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18 november

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Nov 2006 6:55    Onderwerp: 18 november Reageer met quote

1916 : Battle of the Somme ends

On this day in 1916, British Commander in Chief Sir Douglas Haig calls a halt to his army’s offensive near the Somme River in northwestern France, ending the epic Battle of the Somme after more than four months of bloody conflict.


With the French under heavy siege at Verdun since February, the Somme offensive was Haig’s long-planned attempt to make an Allied breakthrough on the Western Front. After a full week of artillery bombardment, the offensive began in earnest on the morning of July 1, 1916, when soldiers from 11 British divisions emerged from their trenches near the Somme River in northwestern France and advanced toward the German front lines.


The initial advance was a disaster, as the six German divisions facing the advancing British mowed them down with their machine guns, killing or wounding some 60,000 men on the first day alone: the single heaviest day of casualties in British military history to that point. The failure of the advance was credited variously to the complete lack of surprise in the timing of the attack, incompetence on the part of Haig and the British command--namely, their failure to conceive that the Germans could build their trenches deep enough to protect their heavy weapons or bring them up so quickly once the artillery barrage had ended--and the inferior preparation of the British artillery, for which the infantry paid a heavy price.


Over the course of the next four-and-a-half months and no fewer than 90 attacks, the Allies were able to advance a total of only six miles in the Somme region, at the cost of 146,000 soldiers killed and over 200,000 more injured. On November 18, 1916, Haig finally called off the offensive, insisting in his official dispatch from the front that December that the Somme operation had achieved its objectives. "Verdun had been relieved; the main German forces had been held on the Western front; and the enemy's strength had been very considerably worn down. Any one of these three results is in itself sufficient to justify the Somme battle."


Despite its commander’s positive assessment, the Battle of the Somme would remain one of the most controversial operations of World War I. In the war’s aftermath, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, a nemesis of Haig’s, roundly condemned Haig’s offensive: "Over 400,000 of our men fell in this bullheaded fight and the slaughter amongst our young officers was appalling…Had it not been for the inexplicable stupidity of the Germans in provoking a quarrel with America and bringing that mighty people into the war against them just as they had succeeded in eliminating another powerful foe—Russia--the Somme would not have saved us from the inextricable stalemate."

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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Nov 2006 8:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 18. November 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT - ÖSTERREICHISCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Russische Kavallerie bei Pillkallen geschlagen -
Erfolge an der Front in Frankreich

Großes Hauptquartier, 18. November, vormittags.
Die Kämpfe in Westflandern dauern fort. Die Lage ist im wesentlichen unverändert.
Im Argonnenwalde wurde unser Angriff erfolgreich vorgetragen. Französische Angriffe südlich Verdun wurden abgewiesen , ein Angriff gegen unsere bei St. Mihiel auf das westliche Maasufer geschobenen Kräfte brach nach anfänglichem Erfolg gänzlich zusammen.
Unser Angriff südöstlich Cirey veranlaßte die Franzosen, einen Teil ihrer Stellungen aufzugeben. Schloß Chatillon wurde von unseren Truppen im Sturm genommen.
In Polen haben sich in der Gegend nördlich Lodz neue Kämpfe entsponnen, deren Entscheidung noch aussteht. Südöstlich Soldau wurde der Feind zum Rückzug auf Mlawa gezwungen. Auf dem äußersten Nordflügel ist starke russische Kavallerie am 16. und 17. geschlagen und über Pillkallen zurückgeworfen worden.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Kaiserlicher Dank an Hindenburg

Berlin, 18. November. (W. B.)
Ein gestern in Thorn ausgegebener Armeebefehl des Generalobersten von Hindenburg besagt: Seine Majestät haben auf meine gestrige telegraphische Meldung folgendes Allerhöchst geantwortet:

Generaloberst v. Hindenburg. Für den schon gestern und heute erreichten schönen Erfolg der von Ihnen geleiteten Operationen spende ich Ihnen in höchster Freude meinen kaiserlichen Dank. Auch Ihres Generalstabschefs und Ihrer anderen Mitarbeiter im Stabe gedenke ich mit höchster Anerkennung. Ihren braven, nie versagenden Truppen entbieten Sie ebenfalls meine Grüße und Dank für die unübertrefflichen Leistungen in Marsch und Gefecht. Meine besten Wünsche begleiten Sie für die kommenden Tage. Wilhelm, I. R.
Diese Allerhöchste Anerkennung soll uns ein Sporn sein, auch fernerhin unsere Pflicht zu tun.

Der Oberbefehlshaber im Osten,
v. Hindenburg. 2)


Erneute Beschießung von Libau durch die deutsche Flotte

Berlin, 19. November.
Am 17. November haben Teile unserer Ostseestreitkräfte die Einfahrten des Libauer Hafens durch versenkte Schiffe gesperrt und die militärisch wichtigen Anlagen beschossen. Torpedoboote, die in den Innenhafen eindrangen, stellten fest, daß feindliche Kriegsschiffe nicht im Hafen waren.

Der stellvertretende Chef des Admiralstab.
gez. Behnke.


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Neue große Schlacht in Russisch-Polen

Wien, 18. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Die Operationen der Verbündeten zwangen die russischen Hauptkräfte in Russisch-Polen zur Schlacht. die sich an der ganzen Front unter günstigen Bedingungen entwickelte. Eine unserer Kampfgruppen machte gestern über 3000 Gefangene. Gegenüber diesen großen Kämpfen hat das Vordringen russischer Kräfte gegen die Karpathen nur untergeordnete Bedeutung. Beim Debouchieren aus Grybow wurde starke Kavallerie durch überraschendes Feuer unserer Batterien zersprengt.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)


Englische Landungen im Persischen Golf

Konstantinopel, 18. November. (W. B.)
Der heutige Bericht des Hauptquartiers besagt: Auf den Kriegsschauplätzen werden die Kämpfe fortgesetzt. Unsere Truppen an der ägyptischen Grenze besetzten Kalat el Nachl, das 120 Kilometer jenseits der Grenze liegt, und hißten dort die türkische Fahne. Unsere Truppen, die durch Lasistan nach Rußland eindrangen, schlugen mit Gottes Hilfe die Russen nach heftigem Kampf und fügten dem Feinde große Verluste zu. Unsere Truppen machten 100 Gefangene und erbeuteten zwei Gebirgsgeschütze.

Konstantinopel, 18. November. (Priv.-Tel. Ctr. Frkst.)
Englische Truppen haben im Persischen Golf die kleine Insel Fao besetzt, auf der sich nur sechs Häuser befinden. Sie ist der Einlaufspunkt des englisch-indischen Kabels. Die Engländer haben das Kabel gehoben und die Verbindung nach Mesopotamien abgeschnitten.

Konstantinopel, 18. November. (Priv.-Tel. Ctr. Frkst.)
Die Engländer landeten in Kuweit 4000, auf den Bahrein-Inseln im Persischen Golf 6000 und in Bender-Buschir an der Südküste Persiens 5000 Mann indischer Truppen.
Das Athener Blatt "Embros" meldet die Ankunft portugiesischer Truppen in Alexandria zur Verteidigung des Suez-Kanals. 2)


Die türkische Armee

Wien, 18. November. (W. B.)
Die "Südslawische Korrespondenz" erhält von besonderer Seite folgende Mitteilungen aus Konstantinopel: Der militärische Aufmarsch der Türkei vollzog sich mit einer Vollkommenheit, wie vielleicht nie zuvor, da die türkische Heeresleitung diesmal über die nötige Zeit verfügte, um ihre Truppen in den vorgeschriebenen Aufmarschräumen zu versammeln. Fremde militärische Beobachter stellen fest, daß die Ausrüstung der türkischen Truppen in jeder Beziehung gut ist. Das vollkommen ersetzte Artilleriematerial ist vorzüglich, das Pferdematerial gut und genügend groß. Die Ausrüstung der Mannschaften ist durchaus modern und entspricht allen Anforderungen. Man kann feststellen, daß die türkische Heeresleitung alle im Balkankrieg gemachten Erfahrungen sich zunutze machte. Das Hauptaugenmerk ist auf die Verpflegung gewendet. Die unter der Leitung deutscher Instrukteure stehende Intendantur hat auf den in Betracht kommenden Etappenlinien große Proviantmengen aufgestapelt. Es wird versichert, daß dieser Zweig der türkischen Heeresverwaltung, der im Balkankriege nicht genügend funktionierte, nunmehr allen Bedürfnissen des Feldzuges vollauf Rechnung tragen kann. Seit Wochen ist bereits die Ausbildung der Reservemannschaften im Zuge, so daß auch hier notwendige Nachschübe gemacht werden können. Ihr besonderes Augenmerk hat die Heeresverwaltung den sanitären Vorkehrungen zugewendet. Die Stimmung in der Armee kann als vorzüglich bezeichnet werden. Die türkische Bevölkerung sieht den kommenden Ereignissen ernst und entschlossen entgegen. 2)


Seegefecht im Schwarzen Meer

Konstantinopel, 18. November.
Heute um die vierte Nachmittagsstunde kam es zu einer Begegnung der türkischen und der russischen Flotte auf der Höhe der Küste von Trapezunt. Obwohl die russische Flotte mindestens die doppelte Zahl von Wimpeln umfaßte wie die türkische, ergriff sie in voller Hast die Flucht, als die türkischen Schiffe am Horizont erschienen. Sie fuhr in der Richtung auf Sewastopol. Die türkische Flotte nahm sofort die Verfolgung auf, konnte sie aber bei dem dichten Nebel nicht wirksam zu Ende führen. Immerhin erlitt ein russisches Linienschiff schwere Beschädigungen. 2)


Ein türkisch-amerikanischer Zwischenfall

Paris, 18. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Der "New York Herald" meldet aus Athen: Der amerikanische Kreuzer "Tennessee", der mit dem Schutz der englischen, französischen und russischen Bürger von Smyrna betraut ist, wollte in den Hafen von Smyrna einfahren, aber die Erlaubnis wurde ihm verweigert. Die Schaluppe der "Tennessee", die sich den Außenforts näherte, wurde beschossen und mußte umkehren. Der Kommandant der "Tennessee" kündigt an, daß er die Einfahrt in den Hafen mit Gewalt erzwingen werde, falls sie ihm nicht gutwillig gewährt werde. 2)


