defender finds it difficult to avoid a certain dispersal of his forces. Though for a variety of reasons, including the fact that we had lately been on the offensive, we were by no means entirely ignorant of the enemy's intentions in the spring of 1918, the unavoidable uncertainty resulting from a temporary loss of the initiative did have the effect of preventing a complete concentration of our reserves behind the point of the enemy's attack.

An additional reason, peculiar to the circumstances of the present war, which in itself compelled me to refuse to adopt a purely defensive attitude so long as any other was open to me, is found in the geographical position of our armies. For reasons state d by me in my Despatch of July 20, 1918, we could not afford to give much ground on any part of our front. The experience of the war has shown that if the defence is to be maintained successfully, even for a limited time, it must be flexible.

THE END OF THE WAR

If the views set out by me in the preceding paragraphs are accepted, it will be recognised that the war did not follow any unprecedented course, and that its end was neither sudden nor should it have been expected. The rapid collapse of Germany's military powers in the latter half of 1918 was the logical outcome of the fighting of the previous two years. It would not have taken place but for the period of ceaseless attrition which used up the reserves of the German Armies, while the constant and growing pressure of the blockade sapped with more deadly insistence from year to year at the strength and resolution of the German people. It is in the great battles of 1916 and 1917 that we have to seek for the secret of our victory in 1918.

Doubtless, the end might have come sooner had we been able to develop the military resources of our Empire more rapidly and with a higher degree of concentration, or had not the defection of Russia in 1917 given our enemies a new lease of life.

So far as the military situation is concerned, in spite of the great accession of strength which Germany received as the result of the defection of Russia, the battles of 1916 and 1917 had so far weakened her armies that the effort they made in 1918 was insufficient to secure victory. Moreover, the effect of the battles of 1916 and 1917 was not confined to loss of German man-power. The moral effects of those battles were enormous, both in the German Army and in Germany. By their means our soldiers established over the German soldier a moral superiority which they held in an ever-increasing degree until the end of the war, even in the difficult days of March and April 1918.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Haig%27s_Last_Despatch
Ga naar http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/haiglastdespatch.htm voor een geannoteerde versie van 'Haig's Last Despatch'
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 15:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Western Star, March 21, 1919.

HARRISON METZKER MEMORIAL SERVICES.
A Memorial Service in honor of Harrison Metzker, who lost his life while in one of the big battles in Northern France, will be held in the Christian church in this city on next Sunday at 11:00 a.m. The service will be in charge of Rev. J. T. Wheeler, the pastor. The public is cordially invited to be present. A special invitation is extended to all returned soldiers and sailors to attend in uniform.

En het vervolg...

The Western Star, March 28, 1919.

Memorial Services for Harrison Metzker
The memorial services in honor of Harrison Metzker which were held in the Christian church in this city at 11:00 o'clock a.m. on last Sunday were attended by a large crowd which completely filled the church. The interior of the church was beautifully decorated with flags and bunting, all of which suggested the patriotic nature of the exercises.

The pastor, J. T. Wheeler, preached an appropriate and practical sermon from the text, "Of Zebulun, such as went forth to battle, expert in war, with all instruments of war, fifty thousand, which could keep rank - they were not of double heart," I Chron. 12:33.

Some selections by a selected choir and a vocal duet by Mrs. E. E. Pounds and Miss Thelma Pounds were much enjoyed. Between 20 and 25 soldiers, one sailor and one marine were present in uniform.

The local draft board - Dr. T. H. Crawford, W. P. Sanders and Geo. Hearldson - were present and were occupants of reserved seats with the boys in uniform. The services formed a tribute to the heroic part which was taken in the great war by Harrison Metzker, who lost his life November 1, 1918, in the battle of Argonne Forest.


Gold Star Mothers' Supreme Sacrifice

Last week Mr. and Mrs. Frank L. Metzker, who live southwest of Coldwater, were officially notified that their son, William Harrison Metzker, had made the supreme sacrifice. The report said that he had died November 1, 1918, but gave no particulars. This was but ten days before the taking effect of the armistice. The notice had been long delayed, as have the last of the casualty lists.

This week they have received word from Graves Registration service that the grave of the fallen hero is at Landres-et-St. Georges, Ardennes, France. This is about thirty miles northwest of Verdun and about eight miles west of the Meuse River. It was here that the 89th Division, in which Harrison served had some of their hardest fighting, this is just north of the Argonne wood. It is presumed that Harrison was killed in action and was buried where he fell.

Harrison Metzker was one of the men of which Comanche County could well be proud. Soon after the entry of America into the war, he felt called upon to enlist. He offered his services with the Marine Corps, with the regular Army, with the Navy and every other branch where he thought there was a chance for him to get in but each time was turned back. Some years ago he had received an injury to his shoulder and this kept him from the service for a long time. Finally he was passed by the Local Board in the selective service and was successful again when examined at Camp Funston.

Even after being accepted by the Local Board he could not well bide his time, and on his request was sent to camp ahead of his time to replace someone whom the Local Board could not locate at the time. He was truly a patriot. He was sent from here to Camp Funston on April 25, 1918. He was assigned to the 89th Division as a member of Co. L. 353rd Infantry, the A1 1-Kansas Regiment. He went with this division through all the fighting until the time of his death.

So far as is known, Harrison is the only one from this immediate section who was called upon to make the supreme sacrifice. We mourn his loss and reverence his memory.

The Western Star, August 18, 1933.

MRS. METZKER WRITES

Mrs. Frank Metzker of this county is one of the "Gold Star" mothers who are now seeing France, and taking a look over the World War battlefields and cemeteries of that country. They are making the trip as the guests of the United States Government. The mothers were taken to France on the Steamship President Roosevelt. Shortly before landing in France, or on July 30, Mrs. Metzker wrote a letter to her daughter, Mrs. J. M. Cline, of this city, and we are permitted to print it. Mrs. Metzker says:

"Dear Nerva and all the family,
This is Sunday and they say we are 1605 miles from New York. They say we will get to France Thursday. The ocean was awfully rough. Friday so many ladies got very sick. (I didn't) and you can tell them all I haven't been sick and am ready to eat every meal. We get three meals a day and then lunch in the forenoon and afternoon. I am feeling fine and so is Mrs. Burns of Wichita. But the lady from Pratt is in bed and has been there most of the time since Friday. They had memorial services this morning. It was nice. Mr. Woodring and wife are on this ship. He made a good talk. They will come back with us. But we will come back on the S. S. Washington. They say it is a larger ship.

"Well, we are having the best time. They fix everything for our comfort. They even have picture shows and dancing. I go to the picture shows, but I haven't seen them dance yet. There are over six hundred on ship and one hundred seventy "Gold Star" mothers.

"Well, yesterday and today are fine. I wish I could hear from home. I thought I would hear in New York, but didn't. Well, you can tell every one as I can't write to all.

"Will close, with lots of love to every one.

MOTHER

P. S. Well, this is Monday morning. Last night they had preaching and singing. It was good. It doesn't seem like being with strangers. They are so good to us and wait on us so much. They say we will see land Wednesday and we will Get to France Thursday. Well, this is all this morning ."


En nog meer, op http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~kscomanc/ww1_21mar1919_metzker.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 15:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

League of Nations Chronology - 1919

21 March - Resignation of Hungarian President
Hungarian President Count Michael Karolyi resigned in protest over the Allied decision to assign Transylvania to Romania.

