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De Anzac landing te Gallipoli 25 april 1915

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:27    Onderwerp: De Anzac landing te Gallipoli 25 april 1915 Reageer met quote



Plan van de eigenlijke landing



Plan van de doelen voor de landing op de eerste dag - rode lijn - en het werkelijke veroverde terrein - groen lijn.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac beach, 4th Bn landing


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac cove


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac Cove


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac Cove hedentendage


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australiers in Lone Pine trench op 6 augustus 1915, veroverd op de Turkse troepen.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maori graffiti te Gallipoli


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 16:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

North Beach


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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Sep 2007 17:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

het is daar toch eventjes anders uitgedraaid dan ze hadden verwacht he regulus 1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Sep 2007 17:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Gallipolicampaign 1915-1916:




The term 'Gallipoli' refers to the attempts by the French, British and Commonwealth forces during 1915 and 1916 to force the Dardanelles and constitutes one of the most interesting (if not controversial) operations in World War One. It was one of the first ever major amphibious operations in modern warfare and used aircraft (as well as an aircraft carrier), aerial reconnaissance, landing craft, radio communications, artificial harbours and submarines. Its lessons were far reaching, and were remembered long after the event in such campaigns as the Normandy Landings in 1944 and the Falklands Conflict of 1982.
The initial attempt to force the straits was made in February and March 1915, and was purely a naval affair. It was instigated at the insistence of the First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill after asking the opinion of Vice-Admiral Sackville Carden. The first attack was made on 19 February with twelve capital ships (the French ships Bouvet, Charlemagne, Gaulois and Suffren; the British ships HMS Queen Elizabeth, Agamemnon, Inflexible, Vengeance, Albion, Cornwallis, Irresistible and Triumph) and while initial operations were successful, bad weather halted the expedition. Vice-Admiral John de Robeck commenced a second attack on the 25 February, and managed to overpower the main batteries. Landing parties were put ashore at Kum Kale and Sedd-el-Bahr and disabled the remaining guns. The mobile batteries could not be so easily put out of action though and thwarted the attempt to clear the minefields by minesweepers. The third and final naval assault was made on 18 March with eighteen capital ships (two in reserve) formed in three waves. The first and second waves met with success but as the third wave advanced and the second started to withdraw, they ran into an unexpected minefield. This resulted in Bouvet, Inflexible, Irreststible and Ocean hitting mines, all but Inflexible sinking. The attack was called off, despite being close to success. After this, the two senior commanders in the Mediterranean, de Robeck and General Sir Ian Hamilton decided on a land campaign, "which Kitchener could never quite decide whether to support fully or not." (Travers, 1994, p. 223)
Hamilton prepared his four divisions for the assault, only one of which, the 29th was a regular formation. The landings took place on the 25 April 1915 with the Turks, under the command of Liman von Sanders, a German, being deceived with feint assaults by the Royal Naval Division at Bulair and the French at Besika Bay. The landings showed imagination however and may well have succeeded early on, but for a combination of mediocre leadership, the shortage of time for preparation, the geography and terrain in the peninsula with its few beaches and constraints on logistic support. Unfortunately, the "British Army was too rigidly structured . . . to attempt amphibious operations" and it was "the antiquated command structure that impeded progress." (Travers, 1994, p. 223) The British advance crucially lost momentum, and the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) landing on the western coast between Gaba Tepe and Ari Burnu ('Anzac Cove') met with stiff resistance from the Turkish 2nd Division commanded by Colonel Mustapha Kemal (Atatürk) and almost got thrown back into the sea.
Between May and July, the French and British slowly advanced up the peninsula while the Anzacs clung to their small perimeter, inflicting massive losses on sustained Turkish attacks.
In August, a change of heart in London brought Hamilton reinforcements with which he prepared another ambitious offensive. The assault would be conducted in three parts. The first involved two columns from Anzac Cove (after it was reinforced with some 20,000 British and Gurkha troops) making their way through a relatively undefended route (reconnoitred by a New Zealander, Overton) to attack the key position (Chunuk Bair) in the Sari Bair mountains. The second involved the 1st Australian Division attacking the supposedly impregnable Lone Pine position and the third would be the amphibious operation with IX Corps, under General Stopford, at Suvla Bay, on the night of the 6 - 7 August. The Australian assault on Lone Pine succeeded due to careful and imaginative planning. The two columns came very close to succeeding in their missions but the right column suffered delays due to exhaustion and so missed the opportunity to initially take Chunuk Bair but managed to take it with the help of the remainder of the left column, who, after being badly mauled by artillery fire, failed to take Hill Q. They were subsequently thrown off Chunuk Bair by a near suicidal charge led by Kemel. The great gamble had failed. The landings at Suvla were conducted successfully, but the British forces were slow to exploit this and after they had finally started moving, attacked the Turkish forces defending the Suvla Plain on the 21 August from which they could not be dislodged. Hamilton was recalled and his replacement Monro, advised evacuation, which was eventually agreed. Churchill resigned and went to the Western Front. The evacuations were organised and conducted in a real show of brilliance, first of Anzac-Suvla and then of Helles in December and January, with not a man being lost, under the noses of the Germans and Turks who had nothing but admiration for their conduct. The campaign had cost the Allies some 46,000 killed (26,000 British) and the Turks, over 200,000. One cannot help but wonder about what might-have-been, with the narrowness between victory and defeat being an extremely slim one.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2007 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 - Allied landings at Gallipoli

Soon after World War I erupted in August 1914, Turkey and Germany signed an agreement giving German forces control over the Dardanelles, the narrow strait between the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. Together, the Germans and Turks built formidable defensive works. The Germans added to the minefields that Turks had already laid, generating a defensive belt consisting of more than 300 mines arrayed in ten lines across the narrowest part of the Dardanelles. These minefields were defended by outer, intermediate, and inner shore-based fortifications, which in turn were reinforced with mobile artillery batteries, searchlights, and land-based torpedo tubes.

Looking for a quick and decisive operation in an otherwise static war, the British War Cabinet in 1915 ordered the Royal Navy to force the Dardanelles without any sort of land-based support. The move was designed to assist Russia and help that country maintain an active second front against Germany. Opening the Dardanelles also would free shipping trapped in the Black Sea, restore sea lines of communication to southern Russia, and allow grain shipments to pass from Russia's wheat fields to Great Britain.