Die Finanzen Englands

Lloyd George
Lloyd George

London, 18. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Im Unterhause gab Minister Lloyd George ausführliche Mitteilungen über die Reichsfinanzen und führte an, daß eine Summe von 535 Millionen Pfund bis spätestens 31. März zur Verfügung stehen müsse, wovon 339575000 Pfund für Kriegsausgaben bestimmt sind. Er schlug eine Erhöhung der Einkommensteuer vor, wodurch diese etwa verdoppelt wird und in diesem Jahre ungefähr 12500000 Pfund mehr aufbringt, ferner eine Mehrsteuer auf Bier, die 2 050000 Pfund betragen soll und eine besondere Besteuerung von 3 d pro Pfund Tee, die 950000 Pfund erbringen soll und eine teilweise Aufschiebung der Schuldentilgung, wodurch ein Betrag von 2750000 Pfund erhalten wird, so daß noch 321325000 Pfund aufgebracht werden müssen. Es liegen sehr schwerwiegende Gründe vor, sagte Lloyd George, eine Summe zusammenzubringen, die uns in den Stand setzt, den Krieg noch mehr energisch zu führen. Wir schlagen daher die Ausgabe einer 3½-prozentigen Anleihe gegen den Kurs von 95 Prozent und tilgbar zu Pari im Jahre 1928 vor. Dadurch erhalten wir genügend Mittel bis zum Monat Juli. Lloyd George teilte weiter mit, daß die Regierung bereits ein Angebot von 100 Millionen empfangen hatte. Er erklärte ferner, daß die Anleihe eine ausgezeichnete Anlage sei, da der britische Kredit noch immer der beste in der Welt sei. Das Haus nahm die Vorschläge von Lloyd George an. 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im November 1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

18 November 1914 → Commons Sitting

COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY.


HC Deb 18 November 1914 vol 68 cc412-3 412

Lord CHARLES BERESFORD asked the Prime Minister whether, in the public interest, he will consider the question of instituting a Committee of Public Safety, with branch bureaux in all the great centres, to inquire into and report on alien enemies; whether the responsibility at present is divided between the Home Office, the War Office, and the Admiralty; and whether that divided responsibility results in confusion and inefficiency?

The PRIME MINISTER (Mr. Asquith) The three Departments mentioned co-operate with one another, and I cannot agree with the suggestion that the division of responsibility has resulted in confusion and inefficiency. Division of duties is inevitable, because they relate partly to civil and partly to naval and military matters. The Home Office and the police are responsible for the steps taken to register alien enemies and to enforce the provisions of the Aliens Restriction Order. The internment of alien enemies of military age is a military measure for which the War Office is, and must be, responsible, though the Secretary of State for War is assisted by the civil authority in giving effect to his policy. As regards the dangers of espionage—a subject which the Noble Lord has, no doubt, especially in mind—some time ago, on the advice of the Committee of Imperial Defence, there, was established at the War Office an Intelligence Department, which co-operates with the Admiralty, and has the assistance of the civil power wherever necessary. This Department has done invaluable work. The powers which the naval and military authorities possessed before the War to deal with espionage have been materially supplemented by the passing of the Defence of the Realm Acts, and the question of strengthening the staff of the Intelligence Department to cope with the new duties imposed upon it is now being considered. I would point out to the Noble Lord that his suggestion would not remove any responsibility from the existing authorities, unless he proposes to transfer to his Committee of Public Safety the 413 naval and military forces of the Crown, and the police, forces now controlled in the Metropolis by the Government and elsewhere by the local police authorities.

Lord C. BERESFORD Is the right hon. Gentleman aware that there is the greatest anxiety and irritation in the country about this question of spies, and that the general sentiment of the country is undoubtedly that the precautions taken are not adequate?

The PRIME MINISTER It is a matter that is receiving the constant attention of the Government.

Colonel YATE Are we to understand that the initiation of all proceedings against foreign spies rests with the Home Secretary?

The PRIME MINISTER No.

An HON. MEMBER It is just the opposite.

Mr. BUTCHER When did the Intelligence Department of the War Office begin to deal with espionage?

The PRIME MINISTER I could not give the exact date. It is a considerable time ago.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/nov/18/committee-of-public-safety
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 17:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMAS AUSTRALIA

18 November 1914 - HMAS AUSTRALIA, (battle-cruiser), steamed off the Mexican west coast in search of the German Pacific Squadron. On 26 November she rendezvoused with the Japanese cruisers ASAMA, IDZUMO, and HIZEN.

26 November 1914 - ADML G. E. Patey, took command of his battle squadron off the Mexican coast. It comprised of HMAS AUSTRALIA, (battle- cruiser), HMS NEWCASTLE, (cruiser), and the Japanese Ships ASAMA, IDZUMO, and HIZEN.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1914-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 17:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening News , November 18 1914



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EveningNews_November18_1914.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lakenhalle (Cloth Hall) Grote Markt

This is Ieper’s best–known building, work on which began in 1200 and the huge ‘campanile’ clock in the belfry makes a magic sound as it strikes the hours and quarter–hours. The destruction of the Lakenhalle began on 18 November 1914 when the First Battle of Ypres was raging outside the town and the Germans shelled the buildings. At that moment, a small group of Irish Benedictine nuns from their monastery in nearby St–Jacobbstraat were making their way towards the Grote Markt in search of a workman to help them move their Abbess out of the besieged town:

With a shudder, we started on our errand. We had not gone a hundred yards when, whiz … bang, another – then another – and another. Half way down the street a British officer on horseback cried out to us: Mes Soeurs … à la maison’! [Sisters, go home!] … we hurried on. While crossing the Grand Place [Grote Markt] a perfect hail of shells and shrapnel came down on all sides. Explosion followed explosion. The soldiers and civilians crouched down by the side of the house whenever a shell burst but we, ignorant of the risk we were running, walked bravely on.
- Dame M Columban, OSB, The Irish Nuns at Ypres: An Episode of the Great War, London, 1915, p.71

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/ieper/grote-markt.html
Zie ook http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/ieper/video.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya

Wakamiya was a seaplane carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the first Japanese aircraft carrier. She was converted from a transport ship into a seaplane carrier and commissioned in August 1914. (...) In September 1914, she conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids. (...)

From 5 September 1914, she conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids from Kiaochow Bay off Tsingtao. Her seaplanes bombarded German-held land targets (communication centers and command centers) in the Tsingtao peninsula of Shandong province and ships in Qiaozhou Bay from September to 6 November 1914, during the Siege of Tsingtao.

British officers also serving in the Battle of Tsingtao commented on the operations of the Wakamiya:

"Daily reconnaissances, weather permitting, were made by the Japanese seaplanes, working from the seaplane mother ship. They continued to bring valuable information throughout the siege. The mother ship was fitted with a couple of derricks for hoisting them in and out. During these reconnaissances they were constantly fired at by the German guns mostly with shrapnel, but were never hit. The Japanese airmen usually carried bombs for dropping on the enemy positions."
—Report by Lieut. Commanders G.S.F. Nash and G. Gipps, HMS Triumph, 18th November 1914.

On 30 September, Wakamiya struck a German mine and had to be repaired for a week. On this occasion, her seaplanes were transferred on land at Shazikou, from where they accomplished further scouting and attack missions:

"The seaplane corps and three Henry Farman 100 h.p. seaplanes were, in consequence of the damage done to the mother ship, landed at the Base already established at Laoshan Harbour (to the West of the Bay so nearer to Tsingtao), and this proved eminently satisfactory."
—Report by Lieut. Commanders G.S.F. Nash and G. Gipps of the HMS Triumph, 18th November 1914.[3]

Altogether, the seaplanes made 49 attacks, dropping 190 bombs on German defenses until the German surrender on 7 November. According to the British Naval Attaché to Tokyo, Captain Hon. Hubert Brand, who had been stationed for three months on Imperial Japanese Navy warships throughout the battle, the bombs used by the seaplanes were about equivalent to 12 pdr. shells.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_seaplane_carrier_Wakamiya
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=23739
Zie ook http://www.gwpda.org/naval/wtsing.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Time for Atonement - Canada's First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians 1914-1920

Throughout the war years, numerous other letters, petitions, and memoranda would be addressed to the federal and provincial authorities by Ukrainian-Canadian organizations, all asserting that the allegiance of Ukrainian Canadians lay with the Dominion of Canada and the British Empire. Similar messages were sent by individuals. For example, in mid-November 1914, Paul Wacyk of Komarno, Manitoba, wrote to R. Fletcher, Deputy Minister of the Department of Education in Winnipeg:

I have heard no movement on the part of the people here which would in any way indicate that they were disloyal to the British Empire.
- P. Wacyk of Komarno, Manitoba to R. Fletcher, Deputy Minister of Education, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 18 November 1914, NAC RG 18, Volume 469.

http://www.infoukes.com/history/internment/booklet01/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The County Herald, 18th November 1914
'The programme was rather lengthy' They must have been there till midnight!



http://www.northopwm.com/home_front_sychdyn.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bushmills and the First World War

Bushmills and the surrounding district suffered heavily in the 1914-1918 war. In the early stages of the war in 1914 and 1915 heavy fighting took place in France and Belgium and in Gallipoli. But it was the Battle of the Somme in July of 1916 which really brought grief home to Bushmills.

Private Charles Allen 1535 - 1st Battalion Irish Guards
Killed in Action 18th November 1914 - Age 29




Born: Belfast
Resided: Liscolman
Son of Mrs. Elizabeth Allen of Alexander Street, Ballymena
Husband of Matilda Allen of Liscolman, Dervock
No known grave
Named on the Dervock Memorial
Commemorated in Billy Parish Church
Commemorated on Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres, Belgium, Panel 11

http://www.lennonwylie.co.uk/RobertThompsonBushmills
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mittwoch, 18. November 1914:

Ostfront: In Ostpreußen werden die Russen bei Soldau geschlagen.
Die russischen Truppen in Polen ziehen sich Richtung Lovich zurück.
Von Krakau aus geht die österreichisch-ungarische Armee zur Gegenoffensive in Galizien über.

Naher Osten: Eine türkische Offensive zwingt die Russen in Armenien zum Rückzug.

Krieg zur See: Der russische Ostseehafen Libau wird von der Kaiserlichen Marine beschossen.
Im Schwarzen Meer kommt es zu einem Gefecht zwischen einem türkischen und einem russischen Geschwader. Der türkische Schlachtkreuzer Yavuz Sultan Selim (ex dt. Goeben) erhält schwere Treffer.

http://fl18.de/history/227/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Cape Sarych - 18 November, 1914

November, 1914 saw the unexpected in the Black Sea: a force of Russian pre-dreadnoughts drove off the former German battlecruiser Goben (officially the Turkish Yavuz Sultan Selim) near Cape Sarych.