21 March - Rowlatts Acts in India
The British government introduced two anti-sedition laws which enabled the state to intern agitators without trial and gave judges the power to try cases without juries. These acts brought Indian discontent to a head as Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs united in opposition to the government. Mohandas Gandhi proclaimed a campaign of passive resistance and non-cooperation. The Indians responded with a series of work stoppages, demonstrations, and riots. The Punjab was soon in open rebellion against British rule.

http://www.indiana.edu/~league/1919.htm
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Tandorini



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pierre de Caters (Berchem, 25 december 1875 - Parijs, 21 maart 1944) overlijdt te Parijs in het bijzijn van zijn dochter, zijn vrouw kreeg geen toestemming van de Duitse bezetters om naar Parijs af te reizen. Hij ligt begraven te Flins-sur-Seine.

Pierre de Caters was één van de eerste pioniers van de Belgische luchtvaart, hij maakte in 1908 een van de eerste gemotoriseerde vluchten.
Hij verkreeg als eerste een vliegbrevet in België.

Toen de Eerste Wereldoorlog uitbrak gaf hij zich op als vrijwilliger. Samen met de andere vrijwilligers, waaronder Jules Tyck en Jan Olieslagers, vormde ze het Escadrille Monoplane dat onder leiding stond van Henri Crombez. Baron de Caters verkreeg de rang van luitenant en stond aan het hoofd van de militaire vliegschool te Étampes van 1915 tot 1916.

In 1937 werd hij nog even gehuldigd bij de oprichting van de "Les Vielles Tiges".

Baron de Caters overlijdt op 21 maart 1944. Met hem verdwijnt één van de meest opmerkelijke figuren van het begin van de Belgische luchtvaart.

http://www.vieillestiges.be/objects/decaters_nl.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 17:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1917

21 maart 1917 - Op de Overtoom komt een 8-jarige jongen bij het spelen onder een bijwagen van een tram van lijn 17. Als hij onder de wagen vandaan gehaald wordt, blijkt hij reeds te zijn overleden.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 17:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Opmars naar de Hindenburglinie, februari–april 1917

Op 21 maart kwam er een Duits vliegtuig voor de Australiërs neer en terwijl de piloot naar zijn eigen linies rende, schoot een Australiër op hem en werd hij gevangen genomen. De piloot, Prins Frederick Karel van Pruisen, werd naar een hulppost gedragen. Voordat hij een paar dagen later in het ziekenhuis overleed, bedankte hij de Australiërs en andere betrokkenen voor hun vriendelijkheid en ‘eerlijk spel’. Hij was ook ‘sportief’, zei hij.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/hindenburg-line-february-april-1917.html
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the beno



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2010 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Donderdag 21 maart 1918
De vijand beschoot de Dorpsplaats, de Abelestraat, het stationkwartier, de Pottem en de omtrek van het kasteel van Vlamertinge. Obussen vielen ook op Poperinge, Reningelst en tussen de Rode- en de Zwarteberg.
Uit het dagboek van Remy Duflou: Vlamertinge 1914-1918
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Price of Glory



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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 maart - Michael offensive.
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Wars begin where you will, But they do not end where you please.
"All Wars Arise For The Possesion Of Wealth" (Plato)

http://www.ahwk.fr
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anarchists, Union Sq., Mar 21, 1914

http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/5169000833/
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Mrt 2018 8:59, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Generalmajor Heinrich Claes

Generalmajor Heinrich Claes (1884-1969) was een vanuit de rangen opgeklommen beroepsofficier die al op jeugdige leeftijd dienst had genomen in het Duitse keizerlijk leger. Hij trad in 1913 toe tot de kersverse luchtmacht en werd er ‘waarnemer- vlieger’. Op 21 maart 1915 werd hij echter neergehaald en raakte gewond. Na een half jaar was hij hersteld en ging de lucht weer in, nu op een bommenwerper. Snel maakte hij promotie; eerst als squadronleider, dan als bataljonscommandant. Ondertussen experimenteerde hij met revolutionaire nieuwe technieken, zoals radioverkeer in de lucht. Als zodanig werd hij eind 1917 ook adviseur van het luchtmachtopperbevel en kreeg een eigen dienst toegewezen, die zich ging bezighouden met de ontwikkeling van gecoördineerde radiocommunicatie tussen vliegtuigen en grondtroepen. Na de Duitse nederlaag was hij nog enige tijd commandant, maar nadat op geallieerd bevel de Duitse
luchtmacht werd opgeheven, ging hij eind 1919 met pensioen.

http://www.de-parken.nl/Wisseloordbunker%20content.htm
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Slag bij El Ébano

De Slag bij El Ébano was een veldslag in de Mexicaanse Revolutie. Hij werd gevochten van 21 maart 1915 tot 31 mei 1915.

Het voorgaande jaar hadden de Mexicaanse revolutionairen de dictator Victoriano Huerta uit het zadel gestoten. De strijd hervatte zich echter toen het revolutionaire leiderschap uiteenviel in de constitutionalisten van Venustiano Carranza en Álvaro Obregón en de conventionalisten van Pancho Villa en Emiliano Zapata. Hoewel de conventionalisten het grootste deel van het land in handen hadden waren de constitutionalisten in het offensief; op de Bajío was de slag bij Celaya aan de gang waarbij Obregón Villa een zware klap toebracht. Om het tij te doen keren gebood Villa de havenstad Tampico in te nemen. Om deze plaats te bereiken moesten de constitutionalisten de Oostelijke Sierra Madre doorsteken, en de Él Ebano in de staat San Luis Potosí, gelegen aan een spoorlijn, was een van de belangrijkste doorgangen van dat gebergte. De verdediging was in handen van Jacinto B. Treviño, terwijl Manuel Chao de conventionalistische aanval leidde. De eerste aanval vond plaats op 21 maart, en kon door de constitutionalisten worden afgeslagen. Door hevig artillerievuur vielen er aan beide zijden vele doden. De gevechten zetten zich wekenlang voort, zodat dat de conventionalisten een doorbraak konden forceren, ook niet toen Chao werd vervangen door Tomás Urbina. De constitutionalisten zetten tijdens de gevechten ook vliegtuigen in. Vanaf 15 mei slaagden de constitutionalisten erin, nu de conventionalisten verzwakt waren wegens hun nederlaag elders in Celaya, de constitutionalisten terug te dringen. Op 31 mei voerden de constitutionalisten de definitieve aanval uit, waarna de conventionalisten gedwongen werden hun stellingen op te geven en hun aanval af te blazen, waarbij zij veel munitie en materieel kwijtraakten. Na gelijktijdige nederlagen elders in het land zag Villa zich gedwongen zich terug te trekken naar het noorden van het land.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_bij_El_%C3%89bano
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De Groote Oorlog in Hasselt

Zondag 21 Maart 1915, om zes uur 's avonds, werd de ongehuwde schoenmaker Karel Cosemans der Pertsdemerstraat, die het koffiehuis van Vanorshoven, tegenover de Spoorhalle, ontvluchte na er de Duitschers op wat scherpe wijze bejegend te hebben, op 'einde der Geraatstraat dooddelijk getroffen in den rug, door den kogel van eenen Duitschen soldaat en stierf een half uur later in het koffiehuis der weduwe Vos, op den hoek der Geraetsstraat en Curingerbaan.

http://roosenboom.jouwweb.nl/de-groote-oorlog-in-hasselt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Polemiek rond Streuvels’ oorlogsdagboek

Er werd Streuvels vooral verweten in zijn dagboek (In oorlogstijd) niet elke Duitse bezetter als een baarlijke duivel had afgeschilderd en, erger nog, zich positief uitgelaten te hebben over enkele op het Lijsternest ingekwartierde Duitse officieren.