The first, purely naval attempt to pass through the Dardanelles occurred on 18 March. The Turkish coastal defenses and minefields repelled this foray, inflicting heavy damage on the Allied task force. Rear Admiral John de Robeck, commander of the combined French-British fleet, subsequently decided that the Dardanelles could not be forced without land-based support.

The Allies subsequently scraped together a Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, consisting of British, Australian, New Zealand, and French troops, and placed them under the command of General Sir Ian Hamilton. This force was to land on the narrow, rugged, 45-mile long Gallipoli peninsula that flanked the eastern side of the Dardanelles. They were then to clear the Turkish defenses on the Kilid Bahr plateau that dominated the narrowest part of the waterway.

To accomplish this, Hamilton decided to put his force ashore at the southern tip of the Gallipoli peninsula, on or near Cape Helles. In doing so, he eschewed the options of landing on the Asian side of the strait or at the base of the peninsula, which would have cut off any Turkish units farther to the south. Hamilton's reasons for discarding these options were based upon somewhat sketchy intelligence on Turkish ground dispositions, the concerns of naval commanders, and his instructions from his superiors.
Hamilton's plan involved an amphibious landing by the British 29th Division on five beaches at Cape Helles, a decision driven by a lack of beach space and a shortage of ship-to-shore lift. Half the division would go ashore in the first wave, seizing the beaches and acting as a covering force through which the second half of the division would pass. The second wave's objective was six miles inland - the 800-foot high hill Achi Baba that would serve as a stepping-stone to Turkish positions on the Kilid Bahr plateau.

Meanwhile, the 1st Australian Division and the Australian and New Zealand Division, which together comprised the Anzac Corps - would go ashore on a single beach 13 miles to the north of Cape Helles, near Gaba Tepe. One Australian brigade would land first to defend the northern flank of the beachhead, while the remaining troops would push inland toward another high point, Mal Tepe. After seizing that terrain, the Anzac forces would join the 29th Division in a two-pronged drive on the Kilid Bahr plateau.

Hamilton also planned to keep the Turks guessing about his specific plans by having the Royal Naval Division conduct a feint off the Bulair isthmus at the head of the Gallipoli peninsula. Elements of the French Division would also go ashore temporarily at Kum Kale on the Asian side of the strait. They would eliminate Turkish defenses that could interfere with the main assault and possibly deceive Turk and German commanders as to Hamilton's main objective.

In addition to his operational planning challenges, Hamilton was likewise confronted with the host of practical problems associated with amphibious operations. His troops had little or no training in making even simple, "administrative" landings, and the Gallipoli assaults promised to be more dangerous and complex. Even worse, while at the jumping-off point at Mudros Bay on the Aegean island of Lemnos, Hamilton discovered that his force's transports were haphazardly loaded. Moreover, there was not enough room at Mudros to reload them properly - Hamilton had to send the entire force to Alexandria, Egypt where a proper loading and some additional training could be accomplished.

When Allied force again sailed for the Dardanelles in April 1915, the situation ashore was even more daunting than it had been in March. The three-week Allied hiatus in Alexandria gave the Turkish 5th Army and its German commander, General Otto Liman von Sanders, the opportunity to collect intelligence and improve the Dardanelles defenses. Emphasizing a mobile defense, von Sanders placed two regiments near likely landing points at the southern end of the peninsula, and a third in a position from which it could rapidly reinforce the other two. A full division was placed near Mal Tepe, and additional troops were dug in near Bulair. Turkish troops also manned heavily fortified positions overlooking likely landing sites.

The Initial Landings

Nevertheless, the more than 300 ships of the Allied amphibious task force arrived off Gallipoli on the morning of 25 April 1915, and the landing began shortly after daybreak. Allied troops disembarked from their transports into ships' cutters and lifeboats, none of which were designed for amphibious assaults. Steam picket boats towed these craft part of the way toward their assigned beaches, then cut them loose. From there, the boat crews would have to row their craft ashore.

At Cape Helles, the landing force achieved mixed results. Two battalions from the 29th Division made flanking landings at "Y' beach on the western side of Cape Helles and "S" beach inside the Dardanelles. Both were designed to cover the main landing beaches farther south on the cape, and to potentially threaten the lines of communication of their Turkish defenders. Both flank landings encountered little or no resistance. However, neither unit exploited its initial success - both commanders decided to remain immobile due to their uncertainty over what course of action they should take and an overestimation of the strength of local Turkish defenders.

On "Y" beach, no communications passed between the battalion and higher echelons, so the former had no idea of events occurring on the southern beaches and the division commander remained unaware of the opportunity that the undefended beach presented. By mid-afternoon, Turkish reinforcements deployed and initiated a series of attacks on the isolated unit, all of which were repulsed. The next morning, as they watched boats evacuating their wounded comrades, British troops believed that their unit was abandoning the beachhead and began an unauthorized withdrawal, climbing into the boats as well. Unable to stop this panicky flight, British commanders ordered the remaining troops to be taken off the beach by late morning.

As for the main landings, only the assault at "X" beach - also on the western side of Cape Helles - went essentially as planned. A well-executed naval bombardment prevented any interference from a small, isolated Turkish position. Heavy fighting did ensue when British troops moved inland and encountered local Turkish reserves, but the beachhead was consolidated by late morning.

The situation was much different on the other main landing beaches. On "W," Turkish defenders opened fire as the first boatloads of Lancashire Fusiliers rowed close to the beach. Suffering heavy casualties, the British troops were nevertheless able to establish themselves ashore and after hard fighting take the Turkish trenches on the cliffs above the beach.

The main landing site at "V" Beach was the scene of the heaviest British casualties, and the point where the success of the initial landings was most in doubt. Turkish fire ravaged British troops in open boats. It also caused severe casualties among the 1st Royal Munster Fusiliers who approached the beach in the converted steamer River Clyde. This ship was designed to run aground and the discharge troops sheltering in its hold through large hatches cut in its sides. From these hatches, men would, in theory, run down gangways suspended from the side of the ship onto causeways. River Clyde towed the causeway sections, and when the ship grounded, inertia was to carry them to the ship's bow, where they would be lashed together and form a platform from the ship to the shore.