Lees verder op http://www.gwpda.org/naval/csayrch0.htm
Zie ook http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyTurkish.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bertrand Russell, letter to Lady Ottoline Morrell (18th November, 1914)

It is clear the Socialists are the hope of the world; they have gained in importance during the war. What I can do further in philosophy does not interest me, and seems trivial compared to what might be done elsewhere. I can't bear the sheltered calm of university life - I want battle and stress and the feeling of doing something.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUrussell.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 18 NOVEMBER 1915

MILITARY CROSS WON: Lieut G R BLACKETT, 10th, Nelson Squadron, CMR, s/o Mr G Blackett, head teacher, Raglan District High School. He enlisted with the Main Expeditionary Force from Blenheim. He was born at Te Rahu, North Te Awamutu, 1889and educated at the local school of which is father was headmaster for 17 years. The family left Te Rahu in 1903 for Raglan where he entered the local post office. He was promoted to the Auckland PO in 1905 and joined No.3 Garrison Artillery, winning the Burns Cup for shooting and securing his certificate for range-finding. He then worked for Messrs Dalgety & Co, Auckland and travelled to Blenheim. He received the Military Cross for successfully carrying out reconnaissance of the Turkish position prior to the taking of Suvla Bay.

London, 24 September 1915 - The first Maori to die in England, Tumai PENAMENE, at the Dudley Road Section of the First Southern Military Hospital, Birmingham. Buried at Lodge Hill Cemetery with military honours, Rev W W Holesworth, Wesleyan Chaplain.

WILKINSON, Capt Roger William, 4th Otago Infantry: First NZ officer to die in this country, was buried at Wandsworth Cemetery on Saturday. RAMC, small church in cemetery grounds. Wounded by shrapnel in the face towards the end of August on Gallipoli and taken to Malta then ***** Military Hospital, Manchester, died Thursday 23 Sept 1915.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn18nov1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXV, Issue 8299, 18 November 1915, Page 5





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=AG19151118.2.32.4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Outdoor portrait of three Australian and nine Canadian Prisoners of War (POW) at Stuttgart POW camp, Germany.



Australians are, standing on far left 969 Lance Corporal (L/Cpl) Robert Johnston, 32nd Battalion, from Victoria Park, Western Australia; standing second from left, 2786 Corporal (Cpl) Arthur Donald Bowen, 54th Battalion, from Sydney, NSW; and standing on far right, 1611 Private (Pte) James Butler, 32nd Battalion, from Subiaco, Western Australia. L/Cpl Johnston enlisted at the age of 22 on 12 July 1915 and embarked for overseas on 18 November 1915 aboard HMAT Geelong. His parents were told that he had been killed in action but they later received a post card from him from a POW camp in Germany; he had been wounded and captured at Fleurbaix, France, on 19 July 1916 and was held as a POW until repatriated to England on 19 December 1918.

Lees verder op http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/8781926
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SM UB-24

SM UB-24 was a German Type UB II submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) during World War I. The U-boat was ordered on 30 April 1915 and launched on 18 October 1915. She was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 18 November 1915 as SM UB-24.[Note 1] UB-24 was surrendered at Cherbourg on 24 November 1918, and was broken up at Brest in July 1921.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_UB-24
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering the Piper of Loos

Daniel Laidlaw had joined the army in 1896 as a member of the 2nd Durham Light Infantry. He saw service in India before joining the King's Own Scottish Borderers two years later. Within his new regiment Daniel Laidlaw soon became one of the regimental pipers.

He had served for 18 years and returned to civilian life, but when war broke out in August 1914, Laidlaw was quick to re-enlist in his old regiment. Signing up again on 1 September, he found himself in France in June 1915.

At that point French efforts to take Vimy Ridge were foundering badly and thoughts had already turned to planning a new Franco-British offensive in September.

For the British this would be the Battle of Loos - and the first time that they would use gas in warfare.

The Battle of Loos Laidlaw's Battalion, the 7th Bn KOSB was part of the 15th (Scottish) Division and on 25 September 1915 they had the daunting task of advancing over open territory and into the village of Loos.

The release of the gas was only partially effective and some blew back into the Scots own trenches, causing some nervousness.

In his own words Laidlaw described the morning as it unfolded for him.

On Saturday morning we got orders to raid the German trenches. At 6.30 the bugles sounded the advance and I got over the parapet with Lieutenant Young.

I at once got the pipes going and the laddies gave a cheer as they started off for the enemy's lines. As soon as they showed themselves over the trench top they began to fall fast, but they never wavered, but dashed straight on as I played the old air they all knew Blue Bonnets over the Border.

I ran forward with them piping for all I knew, and just as we were getting near the German lines I was wounded by shrapnel in the left ankle and leg. I was too excited to feel the pain just then, but scrambled along as best I could. I changed my tune to The Standard on the Braes o'Mar, a grand tune for charging on.

I kept on piping and piping and hobbling after the laddies until I could go no farther, and then seeing that the boys had won the position I began to get back as best I could to our own trenches.


For him, he had simply done his duty but the London Gazette, Number 15851, of 18 November 1915 records his deserving the Victoria Cross as follows:

For most conspicuous bravery prior to an assault on German trenches near Loos and Hill 70 on 25 September 1915. During the worst of the bombardment, Piper Laidlaw, seeing that his company was badly shaken from the effects of gas, with absolute coolness and disregard of danger, mounted the parapet, marched up and down and played company out of the trench. The effect of his splendid example was immediate and the company dashed out to the assault. Piper Laidlaw continued playing his pipes until he was wounded.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_loos_6.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

R/11941 Rifleman George Peachment VC.

2nd Bn. King's Royal Rifle Corps.
Killed in action 25/09/1915, aged 18.
Son of Mrs. Mary Peachment, of The Nook, Hilda Avenue, Tottington, Bury, Lancs.
Loos Memorial Panel 101 and 102.



Citation for Rifleman George Peachment VC. reads:

An extract from "The London Gazette", dated 18th Nov., 1915, records the following:-"For most conspicuous bravery near Hulluch on 25th Sept., 1915. During very heavy fighting, when our front line was compelled to retire in order to re-organise, Pte. Peachment, seeing his Company Commander, Captain Dubs, lying wounded, crawled to assist him. The enemy's fire was intense, but, though there was a shell hole quite close, in which a few men had taken cover, Pte. Peachment never thought of saving himself. He knelt in the open by his Officer and tried to help him, but while doing this he was first wounded by a bomb and a minute later mortally wounded by a rifle bullet. He was one of the youngest men in his battalion and gave this splendid example of courage and self-sacrifice."

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/ww1frenchcemeteries/dudcorner.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Conquering the Perihelion

On 18 November, 1915, shortly before arriving at the final field equations of general relativity, Einstein published a derivation of Mercury’s orbital precession based on the vacuum field equations, which turned out to carry over unchanged in the final theory.

Lees verder op http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath598/kmath598.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Sam Hughes inspects 207th battalion and Presents Colours, 18 November 1916, his last official act as Minister of Militia



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1916-11-18_-_Sir_Sam_Hughes_Presents_Colours_to_207th_battalion.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cambridge Magazine, Periodical, 18 November 1916



http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/cambridge-magazine-periodical-18-november-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 18 November 1916, Page 5







http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19161118.2.34
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence, 'Extracts from a diary of a journey'
Arab Bulletin, 18 November 1916, SD 12-20


October 21
At 6p.m. started off from Aziz Bey El-Masri's tent at Rabugh. Sidi Ali, Sidi Zeid and Nuri saw me off. I had Sidi Ali's own camel, with its very splendid trappings. This secured me a vicarious consideration on the way. The Abadilla wasm is the 'secret sign' of the Port Sudan messengers.

Sheikh Obeid el-Rashid of the Hawazim Beni Salim Harb, and his son Abdullah came with me.

We marched through the palm-groves, and then out along the Tihama, the flat and featureless coastal desert of Arabia. The Sultani road runs along this for the first fifty miles.

At 7p.m. we crossed a belt of blown sand and scrub, about 500 yards broad, but only about a foot deep. It could probably be circumvented, but it was too dark to see. After that between 7.30 and 8p.m. crossed several similar but smaller sandy hollows, and at 9.20p.m. a deeper one. At 9.30 we stopped and slept.

October 22
Got going again at 3a.m. The same sort of country till 4a.m. when we came to the foot of a very low stony ridge, which proved to be a narrow saddle of harrah, joining a small flat block of harrah near the sea to the main mass inland. I could not see how far off the sea was, but it is said to be only five or six thousand yards, and if so the place should be ranged for ship's fire. The neck crossed by the road is stony, and rather narrow, between low shoulders. It has been cumbered up by many tiny cairns, but it is not a difficult passage, except for low-built cars, for which some of the larger stones would have to be rolled aside. By 4.45a.m. we were across the ridge and had descended into the Masturah, which is really the delta of Wadi Fura. Bir Masturah is at the north bank of the wadi bed, which is a gravel and sand area, well covered with scrub and thorn trees up to twenty feet in height. It seems to extend for some fifteen minutes west of the road, after which bare country extends towards the sea, and inland seems to run back for some two hours, and then contracts into the mouth of Wadi Fura, one hour up which is Khoreiba. Khoreiba may be a point of great importance, and should be examined. It is reported to contain wells, and a spring and running water, with palm-groves.

We reached Bir Masturah at 6.45 and stayed till 8a.m. The well is stone lined, and about twenty feet deep and nine feet in diameter. On one side is a chimney (with hand and foot holes) running down to the water, which might be plentiful, if the well were clean. As it is the bottom is half full of stones. Forty yards south of the well is a rubble shelter, perhaps visible from the sea, and some reed huts for three or four families.