Bijzonder actief bij het aan de kaak stellen van Streuvels’ ‘Duitsgezindheid’ was de naar Nederland gevluchte dichter en streekgenoot van Stijn Streuvels René De Clercq (Deerlijk 14 nov. 1877 – Maartensdijk 12 juni 1932). De Clercq die toen nog Belgischgezind was, maar later (in 1917), naar België zou terugkomen om in de activistische beweging een niet onbelangrijke rol te gaan spelen, publiceerde in maart 1915 onder de titel Onder den Helm, in De Vlaamsche Stem (van 21 maart 1915) een scherp gedicht.

‘Geen vriendschap, geen vriendschap,
Geen vriendschap onder den helm!
Wie met hen hand in hand kan staan
Is in het hart een schelm’.


(Keervers van Onder de helm)

Algemeen, ook door Streuvels, werd aangenomen dat De Clercqs bijtend gedicht in het bijzonder tegen Streuvels was gericht. Later ontkende De Clercq dit. In een (nog) niet gepubliceerde notitie die in handschrift bij het Archief en Museum voor het Vlaams Cultuurleven (Antwerpen) berust, schreef hij: ‘Om der waarheid wille houd ik er aan te verklaren dat mijn stuk niet gericht was tegen Stijn Streuvels, en lang geschreven voor ik het eerste nummer uit het Oorlogsdagboek met een opdracht van den schrijver ontving’. Het gedicht kwetste Streuvels echter diep.

Ook Streuvels’ eerste biograaf André de Ridder, met wie onmin was ontstaan nadat Streuvels zich nogal negatief had uitgelaten over De Ridders’ biografie, liet zich niet onbetuigd bij het verdacht maken van Streuvels' oorlogsdagboek. Er verschenen een paar clandestiene brochures van Janus Droogstoppel (pseudoniem voor Jozef Buerbaum) en nog vele andere artikels van diverse auteurs in kranten en tijdschriften, waarin Streuvels op de korrel werd genomen.

Er kwamen ook verdedigers van Streuvels aan het woord en ook Streuvels zelf liet zich verleiden tot het sturen van verantwoordingen naar enkele kranten.

Terugdenkend aan die polemiek, schreef hij in Ingoyghem II:

‘Achteraf spijt het mij daar ooit mijn gemoedsrust voor te hebben laten storen (…), in oorlogstijd mag de waarheid niet verkondigd worden. Die ondervinding heb ik ermede opgedaan: dat in oorlogstijd de waarheid niet mag verkondigd worden. En wel en vooral omdat de vaderlandsliefde het vereist.

In het voorjaar van 1916 besloot Streuvels, tot spijt van zijn uitgever, de publicatie van zijn oorlogsdagboek stop te zetten

http://www.streuvels.be/bio_polemiek.html
Zie ook http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/elia002vijf01_01/elia002vijf01_01-x1.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Holland-Noord-Amerika Hypotheekbank, 21 maart 1916, 6% pandbrief serie Aaa, f 1000,00

Oude aandeeltjes kijken! http://www.oudefondsen.nl/banken/holland-noord-amerika-hypotheekbank-21-maart-1916-6-pandbrief-serie-aaa-f-100000/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Armeensche kwestie
Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 21 maart 1916

De Turksche legatie te 's-Gravenhage zendt ons een geschrift, getiteld: de "Waarheid over de revolutionaire Armeensche beweging en de maatregelen van de regeering", waaraan het volgende is ontleend:

De Armeniërs zijn te allen tijde met welwillendheid bejegend; de meeste van hen bekleedden belangrijke betrekkingen in het land. Niet alleen hooge posten als van directeur en onderstaatssecretaris werden hen in verschillende departementen toevertrouwd, maar er zijn er zelfs tot minister verheven. Sedert het herstel van de Grondwet is het gebruikelijk, dat steeds een Armeensch minister in het Ottomaanse kabinet zitting heeft. De Armeniërs, profiteerende van de welwillende houding van de keizerlijke regeering te hunner opzichte, waren een belangrijk element geworden in het economisch leven van het keizerrijk en de meeste hunner verwierven groote fortuinen. Ze verkregen concessies en privileges als door geen mogendheid aan eenige gemeenschap werden toegestaan. Daardoor was het hun mogelijk, in alle gemeenten van het rijk scholen en kerken te stichten en ze handhaafden aldus hun nationale taal, zeden en godsdienstige tradities, naar het voorbeeld van de andere christelijke gemeenten in het keizerrijk.

Desondanks heeft het Armeensche element, in het keizerrijk gevestigd, niet alleen niet weten te waarderen de weldaden van rechtvaardigheid en welvaart, die het genoot, maar integendeel, niet nagelaten, zooals uit de hieronder volgende feiten blijkt, elke gelegenheid aan te grijpen om moeilijkheden ten aanzien van binnenland en buitenland te scheppen. Zoo toen in 1294 van de Turksche jaartelling (1876) in den oorlog, dien het Ottomaansche rijk tegen Rusland had te voeren, de vijandelijke troepen te San Stefano kwamen, haastte de patriarch Nerses Varjabetian zich grootvorst Nicolaas, den opperbevelhebber der Russische troepen, een bezoek te brengen, en bracht hem er toe, in het voorloopige vredesverdrag zekere clausules te doen opnemen ten gunste van de Armeniërs; zoo liet deze patriarch niet na, naar het congres te Berlijn een speciale missie te zenden, ten einde te verzekeren de opneming in het tractaat van Berlijn der clausules, die in dat van San Stefano voorkwamen. Op die manier hebben de Armeniërs beproefd, zich de bescherming te verzekeren van Rusland, den vijand van het keizerrijk; ze hebben eveneens beproefd de bescherming van Engeland te verkrijgen door een speciale clausule, die ze in het tractaat van Cyprus wisten te doen opnemen.

Van toen af aan stichtten de Armeniërs, zich sterk gevoelende door den steun en de aanmoediging der entente, evenals van hun agenten in Europa, ten einde de aandacht van Europa op zich te vestigen, geheime vereenigingen onder de namen van "Hintsjak" en "Drosjak", waarvan het eenig doel was bij een geschikte gelegenheid onlusten te stoken en uit te lokken in de verschillende deelen van het rijk en aldus onophoudelijk te werken tot losmaking van de oostelijke provincies van het rijk.

Toch deed de Keizerlijke regeering zijn best na het herstel van de grondwet, los van elken geest van vooroordeel, zonder onderscheid alle Ottomaansche onderdanen met de politieke rechten te begunstigen, die het nieuwe regeeringsstelsel had afgekondigd en trachtten in het bijzonder het Armeensche element te voldoen.

Gedurende de Balkanoorlog waren het altijd de Armeniërs, die met de grootste vijandigheid tegen hun muzelmansche landgenooten, in de streek van Rodesto gevestigd, optraden en door leugenachtige beschuldigingen ten onrechte hun medeburgers smartelijke en wreede bejegeningen deden ondergaan.