Unfortunately, the ship grounded gently, and the causeway did not function as anticipated. Troops trying to manhandle them into place were exposed to enemy raking fire, which caused severe casualties. Almost half of the Fusiliers were trapped on board the steamer; those who did make it ashore took shelter behind an earthen bank and could not move.
Turkish fire stymied any movement inland as well as any attempt to reinforce the survivors on the beach. At one point, Hamilton considered an evacuation of the remaining troops. However, the bloodied British forces held until nightfall when firing died down and the rest of the troops sheltering on board River Clyde could make it ashore. Fighting resumed the next day, but 29th Division troops were able to seize their first-day objectives and establish a continuous line between the separate landing beaches.

On the 28th, Hamilton was able to send French Division reinforcements - including troops who had made the temporary landing on the Asian side of the strait - to "V" beach.

Farther to the north, plans for the Anzac beach envisioned a surprise landing at dawn - a naval bombardment would only commence once troops were ashore. A brigade would land and secure the beach for a subsequent landing of two additional divisions. The initial wave from the brigade would deploy into boats from the decks of three British battleships. As at Cape Helles, steam launches would tow the boats of the first wave most of the way to shore. The second wave of boats would launch from seven destroyers in shallow water just off the beach.

On the morning of 25 April, however, the crews of the steam launches did not have a clear idea where the landing beaches were. That led to the first troops coming ashore under fire almost a mile north of its designated beach, into a confined area later referred to as Anzac Cove. The second wave followed shortly thereafter, and confusion reigned. Anzac forces managed to push their way inland through the Turkish defenses and rugged terrain, with some eventually reaching high ground overlooking the cove. Before they could proceed farther, however, Turkish forces under Mustapha Kemal (who as Kemal Ataturk later became the first president of newly created Republic of Turkey) launched a vigorous counterattack. Despite being outnumbered, Kemal's forces pushed the surprised and exhausted Anzac troops back upon their beachhead. At one point, Hamilton was forced to consider whether he would have to evacuate these forces as well, but the Anzac forces dug in and held on.
By the end of 26 April, Hamilton's forces had consolidated their beachheads, but they were far their ultimate objective of clearing Turkish defenses from the Kilid Bahr plateau. Their containment of the Allied landings gave the Turks time to bring reserves forward from farther north on the peninsula and from Turkey's Asian territory. Hamilton's forces felt the presence of these reserves when they tried unsuccessfully to break out of their encircled Cape Helles beachheads on 27 April. After this effort, the next three months witnessed a series of heavy but ultimately inconclusive attacks by both sides.

The summer of 1915 also saw the Allies and Turks rushing available reinforcements to Gallipoli. Turkish forces had the advantage in this race, despite the lack of good roads on the peninsula. For their part, fresh British troops entering the theater by sea first had to sail to Alexandria, and then move by convoy to Mudros harbor, where they debarked into smaller craft that could take them to the beachheads. This process usually took two weeks or longer. Later, British commanders were able to alleviate this situation to a degree by packing troops onto the converted ocean liners Mauretania and Aquitania, which steamed from Britain directly to Mudros. With top speeds of 25 knots, these fast transports were almost immune to the torpedo attacks by German U-boats that threatened slower ships.

Initial Allied losses and the failure to break out of the beachheads occurred despite the naval surface fire support available to Hamilton and his forces. Potentially devastating fires from supporting the Allied battleships the landings were hampered by obsolete fire control systems and shortages of high-explosive ammunition. Forward observers did not have the means to rapidly pass target data to offshore warships, which affected the timeliness and effectiveness of fire support from all the Royal Navy ships. In addition, the relatively flat trajectories of naval ordnance made it difficult to strike Turkish targets on the reverse slope of the high ridgelines and hills that ran the length of the Gallipoli peninsula.

Nevertheless, Allied targeting and fire support did improve in the weeks and months following the April landings. Hamilton's men practiced and perfected a system of spotting by aircraft and kite balloons, which led to more effective counterbattery fire against Turkish artillery. The nature of the Gallipoli battlefield, one marked by static positions, also gave naval gunners time to zero in on and deliver flanking fires on Turkish positions and strike their lines of communication. When the Turks turned to night attacks to avoid naval fires, Royal Navy warship illuminated the battlefield with searchlights.

Initially, the main source of fire support for Hamilton's force was French and British battleships and cruisers. However, when the German submarine U-21 sank two Royal Navy battleships in May, most heavy fleet units and transports withdrew from the amphibious operating area. Light cruisers, monitors, and destroyers took over fire-support duties, and troops and cargo bound for Gallipoli were shipped to Mudros, where they were placed on board destroyers and other small craft for the last leg of their voyage. Actual runs to the beach usually occurred at night to escape Turkish shelling.


The Suvla Bay Gambit

By mid-August, the Allies were ready to try another amphibious landing to break the stalemate on the peninsula. Units from the five-division IX Corps were to land at Suvla Bay, to the north of the Anzac beach, on 6 August 1915. Their immediate assignment was to capture Koja Chemen Tepe, the highest point on the Sari Bari ridge that dominated Anzac Cove. The landing - which would occur on two beaches - took place in conjunction with an attempted breakout attack from the Anzac beachhead. However, this attack would not be easy - von Sanders now had 12 divisions and corps artillery and other assets at his disposal.

The landing plans at Suvla Bay incorporated many of the lessons learned in April. Instead of going ashore in exposed ships' boats, troops traveled in armored lighters, known as “beetles". Also, coordination between ground and naval forces would be vastly improved. Surface fires from cruisers, destroyers, and monitors were integrated into the ground scheme of maneuver. Rapid-fire guns on cruisers and destroyers blanketed the flanks of any British unit on the move. These ships also provided on-call counter-battery support, while monitors fired on more distant targets.

Even with these improvements, however, the actual Suvla Bay landings had mixed results. The ship-to-shore movement went smoothly on the northern beach near Nibrunesi Point. Royal Navy destroyers ferried troops and towed beetles to a point off the landing beach. Troops embarked upon the lighters, which then made their run to shore, guided by picket boats. The beetles then returned to the destroyers for another load. The entire Nibruseni force, including artillery and horses, went ashore in slightly more than five hours and suffered no casualties. The landing did not go as smoothly on the Suvla Bay beaches. These landing sites had not been well-surveyed and lighter crews were unfamiliar with them. The first wave from the British 11th Division went ashore on the wrong beach and lighters grounded offshore. Attempts to correct the problem only led to more confusion and delays. Lack of logistics support - and in particular the movement of fresh water ashore - soon became a serious problem.