We left Bir Masturah at 8a.m. and marched till 11a.m., and again from 12.30p.m. till 4p.m. when the Sultani road leaves the Tihama towards the N.E. Till this point the going has been much as before, though it gets slowly worse for wheels, as the surface becomes softer. The ground is made up of chips of porphyry and basalt, set in sand, or sometimes of pure sand only, with a hard under-soil. Thorn trees are not plentiful after Bir Masturah. Tareif Beni Ayub, a very steep and bare range of hills, stretches away on the east of the Tihama. It seems to be about fifteen miles long, and rather narrow. North of it is a tangle of small rocky hills (covering much the same space) and then Jehel Subh, a great mass of rocks going up to beyond Bir ibn Hassani. North of Jebel Subh is Jebel Gheidh. Jebel Radhwa is in sight to the N.W., and across the top of the Tihama, from near Ras el-Abyadh (Rueis) from S.W. to E.N.E. runs a range of low hills (Jebel Hesna) as though to meet Jebel Subh. The Sultani road runs north up Wadi Hesna towards these hills; but we turned off N.E. at 4p.m. by a short cut. Wadi Hesna was sand with much broom-like scrub, and it marked the beginning of an intermediate area, between the flat Tihama and the rocky hills of the interior. The underlying characteristics of this intermediate area were low basalt ridges, but nearly everywhere they are covered with sand, on which is a good deal of coarse grass and trees, and sheep and goats were grazing in the shallow valleys which drained S. E.

At 5p.m. we passed a stone that marked the north boundary of the Masruh dira, and the south end of the Beni Salim. At 5.30 we rejoined the main road, and followed it down slopes of loose and rather heavy sand to Bir el-Sheikh at 6p.m. This is a Beni Salim village, with a short, broad street of brushwood huts and a few shops; also two stone-lined wells (said to be thirty feet deep) with plenty of good water. We left again at 9p.m., and in the dark struck up more rough sandy slopes with some hard patches, trees, etc., till 12p.m., when we slept.

October 23
Started again at 3a.m., and followed down Wadi Maared between sharp hills. Many trees about. At dawn (5a.m.) reached Bir ibn Hassani, at the junction of three great wadies. The confluence is about half-a-mile wide, of hard soil, and the village (where lives Ahmed el-Mansur, brother of Mohsin of Jiddah, and the Sherif’s Emir-el-Harb) consists of about thirty stone houses. There are three wells. The Sultani road to Bir Abbas turns off to the N.E. up Wadi Milif or Mreiga, which drains off S.W. as Wadi Milif, towards Bir el-Sheikh and the sea.

Jebel Subh, just E. of Bir ibn Hassani, is fretted into the most fantastic shapes along the sky-line.

As we came by night I cannot say if cars would pass Bir el-Sheikh. I think not, though the run down to Bir ibn Hassani and the surface of the valleys there are quite excellent. The mountains are apparently impassable except for Arabs or birds.

At 6a.m. we left Bir ibn Hassani, turning N.W. up Wadi Bir ibn Hassani. The country changed instantly, as we had reached the third zone of the Hejaz littoral, that in which sand hills give place to bare rocks. The hills on each side of the wadi were as steep as possible, perhaps 2,000 feet high, of dull red granite or porphyry with pink patches, but with foot-hills, about one hundred feet high, of a dark green rock, that gave the lower slopes a cultivated tint. There were many trees (acacia to thirty feet, sunt, etc.), and enough tamarisk and soft shrubs to make the view from a little distance most delightful, almost park-like. The ground surface was of shingle and light soil, quite firm, with occasional rocky patches, and the valley was from 200 to 500 yards wide. We ascended it (a very gentle rise) till 8.15a.m., when we reached a low watershed, across which were the ruins of two small rooms, and a wall of broken blocks from sky-line to sky-line. It may have been a former tribal boundary, or a fortified frontier. Across the watershed we were in the basin of Wadi Safra. The valley became more bare and stony, and the hills each side less variegated. After half an hour we passed a well on the east, next a little stone ziaret in the mouth of a side valley. An hour later the valley joined a larger one coming from the N.E. and running S.W. down a gorge into Wadi Safra, on the further side of which we could just see the palm-groves of Jedida. Our track crossed this larger wadi, and went up a small affluent for half an hour, across another divide, and down a broad wadi for three-quarters of an hour to Wadi Safra in the middle of Wasta. The going underfoot from Wadi Bir ibn Hassani to Wasta, was rough and hard.

Wasta used to be a town of about 1,000 houses, divided into four hamlets scattered about Wadi Safra, which is here broad. The houses are built on earth mounds or the foot-hills, to be out of the floods, and there are palm-groves all about them. The place had had about 4,000 people, but a flood has broken through the banks and destroyed much of the groves, so that to-day many of the houses are deserted. It will take years to repair the damage, as the soil is gone.

We stopped in Wasta till 2 p.m. The houses are mud built, with ceiling of quarter palm logs, palm ribs, and pressed earth over all. There is a small market, in which the best things were dates, very sweet and good, and still plentiful, in spite of the locusts, which were bad this year. There is a running stream in Wasta; where this is artificially confined, it is a swift channel a foot or two wide. Lower down it is released, and becomes a clear slow rivulet, about ten feet broad, and eighteen inches deep, between thick strips of soft green turf. The palm-trees have little canals, a foot or two deep, dug among them, and are watered in rotation; in consequence there is a lot of rank grass in all the groves, and flowering shrubs. The same is the case in every hollow in the wadi, for water can apparently be found almost anywhere about two feet deep. The spring (the right to so many minutes of whose water daily or weekly is sold with each plot of ground), is not very good water, being a little brackish, and warm. Some of the wells of private water in the groves are excellent. Wadi Safra floods every year, sometimes several times. The water may be eight feet deep, and occasionally runs for two or three days. This is not astonishing, for every drop of water that falls on these polished hills must run off them as off glass, and Wadi Safra is the channel of a great drainage area.

The land and the trees are all owned by Beni Salim Harb, and the whole tribe lives on the produce of the valley. This is mainly dates, though a little tobacco, and some melons, marrows and cucumbers are grown, and grapes and fruits have been tried with success. The surplus dates are exported viâ Reis and Boreika to the Sudan, etc., and there exchanged for cereals and luxuries. This export seems to reach about 1,000 to 1,500 tons in a normal year.

The householders of the valley are all Beni Salim, but the actual work of cultivation is done by slaves (Khadim), of which every well-to-do house has four or five. These slaves are negroid, and with their thick bodies and fat legs look curiously out of place among the bird-like Arabs. They come from Suakin and Port Sudan originally, when small, with Takruri pilgrims, passing as their children, and are sold on arrival in the Hejaz. When grown, the price of a male ranges from £60 to £30, according to season and trade conditions. Being of such value, they are treated fairly well. In the towns they do household work, and have easy lives. In the villages they have to work hard, hut have the envied solace of being allowed to marry the female slaves, and bring up families. These families are, of course, the property of the master, but etiquette prescribes the granting of reasonable privileges to a father and mother. Their work becomes light, and they are usually not separated from their children until these are grown up. They are all Moslems, but have no legal status, and cannot appeal to tribal custom, or even to the Sherif's court. When they fail to satisfy their master they are beaten, but by public opinion cruelty is discouraged, and on the whole they seemed a very contented lot. They are generally allowed a little pocket money, with which they add to their stock of clothes. About 5 per cent of Feisal's army was composed of them, the younger lads being preferred for service. There are supposed to be about 10,000 of them in Wadi Safra, and perhaps half as many again in Wadi Yenbo, which is the other great cultivated area in the middle Hejaz. The villages in Wadi Safra from its mouth to its source are Bedr Honein (the largest, said to have about 6,000 people), Bruka, Alia, Fara, Jedida, Husseiniya, Dghubij, Wasta, Kharma, Hamra, Um Dheiyal, Hazma and Kheif (or Jedida as the Turks call it).

I left Wasta at 2p.m., and rode up Wadi Safra past Kharma (ten minutes) to Hamra at 3p.m. The Wadi is from 100 to 300 yards broad, of fine shingle and sand, very smooth swept by the floods. The walls are of absolutely bare red and black rock, with edges and ridges sharp as knife blades reflecting the sun like metal. Thanks to the green of the grass and the gardens, the whole effect was very beautiful. At Hamra the place was swarming with Sidi Feisal's camel convoys and soldiers. I found him in a little mud house built on a twenty-foot knoll of earth, busied with many visitors. Had a short and rather lively talk, and then excused myself. Zeki Bey received me warmly, and pitched me a tent in a grassy glade, where I had a bath and slept really well, after dining and arguing with Feisal (who was most unreasonable) for hours and hours.

October 24
Awoke late. Sidi Feisal came to see me at 6.30a.m., and we had another hot discussion, which ended amicably. This lasted till nearly noon, when I went out and explored Hamra, and went up towards Kheif to the sentinels, who were not in any danger! Hamra itself is a small place of, perhaps, 150 houses (hidden in trees on twenty-foot earth mounds), a little stream, and very luxuriant groves and grass plots. I talked to all of Feisal's men I could. They were dotted about all over the place, mostly Juheinah, and Beni Salim, Ahamda, Subh, Rahala, and Beni Amr. They seemed a very tough lot, and were most amusing; also, in the best of spirits imaginable for a defeated army.

Then saw Feisal again. This time everything went most smoothly, and he seemed less nervy. His optimism, or his contempt of the possibility of a Turkish advance, was curiously fixed.

At 4p.m. mounted; with a new escort of fourteen Sherifs, all Juheinah, and mostly relatives of Mohammed Ali el-Bedawi of Yenbo, whither l am to go, by the Haj road. To reach this we went down Wadi Safra for a few minutes, crossed its bank, and entered a side wadi which opens on Kharma. The going is excellent, at first through very thick brushwood, but from 5.30 to 5.45 the path turns more west, up a stiff and narrow pass, confined on both sides by dry walls of large unhewn stones. This work continues down the other side of the watershed, for about two miles. It had obviously been a graded road, which had been in places only a revetted bank, but elsewhere a causeway sometimes six to eight feet high, through the gorge. The surface may have been paved, but is to-day all in ruins, and breached by the stream. From the remains it may have been twenty feet wide, but I saw it in the dark only, and could not examine it. It might have been the work of almost anybody, down to Mohammed Ali.

At 6.30p.m. reached the bottom of the pass (now a very steep and rough descent) and took a road that passes a little to the north of Bir Said, across a most intricate system of wadies and small hills with some larger wadies bearing S. or S.W. and loose blocks of lava here and there. At 8.30p.m. we reached Bir el-Moiya or Moiya el-Kalaat, a well just under the ruins of a small fort on a low hill. It was probably a guard house of the Pilgrim road, over the water.