De Keizerlijke regeering, de rust in het land willende herstellen, belette niet alleen, dat die daden van vijandschap, die te wijten waren aan de Armeniërs, werden ruchtbaar gemaakt onder de muzelmansche bevolking, doch ze droeg nog, door middel van de dagbladen er toe bij de daden van moed van Armeensche officieren en soldaten te prijzen. Ze bereidde voor de invoering van de aanbevolen hervormingen en deed voorts een beroep op de goede diensten der Britsche regeering, ten einde het zenden van algemeene Europeesche inspecteurs, evenals gendarme- en politie-officieren te verkrijgen.

Op het oogenblik, dat het land, zwaar beproefd ten gevolge van de tegenspoeden door den Balkanoorlog veroorzaakt, werkte aan zijn opheffing, ontwikkelden de Armeniërs al hun werkzaamheid om het rijk ten val ten brengen, ten einde hun oogmerk te verwezenlijken en op de ruïnes een onafhankelijk Armenië te vestigen. Ze slaagden erin alle plannen tot hervorming en hechter-making tegen te werken. Met Nabour Pocha aan het hoofd voerden ze een heftige campagne om een vreemde interventie in de aangelegenheden van het keizerrijk te bewerkstelligen. Rusland, dat de Macedonische quaestie te vuur en te zwaard had beslecht, slaagde er aldus in een nieuw Macedonië te stichten in Oostelijk Klein-Azië. Het centrale comité Tachmakeste berichtten in een zeer vertrouwelijke circulaire, gedateerd 5 Maart 1913, in handen van de keizerlijke autoriteiten gevallen, aan zijn verschillende afdeelingen dat de Fransche, Engelsche en Russische regeeringen hadden besloten de Armeensche quaestie ter hand te nemen, zoodra de vrede definitief zou zijn hersteld, en dat ze het eens waren over het principe om in de als Armeensche beschouwde provincies, een speciaal regeeringsstelsel in te voeren: een copie van de overeenkomst zou aan den heer Taft, den president der Vereenigde Staten, zijn gezonden. Zoo was de toestand toen de huidige oorlog uitbrak.

De Armeniërs, die steeds de mogendheden van de Entente als hun beschermsters beschouwden, getroostten zich alerlei opofferingen om het succes van hun wapenen en de nederlaag van Turkije en zijn bondgenooten te verzekeren.

Reeds vóór het deelnemen van de Keizerlijke regeering aan den oorlog hadden de Armeensche comité's het besluit genomen, zich gereed te houden, overal opstanden te doen uitbreken, moorden te plegen en branden te stichten zoodra het succes de Ottomaansche wapenen den rug zou toekeren.

De terugtocht zou den Turkschen legers worden afgesneden. Armeensche soldaten zouden deserteeren en een guerilla voeren. De entente-mogendheden hebben voor de verwezenlijking van dit plan allen steun verleend. Reeds een maand vóór Turkije aan den oorlog deel nam, noodigde de tsaar in een manifest de Armeniërs uit op te staan.

Het 18de hintsjakisto-congres van 7 September 1913 besloot, dat toevlucht moest worden genomen tot revolutionaire middelen. De Ottomaansche regeering onthield zich eenige pressie te oefenen of repressieve maatregelen tegen de Armeniërs te nemen. Een aantal revolutionaire daden werden tenslotte nog vermeld.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-21-3-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Historische personen in Lucky Luke - Strips uit Heden en Verleden

Thomas Coleman Younger (15 januari 1844 - 21 maart 1916) was een bekende Amerikaanse crimineel. In de burgeroorlog vocht hij als guerrilla. Na de oorlog nam hij deel aan de James-Younger bende. Naast Jesse James en Frank James namen Cole, Jim, John en Bob Younger aan de bende deel. De bende begon banken en postkoetsen te overvallen. Het aantal overvallen nam zo toe dat het Pinkerton bureau achter de bende aanging. Op 7 september 1867 werd een groot deel van de bende gedood bij een overval in Northfield, Minnesota. Cole Younger werd gevangen genomen en veroordeeld tot levenslang. Later kreeg hij gratie. Hij overleed op 21 maart 1916.

http://www.stripsuithedenenverleden.nl/Lucky%20Luke%20historisch.html
Zie ook http://wiki.the-west.nl/wiki/Youngers_revolver
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 21 Maart 1916.

Valkenswaard. Verschillende werklieden uit België alhier werkzaam keerden Zaterdag naar België terug om zich te voorzien van nieuwe passen, doch tot heden zijn ze nog niet teruggekeerd. De toestand in België moet ellendig zijn volgens verhalen van vluchtelingen die het nog wagen de grens over te komen!

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

's Nachts langs donk're paden - De in - en uitvoer van goederen

De kist met de ossenkop

Op 6 oktober 1915 heeft Gerhardus Johannes Krabbe, bijna 19 jaar, vet gekocht bij winkelier Ruiter te Glanerbrug (gemeente Losser). De winkelier is zelf niet aanwezig en Gerhardus wordt geholpen door de bediende ter Horst. De bediende verkoopt aan Gerhardus een kist met maar liefst vijftig kilo vet. In die tijd kost vet zo’n 50 cent (23 eurocent) per kilo. Op de kist staat “de ossenkop”. Gerhardus vervoert daarop de kist naar een schuur in de buurt van de grens. Deze schuur staat bij commies Deinum bekend als schuilplaats voor smokkelaars en deze commies neemt daar die avond een kijkje en vindt er 2 kisten met rundvet. Ook op deze beide kisten staat “de ossenkop”. Gerhardus wordt nog diezelfde avond gepakt en verklaart bij de rechtbankzitting te Almelo op donderdag 16 december 1915 dat hij het vet vervoerde aan de grens en dat hij het daar in de schuur neer wilde zetten. Gerhardus zegt dat hij het vet gekocht heeft als “buk-vet” en dat kon volgens hem “er toen nog uit”. Waarmee hij bedoelt dat “buk-vet” volgens hem nog gewoon vervoerd mocht worden.

Bij het eerst verhoor van de getuigen op donderdag 16 december 1915 is ook winkelier Ruiter aanwezig. Hij verklaart dat zijn bediende ter Horst een gesloten kist aan Gerhardus heeft verkocht. De rechter wil deze bediende ook spreken en schorst de zitting tot donderdag 23 december 1915. De bediende wordt op die dag gehoord. Hij bevestigt dat hij Gerhardus vet heeft verkocht voor de genoemde prijs. Hij herinnert zich niet wat voor soort vet het is geweest. Het was op die tijd erg druk in de zaak. Ter Horst herinnert zich dat de beklaagde om plantenvet vroeg en dat de baas niet thuis was. Ter Horst zegt dat hij zich misschien vergist heeft en rundvet heeft meegegeven. Normaal verkopen ze namelijk alleen plantenvet. Beiden soorten vet zijn ongeveer even duur. De beklaagde zegt nog tijdens deze zitting: ”Ik bracht voor mijn plezier het vet in de schuur, dat lag op 150 meter van de grens”.