Nevertheless, the situation stabilized, and British division commanders found themselves opposed by no more than three lightly entrenched Turkish battalions. However, the commander of IX Corps, Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Stopford, was hypercautious. Moreover, he never gave his division commanders a clear appreciation of the reason for the operation or the importance of speed in reaching their objectives. Consequently, British troops moved slowly and without resolute direction while Turkish reinforcements moved into the area from the north.
During the next two weeks, Turkish forces repelled the breakout attack from the Anzac beach, occupied the high ground around Suvla Bay, and effectively contained British attempts to break out from their encirclement. The British were able to effect a link-up between the two bridgeheads, but only at great cost in casualties. Moreover, their position was still shallow and subject to a near-constant Turkish harassing fire. Stopford and several division commanders were relieved, but it was too late - the Allies had again lost the initiative. Hamilton was also relieved of command in October.

After several more fruitless frontal attacks on Turkish defenses around Suvla Bay, a stalemate prevailed once more on the peninsula. Allied forces continued to endure constant Turkish shelling and sniping, as well as shortages of artillery shells and weapons such as grenades and mortars that were critical to the kind of trench warfare they had been facing since April. Supplies of fresh food and drinking water were also difficult to come by. Both sides dealt with heavy casualties, many of them caused by disease - the percentage of Allied sick at times reached almost 50 percent. Dysentery ran rampant, and the stench of rotting corpses permeated the static battlefield.

Finally, the British and French governments agreed that the expedition should come to an end. The Royal Navy began to evacuate the landing force from Suvla and Anzac Cove in December. The operation, which removed more than 83,000 men from the beachhead, was a masterpiece of planning and deception. The Royal Navy began taking off the troops at Cape Helles in early January 1916; the last man left "W" beach on 8 January.

From a strategic and operational-level perspective, the Gallipoli landings were an abject failure. However, they did hold many lessons about amphibious warfare that would be applied in later operations conducted by the British, the Japanese, and the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps.


A landing party approaching the shore at Gallipoli. 1915

Landing at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli. 25 April 1915

British troops landing at Suvla Bay Turkey. 1915

http://www.cc.gatech.edu/fac/Thomas.Pilsch/history.html



Shells have ripped this allied transport into junk and annihilated the drivers
Picture made at Cape Helles, the most southern point of the peninsula of Gallipoli
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Sep 2007 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


ANZAC troops charging on Gallipoli


Turkish troops assaulting from their trenches on Gallipoli
The Turks stood under command of the German fieldmarshall Liman von Sanders and pasja Mustafa Kemal, who later became 'Atatürk' and the first president of Turkey


Kings Own Scottish Borderers over the top at Gallipoli


ANZAC troops in trenches scoping out the lie of the land at Gallipoli


ANZAC soldier carrying a wounded comrade on Gallipoli


Evacuation of wounded troops from Anzac Cove, Gallipoli

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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Sep 2007 10:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Prachtige Topic Regulus met uitstekend fotowerk . groeten Rik
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Kleine Vuurkruiser



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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Sep 2007 10:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mooi topic,

met dank aan Regulus en Typhoon.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Sep 2007 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dardanelles and Gallipoli 1914-1918




1914

AUGUST 1914

The presence of German battlecruiser "Goeben" and light cruiser "Breslau" in the Mediterranean even before war is declared, leads to a series of encounters and actions. Their escape from the Royal Navy is an embarrassment, but far more significant are the strategic results. Of direct consequence, Turkey is brought into the war on the side of the Central Powers, which in turn leads to the Allied Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns with their aim of capturing Constantinople and knocking Turkey out of the war in one fell swoop. Some historians suggest that the failure to do so and thus supply Russia through the Black Sea, was a contributory cause of the Russian Revolution and the following 70 years of Communist domination of Russia and then Eastern Europe. On these terms, Gallipoli can not be considered an irresponsible sideshow! Rather a brilliant concept which failed.

After reaching Turkish waters, the two German ships are nominally transferred to the Turks as the battlecruiser "Yawuz Sultan Selim" and light cruiser "Midilli". Adding considerably to the strength of the poorly-equipped Turkish Navy, they spend much of the war operating in the Black Sea manned by their German crews and under the command of Adm Souchon, who is appointed Chief of the Turkish Fleet.

SEPTEMBER 1914

Rear-Adm S H Carden, Superintendent of Malta Dockyard takes command of the squadron off the Dardanelles with the duty of sinking "Goeben" and "Breslau" should they break out into the Aegean. Instead, with Gen von Sanders, German Adm Souchon concentrates his energies on helping to bring Turkey into the war on the side of Germany. As the Turkish Naval commander he prepares to attack the Russian Fleet in the Black Sea.

OCTOBER 1914

Turkey Enters the War - Under German influence, Turkey enters the war on the 29th on the side of the Central Powers. Not until early November do the Allies formally respond. Britain prepares to defend the Suez Canal and oil supplies in the Persian Gulf from Turkish attack.

NOVEMBER 1914

Allied Bombardment of the Dardanelles - With Turkey's entry into the war, but before Britain's own declaration, the Admiralty decides to match naval guns against the outer forts of the Dardanelles on the 3rd. Under Adm Carden's command, battlecruisers "Indefatigable" and "Indomitable" and French pre-dreadnoughts "Suffren" and "Verité" shell the forts of Sedd-el-Bahr and Kum Kale at the northern and southern tips, respectively of the entrance to the Straits. The limited success persuades the British that warships can defeat the shore batteries, but also provides the Turks with ample warning of the need to strengthen the defences further.

DECEMBER 1914

13th December - Turkish armoured ship "MESUDIYE" (1876, 9,200t, 12-15.2cm secondary only). In the face of strong currents, minefields, coastal batteries, and patrols, the small, old British submarine "B-11" (Lt Holbrook), makes the first penetration of the Dardanelles reaching almost as far as Chanak, 15 miles in. The ancient "Mesudiye" moored as a stationery guard ship, is sighted and sunk with one 18in torpedo. Under fire, "B-11" returns and safely reaches the open sea. * The VICTORIA CROSS is awarded to Lt Norman Holbrook RN

1915

JANUARY 1915

Turkey - With the Russian armies under pressure in the Caucasus, an appeal is made to the Allies to attack the Turks and take them off balance. With both Winston Churchill and Adm Fisher at the Admiralty favouring an "eccentric strategy" to defeat the Central Powers (although Fisher prefers the Baltic), Adm Carden in the Eastern Mediterranean is asked to assess the possibility of forcing the Dardanelles with ships alone, before going on to Constantinople and hopefully forcing Turkey out of the war.