October 25
Started again at 3a.m., up and down the same labyrinth of wadis, till 5a.m., when dawn broke finding us in the middle of a confused harrah with sandy floor. The rocks were bent and twisted and cracked, most oddly. At 5.45a.m. had got clear of this harrah, which died away in a great sea of sand dunes, interspersed with rocky hills, all spattered with sand to their tops. Numerous wadis drained this area, trending rather rapidly down-hill towards the sea, which was visible to the S.S.W.

We now held steadily west, with an occasional aimless tack towards the north. At 7.30a.m. we were over the dunes and came out on a flat sandy plain, with a good deal of scrub and acacia on it at first, and with low hills, to the south, prolonged westward into a small coastal range. On the north were other low hills, spurs of the central mass to the north of them. (An easier road bending to the north, avoids the worst of the dunes.) From 7.30 to 8.45a.m. we stopped, and then rode across an empty shingle plain till 10a.m., when we entered a northern off-shoot of the small coastal range. Between it and the inland range was a rolling open space, falling from an indeterminate watershed a little north of our road into Wadi Yenbo, whose palm-groves were visible about six miles away on the N.N.W. Behind the groves was the huge bulk of Jebel Rudhwa, the most striking hill in the district.

The foot-hills we crossed were low, and enclosed a thorn-grown plain with a sandy floor. At 11a.m. we came to the end of this, and rode over a small saddle on to the basin of Wadi Yenbo, which here was a very broad green belt of tamarisk and thorn, having on its eastern edge a conspicuous low hill with domed lava head, called Jebel Araur el-Milh, which deflects the wadi from S.S.W. to S.W. or even W.S.W. Above us the main channel trended up 30° N, for some distance. We stopped under an acacia tree in the wadi from 11.15a.m. to 3p.m. and then again at 3.15 to water the camels at a little water-hole of brackish water, about four feet below the surface in the main wadi, behind a wall of tamarisk. After that we went on for an hour and three-quarters and stopped for the night. The country is again Tihama, made up of ten-foot slowly-swelling ridges and shallow valleys between. Wadi Yenbo main bed, where we crossed it, is about a mile and a half wide, but there are several smaller wadies, apparently subsidiary mouths, further west, and the stream, after crossing the track seems to swing round far to the west. The land between the track and the sea has a lot of scrub growing on it, so that the actual outlet of the wadi was not visible. The Tihama here is all so flat, that most of it goes under water whenever Wadi Yenbo comes down in strong flood.

October 26
Started again at 2a.m. and reached Yenbo at 5.30a.m. across a featureless but hard shingle and wet sand fiat. Yenbo stands on a low stone outcrop, a few feet above the plain. I went to the home of Abd el-Kadir el-Abdo, Feisal's agent for military business, and a very well informed, efficient, and well-inclined official. He put me up for four days, during which I wandered back to Wadi Yenbo again to see the palm-groves.

On November 1, got on board the Suva.

Yenbo,
October 29.

T.E.L.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/works/articles_essays/1916_extracts_from_a_diary.htm
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- F. Scott Fitzgerald
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Arab Bureau, Savoy Hotel, Cairo, 18.11.16

This is only a scrawl to inform you what I wired:- namely that I
have got back to Cairo. I left on October 13 from Cairo, reached Jidda on October 16, left there on October 19, for Rabegh. Left Rabegh on October 21, by camel; went up to Sherif Feisul's H.Q. at a place called Bir Abbas, half-way between Medina and the sea, about 100 miles North of Rabegh. After a few days there returned by road to Yenbo, and embarked on Nov. 1 for Jidda. On November 4 changed ships there, and went across to Port Sudan with Admiral Wemyss. Reached Khartoum on November 7 and stayed with the Sirdar till November 11, when I took train down to the Nile to Halfa, then steamer to Asswan, and then by rail to Cairo. At Asswan Hugh Whitelocke got into my carriage, and we were together as far as Luxor where he intended to stay a day to sightsee. Since my return I have been extravagantly busy:- so much so that I cannot possibly write to you probably for two or three days yet. The day is one long series of interruptions.

I have now left G.H.Q. and joined the Arab Bureau, which is under the Residency here. That is, the Sirdar is in charge of it, or will be very shortly. The atmosphere of being one's own master - or at any rate of being with people whose voices are not drowned by their grinding of axes - is pleasant. All very well.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1916/161118_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A classic by any other name

Why is Joseph Heller's famous 'Catch' called '22'? Why is Bertie's manservant called Jeeves? And why does the postman always ring twice (in a book that has no postman)? In these fascinating extracts from his new book, Gary Dexter reveals the story behind the stories.

My Man Jeeves (1919)

'Had it been summer, he would have taken some literature out on to the cricket-field or the downs, and put in a little steady reading there, with the aid of a bag of cherries.' - P.G. Wodehouse, 'The Gold Bat' (1904).

My Man Jeeves (1919) was the first Wodehouse book with Jeeves in the title. There were 10 more: The Inimitable Jeeves (1923), Carry On, Jeeves (1925), Very Good, Jeeves (1930), Thank You, Jeeves (1934), Right Ho, Jeeves (1934), Ring for Jeeves (1953), Jeeves and the Feudal Spirit (1954), Jeeves in the Offing (1960), Stiff Upper Lip, Jeeves (1963) and Much Obliged, Jeeves (1971).

Although My Man Jeeves was the first Jeeves title, Jeeves the gentleman's personal gentleman - possessor of the secret of how to make a perfect cup of tea and serve it precisely as his master is waking up - first made an appearance in the story Extricating Young Gussie in the Saturday Evening Post of 18 September, 1915. He had only two lines: 'Mrs Gregson to see you, sir', and, 'Very good, sir. Which suit will you wear?'

Wodehouse said in the introduction to the anthology The World of Jeeves (1967): 'It was only some time later, when I was going into the strange affair of The Artistic Career of Corky, that the man's qualities dawned upon me. I still blush to think of the off-hand way I treated him at our first encounter.'

The Artistic Career of Corky was in fact a later title for the story Leave it to Jeeves, which appeared in the Saturday Evening Post of 5 February, 1916. In it, Jeeves shimmers into the plot in a fully fledged Jeeves-like manner, and sets about helping Bertie's artistic pal Corky out of a fiancée-related jam. On the way he does several other things that later became Jeeves hallmarks, such as disapproving of Bertie's suiting arrangements and dispensing racing tips.

One more tale deserves mention, one that has misled some into thinking it features the debut of Jeeves. This is Jeeves Takes Charge, a short story published, again in the Saturday Evening Post, on 18 November, 1916, more than a year after Extricating Young Gussie. Bertie has discovered his regular valet in the act of stealing his silk socks, and has reluctantly been forced to hand him the mitten. The agency then sends a new man…

'If you would drink this, sir,' he said, with a kind of bedside manner, rather like the royal doctor shooting the bracer into the sick prince. 'It is a little preparation of my own invention. It is the Worcester Sauce that gives it its colour. The raw egg makes it nutritious. The red pepper gives it its bite. Gentlemen have told me they have found it extremely invigorating after a late evening.' […]

'You're engaged!' I said, as soon as I could say anything.

I perceived clearly that this cove was one of the world's wonders, the sort no home should be without.

'Thank you, sir. My name is Jeeves.'

Jeeves, then, was born in 1915 or thereabouts, during the first battles of the First World War. Wodehouse was working in the New York theatre at the time, having been living in the United States on and off since about 1909. Before he left permanently for America, however, he went to a cricket match in Cheltenham. And this was where war, cricket and Jeeves met and coalesced.

Percy Jeeves was, by all accounts, a good player. Born in 1888, in Earlsheaton, Yorkshire, he played for Goole and then Hawes before signing up for the Warwickshire county side. An attacking right-hand bat, medium-fast bowler, he played first-class cricket from 1912 to 1914; 1913 was the season when he began to distinguish himself, taking 106 wickets and scoring 785 runs.

It was also the year in which Wodehouse, a keen cricket fan, saw him play at Cheltenham. Several decades later, R.V. Ryder, the son of the Warwickshire club secretary who had originally signed Percy Jeeves, wrote to Wodehouse to ask for confirmation that the Jeeves of literature really was named after the Jeeves of cricket. Wodehouse replied:

'Dear Mr Ryder.

Yes, you are quite right.

It must have been in 1913 that I paid a visit to my parents in Cheltenham and went to see Warwickshire play Glos on the Cheltenham College ground. I suppose Jeeves's bowling must have impressed me, for I remembered him in 1916, when I was in New York and just starting the Jeeves and Bertie saga, and it was just the name I wanted.

I have always thought till lately that he was playing for Gloucestershire that day. (I remember admiring his action very much.)

Yours sincerely…'

Percy Jeeves went on to even greater distinction in the 1914 season, and was tipped by England captain Plum Warner as a future England player. On 4 August, 1914, however, Britain declared war on Germany, and Jeeves signed up with the 15th Battalion of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. In July the following year he was in the thick of the fighting in the Battle of the Somme. The 15th Battalion was ordered to make an attack on High Wood, a forested area on the crest of a hill near the village of Bazentin-le- Petit in the Somme département. High Wood was a crucial part of the German line, and heavily defended with machine-gun emplacements able to rake down the slopes at every approach.

The ground between the British trenches and the hilltop was open, unforested and strewn with dead bodies from previous actions. On the night of 22-23 July, the order was given for a major assault, in which the 15th Battalion was a small component.

The assault made no headway whatsoever. Jeeves's body was never found. It wasn't until September 1915 that High Wood was captured, after the loss of about 6,000 men.

September 1915, coincidentally, marked the appearance of the first Jeeves story. Jeeves never got to play for his country, but he did die for it.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/3669372/A-classic-by-any-other-name.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belgian Women's Societies on Germany's Policy of Deporting Belgians to Germany, 18 November 1916

Reproduced below is the text of a letter sent by Belgian women's societies to the U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, Brand Whitlock, on 18 November 1916. The women's societies wrote to register their protest against Germany's policy of deporting unemployed men from occupied Belgium to Germany in order to support the German war effort.

Appeal of Belgian Women's Societies Sent to U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, 18 November 1916

From the depths of our well of misery our supplication rises to you.

In addressing ourselves to you, we denounce to your Government, as well as to our sisters, the women of the nation which you represent in our midst, the criminal abuse of force of which our unhappy and defenceless people is a victim.

Since the beginning of this atrocious war we have looked on impotently and with our hearts torn with every sorrow at terrible events which put our civilization back into the ages of the barbarian hordes.

Mr. Minister, the crime which is now being committed under your eyes, namely, the deportation of thousands of men compelled to work on enemy soil against the interests of their country, can not find any shadow of excuse on the ground of military necessity, for it constitutes a violation by force of a sacred right of human conscience.