Pas op 21 maart 1916 wordt dit proces vervolgd. Bediende ter Horst is dan wegens ziekte afwezig. De winkelier en 2 commiezen, Deinum en Bakker, zijn wel aanwezig. Gerhardus verklaart op die dag dat hij nooit tegen de commiezen heeft gezegd dat hij het vet over de grens wilde vervoeren. Hij ging bedekt te werk omdat hij geen geleidebiljetten bij zich had. En hij moest naar huis. Commies Deinum verklaart dat hij direct aan de kleur van de pakjes zag dat het rundvet was. Ook de woorden “de ossenkop” op de kist wijst in die richting. Ook zegt de commies dat de smokkelkeet die op 50 meter van de grens stond, niet op de weg lag naar het huis van de beklaagde. Bij de keet waren nog andere personen aanwezig, die alle richtingen opkeken. Commies Bakker zegt dat het vet wel degelijk voor uitvoer bestemd was, maar dat beklaagde wachtte op een geschikte gelegenheid. De uitspraak volgt een week later op 28 maart 1916. Deze keer komt hij ervan af met een straf van 14 dagen.

http://www.radstok.eu/page29.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 maart 1917 - Gouverneur-generaal Moritz von Bissing kondigt de volledige bestuurlijke scheiding van Vlaanderen en Wallonië af.

Op 25 oktober 1916 was reeds een eerste stap in die richting gezet door de splitsing van het ministerie van kunsten en wetenschappen. Geleidelijk worden alle departementen administratief gesplitst, althans op papier. De Duitse bezetter, beducht voor bestuurlijke chaos, remt de uitvoering herhaaldelijk af. Voor de activisten is het de gedroomde gelegenheid om een goed betaalde baan bij de overheid te bemachtigen. Dikwijls komen ze in de plaats van gedeporteerde ambtenaren die de maatregel hadden bekritiseerd. Dit alles is weinig heilzaam voor het imago van het activisme. De regering in Le Havre vaardigt op 8 april een besluitwet uit die medewerking aan de "vervorming van de instellingen" door de vijand strafbaar maakt.

http://users.telenet.be/frankie.schram/tijd/feit/tekst/19/1/7/1917.03.21.html
Zie ook http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activisme_(Vlaanderen)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hospitaalschip

Een hospitaalschip van de Amerikaanse marineEen hospitaalschip is een drijvend hospitaal, meestal een voormalig passagiersschip, dat tijdens oorlogen op zee, werd opgevorderd door de marine om gewonden te laten verzorgen en herstellen tijdens de overtocht. (...)

Het eerste Engelse hospitaalschip dat getorpedeerd werd, was de Asturias, op 21 maart 1917. Er waren geen patiënten aan boord, maar 43 man van de bemanning en de staf verdronken.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospitaalschip
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grain Growers Guide, 21 maart 1917

http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/GGG/1917/03/21/48/Ad04800.html
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HANSARD → 21 March 1918 → Commons Sitting → GERMAN OFFENSIVE.

STATEMENT BY MR. BONAR LAW.

Mr. McKENNA May I intervene for a moment to ask whether my right hon. Friend has any statement to make with regard to the Front?

Mr. BONAR LAW As I have no doubt is known to many hon. Members of the House, an Infantry attack was launched by the Germans this morning upon our front. The attack covers almost the whole of the front from the Scarpe to the Oise — a front of something over 50 miles. This, I may tell the House, is an attack on a larger scale than any that has been made at any stage of the War on any part of the front. We have not yet received any information which enables us to give the House any indication whatever as to what the result of this attack is. We know that on part of that front our outpost troops, where the line was very lightly held, have with drawn to the battle zone. That was exactly not only what was expected, but what instructions were in the event of such an attack. Perhaps some hon. Members may recall that in discussing the military situation a week or so ago I pointed out that it was certain that if an attack of this kind did take place the attacking party would gain a certain amount of ground. Our information so far does not lead us to suppose anything beyond that has happened. I am sure of this, that, with the knowledge beforehand of what has happened in every similar attack on either side, the House and the country will not be unnecessarily alarmed by information of that kind. I should like also to say that there is absolutely nothing in the nature of surprise in connection with what has happened. Our Staff and the Versailles Council have naturally been considering what would happen in the event of an attack taking place, and I may tell the House that this attack has been launched on the very part of our line which we were informed would be attacked by the enemy if an attack were undertaken at all. I may say, also, that only three days ago we received in formation at the Cabinet from Head quarters in France that they had now definitely come to the conclusion that an attack was going to be launched immediately. I am sorry, as the House will understand, that in regard to an event, the importance of which we all realise, it is impossible for me to give any information whatever as to what the result is; but I do feel justified in saying that, as it has not come as a surprise, and as those responsible for our Forces have foreseen and have throughout believed that, if such an attack came, we should be well able to meet it, nothing that has happened gives us in this country any cause whatever for additional anxiety.

Lees vooral verder op http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/mar/21/statement-by-mr-bonar-law
(De oude post met dode link vervangen door een nieuwe post, 20180321)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

US Railway Control Act, 21 March 1918

Reproduced below are the relevant portions of the Railway Control Act of 21 March 1918, under which the U.S. government (as represented by President Woodrow Wilson) took over control of the U.S. railway system for the duration of the war to aid troop and material transportation.

Railway Control Act, March 21, 1918

An Act To provide for the operation of transportation systems while under Federal control, for the just compensation of their owners, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted ..., That the President, having in time of war taken over the possession, use, control, and operation (called herein Federal control) of certain railroads and systems of transportation (called herein carriers), is hereby authorized to agree with and to guarantee to any such carrier making operating returns to the Interstate Commerce Commission, that during the period of such Federal control it shall receive as just compensation an annual sum, payable from time to time in reasonable instalments, for each year and pro rata for any fractional year of such Federal control, not exceeding a sum equivalent as nearly as may be to its average annual railway operating income for the three years ended... [June 30, 1917].

That any railway operating income accruing during the period of Federal control in excess of such just compensation shall remain the property of the United States... The average annual railway operating income shall be ascertained by the Interstate Commerce Commission and certified by it to the President.

Its certificate shall, for the purpose of such agreement, be taken as conclusive of the amount of such average annual railway operating income...

Every such agreement shall also contain adequate and appropriate provisions for the maintenance, repair, renewals, and depreciation of the property, for the creation of any reserves or reserve funds found necessary in connection therewith, and for such accounting and adjustments of charges and payments, both during and at the end of Federal control as may be requisite in order that the property of each carrier may be returned to it in substantially as good repair and in substantially as complete equipment as it was in at the beginning of Federal control, and also that the United States may, by deductions from the just compensations or by other proper means and charges, be reimbursed for the cost of any additions, repairs, renewals, and betterments to such property not justly chargeable to the United States...

The President is further authorized in such agreement to make all other reasonable provisions, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act or of the ... [Army Appropriation Act of August 29, 1916] ... that he may deem necessary or proper for such Federal control or for the determination of the mutual rights and obligations of the parties to the agreement arising from or out of such Federal control.

If the President shall find that the condition of any carrier was during all or a substantial portion of the period of three years ended ... [June 30, 1917] ..., because of non-operation, receivership, or where recent expenditures for additions or improvements or equipment were not fully reflected in the operating railway income of said three years or a substantial portion thereof, or because of any undeveloped or abnormal conditions, so exceptional as to make the basis of earnings hereinabove provided for plainly inequitable as a fair measure of just compensation, then the President may make with the carrier such agreement for such amount as just compensation as under the circumstances of the particular case he shall find just.