Allies prepare to attack the Dardanelles - The Dardanelles, through to the Sea of Marmara is a narrow, winding passage flanked on the north by the Gallipoli peninsula. Cape Helles and Sedd-el-Bahr lay at the northern entrance in European Turkey and Orkanieh and Kum Kale to the south on the Asiatic side. Ten miles in is Kephez Bay, a further five finds Chanak where the Narrows, just one mile wide at this point start. Five more miles leads to Nagara - all these named places being on the Asiatic side. The straits are heavily defended by a 100 guns up to 14in calibre although many of these and the fortifications themselves are obsolescent. Leading up to the Narrows are minefields protected by covering guns and searchlights, torpedo tubes and anti-submarine nets. The Turks under Gen von Sanders have been strengthening the defences since the first Allied bombardment in November.

Adm Carden's view is that given enough battleships, a month would probably suffice to knock out the entrance and then the inner forts up to Kephez Point, destroy the guns around the Narrows and then clear the minefields through to the Narrows. Late in the month, the British War Council agrees to an attack going ahead in February with the aim of taking the Gallipoli peninsula and capturing Constantinople. Adm Fisher allocates the brand-new, 15in-gunned "Queen Elizabeth" to the enterprise, but his support wavers. Churchill's views prevail because success would have such a major impact on the course of the war, but an operation that needs careful planning, just grows

15th January - French submarine "SAPHIR" (1910, 390/425t, 6-45cm tt). The first Allied, and French attempt to break through the Dardanelles to the Sea of Marmara fails when "Saphir" is sunk off Nagara in the Narrows. Some sources report she ran aground, others that she was mined. She is the first of four French boats lost in the Dardanelles in 1915

FEBRUARY 1915

Start of Naval Attack on the Dardanelles - Adm Carden's fleet now includes super-dreadnought "Queen Elizabeth", battlecruiser "Inflexible", 12 pre-dreadnoughts (including "Irresistible" and "Vengeance") and four French pre-dreadnoughts (Vice-Adm Guéprette), together with other ships based at Mudros on the island of Lemnos which is occupied by the Royal Marines. The opening bombardment starts around 10.00 on the 19th with "Inflexible", "Albion", "Cornwallis", "Triumph" and the French "Bouvet" and "Suffren" firing on the entrance forts, but to little effect. Bad weather prevents operations until the 25th, when shell hits are made on the forts around Cape Helles and Orkanieh. By the end of the month, the outer defences have been virtually destroyed with the aid of demolition parties landed from the ships.

Amongst these is a party of marines and sailors led by Lt-Cdr Eric Robinson, ship's officer, HMS "Vengeance", which goes ashore at Kum Kale in the afternoon of the 26th under the cover of "Irresistible" and "Vengeance" and supporting cruisers. Under heavy fire, Robinson holds back his own men, and goes on to destroy two guns in the vicinity and another one at Orkanieh. With this exploit and later sorties into the Dardanelles, including the one which successfully torpedoes the stranded submarine "E-15" in April, he is gazetted for the Victoria Cross in August 1915.

Following the loss of the first British seaplane carrier, the converted old cruiser "Hermes" in the North Sea, HMS "Ark Royal" built on a mercantile hull, was commissioned and now arrives off the Dardanelles with six seaplanes to spot for the bombarding battleships. Being slow and vulnerable to the U-boats that later arrive off the Dardanelles, she is withdrawn to Mudros in May.

MARCH 1915

2nd-18th - Main Naval Attacks on the Dardanelles - Bombardments on the 2nd and 3rd are indecisive with the battleships being hindered by mobile gun batteries. Another start is made on knocking out the Narrow's defences on the 5th. But even the big-gunned "Queen Elizabeth" is not up to this task, hampered as she is by ineffective spotting aircraft. Even more importantly, the minesweeping trawlers with their untrained fisherman crews are unable to clear the minefields, even at night because of the enemy searchlights.

By the 10th, Adm Carden is reporting failure, but is ordered by Churchill and Fisher to press ahead with the attacks on the Narrows. He does so, but the minesweeping fails to make any progress and he resigns, to be succeeded on the 15th by Rear-Adm John de Robeck, his second-in-command. The 18th is now set for the major attack and by 11.30 on that date, "Queen Elizabeth", "Inflexible", "Agamemnon" and "Lord Nelson" are six miles inside the Dardanelles bombarding the forts at the Narrows, with "Majestic" and "Prince George" to the north and "Swiftsure" and "Triumph" to the south taking on the mobile guns. By noon the latter appear to have been silenced, although "Inflexible" and "Agamemnon" are lightly damaged in the process. Now the four French battleships close the Narrows to nearly do the same for the guns there, but at a cost of damage to battleship "Gaulois", beached on Rabbit Island.

It is now the turn of six British battleships to move further in, when the first major disaster occurs. Around 14.00, as she retires, the French battleship "BOUVET" (1898, 12,200t, 2-30.5cm) is either mined or hit by a heavy shell in a magazine and sinks with most of her crew. The British trawlers are ordered to clear the minefields, but even worse is to come in the area around Eren Keui Bay on the Asiatic side, where "Bouvet" sunk. Here, some 20 mines were laid by the 365t minelayer "Nusret" in a position believed by the Allies to have been cleared. Just after 16.00, battlecruiser "Inflexible" (Capt Phillimore) hits a mine, is badly flooded with 29 men killed, but reaches Tenedos before going on to Malta for repairs. Four minutes later, the battleship "IRRESISTIBLE" (1902, 14,500t, 4-12in) commanded by Capt Dent has to be abandoned for the same reason and sinks three hours later. Adm de Robeck now orders the ships to withdraw, but too late to save the already shellfire-damaged battleship "OCEAN" (1900, 13,150t, 4-12in). She strikes another mine around 18.00 and founders during the night.