Whatever may be the motive it can not be admitted that citizens may be compelled to work directly or indirectly for the enemy against their brothers who are fighting.

The Convention of The Hague has consecrated this principle.

Nevertheless, the occupying power is forcing thousands of men to this monstrous extremity, which is contrary to morals and international law, both these men who have already been taken to Germany and those who tomorrow will undergo the same fate, if from the outside, from neutral Europe and the United States, no help is offered.

Oh! The Belgian women have also known how to carry out their duty in the hour of danger; they have not weakened the courage of the soldiers of honour by their tears.

They have bravely given to their country those whom they loved... The blood of mothers is flowing on the battlefields.

Those who are taken away today do not go to perform a glorious duty. They are slaves in chains who, in a dark exile, threatened by hunger, prison, death, will be called upon to perform the most odious work-service to the enemy against the fatherland.

The mothers can not stand by while such an abomination is taking place without making their voices heard in protest.

They are not thinking of their own sufferings, their own moral torture, the abandonment and the misery in which they are to be placed with their children.

They address you in the name of the inalterable rights of honour and conscience.

It has been said that women are "all powerful suppliants." We have felt authorized by this saying, Mr. Minister, to extend our hands to you and to address to your country a last appeal.

We trust that in reading these lines you will feel at each word the unhappy heartbeats of the Belgian women and will find in your broad and humane sympathy imperative reasons for intervention.

Only the united will of the neutral peoples energetically expressed can counterbalance that of the German authorities.

This assistance which the neutral nations can and, therefore, ought to lend us, will it be refused to the oppressed Belgians?

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/belgium_womenssocieties.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commemorating the 90th Anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, 1 JULY 1916 - 18 NOVEMBER 1916

Mooi PDF'je... http://www.veterans-uk.info/pdfs/publications/comm_booklets/somme.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Distribution of Mesopotamia Expeditionary Corps, 18 November 1917

http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/917BKMA.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maude, Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Stanley, K.C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. (1864-1917).



Stanley Maude was born at Gibraltar, 24 June 1864 and was the youngest son of General Sir Frederick Francis Maude, V.C., G.C.B. He was educated at Eton. He passed out of Sandhurst and joined the Coldstream Guards on 6 February 1884. He went out with the Coldstream Guards to Saukin and landed there in March 1885 and returned with the Coldstream Guards to England in September 1885 after earning the Egyptian Medal with Saukin bar and the Khedive’s Egyptian Star.

When the Boer War broke out in 1899 Maude was a Major with the Coldstream Guards but did not leave with the regiment to South Africa. He left shortly after on 16 December 1899 and arrived in South Africa in January 1900 to join the 2/Coldstream Guards at Modder River on 11 January 1900. He took part in various actions, including the “Great deWet Hunt”. He returned to England in March 1901 for medical treatment and a new assignment to Canada. He had earned a D.S.O. and the Queen’s South African Medal with 6 clasps.

He was appointed Military Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada and reached that post near the end of May 1901. He returned to England in November 1904 and took up duties a second-in-command of 1/Coldstream Guards and later general staff work. During this time he was promoted in rank to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1907 and to Colonel in 1911.

Shortly after the start of WWI, Maude found himself in France on staff with General Pulteney’s 3rd Corps. In October 1914 he was promoted to Brigadier-General and given command of the 14th Brigade. He was wounded in April 1915 and sent back to England for recuperation. He returned to his Brigade in early May 1915. In June 1915 he was promoted to Major-General and given command of 33rd Division training in England for duty at the front in France.

The situation changed in mid-August 1915 and he was given orders to proceed to Sir Ian Hamilton’s headquarters and then to a new command on the Gallipoli Peninsula. He took over the remains of the 13th Division in the Suvla area. He participated in the withdrawal of his division from Suvla and their landing at Helles and then in early January 1916 of their withdrawal from Helles. From here the division was sent to Egypt to assemble in late January 1916 at Port Said for training and resupply. In December 1915, in Mesopotamia, Kut had been invested. Orders were received at the end of January 1916 to prepare the 13the Division for shipment to Mesopotamia.

At the end of February 1916, Major-General Sir Stanley Maude landed with some of his forces at Basrah. In April 1916 there was much hard fighting in an attempt to relieve Kut but the forces invested in Kut were forced to surrender at the end of April. During May and June 1916 the Division was busy fighting both Turkish forces and Arab bandits in the area. In mid July 1916 Maude was promoted to the temporary rank of Lieutenant-General and assumed command of the 3rd Army Corps, also known as the Tigris Corps. Shortly after, in mid-August 1916 he was given command of the Army in Mesopotamia. After a period of reorganization and establishing communications Lieutenant General Sir Stanley Maude started advance against the Turkish forces in the middle of December 1916 which was to rout the Turkish forces and achieve the capture of Baghdad in March 1917. More consolidation and preparations followed and then the drive starting in September and ending in November 1917 to take Ramadie, Dur and Tekrit.

Shortly after this Maude was stricken with cholera and died at Baghdad 18 November 1917.

Sources:
The London Times Who Was Who 1916-1928 by Adam & Charles Black, Publishers
The Literary Digest, History of the World War, Vols. 8 & 10.
Life of Sir Stanley Maude by Maj.-Gen. Sir C.E. Callwell, K.C.B.


http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/bio/m/maude.html

Frederick Stanley Maude

(...) After a lull over the summer, by November his forces were engaged at Ramadi and Tikrit when he became ill from cholera (which some sources claim to have been caught from drinking unboiled milk) and abruptly died. Coincidentally, he died in the same house as German General von der Goltz a year earlier. General Marshall succeeded him. (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Stanley_Maude
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/baghdad_candler.htm
_________________

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- F. Scott Fitzgerald


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 17 Nov 2010 19:45, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1917

18 November 1917: different units: Lieutenant Fred Ryan, Special List attached 3rd Bn Nigeria Regiment WAFF, and his brother Major Martin Ryan, 40, of the 25th Royal Fusiliers, killed in action at Nyangao, East Africa. Sons of H. V. and A. Ryan of Ootacamund, Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India, both are buried in Dar Es Salaam War Cemetery. An “In Memoriam” notice published in The Times on 17 October 1919 stated that they “were killed in action on the same day, at the same place, and near the same spot”.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1917.htm
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Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic was the largest, most populous and economically developed republic in the former Soviet Union. It was established on 18 November 1917 after the Kerensky's government was overthrown in the October Revolution and renamed into the Russian Federation on 25 December 1991 following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Russian-SFSR/102894803085527
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 18, 1918 – Proclamation of Latvia’s independence

The National Council was established just one day before the proclamation of Latvia's independence, on November 17, 1918. The same day, the National Council elected Latvia's first provisional government, and decided that at the National Council's next session, on November 18, 1918 the independence of Latvia would be declared.


Proclamation of Latvia's independence at National Theater on November 18, 1918 - reproduction from the book "Latvijas Republika desmit pastāvēšanas gados", Rīga, 1928, page 60

http://latvija90.leta.lv/en/pagatne/november-18-1918-proclamation-of-latvias-independence
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

18 November 1918 → Commons Sitting → PRISONERS OF WAR.

GERMAN PRISONERS.


HC Deb 18 November 1918 vol 110 cc3173-4 3173

Mr. WATT asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether the prisoners 3174 of war camp at Auchterarder, in Perthshire, is ever inspected by his Department; if so, when was the last visit of such inspector; is he aware that dissatisfaction with the food and arrangements exists in that camp; whether the officer commanding sells the food to the men under him and to the prisoners; and have the soldiers there to march fifty German prisoners daily to and from their work, the latter in darkness, on lonely roads, with unloaded rifles and no ammunition?

Mr. HOPE I am informed by the military authorities that this camp was inspected on 12th September last by an inspector from the War Office. Inquiry is being made by the local military authorities with regard to the other matters referred to in the question.

Colonel McCALMONT asked the Under-Secretary of State for War (1) whether his attention has been called to the case in which a party of German prisoners were found stealing potatoes from fields at night; whether these prisoners were supposed to be under military guard; and what steps have been taken to deal with those responsible and to prevent the recurrence of such an incident; and (2) whether a farmer's son was recently fined for giving a shot-gun to German prisoners; what form of supervision was being exercised over these prisoners at the time; and what action has been taken in the matter?

Mr. HOPE The military authorities have not yet received the reports asked for on these camps.

Colonel McCALMONT asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether German prisoners of war who were recently tried and acquitted on a serious criminal assault charge were proved to have been away from control for several hours; and, if so, what steps have been taken to deal with those responsible or to prevent a recurrence of such neglect to maintain proper discipline and supervision?

Mr. HOPE I am informed by the military authorities that the proceedings in this case have been carefully examined. It is unquestioned that the men were away from control, but there is no evidence that the guard were to blame. A further inquiry into the matter is, however, being made.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/nov/18/german-prisoners
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd DIVISION (REGULAR) AEF: SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE
November 17, 1918 to November 18, 1918

CONFIDENTIAL
Not to be taken into front line trenches.

2nd DIVISION (REGULAR) AEF.
Second Section, G. S.
No. 122

SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE
November 17, 1918 to November 18, 1918.
Noon to noon.


I. GENERAL IMPRESSION OF THE DAY
Normal.

II. ENEMY FRONT LINE:
Retiring in front of our advance.

III. ENEMY ORDER OF BATTLE:
No reliable information obtained. All persons entering our lines from the front state that the enemy troops they saw were badly mixed and for that reason they were unable to give the numbers of any regiments seen.

IV. ENEMY INFANTRY:
No organizations of the enemy encountered during our advance of yesterday.

V. ENEMY ARTILLERY:
Nothing to report.

VI. ENEMY MOVEMENTS:
Reliable French civilian reports that German infantry accompanied by pieces of artillery, caliber 77s and 120s, passed through VIRTON yesterday morning. The discipline of the troops lax and animals in poor condition.

VII. ENEMY WORKS:
Nothing to report.

VIII. ENEMY AERONAUTICS:
No activity.

IX. MISCELLANEOUS:
Reports indicate enemy is leaving behind wagons on account of lack of horses and trucks because of shortage of gasoline. Railway cars have also been abandoned because of no engines to pull them. The civilian population seem not to have been molested by the retreating enemy but there are reports that his troops are pillaging the military stores. A specific instance being the army stores at ATHUS.