That every railroad not owned, controlled, or operated by another carrier company, and which has heretofore competed for traffic with a railroad or railroads of which the President has taken possession, use, and control, or which connects with such railroads and is engaged as a common carrier in general transportation, shall be held and considered as within "Federal control," as herein defined, and necessary for the prosecution of the war, and shall be entitled to the benefit of all the provisions of this Act: Provided, however, That nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as including any street or interurban electric railway which has as its principal source of operating revenue urban, suburban, or interurban passenger traffic, or sale of power, heat and light, or both...

Section 2
That if no agreement is made, or pending the execution of an agreement, the President may nevertheless pay to any carrier while under Federal control an annual amount, payable in reasonable instalments, not exceeding ninety per centum of the estimated annual amount of just compensation, remitting such carrier, in case where no agreement is made, to its legal rights for any balance claimed to the remedies provided in section three hereof.

Any amount thereafter found due such carrier above the amount paid shall bear interest at the rate of six per centum per annum...

Section 3
That all claims for just compensation not adjusted (as provided in section one) shall, on the application of the President or of any carrier, be submitted to boards, each consisting of three referees to be appointed by the Interstate Commerce Commission, members of which and the official force thereof being eligible for service on such boards without additional compensation...

The President is authorized to enter into an agreement with such carrier for just compensation upon a basis not in excess of that reported by such boards and may include therein provisions similar to those authorized under section one.

Failing such agreement, either the United States or such carrier may file a petition in the Court of Claims for the purpose of determining the amount of such just compensation, and in the proceedings in said court the report of said referees shall be prima facie evidence of the amount of just compensation and of the facts therein stated.

Proceedings in the Court of Claims under this section shall be given precedence and expedited in every practicable way.

Section 4
That the just compensation that may be determined as hereinbefore provided by agreement or that may be adjudicated by the Court of Claims, shall be increased by an amount reckoned at a reasonable rate per centum to be fixed by the President upon the cost of any additions and betterments, less retirements, and upon the cost of road extensions to the property of such carrier made by such carrier with the approval of or by order of the President while such property is under Federal control.

Section 5
That no carrier while under Federal control shall, without the prior approval of the President, declare or pay any dividend in excess of its regular rate of dividends during the three years ended ... [June 30, 1917] ...: Provided, however, That such carriers as have paid no regular dividends or no dividends during said period may, with the prior approval of the President, pay dividends at such rate as the President may determine.

Section 6
That the sum of $500,000,000 is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, which, together with any funds available from any operating income of said carriers, may be used by the President as a revolving fund for the purpose of paying the expenses of the Federal control, and so far as necessary the amount of just compensation, and to provide terminals, motive power, cars, and other necessary equipment, such terminals, motive power, cars, and equipment to be used and accounted for as the President may direct and to be disposed of as Congress may hereafter by law provide.

The President may also make or order any carrier to make any additions, betterments, or road extensions, and to provide terminals, motive power, cars, and other equipment necessary or desirable for war purposes or in the public interest on or in connection with the property of any carrier.

He may from said revolving fund advance to such carrier all or any part of the expense of such additions, betterments, or road extensions, and to provide terminals, motive power, cars, and other necessary equipment so ordered and constructed by such carrier or by the President, such advances to be charged against such carrier and to bear interest at such rate and be payable on such terms as may be determined by the President, to the end that the United States may be fully reimbursed for any sums so advanced.

Any loss claimed by any carrier by reason of any such additions, betterments, or road extensions so ordered and constructed may be determined by agreement between the President and such carrier; failing such agreement the amount of such loss shall be ascertained as provided in section three hereof.

From said revolving fund the President may expend such an amount as he may deem necessary or desirable for the utilization and operation of canals, or for the purchase, construction, or utilization and operation of boats, barges, tugs, and other transportation facilities on the inland, canal, and coastwise waterways, and may in the operation and use of such facilities create or employ such agencies and enter into such contracts and agreements as he shall deem in the public interest.

Section 7
That for the purpose of providing funds requisite for maturing obligations or for other legal and proper expenditures, or for reorganizing railroads in receivership, carriers may, during the period of Federal control, issue such bonds, notes, equipment trust certificates, stock, and other forms of securities, secured or unsecured by mortgage, as the President may first approve as consistent with the public interest.

The President may, out of the revolving fund created by this Act, purchase for the United States all or any part of such securities at prices not exceeding par, and may sell such securities whenever in his judgment it is desirable at prices not less than the cost thereof.

Section 8
That the President may execute any of the powers herein and heretofore granted him with relation to Federal control through such agencies as he may determine, and may fix the reasonable compensation for the performance of services in connection therewith, and may avail himself of the advice, assistance, and cooperation of the Interstate Commerce Commission and of the members and employees thereof, and may also call upon any department, commission, or board of the Government for such services as he may deem expedient.

But no such official or employee of the United States shall receive any additional compensation for such services except as now permitted by law.

Section 10
That during the period of Federal control, whenever in his opinion the public interest requires, the President may initiate rates, fares, charges, classifications, regulations, and practices by filing the same with the Interstate Commerce Commission, which said rates, fares, charges, classifications, regulations, and practices shall not be suspended by the commission pending final determination.

Said rates, fares, charges, classifications, regulations, and practices shall be reasonable and just and shall take effect at such time and upon such notice as he may direct, but the Interstate Commerce Commission shall, upon complaint, enter upon a hearing concerning the justness and reasonableness of so much of any order of the President as establishes or changes any rate, fare, charge, classification, regulation, or practice of any carrier under Federal control...

In determining any question concerning any such rates, fares, charges, classifications, regulations, or practices or changes therein, the Interstate Commerce Commission shall give due consideration to the fact that the transportation systems are being operated under a unified and coordinated national control and not in competition.

After full hearing the commission may make such findings and orders as are authorized by the Act to regulate commerce as amended, and said findings and orders shall be enforced as provided in said Act...

Section 12
That moneys and other property derived from the operation of the carriers during Federal control are hereby declared to be the property of the United States.

Unless otherwise directed by the President, such moneys shall not be covered into the Treasury, but such moneys and property shall remain in the custody of the same officers, and the accounting thereof shall be in the same manner and form as before Federal control.

Disbursements therefrom shall, without further appropriation, be made in the same manner as before Federal control and for such purposes as under the Interstate Commerce Commission classification of accounts in force on ... [December 27, 1917] ... are chargeable to operating expenses or to railway tax accruals and for such other purposes in connection with Federal control as the President may direct...

Section 14
That the Federal control of railroads and transportation systems herein and heretofore provided for shall continue for and during the period of the war and for a reasonable time hereafter, which shall not exceed one year and nine months next following the date of the proclamation by the President of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty of peace- Provided, however, That the President may, prior to ... [July 1, 1918] ... relinquish control of all or any part of any railroad or system of transportation, further Federal control of which the President shall deem not needful or desirable; and the President may at any time during the period of Federal control agree with the owners thereof to relinquish all or any part of any railroad or system of transportation.

The President may relinquish all railroads and systems of transportation under Federal control at any time he shall deem such action needful or desirable. No right to compensation shall accrue to such owners from and after the date of relinquishment for the property so relinquished.

Section 15
That nothing in this Act shall be construed to amend, repeal, impair, or affect the existing laws or powers of the States in relation to taxation or the lawful police regulations of the several States, except wherein such laws, powers, or regulations may affect the transportation of troops, war materials, Government supplies, or the issue of stocks and bonds.