In a matter of hours, of the 16 Allied capital ships taking part, three have been sunk and three heavily damaged (including the French battleship "Suffren") in exchange for a few Turkish guns, although the minefields still remain the main obstacle to progress. Now de Robeck organizes a more effective minesweeping force using destroyers. But since the 15th, the War Council has been considering using troops. Lord Kitchener agrees to release the Australian and New Zealand (ANZAC) Corps, and the Naval and 29th Divisions, which together with French troops, provides a force of 80,000 men which assembles on Lemnos under Gen Sir Ian Hamilton.

Adm de Robeck accepts that ships alone cannot break through and the Navy ends its attempts in an endeavour that might have succeeded. By the 18th the Turkish defenders were badly demoralized and nearly out of ammunition. But now the Allies are committed to the Gallipoli landings, although the troops will not be ready until the 25th April. This gives the Turks time to recover and prepare.
* Royal Navy BATTLE HONOUR is awarded to all the warships taking part in the Dardanelles campaign - Dardanelles 1915-1916.

APRIL 1915



17th-19th April - Destruction of British submarine "E-15" - A second Allied submarine attempts to break through the Dardanelles to the Sea of Marmara. Early in the morning of the 17th, after leaving Mudros, "E-15" (1914, 670/810t, 5-18in tt, 1-12pdr, Lt Cdr T S Brodie) runs aground some ten miles in, under Kephaz Point. Fired on and disabled, Cdr Brodie and members of the crew are killed. Various attempts are now made to destroy "E-15". Submarine "B-6", with Cdr Brodie's brother on board, tries to sink her by torpedo, but misses. Later, during the night, destroyers "Grampus" and "Scorpion" (commanded by the future Adm A B Cunningham of World War 2 Mediterranean Fleet fame), attempt to find her, but fail.

Next morning, on the 18th, it is the turn of Lt-Cdr Holbrook VC in "B-11", but he too is unable to locate "E-15". Now battleships "Triumph" and "Majestic" try to ensure the submarine's destruction with heavy guns. Sailing into the Straits in the afternoon, they come under intense fire, and fail to secure any hits. In the meantime, seaplanes have carried out their own attempts. Finally, on the night of the 18th/19th, one picket boat each from "Triumph" and "Majestic", both armed with two 14in torpedoes go in. Lt Cdr Robinson in "Triumph's" boat is in command of the expedition; Lt Godwin commands "Majestic's". Approaching "E-15", "Majestic's" boat is sunk by gunfire, but still manages to hit and destroy the stricken submarine before going down. Lt Cdr Robinson rescues the crew and heads for safety in the surviving picket boat. * The VICTORIA CROSS is awarded to Lt-Cdr Eric Robinson RN for this and other exploits in the Dardanelles.

25th April - Allied Landings at Gallipoli - By now, an Allied Fleet including 18 battleships and 12 cruisers is ready to land the first 30,000 troops. They go ashore at V, W, X and Y beaches around Cape Helles at the southwest tip of Gallipoli and further north near Gaba Tepe (later known as Anzac Cove) on the 25th, mainly using ships boats. But the Turks are in prepared positions, ready with a new Fifth Army of 80,000 under German Gen von Sanders. The landings are partly successful, but none of the main objectives are reached - neither the town of Krithia and heights of Achi Baba from the Cape Helles area, nor across the narrow neck of Gallipoli to reach the Dardanelles from Anzac Cove. Here the ANZAC's are stopped by a Turkish division commanded by Mustapha Kemal (later Kemal Ataturk, the father of modern Turkey).

The campaign drags on for 8 months, with the Allies never gaining more than a foothold. The beachheads are swept by fire from the surrounding heights, Allies and Turks attack frequently, but in every case with heavy casualties for few gains. Then in the summer, disease strikes to add to those killed in the fighting. Thus the main outflanking operation of the war bogs down into trench warfare little different from that on the Western Front. And in supporting the Allies, the Royal Navy loses three battleships in May.

On V Beach, still on the 25th, as the battleship "Albion" bombards, the ex-collier "River Clyde" attempts to land 2,000 men of the 29th Division across three lighters and a grounded dredging hopper. The pontoon bridge is put in place, when the Turks open heavy fire. After three hours, only 200 men have reached the shore, with many more left dead and wounded. The main body only succeeds with the coming of nightfall, but what little success there was in daylight was mainly due to the "River Clyde's" men. They position the lighters and hopper, securing and holding them as the troops land. Cdr Unwin, the commanding officer of the "River Clyde", who also commissioned her, even stands in the water holding lines, and although himself wounded, later rescues other wounded from shore by boat. Midshipman Drewry, who commands the hopper is also wounded, but carries on, later to be taken over by Midshipman Malleson. Other heroes of the hour include AB Williams who remains in the water, holding the pontoon fast until killed, and Seaman Samson, working on the lighters all day before being badly wounded.

Members of the Royal Naval Division also distinguish themselves. Sub-Lt Tisdall, Platoon Commander, Anson Btn, waiting to land from the "River Clyde" and serve with the army, goes ashore to help Cdr Unwin bring back the wounded. He lands next day, to be killed himself at Achi Baba on the 6th May. Also ashore at Anzac Cove on the 28th is L/Cpl Parker RMLI, Portsmuth Btn to relieve Australian troops near Gaba Tepe, and close to Turkish positions. On the night of the 30th, he volunteers to take ammunition and supplies to isolated trenches. Several are killed or wounded in the attempt, and Parker alone succeeds, to then give first aid. Later he is seriously wounded.

+ The VICTORIA CROSS is awarded to Cdr Edward Unwin RN, Midshipman George Drewry RNR, Midshipman Wilfred Malleson RN, AB William Williams, Seaman George Samson RNR, Sub-Lt Arthur Tisdall RNVR, and L/Cpl Walter Parker RMLI.

30th April - Australian submarine "AE-2" (1914, 655/800t, 4-18in tt, 1-12pdr), Lt Cdr Stoker. Heading into the Dardanelles early on the 25th, the "E" class "AE-2" is the first boat to break through into the Sea of Marmora, torpedoing a Turkish gunboat in the Narrows on the way. Then on the 30th near Marmora Island and dived, she loses trim and surfaces wildly near a torpedo boat. Unable to stay down, she is holed in the pressure hull by three shells from the enemy warship - the "Sultan Hissar" and has to be scuttled. By now, Lt-Cdr Boyle's "E-14" has also got through.