Von Galwitz had his P.C. in MONTMEDY, last known to have been there 3 weeks ago.

REPATRIATES:
Repatriated French Prisoners of War, total: 5. Repatriated Italian Prisoners of War, total: 8. Repatriated Russian Prisoners of War, total: 7. Repatriated French Civilians, Adult Males: 17.

X. ACTIVITY OF OUR OWN TROOPS:
This division is marching in two columns on parallel roads. The advanced elements crossed the front line at 5:30 AM yesterday and advanced to the line Les Deauxvilles - Meiry - Montmedy. Halted for the night and this morning at 7:30 AM the march was resumed.

R.S. KEYSER
Major, Marines
A. C. of S., G-2

http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/marchy6.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 19:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rosa Luxemburg: "Against Capital Punishment"
First Published: Die Rote Fahne, No.3, 18 November 1918.

We did not wish for amnesty, nor for pardon, in the case of the political prisoners, who had been the prey of the old order. We demanded the right to liberty, to agitation, to revolution for the hundreds of brave and loyal men who groaned in the jails and in the fortresses because, under the former dictatorship of Imperialist criminals, they had fought for the people, for peace, and for socialism.

They are all free now.

We find ourselves again in the ranks, ready for the battle.

It was not the clique of Scheidemann and his bourgeois allies, with Prince Max of Baden at their head, that liberated us. It was the Proletarian Revolution that made the doors of our cells spring open.

But another class of unfortunate dwellers in those gloomy mansions has been completely forgotten. No one, at present, thinks of the pale and morbid figures which sigh behind prison walls because of offenses against ordinary law.

Nevertheless these are also the unfortunate victims of the infamous social order against which the Revolution is directed – victims of the Imperialistic war which pushed distress and misery to the very limit of intolerable torture, victims of that frightful butchery of men which let loose all the vilest instincts.

The justice of the bourgeois classes had again been like a net, which allowed the voracious sharks to escape, while the little sardines were caught. The profiteers who have realized millions during the war have been acquitted or let off with ridiculous penalties. The little thieves, men and women, have been punished with sentences of Draconian severity.

Worn out by hunger and cold, in cells which are hardly heated, these derelicts of society await mercy and pity.

They have waited in vain, for in his preoccupation with making the nations cut one another’s throats and of distributing crowns, the last of the Hohenzollerns forgot these miserable people, and since the Conquest of Liege there has been no amnesty, not even on the official holiday of German slaves, the Kaiser’s birthday.

The Proletarian Revolution ought now, by a little ray of kindness, to illuminate the gloomy life of the prisons, shorten Draconian sentences, abolish barbarous punishments – the use of manacles and whippings – improve, as far as possible, the medical attention, the food allowance, and the conditions of labor. That is a duty of honor!

The existing disciplinary system, which is impregnated with brutal class spirit and with capitalist barbarism, should be radically altered.

But a complete reform, in harmony with the spirit of socialism, can be based only on a new economic and social order; for both crime and punishment have, in the last analysis, their roots deep in the organization of society. One radical measure, however, can be taken without any elaborate legal process. Capital punishment, the greatest shame of the ultra-reactionary German code, ought to be done away with at once. Why are there any hesitations on the part of this Government of workers and soldiers? The noble Beccaria, two hundred years ago, denounced the ignominy of the death penalty. Doesn’t its ignominy exist for you, Ledebour, Barth, Daeumig?

You have no time, you have a thousand cares, a thousand difficulties, a thousand tasks before you? That is true. But mark, watch in hand, how much time would be needed to say: "Capital punishment is abolished!" Would you argue that, on this question also, long discussions followed by votes are necessary? Would you thus lose yourselves in the complications of formalism, in considerations of jurisdiction, in questions of departmental red tape?

Ah! HOW German this German Revolution is! How argumentative and pedantic it is! How rigid, inflexible, lacking in grandeur!

The forgotten death penalty is only one little isolated detail. But how precisely the inner spirit, which governs the Revolution, betrays itself in these little details!

Let one take up any ordinary history of the great French Revolution. Let one take up the dry Mignet, for instance.

Can one read this book except with a beating heart and a burning brow? Can one, after having opened it, at no matter what page, put it aside before one has heard, with bated breath, the last chord of that formidable tragedy? It is like a symphony of Beethoven carried to the gigantic and the grotesque, a tempest thundering on the organ of time, great and superb in its errors as well as in its achievement, in victory as well as in defeat, in the first cry of naive joyfulness as well as in the final breath.

And now how is it with us in Germany?

Everywhere, in the small as in the great, one feels that these are still and always the old and sober citizens of the defunct Social-Democracy, those for whom the badge of membership is everything and the man and the spirit are nothing.

Let us not forget this, however. The history of the world is not made without grandeur of spirit, without lofty morale, without noble gestures.

Liebknecht and I, on leaving the hospitable halls which we recently inhabited – he, among his pale companions in the penitentiary, I with my dear, poor thieves and women of the streets, with whom I have passed, under the same roof, three years and a half of my life – we took this oath as they followed us with their sad eyes: "We shall not forget you!"

We demand of the executive committee of the Council of Workers and Soldiers an immediate amelioration of the lot of all the prisoners in the German jails!

We demand the excision of capital punishment from the German penal code!

During the four years of this slaughter of the peoples, blood has flowed in torrents. Today, each drop of that precious fluid ought to be preserved devotedly in crystal urns.

Revolutionary activity and profound humanitarianism – they alone are the true breath of socialism.

A world must be turned upside down. But each tear that flows, when it could have been spared, is an accusation, and he commits a crime who with brutal inadvertency crushes a poor earthworm.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/11/18c-alt.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 18 November 1918, Page 3





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19181118.2.9.9
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Montague, letter to Francis Dodd (18th November, 1918)

It has been a wonderful progress eastwards, always coming into new towns and villages where the people rushed out, and shook hands and kissed us and sometimes offered us pieces of bread, thinking we must be half-starved like themselves and the German troops.

When the war ended I had the luck to be at our front at the very place from which the old army was forced to retreat in 1914, and it was great when eleven o'clock went and the Belgian civilians and we crowded together into the village square to rejoice. They played 'Tripperay' on the parish church bells and we all sang the two National Anthems and cheered King Albert and felt it had all been worthwhile.

The day after the fighting ended I met hundreds of men who had been prisoners and broken out just before the armistice. They were coming back into our lines, almost starving, and some of them had died of hunger and exhaustion on the way; but they came along splendidly, marching in little groups under the command of the oldest soldier in each, with their horrible black uniforms as clean and neat as hard trying could make them, marching along very steady and smart and taking no notice of anybody. I thought I had never seen the British soldier to greater advantage.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWarmistice.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

When the flu came to town

As fear over swine flu grows, the impact of the Spanish Flu years ago remains a graphic illustration of what happens when a pandemic hits. PHILIP MATTHEWS reports.

Scenes from an epidemic. In Kaikoura, the funeral of a 38-year-old man is said to have been well attended; he died in Christchurch from influenza, leaving behind a wife and seven children.

The medicine depot in Christchurch’s Cathedral Square, from where the government’s influenza medicine was supplied. Essential supplies: Boy Scouts distribute food and medicine to patients at their homes in Christchurch in 1918. A South African soldier dies in a boarding house in Peterborough St; The Press reports that ‘‘it was not possible to get any medical assistance for him’’.

A 26-year-old man dies in Merivale, and ‘‘considerable trouble was found in getting an undertaker to provide a coffin and attend to the body, which had got into a terrible state very rapidly’’.
And from Auckland: ‘‘A sad case of a mother and father dying from the effects of influenza and leaving behind four children, two of whom are ill.’’

Church services are being held in the open air. Visitors are not admitted to Christchurch Hospital unless sent for. The Medical Superintendent of the hospital, Dr Fox, breaks down ‘‘as a result of overwork’’.

These stories are a small selection of those that ran in The Press on just one day: Monday, November 18, 1918. On that day, the newspaper’s editorial claimed that ‘‘the weekend was the most dismal Christchurch has ever experienced’’. Shops were shut, streets were deserted, trams weren’t running. The only activity in the otherwise abandoned centre of town was around the medicines depot in Cathedral Square ‘‘and this briskness was not cheerful but ominous’’.
Over that weekend, 117 people were admitted to the city’s hospitals with influenza, and 33 died. The same death rates continued for several more days and then fell off. In all, 458 people died in Christchurch during the 1918 influenza epidemic, a death rate of 4.9 per 1000.
Every day,

The Press carried updates from the 27 districts the city had been dissected into for epidemic control purposes, plus Canterbury’s outlying towns.

‘‘Like most places, Rangiora is in the grip of influenza,’’ the newspaper reported on November 16. On November 19, an update from Sydenham: ‘‘In one block of six houses on Brougham St, there were 43 cases.’’
Initially, the threat seemed remote.

A headline on November 1: ‘‘Epidemic widespread in Auckland. Two more deaths.’’ Something from the international page on November 14: ‘‘Statistics published show that 50,000 deaths occurred through influenza in South Africa and Rhodesia. Seven thousand of the victims were white.’’

To read the newspapers of November 1918 is to see the euphoria of the World War I armistice suddenly give way to this new and more immediate threat: the enemy within.

A ‘‘well-known undertaker’’ says he has never seen death rates like these. Three of Christchurch Hospital’s five doctors are sick, and one has died.

The Linwood cemetery fills up, and there are stacks of coffins waiting to be buried in Sydenham. The Karitane Hospital in Cashmere takes in babies whose mothers have fallen sick. But then the hospital’s nurses fall sick themselves, one after the other.

University of Canterbury historian Geoffrey Rice read these and other first drafts of history when he first became interested in the 1918 epidemic. His interest ultimately resulted in his seminal study, Black November, which first appeared in 1988 and has since been reprinted.
Back in the 1970s, he saw that a national disaster that took the lives of about 8600 New Zealanders in a couple of months, within a worldwide total of between 40 and 50 million, had been largely forgotten. Where were the memorials, the histories?

Which was curious, given the impact. ‘‘My guess is that there was scarcely a family in the country that didn’t know somebody who was bereaved or afflicted by the flu,’’ Rice says.

Including his own, as it turned out. When Rice first raised the subject more than three decades ago, he heard his father’s story.
His father was nine in 1918, and living in Taumarunui. His family was one of the few not to be affected.

The able-bodied were recruited for relief work, even the children. Rice’s dad’s job was to go from house to house lighting coal ranges and checking bedrooms for those who had died overnight.