Section 16
That this Act is expressly declared to be emergency legislation enacted to meet conditions growing out of war; and nothing herein is to be construed as expressing or prejudicing the future policy of the Federal Government concerning the ownership, control, or regulation of carriers or the method or basis of the capitalization thereof.

Approved, March 21, 1918

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/railwaycontrolact.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Kaisers Battle, Operation Michael, France, 21st March 1918 by David Pentland

http://www.military-art.com/mall/more.php?ProdID=13650
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LEVENSBESCHRIJVING PATER EMMANUEL ROBIAL

(...) De oorlog breekt uit en Emmanuël moet zich op 3 augustus voegen bij de 4de sectie van verplegers en op de22ste gaat hij op eigen verzoek naar het front in de plaats van een vader met een gezin. Hij neemt deel aan de veldslagen in de Champagne. In augustus 1915 wordt hij brancardier, een gevaarlijke post, want hij moet gewonden in de linies gaan halen. Waar hij kan staat hij stervenden bij. Hij brengt het tot korporaal-verpleger en is daarbij vrijwillig aalmoezenier van het 103ste infanterie tot in juni 1918. Hij ontsnapt aan heel wat gevaren. Op 21 maart 1918 echter wordt hij vergiftigd door gas en evacueert. Op 17 april ontvangt hij de Engelse militaire medaille. Op 21 mei keert hij terug aan het front in Vlaanderen bij Mont Kemmel. Als hij de kans heeft, bezoekt hij de Trappisten van de Katsberg daar in de buurt. Tijdens zo’n bezoek wordt de abdij gebombardeerd en op koelbloedige wijze steekt hij een reddende hand toe. Een tweede keer wordt hij het slachtoffer van een gasaanval en hoeft daarna niet meer terug naar het front. (...)

http://www.mgrschraven.nl/PDF/Gezellen/Robial,%20Emmanuel,%20biografie.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aanleiding en ontstaan van de Nederlandse helm NM (nieuw model)

Ook het neutraal gebleven Nederland gaat nu snel zijn krijgsmacht demobiliseren. Per slot
bestonden in 1918 Land- en Zeemacht uit ± 500.000 man en de zorgen waren dus legio.
Ondanks grote financiële problemen en wat dies meer zij, had onze legerleiding toch nog kans
gezien in ruim 3 jaar tijd het leger, dat praktisch in 1914 geheel in het traditionele
donkerblauw was gekleed, in modern veldgrijs uit te rusten, om over allerlei bijkomende
uitrustingsstukken, die nu eenmaal noodzakelijk zijn bij moderne oorlogsvoering maar niet te
spreken.
Bij deze tenuerenovaties behoorden ook stalen helmen en die kwamen als de M.16 het geheel
completeren. Men was er werkelijk vroeg bij! Door materiaalschaarste en slechte kwaliteit der
grondstoffen - de toenmalige fabrikanten treft geen schuld - werden van dit type helm grote
partijen van goede en minder goede kwaliteit afgeleverd. Al vrij snel na de demobilisatie van
het dienstplichtig en reservepersoneel van de Koninklijke Landmacht in 1918 en 1919 werden
de werkzaamheden, die verband hielden met de helmenproblemen aktief voortgezet.
In het schrijven van de directeur van de Munitiefabriek (De Hembrug) van 21 maart 1919 aan
`Den Heer Opperbevelhebber van Land- en Zeemacht' wordt voor de eerste maal gewag
gemaakt van de plannen om tot een ander model helm te komen. Men was niet tevreden met
de vorm van het huidige type, de M 16.

Munitiefabriek 21 Maart 1919
ad 986A
STALEN HELMEN
Uit uw schrijven dd. 19 Maart jl. Afd. G. S. No 2481 Meenen wij te moeten opmaken, dat
overwogen wordt niet over te gaan tot annuleeren der aan de firma VAN HEYST gegeven
opdracht, wat was voorgesteld in ons bericht van 7 februari jl. Afd. M.F. No 536 A. en wat
blijkbaar aanvankelyk ook door het Departement van oorlog gewenscht werd (zie o.a.
Aanschr. Departement van Oorlog dd 12 Februari jl. IV de Afd. No 143).
De oorspronkelyk aan de Firma VAN HEYST gegeven opdracht houdt als eisch in, dat het
materiaal moet bevatten 1 % koolstof en 11 % mangaan; de trekvaardigheid minstens 60 KG
per mm2 en de rekking minstens 1 % moet bedragen.
Voorts is daarin bepaald, dat de helm bestand moet zyn tegen revolverschoten van het
Legermodel op 6 M. afstand. Na het treffen mogen geen gaten of scheuren worden
waargenomen. De helm mag verder niet scheuren wanneer krachtige slagen met een
gescherpte klewang. daarop worden toegebracht.
Wy teekenen hierby nog aan, dat de eisch betreffende samenstelling van het materiaal
zoomede de cyfers van de trekvastheid en rekking vrywel overeenkomen met hetgeen
gevonden werd by het onderzoek der Engelsche helmen, welke helmen voorts geheel
voldeden aan de gestelde schietproef en slagproef. Van alle helmsoorten die hier ter
onderzoek worden gezonden voldeden alleen de Engelsche en de Duitsche helmen geheel aan
die proeven.
De Hollandsche helmen zyn niet van kwaliteitsstaal gemaakt en voldoen ook niet in alle
opzichten aan de schiet -en slagproef.
De Fransche en de Zweedsche helmen hadden nog minder weerstand.
Een later ter onderzoek ontvangen Zwitsersche helm voldeed ook vrywel aan de proeven
vorenbedoeld. In ons aan u gericht schrijven van 7 juni 1918 No 483 Geheim wordt
daaromtrent vermeld:
`De Zwitsersche helm nadert wat weerstand tegen het revolverschot op 6 M. en tegen
Klewangslagen betreft de eigenschappen van de Duitsche en Engelsche helmen die hier in
dertyd onderzocht werden en staat slechts weinig by deze achter'.
Omtrent het materiaal dezer helmen werd u nader bericht by ons schrijven van 13 juli 1918,
No 3418 A.
Ten einde Uwe vraag te kunnen beantwoorden of de 50000 oorspronkelijk by de firma VAN
HEYST op genoemde voorwaarden besteld, zullen voldoen aan de eischen, welke daaraan
gesteld moeten worden, is het voor ons nodig te weten welke de eischen zyn dan wel of de
door ons by de bestelling gemaakte voorwaarden voldoende geacht worden.
Verder ryst de vraag of het model, waarnaar de firma VAN HEYST de helmen afleverde, het
meest gewenscht wordt geacht dan wel of de voorkeur gegeven wordt aan een ander model
(Het Engelsche wykt enigszins, het Duitsche wykt zeer sterk af van dat van den Hollandsche
helm; dit laatste werd door het Departement van Oorlog vastgesteld) .
Wij teekenen nog aan dat een eenigszins meerdere preciseering van de samenstelling van het
materiaal (waarin dus ook het percentage der verdere bymengselen is vastgelegd) op den prys
van de helmen vermoedelyk wel geen invloed zal hebben. Wel zal modelwyziging, speciaal
wanneer tot een model als het Duitsche mocht worden overgegaan, prijsverhoging ten gevolge
hebben, zowel wegens het meerdere materiaal wat er voor noodig is als wegens de hoogere
fabricagekosten etc, etc . . .