MAY 1915

Gallipoli - Heavy and intermittent fighting continues in Gallipoli through to July and then August, when further landings are made.

British Submarine Successes - Royal Navy submarines win two more VC's for their commanders in the Dardanelles campaign, in a month which also sees the loss of one French submarine and three British battleships. Starting out on the 27th April, Lt-Cdr Boyle in "E-14" reaches the Sea of Marmara for a successful three weeks patrol that hinders the reinforcement of Turkish forces in Gallipoli. Accounts somewhat vary on his successes which include a claimed torpedo gunboat sunk on the way in. What is certain is that in the Sea of Marmara, Boyle sinks an escorted transport, small gunboat "Nur ul Bahir", and an ex-White Star liner carrying troops for Gallipoli, before he rejoins the fleet on the 18th May. Then after his failure to break through to the Baltic in 1914, Lt-Cdr Naismith in "E-11" now reaches the Sea of Marmara. Leaving on the 19th May, his orders are "to run amuck", which he does, sinking some eight ships including a transport laying alongside the capital of Constantinople. He safely returns in early June, and makes two more equally successful patrols beyond the Dardanelles later in 1915. + The VICTORIA CROSS is awarded to Lt-Cdr Edward Boyle RN and Lt-Cdr Martin Naismith RN.

1st May - French submarine "JOULE" (1913, 400/550t, 1-45cm tt, 6 torpedo collars/cradles) tries to break through the Dardanelles defenses, but hits a mine in the Narrows, and is lost with all her crew.

13th-27th May - Three British Battleships Lost - On the night of the 12th/13th, the old British battleship "GOLIATH" (1900, 13,200t, 4-12in) is at anchor off Cape Helles, providing close gunfire support for the Allied troops deadlocked on Gallipoli. The German-manned, Turkish torpedo boat "Muavenet" (or "Muavenet-I-Miliet") torpedoes and sends her to the bottom with over 500 seamen.

The first German U-boat to sail into the Mediterranean is now in the Aegean. Lt-Cdr Hersing in "U-21" left Germany in late April, reaching Cattaro in mid-May. A week later, he headed on for the Dardanelles and the Allied ships laying off Gallipoli, the larger ones protected by net defences against expected submarine attack. On the 25th, he torpedoes British pre-dreadnought "TRIUMPH" (1904, 12,000t, 4-10in) while she is firing her guns in support off Gabe Tepe, midway between Suvla Bay and Cape Helles. She capsizes in a short time with the loss of some 70 men.

Two days later, on the 27th, Hersing catches the old British battleship "MAJESTIC" (1895, 14,800t, 4-12in) in the same area and role as "Triumph", and torpedoes her twice. She turns over and sinks within seven minutes, but casualties are not heavy. "U-21" later passes through the Dardanelles and reaches Constantinople in early June. She is joined in the Mediterranean by smaller "UB" and "UC" boats which travel overland to Pola for erection, while larger U-boats later sail directly to the Mediterranean to add to the few Austrian submarines.

JUNE 1915

JULY 1915

27th July - French submarine "MARIOTTE" (1913, 530t, 4-45cm tt, 2 drop collars). Yet another Allied submarine is sunk trying to break through the Dardanelles to the Sea of Marmara. The "Mariotte" is trapped in the Turkish net defences off Chanak in the Narrows, forced to surface and scuttled after being shelled by shore batteries.

AUGUST 1915

Landings at Suvla Bay, Gallipoli - Gen Hamilton with three more Allied Divisions, tries to outflank the Turks on Gallipoli with further landings on the 6th. These take place just to the north of Anzac Cove and the ANZAC forces, at Suvla Bay, with the aim of reaching Sair Bair. In the face of the Turkish Fifth Army, now 13 divisions strong, the attempt fails.

8th August - Turkish pre-dreadnought "HAYREDDIN BARBAROSSA" (1893, 10,000t, 6-28cm). Returning to the Sea of Marmara for the second time, British submarine "E-11" (Lt-Cdr Naismith VC) accounts for numerous vessels including a gunboat during the month. Then on the 8th, off Bulair on the Gallipoli Peninsula, he torpedoes and sinks the ex-German pre-dreadnought "Hayreddin Barbarossa" on its way to support the Turkish land defences.

RNAS aircraft torpedo attacks - A new form of warfare appeared on the 12th, when a Short 184 seaplane piloted by Flt Cdr Edmonds and flying from the converted fast packet "Ben-my-Chree" off the Gallipoli coast, hits a beached Turkish merchantman (recently torpedoed by Boyle's "E-14") in the Sea of Marmara with a 14in torpedo. In a similar attack five days later, a transport may have been sunk. This is the first use of torpedoes dropped from aircraft.

SEPTEMBER 1915

5th September - British submarine "E-7" (1914, 655t, 4tt, 1-12pdr). Another Allied submarine is lost to the Dardanelles defences. Heading from Mudros on the 4th for another patrol in the Sea of Marmara, "E-7" (Lt Cdr Cochrane) is trapped in A/S nets at Nagara and shaken by exploding mines. Next day on the 5th and still enmeshed, the boat is reportedly damaged by charges lowered from a rowing boat by Lt Cdr Heimburg, commander of the recently-arrived German "UB-14" and his cook! The British boat reaches the surface to be scuttled by Cdr Cochrane.

OCTOBER 1915

30th October - French submarine "TURQUOISE" (c1910, 390t, 6-45cm tt, 1-37mm). The first French submarine to pass through the Dardanelles and reach the Sea of Marmara runs aground on the 30th. She may have been hit by Turkish shore batteries (accounts differ). "Turquoise" is captured intact and incorporated into the Turkish Navy as "Mustadieh Ombashi", but never re-commissioned. Papers found on board allow the Germans to ambush "E-20" which broke through at the same time.

31st October - British destroyer "LOUIS" (1913, c1000t, 3-4in, 4tt) in a support role, is wrecked off Gallipoli in Suvla Bay and destroyed by Turkish gunfire.