It was an alarming sight for a nineyear-old: the bodies turned very black very quickly, due to cyanosis. For this reason, the 1918 epidemic was colloquially known as ‘‘the black flu’’.

Rice later interviewed a nun who sat at the bedside of a dying man in Christchurch. She saw a strong, healthy-looking man suddenly take a big gulp and turn ‘‘jet black, not blue or purple, but black like an African’’.
That said, Christchurch’s death rate of 4.9 per 1000 was well below those recorded in Auckland and Wellington. Auckland’s rate was 7.6 per 1000, rising to 13.4 per 1000 in crowded inner-city suburbs like Grey Lynn and Newton. Wellington’s was 7.9 per 1000, with higher rates again in the central suburbs.

And those are the Pakeha death rates: the Maori death rate in Auckland was a staggering 68.4 per 1000, and nationally 42.3 per 1000.
Why did Christchurch and Dunedin (3.9 per 1000) get off relatively lightly? There was the obvious time lag in a pre-air travel era. The virus had to come in by boat, which it duly did: it is said that one of the great failings of the Health Department was not stopping the ferries that brought infected crowds from Wellington to Lyttelton for Cup and Show Week.

A second factor was the lower population density of the southern cities. Christchurch nurse Sibylla Maude told the Epidemic Commission of 1919 that she saw few examples here of the overcrowding that was so common in the north.

Are there are lessons from 1918 that might be useful to us in the swine flu age? Yes, Rice says. There is the basic information around personal hygiene and social distancing.

Hygiene first. There was a lot of gargling going on in 1918, but Rice suspects that it did more harm than good. But a study in Japan during a flu outbreak two years ago found that those who made a point of brushing their teeth and their tongue a few times a day reduced the flu’s severity. It was compared with keeping a doorstep swept.
As for social distancing, it was a cruel twist in 1918 that armistice celebrations brought people together only to infect them. But authorities were smart to close schools, pubs and churches.
Then again, inhalation treatment reassembled the same crowds, most notoriously at the site of the first inhalation chamber, in Manchester St, where the sneezing and the coughing were jammed together into a stairwell, awaiting their doses.

Those inhalation sprays involved a 2 per cent zinc sulphate solution. Did it actually do any good? Opinion was divided, even if someone in Christchurch had the brilliant idea of converting 14 city trams into mobile inhalation units.

Rice says the plus side of inhalation treatment is that it may have done something for the hygiene of people’s nasal passages, but in some cases the mixture was too strong, which inflamed nasal tissue and made people more susceptible to influenza. It’s worth noting that such treatment is not recommended now.

This time, the main tool is Tamiflu, and the Ministry of Health’s pandemic plan is to identify the threat, isolate it and stamp it out. But in a pandemic, hospitals and health services will be overwhelmed.
Expect to be thrown back on your own resources, Rice says. Have food stocks handy, along with Tamiflu and Panadol for the headaches.
‘‘You also need to know something about the practical nursing of pneumonia and the control of fever,’’ he adds.

The worry is that fevers make patients delirious. ‘‘The noise of the delirium at night was terrific,’’ a nurse from 1918 said in the 1967 radio documentary The Great Plague. She went on: ‘‘Once they got very delirious, we just couldn’t save them, and there was no way of bringing the temperatures down except by cold sponging. And that had to be done by somebody with experience, otherwise they would get an awful shock and chills as well.’’

In Japan in 1918, they worked hard on keeping fever down and got a relatively low mortality rate as a result, Rice says. Japanese households had medicine chests of powdered remedies; supplies of ground-up peony root were found to clear sinuses and control fever.

‘‘Another lesson from 1918 is that when you’ve got a lot of people off sick, you’ve got a real problem feeding them.’’

What will happen if there are shortages? In 1918, supplies arrived by ship, and Wellington nearly ran out of flour and coal, two essential commodities. Now, supermarkets rely on shelves being restocked from trucks that roll down the highway from Auckland. The possibility of truck drivers being sick, along with the checkout operators and shelf stockers, has been factored into the pandemic plan, which Rice calls ‘‘an astonishingly thorough piece of thinking ahead’’.

Any further lessons from 1918? Just the last and most alarming one. Don’t be lulled into a false sense of security by reports that have relatively few people dying from swine flu.

In 1918, there was a first wave, with high levels of infection but a lower mortality rate. It was the second wave that did the real damage: somehow, a ‘‘mild form’’ of the virus shifted gears and became unusually infectious and fast-breeding.

‘‘The worry about this one is that it’s out of the box,’’ Rice says.

‘‘It’s spreading internationally. My heart sank when I heard the World Health Organisation say that it’s gone beyond the containment stage.’’

Printed and distributed by NewpaperDirect, http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?p=229015
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

18 November 1919: Dolchstoßlegende

Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg sprach 1919 vor dem Ausschuss der Nationalversammlung über die Schuldfragen des Ersten Weltkriegs: "In dieser Zeit setzte die heimliche planmäßige Zersetzung von Flotte und Heer als Fortsetzung ähnlicher Erscheinungen im Frieden ein. (...) So mussten unsere Operationen misslingen, es musste der Zusammenbruch kommen; die Revolution bildete nur den Schlussstein. Ein englischer General sagte mit Recht: 'Die deutsche Armee ist von hinten erdolcht worden'."

Mit diesen Sätzen versuchte von Hindenburg von der eigenen Verantwortung für die Niederlage Deutschlands im Ersten Weltkrieg abzulenken. Die Dolchstoßlegende war geboren.

http://ultimateheroswelt.blog.de/2007/11/18/18_november_1919_dolchstoslegende~3312961/



The myth of the stab in the back

The generals Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg appear on 18 November 1919 before an investigative committee of the Reichstag which concerns the issue of whether a peace treaty could have been concluded before the end of the First World War. In this regard, Hindenburg alleges that the German army was never defeated militarily, but rather was „secretly and methodically“ undermined from the home front, quasi „stabbed in the back.“ Hindenburg, supported by von Ludendorff, thus rejects any military responsibility for the defeat in the war and originates the „myth of the stab in the back,“ which finds many adherents, especially in right-wing circles.

http://www.bwbs.de/bwbs_biografie/The_myth_of_the_stab_in_the_back_B726.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 19, 1919: A Bitter Rejection

When members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee learned of former President Woodrow Wilson’s death in 1924, they asked their chairman, Henry Cabot Lodge, to represent them at the funeral. Learning of this plan, the president’s widow sent Lodge the following note: “Realizing that your presence would be embarrassing to you and unwelcome to me, I write to request that you do not attend.”

Democrat Wilson and Republican Lodge had disliked one another for years. Among the first to earn doctoral degrees from the nation’s newly established graduate schools, each man considered himself the country’s preeminent scholar in politics and scorned the other.

The emergence of World War I intensified their rivalry. By 1918, Wilson had been president for nearly six years, while Lodge had represented Massachusetts in the Senate for a quarter century. Both considered themselves experts in international affairs. In setting policy for ending the war, Wilson, the idealist, sought a “peace without victory,” while Lodge, the realist, demanded Germany’s unconditional surrender.

When the 1918 midterm congressional elections transferred control of the Senate from the Democrats to the Republicans, Lodge became both majority leader and Foreign Relations Committee chairman. Whether Wilson liked it or not, he needed Lodge’s active support to ensure Senate approval of the Treaty of Versailles and its provision for a League of Nations on which he had staked so much of his political prestige.

Wilson chose to ignore Lodge. He offended the Senate by refusing to include senators among the negotiators accompanying him to the Paris Peace Conference and by making conference results public before discussing them with committee members. In a flash of anger against what he considered Senate interference, Wilson denounced Lodge and his allies as “contemptible, narrow, selfish, poor little minds that never get anywhere but run around in a circle and think they are going somewhere.”

After Lodge’s committee added numerous “reservations” and amendments to the treaty, the frustrated president took his campaign to the nation. During a cross-country tour in October 1919, he suffered a physical collapse that further clouded his political judgment.

In November, Lodge sent to the Senate floor a treaty with 14 reservations, but no amendments. In the face of Wilson’s continued unwillingness to negotiate, the Senate on November 19, 1919, for the first time in its history, rejected a peace treaty.

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/A_Bitter_Rejection.htm

President Wilson's response to the Lodge Resolution

The White House,
Washington, 18 November, 1,919.

My Dear Senator: You were good enough to bring me word that the Democratic senators supporting the treaty expected to hold a conference before the final vote on the Lodge resolution of ratification and that they would be glad to receive a word of counsel from me.

I should hesitate to offer it in any detail, but I assume that the senators only desire my judgment upon the all-important question of the final vote on the resolution containing the many reservations by Senator Lodge. On that I cannot hesitate, for, in my opinion, the resolution in that form does not provide for ratification but, rather, for the nullification of the treaty. I sincerely hope that the friends and supporters of the treaty will vote against the Lodge resolution of ratification.

I understand that the door will probably then be open for a genuine resolution of ratification.

I trust that all true friends of the treaty will refuse to support the Lodge resolution.

Cordially and sincerely yours,

(Signed) WOODROW WILSON.

http://www.newgenevacenter.org/06_Historical-Documents/1919_Lodge's-reservations-concerning-the-Versailles-Treaty.html
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“I hope you live a life you are proud of. If you find that you are not, l hope you have the strength to start all over again.
- F. Scott Fitzgerald


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 17 Nov 2010 20:33, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Nov 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

18 November 1919 → Commons Sitting

WAR STAFF REDUCTION, NOTTINGHAM.


HC Deb 18 November 1919 vol 121 c788 788

Mr. HOGGE asked the Secretary of State for War whether he is aware that a circular, dated 3rd November, has been issued by the regimental paymaster at Nottingham to temporary employés, paragraph (b) of which says that, in the process of reducing war staff, it may be necessary in the interests of the public service to discharge them while undisabled employés are retained; and whether he is prepared to give an undertaking that discharged men shall not be discharged prior to all others who have not served?

Mr. FORSTER Yes, Sir; the circular was issued in accordance with general instructions on the subject of the substitution of disabled ex-Service men for other employés in Government Departments. In the reduction of the staff of Army Pay Offices discharged men are given the preference of retention provided that the efficiency of the office is maintained. It is essential that there shall be no failure in the proper payment of soldiers on demobilisation.

Mr. HOGGE May we take it that the only question involved is the efficiency of the officers?

Mr. FORSTER Yes, that is so.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/nov/18/war-staff-reduction-nottingham
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