http://www.collectie.legermuseum.nl/sites/strategion/contents/i004548/arma14%20nederlandse%20legerhelmen%20deel%20ii.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Mrt 2011 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'Ovens Vale', Myrtleford, Victoria, 21 Mar 1919

Men, women and children walking across long grass away from the train they have just exited. The train had been chartered for a clearing sale at 'Happy Valley' homestead. The steam locomotive has drawn up beside a small wooden building, which is possibly a goods shed.

http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/795785/negative-ovens-vale-myrtleford-victoria-21-mar-1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2013 23:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dit knappe artikel van Paul nog eens onder de aandacht brengen op deze dag, 21 Maart. 95 jaar geleden ontketenden de Duitsers hun voorjaarsoffensief, Operatie Michael: http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=492&highlight=operatie+michael+1918

Gr P
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 8:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HOW 21 MARCH 1918 BECAME THE SECOND WORST DAY IN BRITISH MILITARY HISTORY

This March marks 100 years since the German Spring Offensive. Codenamed Operation Michael, the first day of the attack saw the second worst day of losses in British military history with more than 38,000 casualties. The Commission commemorates more than 8,000 who died in France during the first day of the operation, which is depicted in a new film adaption of RC Sherriff’s play Journey’s End. Ahead of the film’s release this week, here is more about the offensive and CWGC sites where those killed are commemorated.

Lee zeker verder op https://www.cwgc.org/learn/news-and-events/news/2018/01/31/10/00/how-21-march-1918-became-the-second-worst-day-in-british-military-history
Echt een ongelooflijke hoeveelheid sites noemt de datum in samengaan met Operation Michael en of Spring Offensive. Zoek op '21 march 1918' en onderga het...
Dit is een mooie kaartensite: https://www.themaparchive.com/operation-michael-21-march4-april-1918.html
En nog even deze vreemde PDF onder de aandacht brengen: http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/media/1620/end-of-war-teacher-sheets-for-colour-printing.pdf. Hoe onthoud je de naam 'FOCH'? Zo dus: Face Of Considerable Hairiness... schater
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 9:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Healdton

The American oil tanker SS Healdton, bound from Philadelphia to Rotterdam, is sunk without warning by a German submarine in the North Sea, despite being inside the safe channel established by Germany for neutral ships. 21 of the 41 crew die.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/21-march-1917/
Hier een uitgebreid verhaal: http://www.aukevisser.nl/inter/id753.htm
Hier een foto: http://www.aukevisser.nl/inter/id737.htm
Hier de huidige positie van het schip: https://wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?13201
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 9:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 March 1917 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange

The Leader reports that Ernest Harold Goode of Millthorpe has been killed in action in France.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/21-march-1917/

In voornoemd plaatselijk sufferdje, de Leader, van woensdag 21 maart 1917 staat het volgende:

LOCAL SOLDIER KILLED.
Word came to hand on Monday
night that Pte. E. Goode had been kill-
ed in action in France, on February
25. Pte. Goode left Australia with
two other Millthorpe boys, Bert Reid
(who returned home about a week
ago, and is now in the Base Hospital.,
Randwick) and Pte. V. Bennett, who is
in one of the hospitals in England.
Pte. Goode first was wounded about
six months ago. Much sympathy is
felt for Mr. and Mrs. Goode and fam-
ily.

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/117824044/13052231
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 11:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mirjam @ 21 Mrt 2018 11:39 schreef:
Over de Kaiserschlacht die vandaag 100 jaar geleden, 21 maart 1918 begon: Kaiser's Battle 100: https://twitter.com/KaisersBattle
Er wordt zeer gedetailleerd getwitterd over wat er met wie, welke eenheid, waar gebeurde. Aanrader!

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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 13:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 March 1916 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: Jersey Contingent’s first loss since arriving in France

Sad news reached the Island this week about the death of Second Lieutenant Laurence Hibbs while serving with the Jersey Contingent in France. He is the first member of the Contingent to die since its arrival at the front three months ago.

Hibbs, a former Victoria College pupil who previously served in Militia’s 3rd (South) Battalion, was a popular member of the unit. It seems that the 21-year-old fell ill a short while ago and was taken to a military hospital at the village of Lapugnoy where the Contingent is presently training. There his condition worsened, despite the efforts of specialists who diagnosed possible blood poisoning. On 21 March, the young man sadly passed away.

The death came as a great shock to the rest of the Contingent, who until now had avoided losing any members killed while serving in the trenches. The affection with which they held Lieutenant Hibbs was obvious from his funeral which the whole Contingent attended. The Contingent’s commanding officer, Major Stocker, has written to the Lieutenant’s father, James Hibbs, to say that his son has been laid to rest in a military cemetery overlooking Lapugnoy.

Foto op https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/21-march-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 13:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

March 1916 Fires - March 21, 1916: Paris, Texas
By Paul Hashagen

Around 5:30 p.m., flames broke out near the storage warehouse of S.J. Long at the foot of South 18th Street adjoining the Texas and Pacific Railway tracks at the southwest city limits. Before it was discovered, the flames had spread to a cotton compress and ignited hundreds of stored bales. Driven by gale-force winds, the fire was soon out of control. In less than two hours, 30 blocks of business and residential properties were in flames. Firefighters of the small paid department battled both the flames and low water pressure as the fire continued growing. The water supply came from a storage tank six miles to the west and was delivered to town by an electric pump. The town’s electric power plant was destroyed early in the fire, but word never reached the water supply engineer to start the emergency pumps. In town, firefighters laid hoselines but were unable to develop adequate streams to halt the flames.

By 9:30 p.m., the fire was still raging northward as mutual-aid companies began to arrive. A hose wagon from Hugo, Oklahoma, arrived by rail; later, an auto-driven pumper from Bonham, Texas, arrived. At 10:00 p.m., a pumper and hose wagon from Cooper, Texas, arrived. A large pumper and hose wagon from Dallas arrived by train around 1:00 a.m. the next morning. These units and most of the men living in the town worked together on the eastern edge of the fire with some success.

The fire was finally stopped the following day at 4:00 a.m.; 1,440 buildings were destroyed, including the Federal Building, the post office, the Lamar County Court House and jail, several churches, and City Hall. It was estimated that 8,000 people were homeless and two women lost their lives.

Ongelooflijk wat er te vinden is op het wereldwijde web... http://www.firerescuemagazine.com/articles/print/volume-11/issue-3/firefighting-operations/march-1916-fires.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 13:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from John Burns to Lady Clonbrock, 21 March 1916

For The Lady Clonbrock. Madam, received your parcel of Bread and also the fortnightly ones in very good condition last week. I hope Your Ladyship & His Lordship are well as I am quite well myself. The weather here is very warm not like March at all. I now conclude thanking you in Anticipation. I remain Your Obedient Servant John Burns.

Uit een 'Kriegsgefangenenlager' in 'Limburg (an der Lahn)' in 1916. Orginelen hier te zien: http://letters1916.maynoothuniversity.ie/diyhistory/items/show/278
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Mrt 2018 13:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bezet Brussel 14-18: Verordening in drie talen, 21 maart 1915

http://www.14-18.bruxelles.be/index.php/nl/aanplakbiljetten/1915/175-maart/1781-21-march-1915
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