NOVEMBER 1915

Gallipoli Campaign - Lord Kitchener visits Gallipoli. Allied casualties now total at least 250,000 including 50,000 killed, and the French are also pressing for a campaign on the Macedonian front from Salonika. The decision is taken to evacuate

5th November - British submarine "E-20" (1915, 670t, 5tt, 1-12pdr), Lt Cdr Warren. With information gleaned from the captured French submarine "Turquoise", the German "UB-14" (Lt-Cdr Heimburg) waits for and hits "E-20" with a single torpedo in the Sea of Marmara. Only nine men including the C.O. are picked up after the British boat explodes. (Some sources credit the sinking to "UB-15", which after assembly at Pola, had been temporarily commanded by Heimburg before transfer to the Austrian Navy. "UB-15" stayed in the Adriatic.)

DECEMBER 1915

3rd December - Turkish destroyer "YARHISAR" (c1907, 280t, 1-65mm, 2tt). On his third and last patrol in the Sea of Marmara, Lt-Cdr Naismith in "E-11" adds to his already considerable score of Turkish vessels sunk and disabled. On the 3rd, he torpedoes and sinks the "Yarhisar" in the Gulf of Ismit.

British submarine Operations - Coming to the end of their operations in the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmara, claims for Turkish ships sunk by British submarines to the end of 1915 include one old battleship and an armoured ship, six small warships, 16 transports and around 200 small steamers and sailing vessels, although some of these were beached and salved. In exchange, three British and one Australian "E" class boats have been lost, plus four French.

Evacuation of Gallipoli - The Royal Navy completes the evacuation of the British and ANZAC forces from the northern beachheads around Anzac Cove and Suvla on the 19th, all without loss. Three weeks later, it is the turn of the men on the Cape Helles beaches at the tip of Gallipoli.

1916

JANUARY 1916

Final Evacuation of Gallipoli - By the 9th, the last Allied troops have been withdrawn from the Cape Helles beaches. Again, as three weeks earlier, without loss.

The evacuations are the most successful part of a campaign which has proved a great defeat for Britain. Of the half a million Allied troops involved, half have become casualties of battle and disease; the same figures applying to the Turks. The attempt to force the Dardanelles and take Constantinople is abandoned.

TWO YEARS LATER

1918

JANUARY 1918

20th January - Last Sortie of the "Goeben" and "Breslau" - Adm Souchon, Turkish-German Navy C-in-C returns to Germany, and his successor, Vice Adm Rebeur-Paschwitz aims to draw Allied ships away from the Palestine coast with a sortie in the Dardanelles area by "Goeben" and "Breslau", sailing from Constantinople on the 19th. By now the British Aegean Squadron under Rear Adm Hayes-Sadler is down to the two battleships "Lord Nelson" and "Agamemnon", one old French battleship, some light cruisers and destroyers, and a few monitors. He also expects the Germans to give warning of any sortie by first clearing some of the extensive minefields off Sedd-el-Bahr. Instead, apart from advanced aircraft reconnaissance, the German ships largely ignore the minefields, and sails out past Cape Helles early on the 20th. "Goeben" is slightly damaged by a mine on the way, but the two ships head for the island of Imbros. There, just before 0800 hours in Kusu Bay, they surprise and sink British monitors "LORD RAGLAN" (1915, 6,150t, 2-14in), Cdr Viscount Broome, with the loss of 127 men, & "M-28" (1915, 540t, 1-9.2in) with gunfire. Warnings are wirelessed to the Allied ships at Mudros on the island of Lemnos, but Adm Hayes-Sadler is in Salonika on board "Lord Nelson", and the old French battleship is in dock. That only leaves battleship "Agamemnon" and light cruisers "Foresight", "Lowestoft" and "Skirmisher" at Mudros, which immediately raise steam. Adm Hayes-Sadler also sails from Salonika.

The Germans clear Imbros for Mudros, shadowed by British destroyers "Tigress" and "Lizard, but as they round Cape Kephalo at 0830, "Breslau" hits a mine. "Goeben" takes her in tow, but is herself mined. A few minutes later, disaster strikes - cruiser "BRESLAU" (1912, 4,570t, 12-10.5cm) detonates another four mines in rapid succession, and settles fast at around 0900 hours with most of her crew (40°05N, 26°02E). Leaving her, the larger German ship heads back for the Dardanelles, hitting a third mine, and then half way in, the listing "Goeben" runs hard aground at Nagara Point just before midday, still on the 20th.

She is soon attacked by British aircraft, including Sopwith Baby seaplanes from the "Ark Royal". A claimed 270 sorties are made, but the bombs that hit are too small to cause serious damage. The only British submarine "E-2" is unserviceable with a cracked propellor shaft and back in Malta. The "E-14" (Lt Cdr White), normally on patrol in the Otranto Straits, is therefore despatched from Corfu. On arrival, Cdr White is flown on his own air reconnaissance. Then,in spite of the greatly-increased defences including guns, searchlights, nets, minefields and patrols, he takes "E-14" through to Nagara Point on the 27th, unaware that "Goeben" had been towed off the day before by old Turkish battleship "Turgut Reis". Finding "Goeben" gone, White attacks a Turkish ship in the morning, but is damaged either by a premature torpedo explosion or depth charges dropped by a Turkish patrol boat. Brought to the surface, British submarine "E-14" (1914, 670/800t, 5-18in tt, 1-12pdr) is hit by shore batteries and sunk. Cdr White is hit and killed. With the "Goeben" largely out of action for the rest of the war, the German Mediterranean Division ceases to exist. She did however survive as the Turkish "Yawuz" through until 1960.

+ The VICTORIA CROSS is awarded posthumously to Lt Cdr Geoffrey White RN. "E-14" is the only Royal Navy warship in which two captains have won the VC.

Four Months later

MAY 1918

Threatened German naval breakout into the Aegean - On the 1st May, the Germans reach Sevastopol. Although by mid month, the more modern ships of the old Russian Black Sea Fleet have sailed, the Germans still manage to seize a large number of older and smaller ships. Fearing a breakout through the Dardanelles by the Germans and Turks, with or without the captured Russian ships, the Allied ships based at Mudros on the island of Lemnos are reinforced.

and a Final Six Months on .....

NOVEMBER 1918

Occupation of Turkey - On the 10th, as a large Allied Fleet prepares to sail into the Dardanelles, and pass Constantinople into the Black Sea, they are preceeded by the British destroyer "Shark" and French "Mangini". These are the first Allied ships to reach Constantinople. On the 12th, the main fleet, after extensive minesweeping, passes through the Dardanelles, and anchors off the Turkish capital on the 13th.


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